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Proper academic writing

Syntax Morphology Spelling Stylistic level Punctuation Vocabulary Idioms (Structure of the sentence) (Structure of the word) (Orthography) (Academic writing) + argumentation

Writing process Brainstorm structuring focus problem statement writing proof-reading Writing is Highly structured Formal Syntactically complex Argument-oriented Abstract Speech is Loosely structured Informal Syntactically simple Event-oriented Concrete Standard English literary language In reality, only 1 (spelling deviations occur) Academic writing Globalt flles sprog Engelsk A-skriftligt Analyse ( summary) Interpret Compare (objective) Discussion o Summary, + argumentation, + similarities, differences, parallels o Conclusion unknown from the beginning, + rebuttal o Ethos, Logos, Pathos o Argumentation claim warrant backing (Stephen Toulmin)

Grammar
Like/As Sentence-comparison Word-comparison ~~ but with identification Genitive s Of Persons, greater animals, indication of time, countries Everything else AS LIKE AS He did as he was told. He behaved like his brothers. He died as a poor man.

The childrens books. The color of the door. Date 18 August, 2007 The eighteenth of August, 2007 August 18 August the eighteenth August eighteenth Differences in meaning About + substantive, pronoun He thought about it. (UK) (UK) (UK) (AM)

About never followed by sentence or preposition Instead, use another verb, e.g., wonder. Watch Look Fx When you look at something happening often dynamic. When you look at something, its appearance often static. They stood and watched the new cars. You look good. The soup tasted awfully.

Descriptive: -ly = suffix Fx

Reading non-fiction
The topic/theme Reliability Quotations Can we check the facts of the source? Does the reporter give his own evaluation? The choice of materials The media (Radio, newspaper, etc.) First-hand source? The date of the text and release Author What do we know about him/her? Political points of view, background, religion, age, etc. The purpose of the text (e.g. propaganda) To provoke To convince (overbevise) the mind To manipulate To inform To educate To argue To entertain To persuade (overtale) actions The form of text Composition Tone and style

Rhetorical effects
Figurative language
(tropes) Simile (Comparison) Eyes like big lakes Hurt as hell Metaphor (Implicit comparison) He burnt his bridges I looked into beautiful lakes Alliteration (Repetition of sound/letter) Babette bakes beautiful buns Allusion (Reference) Help me become Gods tool (Intertextuality) Anaphora Repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of a sentence, verse, or paragraph. Epiphora Repetition of a word or phrase at the end of a sentence, verse, or paragraph.

How to analyse texts with focus on language


Sentence structure and vocabulary Simple/complex (main clause, sub-ordinary clause, connective words) Vocabulary word class, historical language, dialect, lix, slang, complex words, professiolect, sociolect (social status) Spoken/written language Tone

Adjective (negative, positive) Purpose; the intention of the text The meaning/message might change with a change of tone Genre

Punctuation Anything unusual in the writers use of punctuation? What punctuation or other techniques of emphasis does the writer use? Dialogue and Quotations Are there any dialogue and/or quotation used in the text? To what effect? For what purpose are the dialogues or quotation used? Type of arguments and persuasive appeals What persuasive appeals (Logos, Pathos, Ethos) does the writer make use of? Logos Appeal to reason and intellect. Often used to strengthen Ethos by supporting the trustworthiness of the speaker. Keywords: Theoretical language, definitions, factual data, statistics, citations. Pathos Appeal to emotion. Intended to awaken personal, well-known feelings. Keywords: Emotional language, colourful descriptions, personal stories. Ethos Appeal to the audiences trust in your moral character as a speaker and ethics. Intended to convince the audience to think of you as a reliable and trustworthy speaker. Keywords: Suitable vocabulary, special interest in and authority on the subject.

Logos & Pathos Ethos

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Focus on the receiver Focus on the speaker

Cohesion and Coherence


Cohesion: how the sentence is connected Coherence: internal, logical connection in the text Connective words Similarity: Also, in the same way, just as, so too, likewise, similarly. Exception: But, however, in spite of, on the one hand on the other hand, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, in contrast, on the contrary, still, yet. Sequence: First, second, third, next, then, finally. Time: After, afterwards, at last, before, currently, during, earlier, immediately, later, meanwhile, now, recently, simultaneously, subsequently, then. Example: For example, for instance, namely, specifically, to illustrate. Emphasis: Even, indeed, in fact, of course, truly. Position: Above, adjacent, below, beyond, here, in front, in back, nearby, there. Effect: Accordingly, consequently, hence, so, therefore, thus. Evidence: Additionally, again, also, and, as well, besides, equally important, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, then. Summary: Finally, in a word, in brief, in conclusion, in the end, in the final analysis, on the whole, thus, to conclude, to summarize, in sum, in summary. Often placed in the beginning of subordinate clauses Often placed between independent clauses Often placed in the end of independent & subordinate clauses