This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts

for publication in the ICC 2008 proceedings.

HSUPA Scheduling Algorithms Utilizing RoT Measurements and Interference Cancellations
Danlu Zhang, Sharad Sambhwani and Bibhu Mohanty1, Member, IEEE
significant gains in terms of capacity and robustness. In parallel to the standard enhancements, advanced receiver techniques have been adopted to provide gains without standard changes. A prominent example is the interference cancellations (IC) at the Node B receiver. It is well known that CDMA with Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) achieves the capacity of AWGN multiple access channels [5]. A direct implementation of SIC requires a pre-determined decoding orders among users whose power/rate allocations have to be configured accordingly. This poses a great challenge to the system operations. However, as shown by Hou et al in [6], the same capacity can be achieved by staggering user transmissions while keeping their control parameters the same. This technique also suits the hybrid-ARQ (HARQ) schemes. The optimality of this scheme will be proved more rigorously in this paper. Simper IC architectures with approximately the same performance will also be presented. In order for the maximum benefit of IC and maintaining system stability and link budget, the Node B uplink scheduler must be carefully designed. This paper addresses this issue in detail. Instead of using the actual RoT, the scheduler computes the effective interference seen by the decoding packets and regulates its allocation accordingly. This paper is organized as follows. The system models are presented in Section II. Our scheduling algorithms are discussed in detail in Section III, including user priorities and the utility function interpretation, scheduling with and without measured RoT, RoT measurement scheme and the scheduling using effective RoT. The simulations results are presented in Section IV. This paper concludes in Section V. II. SYSTEM MODELS A. HSUPA MAC layer There are two configurations in the HARQ on HSUPA: 2ms Transmission-Time-Interval(TTI) with 8 interlaces or 10ms TTI with 4 interlaces. Our work is equally applicable to both configurations. This paper focuses on results with 2ms TTI. To request data transmissions, the users send Scheduling Information(SI) messages containing information on the queue lengths and power headroom which can be translated into the maximum data rates. The Node B scheduling grants are sent to the users via two physical channels: Absolute Grant Channel(E-AGCH) and Relative Grant Channels(E-RGCH). The uplink serving cell sends both E-AGCH and E-RGCH, depending on the changes in the user rates and overhead considerations. The non-serving cells who are also in user’s

Abstract—This paper discusses several important aspects in the HSUPA scheduling algorithms. First, it clearly demonstrates the benefit of explicitly utilizing the directly measured Rise-overThermal(RoT) values in term of capacity and robustness improvement. This paper also briefly presents the RoT measurement schemes designed specifically for the asynchronous systems such as WCDMA/HSUPA. If pilot and traffic interference cancellation (IC) schemes are implemented at the Node B receiver, this paper presents a scheduling algorithm that attains IC benefit in such a way that the capacity enhancement is maximized while fairness and link budget are maintained. The presented algorithm defines the effective RoT by monitoring the IC performance in real time and adjusts its grants accordingly. In addition, the user priority function used here optimizes the sum utility functions and provides multi-user diversity. Index Terms — HSUPA, HSPA+, Rise-over-Thermal, Load, Interference Cancellation, Link Budget, Scheduling, Fairness, Utility Function, CRRA



CDMA is set to become the most popular choice for the Third Generation cellular systems. After its initial release in 1999[1], the air interface has been subsequently enhanced. Examples include the High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and Enhanced Uplink (EUL, also called High Speed Uplink Packet Access, or HSUPA) which introduce fast packet switch data services in the downlink and uplink respectively[2]. Recently, HSDPA/HSUPA has been further strengthened by backward compatible HSPA+ as well as the new OFDMA-based Long Term Evolution, or LTE[3]. Each enhancement offers substantial improvements in data rates, user experience and capacity. We focus on HSUPA in this paper. One salient feature of HSUPA is the uplink scheduler at Node B which dynamically allocates data rates based on channel conditions, system loading and fairness constraints. The scheduling algorithm is critical in achieving the full potential of HSUPA. This paper discusses the scheduling algorithm which trades off system capacity and fairness among the users. Apart from the priority function and its economics and optimization interpretation, one of the main thrusts of our scheduling algorithm is utilizing direct measurement of Rise-over-Thermal(RoT)[8], which is the fundamental resource in rate allocations. As will be shown later, scheduling algorithms based on measured RoT provides

1 All the authors are with Qualcomm Inc., 5775 Morehouse Drive, San Diego, CA 92121. The correspondence author is Danlu Zhang (Phone: 8586582703, e-mail:

978-1-4244-2075-9/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE


Typically. ˆ The performance is very similar so we will only discuss the N0 1 − (1 + f cell ) Lcell (n) ˆ RoT is the fundamental resources in uplink scheduling since it scheme thresholding Lcell (n) . diminishing return with a ˆ ˆ Ec / N t i . k i ]. In practice. The inner loop power control maintains the received chip-level SINR to the target level set by outer-loop power control such that a certain packet error rate (PER) is achieved at the HARQ termination target.( n ) [1 + T 2 Pki ( n) + Gainoverhead. all the fingers belonging to users who are served by this Proof: It is straightforward using Lagrange multiplier. 5034 . set: L ns . the who are not served by this cell but has this cell in their active scheduler attempts to achieve equal-GoS (equal throughput) 1 ˆ ˆ (n) . It also assigns a margin for the dedicated channel and autonomous B. AS (n) formally we ˆ + Lout (n)] / Lcell (n) . User priority functions and the interpretation The scheduler first computes the available load based on its target with load from continuing packets subtracted. The autonomous transmission in this case greatly reduces scheduling overhead and latency. Priority(k) = ~ (k ) r pilot SINR of finger i of user k i during time slot n . Let. cp the Proportional Fair scheduler [12][13]. Since it only has direct control of Lcell ( n) . SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS ( ) scheduling priority is determined by the following: 1/ α ˆ rsup port (k ) To link RoT with user SINR. A. its active set can also send E-RGCH to tune the user down. III. in other words. I 0 (n) 1 = .n constant relative slope: − rU ' ' (r ) / U ' (r ) = α . Li N ant i∈AS After sorting the users by their priorities. The importance of RoT measurements has long been recognized[8]. Lns . We will revisit this issue later. multi1 ˆ ˆ Li (n) where N ant is the number of user diversity is also achieved by the above priority function.( n ) + N 0 be allocates the available load to users. The scheme is shown in [7] to maximize the capacity ˆ ˆ to Lcell (n) . An alternative is put a fixed threshold on Lcell (n) . These two parameters.( n ) = E cp / N t ( ( ) ) i. have it must assume a fixed value of f cell and put a fixed threshold ˆ ˆ on Lcell (n) . α > 0 .( n ) Ec i .when α = 1 .( n ) Lemma Assuming static channel conditions. This is a generalization of ˆ ˆ RoT (n) = I 0 (n) / N 0 . the utility function is in the log form and the serving-active-set load as the sum of load from all the users scheduler is the classic proportional fair. The available load is filled by the user with the highest priority and the remaining part will go to the as the load un-captured by the cell.AS (n) based on greedy filling. receive antennas. AS ( n) and Lout (n) to smooth out the estimation with fairness and power constraints for each cell. This family of utility functions has the appealing property of Constant Relative Risk Aversion load from finger i as (CRRA)[15]. the allocation The scheduler computes the cell load as the sum of load from under the above priority function maximizes the sum utility. and function ˆ (E /N (E c / Nt ) i . traffic types.( n) . Suppose user’s utility is dependent on its data rate as the traffic and overhead channels.Then throughput with time constant Tthrpt . It then ˆ Let N 0 be the thermal noise and I 0 ( n ) = ∑ E c i .Let among the users. it is not always measured in real time. AS ( n) = i∉cell . budget. the rate allocation is ˆ ˆ Ltotal(n) = 1−1/ RoT(n) and Lout(n) = Ltotal(n) − Lcell(n) − Lns. (n ) ( ( ) ) ( ) ∑ ∑ variance. ■ With time-varying channels like in wireless systems. The detailed description of HSUPA MAC layer is in the standard specification [14]. The latter may carry VoIP traffic. ˆ ( n) = = Li ˆ I0 1 + Ec / N t i. Filtering is applied next. Basic uplink scheduler computations transmissions. Voice-over-IP is one prime example. the uplink scheduler has no ˆ knowledge of Lout (n) . Uplink scheduler without measured RoT Without RoT measurement. Note ~ ~ Here r (k) = (1−1/ Tthrpt)r (k) + (1/ Tthrpt)r(k) is the filtered ˆ ˆ ( N t ) i . stability constraints are on the tail of RoT[9].( n) . the scheduler simply chooses the best user. define the U (r ) = (1 − α )r . Let’s define f cell to be the ratio of load from other cell to the load from Then this ˆ cell f cell = [ Lns . RoT(n) = B. cell: Lcell ( n) = N ant i∈cell When α = 0 . k i are the offset power of economic theory of utility functions. It must trade off capacity i the total interference. ( ) [ ] are assumed known to the scheduler. The scheduler also computes the non. However.n = I 0 (n) − Ec i . It depends on network size and layout. let Ecp / Nt be the chip-level i .This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the ICC 2008 proceedings. when α → ∞ . The users are allowed to transmit autonomously up to a certain threshold rate without being scheduled. ) 1−α i. The main difficulty is measuring the value of N 0 . etc. RoT is formally defined as and fairness. This feature is of great importance for services which are low rate but delay sensitive. f cell is not a fixed is linked to system stability in terms of pole capacity and link value. It is linked to the where T 2 Pki ( n) and Gainoverhead. For user k ’s with request data rate rsup port ( k ) .

residual power is close to 1/( + Np Ec / Nt ) which is inversely 1 D. a silence i=1 Therefore the total rate achieved is the same as that of SIC. ■ interval is introduced during which all users turn down their With finite HARQ resolution in practice. IC with staggered user transmission addition. Since more interference 5035 . The input to close to that of additionalMore advancedon the likelihood of possible with information the algorithm is samples before the receiver pulse-shaping decoding and latency requirements. The account of the interference seen by the data packets. Therefore. Interference cancellation of the limitation. there is typically a sideband between two WCDMA conditions in the above lemma. In practice. the UEs are divided transmit power so that N 0 is measured through the total into groups based on subpacket index and successive received power. it receiver power in the sideband is seen as invariant to the is found that grouping by subpacket index and 2 iterations received power in the signal band. With out-of-band emission strictly regulated [15]. we follow the IC architecture introduced in [6]. the proportion of available for scheduling. AS (n) and Lout (n) are subtracted out from in scheduling. Henceforth. In WCDMA. Its benefit will be shown later in this paper. The active set management is typically based on downlink measurements. Hereafter we assume the measured RoT is improved channel estimation. the delay in active set changes due to the messaging with equal received power achieves the same performance as and resource allocations will also cause large f cell . This post-IC interference N + N (M −i)[( +γ)M −1]/ M and the overall 1 0 0 hampers high capacity. our RoT measurement scheme will not be presented pilot and overhead channels can also be adjusted based on this in detail here. decoding grouping is N 0 measurement scheme based on this principle. 0 0 To measure N 0 . RoT measurements in asynchronous WCDMA uplink N [(1 + γ ) M − 1] / M ∑ log 2 {1 + N + N 0(M − i)[(1 + γ ) M − 1] / M } = M log 2 (1 + γ ) . The pilot interference is cancelled The cancellation buffer spans 75 slots which is the maximum packet span with termination target 4. all 1 ˆ Lcell ( n ) to a fixed threshold would lead to conservative packets are decoded at Mth subpacket where subpacket i sees parameter settings in order to maintain system stability. with our IC architecture. For data channel IC. On the other performance can be achieved on average under the same hand. the load computation is tied to the Rake fingers. The left portion of the target total load is define the “Effective RoT” as follows: ˆ available for scheduling. achievable rate is M C. Interference cancellation (IC) can greatly increase the spectral efficiency of CDMA uplink. I 0 . or equivalently on total load. On average. It is also time-varying. the original measured RoT is no longer the correct specified on the RoT itself. filter so that the dominant thermal noise from the RF front end After a packet is decoded. the user’s waveform is reconstructed within the sideband is preserved. FFT-based histogram is based on the MMSE principle [6] where a shrinkage of computed to obtain the sideband power spectral density and (Np Ec / Nt ) /( + Np Ec / Nt ) is applied to the per-finger channel 1 N 0 . SIC with equal data rates among UEs. Lab the effect of estimation error on the reconstructed waveform. Lemma In AWGN channel with perfect power control and enough HARQ resolution. Proof Suppose there are M UEs with common SINR target γ . For this purpose. Due to the space the re-encoded data sequences. We have designed a within each group provides excellent IC performance very full SIC. a target can be directly With IC. In f cell are captured by the scheduler. the channel estimation is based on measurement with modest complexity. Such interference is not only un-captured by the cell but also un-controllable since no power control feedback exists between this user and this cell. The full SIC systems for the lack of system synchronization. f cell is large in this scenario. the dynamics in Lout ( n) and 1 75 ' fairness considerations. The interference from overhead channels can either be cancelled before or after the data processing. in 1x EV-DO reverse link[8].n / 3 ]mod8 = 0} is the indicator E. before data processing using pilot based channel estimations. realistic power control and the actual Turbo codes. Consequently. This is to minimize p after weighting the power spectrum by the pulse filter. This The ith UE decoded in SIC has ( Ec ) i = N 0γ (1 + γ ) M −i . the uplink and downlink have different fading in a FDD system. the cancelled interference should be reflected in the threshold ˆ filtered values of Lns . eff ( n ) = ' where I 0 ( n − i ) is the residual interference after IC during the 12 ∑I i= 0 0 ( n − i )1{[ ( n − i ) / 3  . 1{[(n − i) / 3 . putting equal power N0[( +γ)M −1]/ M and stagger their transmissions. there may be strong interference from users to cells outside its active set. The total received signal power can be similarly computed estimates where N is the processing gain.This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the ICC 2008 proceedings. If we let all UEs to have 0 load and the measured actual RoT. The total introduces mismatches between the computed RoT based on received power is N [(1 + γ ) M − 1] . Thus. If RoT measurement is available. Furthermore. implementation of this algorithm showed very accurate RoT To improve the accuracy. Interference cancellation and uplink scheduling function for slot (n − i ) and n on the same HARQ interlace. there are often indistinguishable multipaths. This scheme is not applicable to WCDMA cancellation is applied within each group. The successive interference cancellation (SIC) is implemented by staggering user transmissions. Their equivalence is shown in the following lemma. Uplink scheduler with measured RoT proportional to the received SINR. In our studies with fading carriers. the channel. we the target total load.n / 3  ]mod 8 = 0} time slot ( n − i ) . This is called imbalance.

the effective interference This gain is quantified also in Figure 1 to be nearly 10%. rsite.0 GHz Inter-site Dist. we plot the throughput performance at different Gain probability of RoT>7dB for 3 different scheduling and IC BS Ant. effective interference seen by a packet is half of the total traffic This leads to higher system capacity or spectral efficiency. Users in group 1 are 99% 5036 . since data packets from the cell edge users experiences the effective RoT as its interference. the effective Lognormal Std RoT based scheduler is needed in order for maximum IC gains.0.eff ≥ Lthresh .0dBi . The actual RoT is higher. ~ B. Henceforth. the IC blind scheduler Power Corr. the other is the MAC gain from Parameter Value Parameter Value scheduling based on the effective RoT rather than the actual RoT. Scheduling with effective RoT ~ I 0 (n) as λ (n) = I 0 . The effective RoT scheduler has the effective RoT CCDF similar to the actual Since λ ≤ 1 .e. Am ] 12 Figure ) . around. 3 cells/site we need to isolate the gain from Ecp/Nt reduction in order to Carrier Freq.2} different scheduling and IC . we will show the improved capacity results by throughput increase with IC. α = 1 in the fairness.0 deg.3. Defining the Due to space limitation. The link budget is maintained load can be allocated among users.eff = Lthresh . The scheduling with measured RoT provides nearly 10%.35. I 0.eff (n) is a dynamic is much more spread out than those with RoT measurements. The widely adopted stability criterion is system. Channel Type 3GPP Mix TTI Duration 2 ms In Figure 3. case although the throughput is 27% + (1 − λ )(1 − Lthresh . This can be seen from the IV. At 7 dB 1% tail.PB3. the stability criterion is the 1% tail of the threshold on the total load effective RoT below 7 dB.This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the ICC 2008 proceedings. Gain & 14. Coeff. 500 m assess the gain solely from the effective RoT scheduling. The mean early termination probabilities observed in our simulation is RoT is around 5.0 dB Path Loss 128. field results and simulations with ratio between I 0. Table I lists some of the common is seen in Figure 3 where the CCDF of each user’s mean parameters. The choice of the threshold is two sources: nearly all the power from pilot and overhead much harder for the scheduler without measured RoT since channels are cancelled. the IC blind scheduler has similar true RoT distribution with the no IC Lthresh .3. is cancelled with longer delay. Scheduling with and without measured RoT and others. The wide RoT 1% tail below 7 dB. An easy The benefit of measured RoT is more drastic with the presence counting shows such a packet will see only 25% of traffic of downlink-uplink imbalance and delays in active set . 2. The Ecp/Nt reduction is the result of cancelled Cell layout 19sites wrap Users per Cell 10 interference and is not dependent on the scheduler. The amount of traffic cancellation depends on the The system-wide RoT distributions when RoT 1% is slightly composition in the received power from these groups and the under 7 dB are shown in Figure 1 where we see the RoT thermal noise.0 dB UE PA 2 dBm scheduling with the measured and actual RoT with IC on (IC Backoff Ratio ( Am ) blind scheduler) and scheduling with the measure RoT and BS Noise 9. The curve with effective Figure Model log10[d(km)] RoT scheduler was plotted against the probability of effective UE Max Output 21 dBm Shadowing 0.0 provides a gain of 27% over the baseline whereas the effective intra-site Shadowing 8. With early terminations. around {0. we plot the complimentary-accumulative{PA3.. interference.eff (n) / I 0 ( n) .eff ( n) and filtered measured RoT. θ 3dB Cable Loss scenarios: scheduling with measured RoT with IC off (baseline).2+37. groups: serving users not in soft handover.3 dB with measured RoT. BS Front-Back 20. 0. using measured RoT and further gains through utilizing The average Ecp/Nt reduction is the same as the average effective RoT. the scheduler has a revised When IC is present. The RoT CCDF without RoT measurement = n − i when n' > n .0. VA30. In other words. I 0' ( n'−i ' ) ≤ I 0' ( n − i ) if n'−i ' but This can also be inferred from the per-cell RoT distribution as plotted in Figure 2.35. If all the users are decoded at 4th subpacket.6 dB when IC is on. SIMULATION RESUTLS user throughput in Figure 4 where almost all the users show In this section.6* using the effective RoT with IC on.eff ( n) and I 0 ( n) . The load thresholds are chosen amount of 1.VA120}= distribution (CCDF) of the actual and effective RoT in {0. difference between I 0 .0. the power from the traffic channel is cancelled after the decoding delay.0.Ecp/Nt shows a parallel shift of 1. The seen by a packet decoded at the 4th subpacket is even less. denoted by imbalance are not shown here.6 dB interference reduction can be divided into such that this criterion is met. the distribution for the scheduler with measured RoT is tighter. interference from decoded users. non-serving users who has this cell in the active set A.0.5 inteRoT exceeding 7dB. As we can see. Let’s divide the users into 4 f cell is unknown in priori. we have Lthresh .25.05} for the 4 subpackets. 1. Obviously. The Ecp/Nt reduction Our simulation follows the evaluation methodology of both 3GPP[10] and 3GPP2[11].0 dB Traffic Model Best effort RoT scheduler provides a gain of 54%. In Sector Antenna − min [ (θ / θ 3 dB ) 2 . The gains in system capacity with IC come from two sources: TABLE I one is the link gain due to the reduction in Ecp/Nt driven by the SIMULATION PARAMETERS outer-loop power control. i.2. serving-users in soft handover. higher RoT CCDF with the no IC case. parameter reflecting the IC benefit in real time.

Toskala. May 2005.RoT Sched:TrueRoT EffRoRSched:Eff. Hou.896: Feasibility Study for Enahnced Uplink for UTRA FDD. On Telecommunications. South-Western College Pub..5.Pankaj.J.5 % of RoT>7dB 2 2.3.7 0. Scheduling with the effective RoT rather than the actual RoT is necessary to rake in the maximum IC benefit. Symp. “Implementing interference Cancellation to increase the EV-DO Rev A reverse link capcity”. Right: Throughput versus percentage of RoT above 7 dB. Attar. 2004. V.5 1 1.This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the ICC 2008 proceedings. These are 10 users/cell left for future studies. Besides. Wiley. 3. 2002. “Data throughput of CDMA-HDR a high efficiency-high data rate personal communication wireless system”. vol.R1002.Medium Access Control (MAC) Specification. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] In this paper. 2006. J.5 0. R. Dahlman. S.5 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 3 Left: Throughput versus RoT tails for different schedulers with and without IC. different H. A. Skold and P.4 IC-Blind Sched EffRoTSched 1 0.Black and Q.Damnjanovic. Jalali. “Reverse traffic channel MAC design of cdma2000 1xEV-DO revision A system”. R. 3 ed.1997. delay for those real time and conversational traffic. “Charging and Rate Control for Elastic Traffic”. D. Using such measurements. in 5th IEE Int’l Conf. Tse and P. J. D. vol. 2007. N. 2007. pp 58-64.Zhang and S. Wiley. Beming. Kelly. Smee.Padovani and R. Right: CCDF of user mean Ecp/Nt. 2006.2 0. v7. 10 0 Sched w/o Measured RoT Sched w/ Measured RoT 1400 1350 1300 CDF 1 Baseline 0. 3GPP2 TSG-C. pp1416 -21.1 0 -27 Baseline IC-Blind Sched EffRoTSched 10 -1 1250 1200 1150 Sched w/o Measured RoT Sched w/ Measured RoT 0.8. On Wireless Comm. the user priority function in the scheduling in this paper maximizes a family of utility functions and provides multi-user diversity.D. to appear IEEE Trans. “HSDPA/HSUPA for UMTS: Radio Access for Mobile Communications”. Parkvall. C.2 0. Tomasin. J. in European Trans. Au. H.1 0 10 -2 1100 1050 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 0.pp1847-52.0.RoT Eff.Malladi. vol. 2000. Ghosh. the concept of effective RoT is defined to match the post-IC interference seen by the data packets. S-J. “1xEV-DV Evolution Mothodology”. 2004. With IC.Willeneger. pp33-7. F. Lott. IC is implemented to provide substantial capacity gains. REFERENCES 10 Sched w/o Measured RoT 0 Sched w/ Measured RoT [1] [2] 10 -1 10 -1 [3] [4] 10 -2 -2 10 0 5 10 0 5 10 Figure 2 RoT distributions of each cell. Users in the other 3 groups are less likely to be termination targets can be specified for users at different locations. less power will come from users in other cells and the capacity gain from IC is higher.3 0. 3GPP Spec TS 25. Holma and A. P. Typical IC gains with 2. D. 5037 .9 0. 2007.Sindhushayana. in 13th IEEE Intl. E.7 0. the HSUPA scheduling algorithm can achieve significant capacity gain and robustness improvement. Toskala. For instance.5 Normalized thrpt 2 0 100 200 300 400 500 thrpt 600 700 800 900 1000 -26 -25 -24 -23 Ecp/Nt (dB) -22 -21 -20 Figure 1 Left: System-wide RoT distribution. 2005. 3GPP Spec TR 25. Further notes on the setup If the cell size is larger than in our simulation. Academic Press.321:. “Optimal Resource Allocations for Data Services in CDMA Reverse Link”. D. Right: System-wide actual and effective RoT CCDF.8 0.Zhang. in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC). Nicholson.0. 2007. spring.Oh and N. 2004. 3GPP Spec TS25. Pfister and S.5 1 1. Viswanath. decoded.pp1854-8. on 3G Mobile Comm Technologies. 10 0 Figure 4 Left: User throughput CDF. Microeconomic Theory: Basic Principles and Extensions. The priority function needs to be extended to include decoded. Oct. Bhushan. 2001.RoT 10 -2 [8] 1400 1300 0 0. in IEEE Communications Magazine. H. The scheduling with IC can be further enhanced to utilize more information on the user location. and M.6 0. Cambridge University Press. in VTC.6 CDF 0. “Link budget of cdma2000 1x EV-DO wireless Internet access system”. 10 2300 2200 2100 2000 Thrpt(kbps) 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 Baseline IC-blind Sched Eff. J. Holma and A. C. On Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications.4 0.Wu. J.4. 8ed.9 0. RoT Sched 0 [5] [6] [7] 10 -1 Baseline:True RoT IC-Blind:True RoT IC-Blind:Eff. “WCDMA for UMTS: Radio Access for Third Generation Mobile Communications”. W.8 0. X.5 0. 2003. “Introduction to WCDMA enhanced uplink”. Fan.8 site-to-site distance are around 60-70%. v7. “3G Evolution: HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband”. we briefly introduced the side-band power and FFT based mechanism to measure RoT in the asynchronous WCDMA systems. “Fundamentals of Wireless Communication”. Vol.3 0.101: User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception (FDD).8.. The exact likelihood varies with simulation.

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