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INFLUENCING PREFERENCE OF PARTICULAR BRAND In order to study the relationship of personal factors such as age, gender, educational level, occupation and monthly income over the factors influencing the preference of particular brand such as price, quality and availability, further analysis has been made under the following heads. CHI –SQUARE TEST The chi-square test is an important test amongst several test of significance developed by statisticians. Chi-square is a statistical measure used in the context of sampling analysis for comparing a variance to theoretical variance. The chi-square is a measure of actual divergence of the observed and expected frequencies and as such when there is no difference between actual and observed frequencies, the value of chi-square is 0. A chi-square test frequency is significant or not. The following formula can be used for calculating chi-square value.
Where, O = Refers to the observed frequencies and E = Refers to the expected frequencies.
square are available at various probabilities level. The degrees of freedom are calculated by the formula.square test and the table value chi. The same technique is used incase of chi.DEGREE OF FREEDOM The term degree of freedom refers to the number of “independent constraints” in a set of data. . Usually the value of chi.square is at 5% level of significance. These levels are called level of significance. V = (c − 1)(r − 1) V = Stands for degree of freedom c = Stands for number of Columns r = Stands for number of rows LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE The probabilities indicate the extent of reliance that can be placed on conclusion drawn.
05 probability of occurring it Ho is true and vice versa in case of 5% level of significance. He will be rejected when the sampling result is less than 0. The level of significance is always the same percentage (usually 5%) which should be chosen with great care.Null hypothesis (Ho) “Null hypothesis is one that would be true if the alternative hypothesis were false”. It is a very useful tool in testing the significance of difference. thought and reason. It assert that the there is no real difference in the sample and the population in the particular matter under consideration. It is usually denoted by the symbol Ho. .
. (H1) : There is significant relationship age and relevant information for all age groups.CROSSTABULATION BETWEEN AGE AND RELEVENT INFORMATION FOR ALL AGE GROUPS RELEVENT INFORMATION FOR ALL AGE AGE YES GROUPS TOTAL NO Below 20 26 6 32 21 to 30 16 5 21 31 to 40 25 9 34 Above 40 5 8 13 TOTAL 72 28 100 Source : Survey data (H0) : There is no significant relationship between age and relevant information for all age groups.
CHI SQUARE TEST Calculated χ2 Value Degree of freedom Table value Significant level INFERENCE It is observed from the above table that the calculated value of chi-square is greater than the table value. Hence the null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is significant relationship between age and relevant information for all age groups.815 Significant at 5% level . = = = = 13.883 3 7.
(H1) : There is significant relationship occupation and problem faced to use the Hindu news paper.CROSSTABULATION BETWEEN OCCUPATION AND PROBLEM FACED TO USE THE HINDU NEWS PAPER PROBLEM FACED TO USE THE HINDU NEWS PAPER OCCUPATION Strongly agree Agree Uncertain TOTAL Student 2 33 11 46 Employee 2 18 31 51 Business man 1 24 7 32 Others 2 15 4 21 TOTAL 7 90 53 150 Source: Survey data (H0) : There is no significant relationship between occupation and problem faced to use the Hindu news paper. .
462 6 12.CHI SQUARE TEST Calculated χ2 Value Degree of freedom Table value Significant level INFERENCE It is observed from the above table that the calculated value of chi-square is greater than the table value.592 Significant at 5% level . = = = = 23. Hence the null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is significant relationship between relationship occupation and problem faced to use the Hindu news paper.
.CROSSTABULATION BETWEEN EFFECTIVE INFORMATION AND GENDER EFFECTIVE INFORMATION Male GENDER TOTAL Female Strongly agree 34 9 43 Agree 58 7 65 Uncertain 26 10 36 Disagree 2 4 6 TOTAL 120 30 150 Source: Survey data (H0) : There is no significant relationship between effective information and gender. (H1) : There is significant relationship between effective information and gender.
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