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RELATIONSHIP

OF

PERSONAL

FACTORS

OVER

THE

FACTORS

INFLUENCING PREFERENCE OF PARTICULAR BRAND In order to study the relationship of personal factors such as age, gender, educational level, occupation and monthly income over the factors influencing the preference of particular brand such as price, quality and availability, further analysis has been made under the following heads. CHI SQUARE TEST The chi-square test is an important test amongst several test of significance developed by statisticians. Chi-square is a statistical measure used in the context of sampling analysis for comparing a variance to theoretical variance. The chi-square is a measure of actual divergence of the observed and expected frequencies and as such when there is no difference between actual and observed frequencies, the value of chi-square is 0. A chi-square test frequency is significant or not. The following formula can be used for calculating chi-square value.

Where, O = Refers to the observed frequencies and E = Refers to the expected frequencies.

DEGREE OF FREEDOM The term degree of freedom refers to the number of independent constraints in a set of data. The degrees of freedom are calculated by the formula. V = (c 1)(r 1) V = Stands for degree of freedom c = Stands for number of Columns r = Stands for number of rows LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE The probabilities indicate the extent of reliance that can be placed on conclusion drawn. The same technique is used incase of chi- square test and the table value chi- square are available at various probabilities level. These levels are called level of significance. Usually the value of chi- square is at 5% level of significance.

Null hypothesis (Ho) Null hypothesis is one that would be true if the alternative hypothesis were false. It is a very useful tool in testing the significance of difference. It assert that the there is no real difference in the sample and the population in the particular matter under consideration. It is usually denoted by the symbol Ho. The level of significance is always the same percentage (usually 5%) which should be chosen with great care, thought and reason. He will be rejected when the sampling result is less than 0.05 probability of occurring it Ho is true and vice versa in case of 5% level of significance.

CROSSTABULATION BETWEEN AGE AND RELEVENT INFORMATION FOR ALL AGE GROUPS

RELEVENT INFORMATION FOR ALL AGE AGE


YES

GROUPS

TOTAL
NO

Below 20

26

32

21 to 30

16

21

31 to 40

25

34

Above 40

13

TOTAL

72

28

100

Source : Survey data

(H0) :

There is no significant relationship between age and relevant information for all age groups.

(H1) :

There is significant relationship age and relevant information for all age groups.

CHI SQUARE TEST Calculated 2 Value Degree of freedom Table value Significant level INFERENCE It is observed from the above table that the calculated value of chi-square is greater than the table value. Hence the null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is significant relationship between age and relevant information for all age groups. = = = = 13.883 3 7.815 Significant at 5% level

CROSSTABULATION BETWEEN OCCUPATION AND PROBLEM FACED TO USE THE HINDU NEWS PAPER

PROBLEM FACED TO USE THE HINDU NEWS PAPER OCCUPATION Strongly agree Agree Uncertain TOTAL

Student

33

11

46

Employee

18

31

51

Business man

24

32

Others

15

21

TOTAL

90

53

150

Source: Survey data

(H0) :

There is no significant relationship between occupation and problem faced to use the Hindu news paper.

(H1) :

There is significant relationship occupation and problem faced to use the Hindu news paper.

CHI SQUARE TEST Calculated 2 Value Degree of freedom Table value Significant level INFERENCE It is observed from the above table that the calculated value of chi-square is greater than the table value. Hence the null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is significant relationship between relationship occupation and problem faced to use the Hindu news paper. = = = = 23.462 6 12.592 Significant at 5% level

CROSSTABULATION BETWEEN EFFECTIVE INFORMATION AND GENDER

EFFECTIVE INFORMATION Male

GENDER TOTAL Female

Strongly agree

34

43

Agree

58

65

Uncertain

26

10

36

Disagree

TOTAL

120

30

150

Source: Survey data

(H0) :

There is no significant relationship between effective information and gender.

(H1) :

There is significant relationship between effective information and gender.

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