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Training Report Dry Type Transformer Design Objective: To understand the basic design process of design of dry type

e transformers ( Cast Resin Transformers and Vacuum Pressure Impregnated Transformers) and to perform sample design calculations. Parameters to be considered and starting data while designing a transformer: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Indian Standards or any other relevant standards for dry type transformers kVA rating of the transformer LT voltage HT voltage Vector group Impedance of the transformer Tapping and tap changer Current density Flux density in the core Load losses No load losses Capitalization of losses Cooling of the transformer Temperature rise Insulation class Termination Limitations in physical dimensions of the transformer Ingress Protection(IP) Class Proposed location of transformer Climatic conditions of the location

Indian Standards IS 2026 For Distribution Transformers (Equivalent IEC Standard IEC 60076) Part I General Operations other than rated Voltage and Frequency Rated kVA at any voltage 10% of rated voltage Rated current at voltage at 105% of the rated voltage Increase in frequency should not be accompanied with decrease in frequency The flux density should not exceed 1.9 tesla

Part II Temperature Rise

Letter Symbols 1. Kind of Cooling Medium a. Mineral oil or equivalent flammable synthetic liquid b. Non flammable synthetic liquid c. Gas d. Water e. Air 2. Kind of Circulation a. Natural b. Forced (oil not directed) c. Forced (directed oil) Order of symbols used: 1st letter Kind of circulating medium in contact with the windings 2nd letter Kind of circulation 3rd letter Kind of circulating medium in contact with the external cooling systems 4th letter Kind of circulation Limits of Temperature Rise (for Dry Type Transformers only) Part Cooling Method Temperature Class of Insulation A E B F H C Temperature Rise C 50 65 70 90 115 140 Same as windings Should not damage the core, other parts or adjacent materials Symbol O L G W A Symbol N F D

i.

Windings (Temperature rise measured by resistance method)

Air, natural or forced

ii.

Core & other parts a. Adjacent to windings b. Not adjacent to windings

All All

Part III Insulation Levels & Dielectric Tests Dielectric Test 28kV (min) applied quality of insulation checked DVDF Double Voltage Double Frequency : 22kV, 100Hz; induced voltage to 11kV Abbreviated Notation for Insulation Levels Lightening Impulse (LI)

Switching Impulse (SI) Power frequency withstand level (AC) Part IV Terminal Markings, Tappings, Connections

List of Formulae and Design Procedure 1. Phase Voltage(V) a. Star(Y) Connection:

(The given voltage in a star connection is the Line voltage) b. Delta() Connection:

2. Phase Current(A)

[Note : For Delta Connection : For Star Connection : 3. Core Diameter(m)

D = Diameter (in m) K = 0.3 to 0.48 (higher the k factor, higher the amount of core material used) k1 = 0.91 to 0.95 : Filling factor (signifies the fraction of core are that is utilized) k2 = 0.97 for CRGO : Stacking factor (signifies the closeness of the core stampings) Q = kVA rating of the transformer (in kVA) f = frequency (in Hz) Bm = Flux density in core (in Tesla or Wb/m2)

4. Volt Per Turn

Et = Volt per turn Ai = Net area of core in m2

5. Turns Per Phase

6. Selection of Conductor Size Assume some value of Current Density Select the size of conductor so that the

2 A / mm2 (for dry type transformers)

The number of conductors in Axial and Radial direction are also fixed The thickness of insulation and the dimension of the covered conductor and the type of winding of HV and LV are fixed 7. Calculation of Winding Dimension i) LV Winding a. N = Number of turns per layer W = Width of the covered conductor (in mm) Nf = Number of conductors in the axial direction Transposition space 1.5 x Width of the covered conductor

b. c. d. m = Number of conductors in the axial direction n = Number of layers t = Thickness of the covered conductor (in mm) T = Thickness of insulation between two layers (in mm) K = Number of cooling ducts in the LV winding D = Thickness of the cooling duct (in mm)

e. f.

ii) HV Winding a. N = Number of turns per layer W = Width of the covered conductor (in mm) Nf = Number of conductors in the axial direction Transposition space 1.5 x Width of the covered conductor

[Note : The Axial Length calculated by the above formulae should be equal] b. c. d. m = Number of conductors in the axial direction n = Number of layers t = Thickness of the covered conductor (in mm) T = Thickness of insulation between two layers (in mm) K = Number of cooling ducts in the LV winding D = Thickness of the cooling duct (in mm) e. f. 8. Calculation of Conductor Weight (gm)

N = Total number of turns in the winding MLT = Mean Length of one Turn (in mm) Area of Cross Section of the conductor (in mm2) Specific gravity of Copper = 8.9 gm/cc Specific gravity of Aluminium = 2.7 gm/cc 9. Calculation of Limb Centre (mm)

10. Calculation of Core Weight (gm) { [ ]}

7.65 gm/cc = Specific gravity of CRGO [Note : All the dimensions are to be taken in mm] 11. Calculation of No Load Loss (Watts)

Core Loss = No Load Loss [Note : Core Weight in kg] 12. Calculation of Resistance ()

2.11 / m3= Resistivity of Copper [Note : MLT in mm ; Cross Sectional Area of Bare Conductor in mm2] 13. Calculation of Load Losses(Watt)

14. Calculation of Reactance (%) {


[ [ ] ]

}{

15. Calculation of Reactance (%)

Total Load Losses in Watt 16. Calculation of Impedance (%)

17. Calculation of Regulation (%) [ cos = Power Factor R = % Resistance X = % Reactance 18. Calculation of Efficiency (%) ]

B.E.S.T 630 kVA

Starting Data (From Tender/Enquiry) kVA Vector group No Load Loss(Max) Wndg Material Core Data Flux Density LT Turns Net Core Area Winding Data LT Clearance to Core Layers Number of Ducts LT Duct Inter Layer Insulation Current Density Conductor Inter Phase Connection Calculations LT Phase Voltage LT Phase Current LT Turns Voltage ratio LT Conductor Dimen LT Conductor Area Covered Factor LT Winding Details Type Total Coils/Phase Total Turns/Phase Turns/Coil Layers Turns/Layer Conductor Bare Dimen Covering Thickness Conductor Covered Dimen Axial Length Transposition Space Edge Strip Stack Length Coil to Yoke Clearance Window Height Inter Layer Insulation Radial Depth Inner Diameter Outer Diameter Axial x Radial Resistance (Prin. Tap)@ 75 C Resistance Losses Weight of Conductor

630 HT Voltage Dyn11 Ambient Temp(Max) 1350 Load Loss(Max) Copper Insulation Class

11000 V LT Voltage 40.6 Taps 5550 Phase F Lt. x Wt. x Ht

415 V Frequency 0 Impedance 3 Taps 1.8 x 2 x 1.8 Tap Steps

50 4.75 N.A. N.A.

1.6 Stacking Factor 24 LT Phase Votage 276.4 Core Dia

0.97 Space Factor 240 V Volts/Turn 200 K Factor

0.91 CRGO Grade 10.09 Max Step 0.4 Min Step

23MOH 195 75

HT 2 Clearance to LT 24 Layers 2 Number of Ducts 6 HT Duct 20 Mil Inter Layer Insulation 2 Current Density Foil Conductor Star Inter Phase Connection

Tap 9 HT Coil per Phase 10 Coil-Coil Clearance 2 Coil to Coil Tap 10 Adjusting Tap 10 Mil Covering End Coil 2.16 Inter Layer End Coil Round Delta

N.A. HT Ph-Ph Clarance N.A. LT Ph-Ph Clarance N.A. Tap Sw N.A. Tap Changer Type N.A. Volts per Mil N.A. Wound Limbs

9 6 N.A. N.A. 60 3

240 HT Phase Voltage 875 HT Phase Current 24 HT Turns 45.833 Turns Ratio 660 x 0.66 HT Conductor Dimen 435.5 HT Conductor Area N.A. Covered Factor HT LT Winding Spiral 1 24 24 24 1 660 x 0.66 0 660 x 0.66 660 N.A. 0 660 5 670 0.5 47.83 204 299.66 1x1 0.919 x 10^-6 2111.4 220.71

11000 Step Turns 19.09 Tap Turns 1100 Minimum Turns 46 Maximum turns 2.35 Main Turns 8.8 Adjusting Turns N.A. Total Turns HT Winding Main Foil N.A. 1100 N.A. 8 158 3.55 0.45 3.9 624 N.A. 0 624 25 670 0.25 39.8 317.66 397.26 1x1 2.27 2481.75 281.52

N.A. Main Coils N.A. Adjusting Coils N.A. End Coils N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. HT Tap Winding N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

N.A. N.A. N.A.

Spacer / Circle Eddy + Stray Losses Resistance Losses Total Load Loss

N.A. 630 Core Weight 4593.15 Core Build Factor 5223.15 Watt/kg

N.A. 860.8 % Impedance 1.18 % Reactance 0.67 % Resistance

N.A. 4.21 % Regulation 4.21 % Efficiency @ FL 0.11 No Load Loss 2.36 98.51 680.54