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CONSTRUCTION BATTALION BATTLE SKILLS GUIDE

BOOK 1 All Hands E1 and Above Individual Skills


APR 2000

This figure will be used as the back cover of the Guide.(landscape style). It will be printed along the edge of the cover. Expand to cover entire back cover.

CONSTRUCTION BATTALION BATTLE SKILLS GUIDE BOOK 1 ALL HANDS E1 and Above INDIVIDUAL SKILLS

OFFICER IN CHARGE NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND DETACHMENT SEABEE LOGISTICS CENTER, CODE 47 Port Hueneme, CA 93043

APR 2000

CONSTRUCTION BATTALION BATTLE SKILLS GUIDE FOREWORD 1. The Construction Battalion Battle Skills Guide (CBBSG) is published as a series of four books. Each book consists of tasks required by Naval Construction Force personnel to gain knowledge and skills ranging from individual weapons; crew served weapons; patrolling; tactical measures; hand grenades, mines, and pyrotechnics; NBC defense; first aid and field sanitation; land navigation; and communications. Book 1 Construction Battalion Battle Skills Guide, All Hands, E1 and Above, Individual Skills contains combat skills tasks applicable for proficiency testing of pay grade E1 and above. Construction Battalion Battle Skills Guide, E4 -E6, Individual Skills contains combat skills tasks applicable for proficiency testing of pay grade E4 through E6. Construction Battalion Battle Skills Guide, E7 and Above, Individual Skills contains combat skills tasks applicable for proficiency testing of pay grade E7 and above. Construction Battalion Battle Skills Guide, Crew / Team Skills contains combat skills tasks applicable for proficiency testing of specialized billets.

Book 2 Book 3

Book 4

2. Following each individual training standard (ITS), you will find a box containing the words EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING. The purpose of this box is to provide the Seabee with information regarding exactly what is expected of him/her during evaluation of the ITS. It also provides the trainer/evaluator-expanded conditions, standards, and sometimes, notes to help train the Seabee and assess individual proficiency. When administrative notes are included, they explain, orient, and otherwise provide additional task-specific information, as well as reference tasks that train the base performance required of the instruct/conduct refresher training tasks. For example, task 2-24, requires the Seabee to "Implement Mission-Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP)". The Administrative Note refers to the base performance required in task 1-32, Don Individual Protective Clothing to MOPP 4. Usually the base performance task provides the steps necessary to instruct or refresh the training objective. Some instruct/conduct refresher training tasks have no base performance task in this CBBSG, and for those tasks the individual performance steps are listed following the evaluation box. 3. Summary of CBBSG can be found on page vi through ix.

4. Comments on the CBBSG should be forwarded to the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Detachment, Seabee Logistics Center, Code 47, 23RD Avenue, Port Hueneme CA 93043.

CONSTRUCTION BATTALION BATTLE SKILLS GUIDE BOOK 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD TASK

i PAGE

INDIVIDUAL WEAPONS 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 Weapons Handling, Shoulder Fired Weapons Weapons Handling, Handguns Maintain the M16A3 Service Rifle Zero the M16A3 Service Rifle Engage Targets with the M16A3 Service Rifle ATTACHMENT (A1) Fundamentals of Marksmanship Maintain the M9 Service Pistol Engage Targets with the M9 Service Pistol 1-32 1-36 1-45 1-59 1-69 1-1 1-10 1-15

PATROLLING 1-9 1-10 Participate in a Security Patrol Perform as a Member of a Convoy 1-78 1-74

TACTICAL MEASURES 1-11 1-12 1-13 1-14 1-15 1-16 1-17 Prepare Individual Combat Equipment for Tactical Operations Perform Individual Movement Prepare a Fire Team Fire Plan and Fire Plan Sketch React to Enemy Indirect Fire Assume Field Firing Positions React to Enemy Direct Fire Construct Fighting Position 1-93 1-100 1-104 1-106 1-112 1-114 1-86

ii

1-18 1-19 1-20 1-21 1-22 1-23 1-24 1-25 1-26 1-27

Camouflage Self and Individual Equipment Participate in Squad-Size Defense Operate Night Vision Goggles Employ Techniques of Unaided Night Vision Report Intelligence Information Conduct Vehicle Search Procedure Process Enemy Personnel Submit a Spot Report Perform as a Member of NMCB Interior Guard Perform as a Fire team Member in Civil Disturbance Situations

1-120 1-124 1-127 1-136 1-138 1-140 1-143 1-147 1-148 1-154

HANDGRENADES, MINES, AND PYROTECHNICS 1-28 1-29 1-30 1-31 Engage Targets with Handgrenades Employ the M49A1 Trip Flare Employ the M18A1 Claymore Mine Locate Possible Mine/Boobytrap Sites 1-160 1-164 1-167 1-172

NBC DEFENSE 1-32 1-33 1-34 1-35 1-36 1-37 1-38 Identify NATO NBC Markers Maintain the MCU-2A/P Protective Mask Don the MCU-2A/P Protective Mask with Hood Don Individual Protective Clothing to MOPP 4 Perform Basic Body Functions While in MOPP 4 Identify Chemical Agents Decontaminate Skin and Personal Equipment Using the M291Decontamination Kit Exchange MOPP Gear React to Nuclear Attack React to a Chemical or Biological Attack 1-175 1-179 1-184 1-187 1-191 1-195

1-203 1-207 1-212 1-215

1-39 1-40 1-41

iii

1-42

Treat a Chemical Agent Casualty

1-218

FIRST AID AND FIELD SANITATION 1-43 1-44 1-45 1-46 Apply Basic First Aid Perform Basic First Aid Preventive Measures Practice Basic Field Sanitation Transport Casualties Using Manual Carries and Improvised Stretchers 1-229 1-259 1-267 1-271

LAND NAVIGATION 1-47 1-48 1-49 1-50 1-51 1-52 1-53 1-54 1-55 Perform Basic Map Reading Navigate with a Map Using Terrain Association Navigate with a Map Using a Compass Orient a Map Using Hasty Field Expedient Techniques Locate an Unknown Point by Resection Locate an Unknown Point by Intersection Navigate Around an Obstacle Using the Box Method Convert Azimuths Determine the Elevation of a Point on the Ground Using a Map 1-284 1-300 1-304 1-311 1-322 1-326 1-328 1-331 1-335

COMMUNICATIONS 1-56 1-57 1-58 1-59 1-60 1-61 1-62 1-63 Repair (Splice) Wire Operate a TA-1 Telephone Set Operate a TA-312 Telephone Set Operate an AN/PRC-119A Radio Set Communicate Using a Radio ATTACHMENT (A2) Phonetic Alphabet and Numeric Pronunciation ATTACHMENT (A3) Prowords and Warning Words and their Explanations Waterproof Individual Radio Equipment 1-340 1-344 1-347 1-351 1-362 1-369 1-370 1-375

iv

SUMMARY OF CONSTRUCTION BATTALION BATTLE SKILLS GUIDE BOOK 1 Construction Battalion Battle Skills Guide, Book 1, All Hands, E1 and Above, Individual Skills consists of the following: NBC DEFENSE INDIVIDUAL WEAPONS Identify NATO NBC Markers Weapons Handling, Shoulder Fired Weapons Maintain the MCU-2A/P Protective Mask Weapons Handling, Handguns Don the MCU-2A/P Protective Mask with Hood Maintain the M16A3 Service Rifle Perform Basic Body Functions while in MOPP 4 Zero the M16A3 Service Rifle Identify Chemical Agents Engage Targets with the M16A3 Service Rifle Decontaminate Skin and Personal Equipment ATTACHMENT (A1) Fundamentals of Using the M291Decontamination Kit Marksmanship Exchange MOPP Gear Maintain the M9 Service Pistol React to Nuclear Attack Engage Targets with the M9 Service Pistol PATROLLING React to a Chemical or Biological Attack Treat a Chemical Agent Casualty Participate in a Security Patrol FIRST AID AND FIELD SANITATION Perform as a Member of a Convoy TACTICAL MEASURES Apply Basic First Aid Perform Basic First Aid Preventive Measures Prepare Individual Combat Equipment for Practice Basic Field Sanitation Tactical Operations Transport Casualties Using Manual Carries and Perform Individual Movement Improvised Stretchers Prepare a Fire Team Fire Plan and Fire Plan LAND NAVIGATION Sketch Perform Basic Map Reading React to Enemy Indirect Fire Navigate with a Map Using Terrain Association Assume Field Firing Positions Navigate with a Map Using a Compass React to Enemy Direct Fire Orient a Map Using Hasty Field Expedient Construct Fighting Position Techniques Camouflage Self and Individual Equipment Locate an Unknown Point by Resection Participate in Squad-Size Defense Locate an Unknown Point by Intersection Operate Night Vision Goggles Navigate Around an Obstacle Using the Box Employ Techniques of Unaided Night Vision Method Report Intelligence Information Convert Azimuths Conduct Vehicle Search Procedure Determine the Elevation of a Point on the Process Enemy Personnel Ground Using a Map Submit a Spot Report COMMUNICATIONS Perform as a Member of NMCB Interior Guard Repair (Splice) Wire Perform as a Fire team Member in Civil Operate a TA-1 Telephone Set Disturbance Situations HANGRENADES, MINES, AND Operate a TA-312 Telephone Set PYROTECHNIQUES Operate an AN/PRC-119A Radio Set Communicate Using a Radio Engage Targets with Handgrenades ATTACHMENT (A2) Phonetic Alphabet and Employ the M49A1 Trip Flare Numeric Pronunciation Employ the M18A1 Claymore Mine ATTACHMENT (A3) Prowords and Warning Locate Possible Mine/Boobytrap Sites Words and their Explanations Waterproof Individual Radio Equipment

vi

BOOK 2 Construction Battalion Battle Skills Guide, Book 2, E4 - E6, Individual Skills consists of following INDIVIDUAL WEAPONS Conduct Refresher Training on How to Maintain the M16A3 Service Rifle PATROLLING Assist in the Conduct of a Squad-Sized Security Patrol Conduct a Squad-Sized Security Patrol Issue a Patrol Warning Order Issue a Patrol Order Conduct Patrol Inspections Conduct Patrol Rehearsals Conduct Patrolling Immediate Action Drills Prepare Patrol Routes TACTICAL MEASURES Conduct Refresher Training on Fire Team-Size Combat Formations Prepare a Terrain Model Control Movement of Fire Team-Size Unit Establish Defensive Positions for a Fire TeamSize Unit Establish an Observation Outpost (OP) / Listening Post (LP) Direct Erection of Wire Obstacles Control Unit Fires Control Movement of a Squad-Size Unit Establish Defensive Positions for a Squad-Size Unit Adjust Indirect Fire Establish a Landing Zone Direct a Helicopter Landing Zone Direct the MEDEVAC of a Casualty NBC DEFENSE Prepare NBC I Report (Observer's Report) Implement Mission-Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) Control the Spread of Contamination Minimize Adverse Effects of Wearing MOPP Gear for Prolonged Periods FIRST AID AND FIELD SANITATION Enforce Proper Field Sanitation Conduct Refresher First Aid and Field Sanitation Training COMMUNICATIONS Install a Hot Loop Operate an AN/PRC-104 Field Radio Set Enter a Radio Telephone Net Maintain Communications Security by Using the Numeral Cipher/Authentication System Conduct Refresher Training on How to Operate the AN/PRC-104/119A Radio Set Conduct Refresher Training on How to Operate Field Telephones Supervise Operator Level Maintenance of Portable Communications Equipment

vii

BOOK 3 Construction Battalion Battle Skills Guide, Book 3, E-7 and Above, Individual Skills consists of the following: CREW-SERVED WEAPONS Employ Machine Guns Select M60E3 Machine Gun Firing Positions Select M2/MK19 Machine Gun Firing Positions Assign a Machine Gun FPL/PDF TACTICAL MEASURES Issue a Fragmentary Order for a Defensive Mission Prepare a Fire Plan for Platoon-Size Defensive Position Control Defensive Fires Direct the Placement of Wire Obstacles Establish a Company-Size Command Post Prepare Operation Overlay Direct Casualty Evacuation Direct the Handling of Captured Enemy Personnel NBC DEFENSE Supervise Conduct of Mask Confidence Exercise Assist Commander on Unmasking Procedures Execute Protective Measures for a Nuclear Attack Execute Protective Measures for a Biological and Chemical Attack Prepare NBC 4 Report (Reconnaissance, Monitoring, and Survey Results) Lead MOPP Gear Exchange COMMUNICATIONS Apply the Elements of Communications Supervise Unit's Individual Training in Communications

viii

BOOK 4 Construction Battalion Battle Skills Guide, Book 4, Crew/Team Skills consists of the following: INDIVIDUAL WEAPONS Employ NMCB Organic Weapons Maintain the M203 Grenade Launcher Engage Targets with M203 Grenade Launcher Engage Targets with the AT4 CREW-SERVED WEAPONS Maintain the M60E3 Machine Gun Engage Ground Targets with the M60E3 Machine Gun Maintain the M2 Machine Gun Engage Ground Targets with the M2 Machine Gun Maintain the MKI9 Machine Gun Engage Ground Targets with the MKI9 Machine Gun Perform as an M60E3 Machine Gun Team Leader Perform as an M2/MI9 Machine Gun Team Leader Construct Machine Gun Positions Determine Range Prepare a Range Card Control Machine Gun Team Fires Lay an M60E3/M2 Machine Gun Lay an MK19 Machine Gun Zero the M60E3 Machine Gun Zero the M60E3 Machine Gun Using Night Vision Sight Zero the M2 Machine Gun Zero the M2 Machine Gun Using Night Vision Zero the MKI9 Machine Gun Zero the MKI9 Machine Gun Using Night Vision Sight Supervise the Construction of Machine Gun Positions Control Machine Gun Squad Fires Supervise Maintenance of Machine Guns Maintain the 60mm Mortar Perform Safety Check on the 60mm Mortar

Determine the Error in a Lensatic Compass Declinate an M2 Compass Select a Mortar Position Mount the 60mm Mortar Boresight the Mortar Lay the Mortar, Reciprocal Lay or Section Parallel Lay the Mortar, Direct Lay Lay the Mortar, Direct Alignment Lay the Mortar For Small and Large Deflection and Elevation Changes Store Mortar Ammunition in the Field Prepare 60mm Mortar Ammunition for Firing Assist in Clearing a Misfire on the 60mm Mortar Fire the Mortar Fire 60mm Mortar in Hand Held Mode Refer/Realign the Mortar Adjust Fire Adjust Mortar Fire without an FDC Register a Mortar FPF Engage Targets with Mortar Fire Using Traversing and Searching Fires Burn Mortar Increments Compute Firing Data Manually Record Target Data Issue Fire Commands Supervise the Firing of Simultaneous Missions Supervise Firing of A Coordinated Illumination Mission Supervise Firing in Support of CAS/CIFS Operate a One Man FDC for the 60mm Mortar Section Tactically Employ a 60 mm Mortar Section/Platoon Supervise Unit Individual Weapons Training Supervise Unit Crew-Served Weapon Training Supervise Unit Mortar Training Prepare a Fire Support Plan for Platoon-Size Defensive Operations

ix

COMBAT SKILLS TASK

BOOK 1

WEAPONS HANDLING, SHOULDER FIRED WEAPONS (1-1) Purpose: This weapons handling section prepares a Seabee to employ individual weapons safely and confidently and standardizes procedures used during training and combat to enhance safety and ensure consistency for loading, unloading, and employing individual small arms.

SAFETY RULES These safety rules apply to all weapons at all times, and must never be violated. RULE # 1 RULE # 2 RULE # 3 RULE # 4 Treat every weapon as if it were loaded. Never point a weapon at anything you do not intend to shoot. Keep finger straight and off t trigger until you are ready to fire. Keep weapon on safe until you intends to fire.

WEAPONS CARRIES Tactical Carry: Use when no immediate threat is present. Locate the buttstock of the weapon to the side of your body at approximately hip level with the muzzle angled up and in the direction of the enemy (Figure 1).

Figure 1 Alert: Use when enemy contact is likely. Place the buttstock of the weapon in the pocket of your 1-1

shoulder with the muzzle angled down at approximately 45 degrees in the direction of the enemy (Figure 2).

Figure 2 Ready: Use when enemy contact is imminent. Place the buttstock of the weapon in the pocket of your shoulder with the muzzle pointed in the direction of likely enemy contact. A clear field of view is maintained over the weapon sights until the target has been identified (Figure 3).

Figure 3 1. Handle the M16A3 rifle. 1-2

CONDITION CODES Condition 1 Magazine inserted, round in chamber, bolt forward, safety on and ejection port cover closed. Not applicable to the M16A3. Magazine inserted, chamber empty, bolt forward, safety on and ejection port cover closed. Magazine removed, chamber empty, bolt forward, safety on and ejection port cover closed.

Condition 2 Condition 3

Condition 4

COMMANDS "UNLOAD" "LOAD" "MAKE READY" "FIRE" "UNLOAD, SHOW CLEAR" Place the M16A3 in condition 4. Place the M16A3 in condition 3. Place the M16A3 in condition 1. Take the M16A3 off safe, engage targets.

Take the M16A3 from any condition to condition 4, pausing with the bolt locked to the rear to allow for a secondary inspection of the chamber.

a.

Execute "UNLOAD", ensuring clear and safe weapon. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Ensure weapon is on SAFE. If weapon will not go on SAFE, perform steps 2) through 5). Rotate weapon with ejection port down. Pull and lock the bolt to the rear. Ensure the chamber is empty and no ammunition is present. Release the charging handle and observe bolt going forward on an empty chamber. NOTE: 6) 7) Put the weapon on SAFE now if it would not go on SAFE earlier.

Close ejection port cover. Check sights.

b.

Execute LOAD taking the weapon from condition 4 to condition 3. , 1) Ensure the weapon is in condition 4. 1-3

2) 3) 4) 5)

Withdraw a magazine from the magazine pouch. Ensure the magazine is filled. Fully insert magazine in the magazine well. Tap upward on bottom of magazine first, then tug downward on the magazine to ensure that it is held into the rifle by the magazine catch. Close the magazine pouch. Close the ejection port cover.

6) 7) c.

Execute MAKE-READY taking the weapon from condition 3 to condition 1. , 1) 2) 3) Pull the charging handle fully to the rear and release. Check sights. Close ejection port cover (if time and situation permit). NOTE: To ensure that ammunition has been chambered pull the charging handle slightly to the rear and visually inspect the chamber. (You may tap the forward assist to ensure the bolt closes after inspecting the chamber.) Pulling the charging handle too far to the rear when inspecting the chamber may cause a double feed or eject one round of ammunition.

CAUTION:

d.

Execute FIRE . 1) 2) Take weapon off safe, and place finger on trigger. Engage target.

e.

Execute "UNLOAD, SHOW CLEAR taking the weapon from any condition to condition 4. , 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Attempt to put weapon on SAFE. Remove the magazine from weapon and retain it on your person. Rotate weapon until ejection port is down. Lock the bolt to the rear. Ensure chamber is empty and no ammunition is present. NOTE: Put weapon on SAFE now if it would not go on SAFE earlier.

6) 7) 8)

Have a second party inspect weapon to ensure no ammunition is present. Release bolt catch and observe bolt going forward on an empty chamber. Close ejection port cover. 1-4

9)

Check sights.

10) Recover, inspect and insert any ejected ammunition into magazine (Omit this step at night). 11) Return magazine to magazine pouch and close pouch. NOTE: f. Loaded magazines are down, empty ones are up.

Execute "Immediate Action - Firing Stoppage" Definition: Immediate action is an unhesitating response by an individual to a weapon firing stoppage without investigating the cause.

TAP: RACK: BANG:

Slap the bottom of the magazine. Pull the charging handle to the rear and release. Sight and fire.

WARNING:

If your rifle stops firing with a live round in the chamber of a hot barrel remove the round quickly. However, if you cannot remove the round within 10 seconds, remove the magazine and wait 15 minutes with the muzzle pointed in a safe direction.

NOTE:

DURING COMBAT, THE PACE OF THE BATTLE WILL DICTATE HOW LONG YOU WILL BE ABLE TO WAIT UNTIL ATTEMPTS ARE MADE TO CLEAR THE ROUND.

g.

Execute "Remedial Action". NOTE: Remedial action is performed if immediate action fails to clear the stoppage.

1) If "POP" or reduced recoil is experienced during firing, immediately CEASE-FIRE. Do not apply immediate action, complete the following steps: a) b) c) d) Place the selector lever on the SAFE position. Remove the magazine. Lock the bolt to the rear. Visually inspect and/or insert a cleaning rod into the bore to ensure there is no bullet lodged in the bore of the rifle.

2) If weapon still fails to fire after performing remedial action, turn weapon to your unit armorer. 2. Handle the M203 Grenade Launcher.

1-5

CONDITION CODES Condition 1 Condition 2 Condition 3 Condition 4 Round in chamber, action closed, safety on. Not applicable to the M203. Not applicable to the M203. Chamber empty, action closed, safety on.

COMMANDS "UNLOAD" "MAKE READY" Place the M203 in condition 4. Place the M203 in condition 1.

a.

Execute "UNLOAD", ensuring clear and safe weapon. 1) 2) Attempt to put the weapon on SAFE. Depress the barrel latch and push the barrel assembly forward catching the round as it is extracted from the chamber (Figure 4). Secure the round. Inspect the chamber to ensure that no ammunition is present. Pull the barrel assembly to the rear until the latch locks into position (Figure 5).

3) 4) 5)

Figure 4 6) b. Put the weapon on SAFE.

Figure 5

Execute MAKE READY taking the weapon from condition 4 to condition 1. , 1) 2) Ensure the weapon is in condition 4. Depress barrel latch and push barrel assembly all the way forward (Figure 6), catching the round as it is extracted from the chamber. 1-6

Figure 6 3) 4) c. Insert round into chamber until fully seated (Figure 7).

Figure 7

Pull barrel assembly to the rear until the barrel latch locks into position (Figure 5).

Execute "Immediate Action - Firing Stoppage". Definition: Immediate action is an unhesitating response by an individual to a weapon firing stoppage without investigating the cause.

1)

Take immediate action for a HANGFIRE. Note: Warning: Hangfire is a delay in the propellant charge igniting. Keep muzzle on target and clear all personnel from the area (at least 80 meters or 264 feet). Wait 30 seconds before removing round.

a) b)

Unload the round and catch it, or unload close to ground for a short fall. Store the round at a safe distance away from serviceable ammunition until it is determined whether the round or the weapon is defective. A dented primer is a hangfire. Handle accordingly.

c) 2)

Take immediate action for a MISFIRE. Note: Warning: Misfire is a failure to fire. Handle the same way as a hangfire. Keep muzzle on target and clear all personnel from the area (at least 80 meters or 264 feet). Wait 30 seconds before removing round.

a)

If the primer is not dented, the firing mechanism is faulty. A dented primer is a hangfire. Handle accordingly. If the mechanism is repaired, the round may be reloaded and fired.

b)

d.

Execute "Remedial Action". NOTE: 1) Remedial action is performed if immediate action fails to clear the stoppage.

Take remedial action. 1-7

2)

Performing the test/inspections and corrective actions in the order listed. PROBLEM CHECK FOR Too much oil or water in back of breech insert. HOW TO FIX IT With barrel installed, apply few drops of CLP through firing pin hole. Keep weapon pointed up 10-15 seconds. Cycle weapon and squeeze trigger to spread the oil (Figure 8). Clean area around breech insert and firing pin hole using CLP. (Figure 9). Clean all dust and dirt from weapon using CLP and wiping rag. Keep locator slot clean. Wipe inside of barrel with wiping rag soaked in CLP (Figure 10). Replace ammunition. Remove casing by tapping with rifle cleaning rod (Figure 11). Replace ammunition or clean bore and chamber (Figure 12). Return weapon to your unit armorer.

Failure to fire.

Dirt and or residue in firing pin hole.

Dirt in locator slot.

Faulty ammunition Failure to extract. Casing stuck in barrel.

Failure to chamber.

Faulty ammunition or dirty chamber. Dirty follower or receiver cavity.

Failure to lock.

3)

If weapon still fails to fire after performing remedial action, turn weapon to your unit armorer.

1-8

Figure 8

Figure 9

Figure 10

Figure 11

Figure 12

1-9

WEAPONS HANDLING, HANDGUNS (1-2) Purpose:This weapons handling section prepares a Seabee to employ handguns safely and confidently and standardizes procedures used during training and combat to enhance safety and ensure consistency for loading, unloading, and employing handguns These safety rules apply to all weapons at all times, and must never be violated. RULE # 1 Treat every weapon as if it were loaded. RULE # 2 Never point a weapon at anything you do not intend to shoot. RULE # 3 Keep finger straight and off the trigger until you are ready to fire. RULE # 4 Keep weapon on safe until you intend to fire.

WEAPONS CARRIES Tactical Carry: To be used when enemy contact is likely. The arms are extended down at a 45-degree angle to the body while holding the pistol firmly with both hands. The decocking/safety lever is in the safe position. The finger is straight along the receiver of the pistol (Figure 1).

Figure 1 Alert: Use when enemy contact is likely in a close quarters environment, and when rounding blind 1-10

comers and room entries. The decocking/safety lever is in the safe position. The finger is straight along the receiver of the pistol (Figure 2).

Figure 2 Ready: To be used when enemy contact is imminent. The arms extend towards the target, the decocking/safety lever is placed in the fire position. Once the arms are fully extended and the 1-11

weapon is just below eye level the Seabee is in the ready position (Figure 3).

Figure 3 1. Handle the M9 Pistol. 1-12

CONDITION CODES Condition 1 Magazine inserted, round in chamber, slide forward, hammer down and decocking/safety lever on. Not applicable to the M9. Magazine inserted, chamber empty, slide forward, and decocking/safety lever on. Magazine removed, chamber empty, slide forward, and decocking/safety lever on.

Condition 2 Condition 3 Condition 4

COMMANDS UNLOAD LOAD MAKE READY FIRE UNLOAD, SHOW CLEAR Place the M9 pistol in condition 4. Place the M9 pistol in condition 3. Place the M9 pistol in condition 1. Place the M9 pistol in condition 1 and engage target.

Take the M9 pistol from any condition to condition 4, pausing with the slide locked to the rear to allow for a secondary inspection of the chamber.

a.

Execute "UNLOAD", ensure pistol is clear and safe. 1) Place the decocking/safety lever in the safe position. 2) Remove the magazine from the pistol and retain it on your person. 3) Pull the slide to the rear. 4) Ensure that the chamber is empty and no ammunition is present. 5) Release the slide, allowing it to go forward on an empty chamber. 6) Place the pistol in the holster.

b.

Execute "LOAD", taking the M9 pistol from condition 4 to condition 3. 1) Ensure that the pistol is in condition 4. 2) Withdraw the magazine from the ammunition pocket. 3) 4) Ensure that the magazine is filled. Fully insert the magazine into the magazine well. 1-13

c.

Execute MAKE READY taking the M9 pistol from condition 3 to condition 1. , Pull the slide fully to the rear and release.

d.

Execute FIRE 1) 2) Take the pistol off safe, and place your finger on the trigger. Engage target.

e.

Execute UNLOAD, SHOW CLEAR taking the M9 pistol from any condition to condition 4. , 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Place the decocking/safety lever in the safe position. Remove the magazine from the pistol and retain it on your person. Lock the slide to the rear. Ensure that the chamber is empty and no ammunition is present. Have a second party inspect the chamber to ensure that no ammunition is present. Release the slide, allowing it to go forward on an empty chamber. Place the pistol in the holster. Recover, inspect, and insert any ejected ammunition into the magazine (omit this step at night). Return the magazine to the ammunition pocket and close the pocket.

9)

1-14

TASK: CONDITIONS:

MAINTAIN THE M16A3 SERVICE RIFLE (1-3) GIVEN AN M16A3 SERVICE RIFLE WITH MAGAZINE, AND A SMALL ARMS MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT CASE. THE SEABEE MUST MAINTAIN THE M16A3 SERVICE RIFLE AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided an M16A3 service rifle in a safe condition with a small arms maintenance equipment case.

Standard:The Seabee must disassemble the rifle. The Seabee must lay out the parts on a clean surface in the disassembled sequence and must reassemble it in reverse order. The Seabee will clean, inspect and lubricate thoroughly all parts of the rifle. After assembly the Seabee must engage the safety mechanism. The rifle must function properly. Administrative Note: See: WEAPONS HANDLING, SHOULDER FIRED WEAPONS (1-1)

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. 2. Place the weapon in condition 4. (See: WEAPONS HANDLING, SHOULDER FIRED WEAPONS (1-1).) Disassemble the weapon. a. b. Remove the sling. Place the rifle on the buttstock and press down on the slip ring. Pull handguards free (Figure 1).

NOTE:

Figure 1 Do not remove the silver metal heatshield inside the handguard during maintenance. 1-15

c.

Push in on the takedown pin (left to right) as far as it will go, allowing the upper receiver to pivot away from the lower receiver (Figure 2). Push the receiver pivot pin (Figure 3)

d.

Figure 2 e. f. Separate the upper and lower receivers (Figure 4).

Figure 3

Turn the upper receiver upside down to remove the charging handle. Pull back the charging handle and bolt carrier (Figure 5).

Figure 4 g. h. Remove the bolt carrier and bolt (Figure 6). Remove the charging handle (Figure 7).

Figure 5

Figure 6 i. j. Remove the firing pin retaining pin (Figure 8). Drop the firing pin out of the rear of the bolt carrier (Figure 9). 1-16

Figure 7

Figure 8 k. l. Place the bolt assembly in the locked position (Figure 10). Remove the bolt cam pin (Figure 11).

Figure 9

Figure 10 m. n. Remove the bolt assembly from carrier (Figure 12). Use the firing pin to push out the extractor pin (Figure 13).

Figure 11

Figure 12 NOTE:

Figure 13

Press the rear of the extractor to check the spring function. See your gunners mate if spring is weak. Do not damage tip of firing pin.

1-17

o. p.

Remove the extractor and spring (Figure 14). Press in buffer, depress the retainer, and release the buffer (Figure 15).

Figure 14 q. Remove the buffer and the action spring (Figure 16).

Figure 15

Figure 16 NOTE: 3. No further disassembly allowed.

Perform detailed cleaning. a. Clean the bore. NOTE: The bore of the M16A3 has lands and grooves called rifling. Rifling makes the bullet spin very fast as it moves down the bore and down range. Because it twists so quickly, it is difficult to push a new, stiff bore brush through the bore. It is much easier to pull the bore brush through the bore. Also, because the brush will clean better if the bristles follow the grooves (called tracking), allow the bore brush to turn as you pull it through.

1)

Swab out the bore with a patch moistened with current approved cleaning solvent (CLP cleaner, lubricant, and preservative; LSA - weapons lubricating oil, semi fluid; and LAW weapons lubricating oil arctic).

2)

Attach three-rod sections and bore brush together, but leave each about two turns short of 1-18

being tight. NOTE: Always have the bore wet with cleaner before trying to pull a brush through. When using a bore brush, don't reverse direction while in the bore.

3)

Point the muzzle down. Hold the upper receiver in one hand while inserting the end of the rod without the brush into the chamber. Let the rod fall straight through the bore (Figure 17). Two to three inches will be sticking out of the muzzle at this point. Attach the handle section of the cleaning rod to the end of the rod sticking out of the muzzle (Figure 18).

4)

Figure 17 6)

Figure 18

Pull the brush through the bore and the muzzle. If you watch closely, you can see the rod twisting as you pull it. After one pull, take off the handle section and repeat the process. After three or four pulls, you will see that the three-rod sections and the bore brush are screwing together. Loosen them up and repeat the process.

7)

1-19

8)

Punch the bore with a bore patch once in a while to help clean out the carbon fouling, dirt, and other debris which the brush has loosened. You can use the same technique as described above to save time. Just replace the bore brush with the rod tip (patch holder) and a wet patch. Drop it through. You won't need to attach the handle to pull only a patch through. If you leave the rods loose again, the patch will "track" in the rifling as before.

b.

Clean the upper receiver. 1) Clean the following with cleaner, lubricant and preservative (CLP): a) b) c) d) 2) 3) 4) All areas of powder fouling, corrosion, dirt, and rust Bore and chamber Locking lugs Gas tube

Swab out the chamber with a patch moistened with CLP. Attach the handle and chamber brush to one-rod section. Insert the chamber brush into chamber, and turn it in one direction only (Figure 19). CAUTION: Do not use wire brush or any type of abrasive material to clean aluminum surfaces.

c.

Clean the following parts of the bolt carrier group (Figure 20):

Figure 19 1) 2) 3) Outer and inner surfaces of bolt carrier Carrier key Firing pin recess and firing pin 1-20

Figure 20

4) 5) 6) c.

Firing pin hole (use pipe cleaner) Carbon deposits and dirt from locking lugs Areas behind bolt ring and under lip of extractor

Clean the lower receiver group (Figure 21).

Figure 21 1) 2) 3) e. Check all areas for powder fouling, corrosion, and dirt. Wipe the dirt from the trigger mechanism. Clean the buffer, action spring, and inside lower receiver extension.

Clean the ejector. 1) Remove ejector from the bolt carrier. Hold it in your hands with the ejector down and the extractor up (Refer to figure 14).

2) Place a few drops of CLP around the ejector to form a puddle (Figure 22). 3) Place a fired or dummy case under the lip of the extractor. a) With a rocking motion, press the case down against the ejector (Figure 23).

1-21

Figure 22 NOTE: b) c) d) e)

Figure 23 Because the ejector is spring-loaded, you will feel some resistance.

Press on the case until it stops against bolt. Ease off with your thumb slightly, and press down again. Repeat several times. Replace the CLP frequently. NOTE: Once the spring action of the ejector is smooth and strong, dry off any excess CLP.

4.

Perform inspection. a. Inspect the bolt for cracks or fractures, especially in the cam pinhole area; bolts that contain pits extending into the firing pin hole need replacement. Inspect the firing pin to ensure that it is not bent, cracked, blunted, and has no sharp end. Inspect the firing pin retaining pin to ensure that it is not bent or badly worn. Inspect the cam pin to ensure that it is not cracked, chipped, or missing. Inspect the extractor for chipped or broken edges in the area of the lip that engages the cartridge rim. Check to ensure the rubber insert is inside the extractor spring (Figure 24).

b. c. d. e.

1-22

Figure 24 NOTE: 5. If parts are missing or defective, see your gunners mate.

Lubricate the weapon. a. Use CLP as follows: 1) Lube Guide: a) Under all but the coldest arctic conditions, LSA or CLP are the lubricants to use on your machine gun. Between 10F (-12C) and -10F (-23C) use CLP, LSA or LAW. Below -10F (-23C) use only LAW. Remember to remove excessive oil from the bore before firing. Lightly oil - A film of oil barely visible to the eye. CLP - Cleaner, lubricant and preservative. LSA - Weapons lubricating oil, semi fluid. LAW - Weapons lubricating oil, arctic.

b) c)

d) e) f) g) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Always shake the bottle well before use. Place a few drops on a patch or rag. Clean your rifle with rags and patches until they come out clean. Apply a fresh, light coat of CLP with a clean patch or rag.

NOTE:

Do not use hot water or other solvents because it will wash away the Teflon 1-23

lubricant that has been building up as a result of your use of CLP. b. Lightly lube the inside of the upper receiver, bore and chamber outer surfaces of the barrel and front sight, and the surfaces under the handguards. Depress the front sight detent and apply two or three drops of CLP. Depress several times to work lube into the spring (Figure 25). Lubricate the bolt carrier group. 1) Generously lube the outside of the bolt and the bolt cam pin (Figure 26). Be sure to lube the cam pin area, bolt rings, and outside of the bolt body. Put a light coat on the extractor and pin.

c.

d.

Figure 25 2) 3) Lubricate the carrier key (Figure 27).

Figure 26

Lightly lube the charging handle and the inner and outer surfaces of the bolt carrier. Generously lube the slide and cam pin area of the bolt carrier (Figure 28).

Figure 27 CAUTION: e.

Figure 28

Use only a light coat of CLP on the firing pin and firing pin recess in the bolt.

Lubricate the lower receiver group.

1) 2)

Lightly lube the inside of the lower receiver extension, buffer, and action spring (Figure 29). Generously lube takedown and pivot pins, detents, and moving parts inside the lower 1-24

receiver (Figure 30).

Figure 29 f. Lubricate the adjustable rear sight (Figure 31).

Figure 30

Figure 31 NOTE: Make a note of how far you move the sights so that they can be returned to their original position at the completion of this task.

1)

Use one or two drops of CLP. Rotate these parts to ensure lubricant is spread evenly above and below them: a) b) c) d) Elevation knob Elevation screw shaft Windage knob (maximum five clicks left or right) Detent holes

2)

Lube elevation screw shaft also from inside the upper receiver as follows: 1-25

a) b) c)

Turn upper receiver upside down. Remove charging handle. Put two or three drops on bottom of elevation screw shaft and in elevation detent spring hole. Rotate the elevation dial back and forth a few times while keeping the upper receiver upside down.

d)

3) 6.

Reset sights to original setting.

Reassemble the M16A3. a. b. c. Insert the action spring and buffer (Figure 32). Insert the extractor and spring Push in the extractor pin, while maintaining downward pressure on the extractor (Figure 33).

Figure 32 NOTE: d. e.

Figure 33

Ensure gas ring gaps are evenly space at 120 degrees.

Slide the bolt into the bolt carrier (Figure 34). Replace the bolt cam (Figure 35).

WARNING:

Figure 34 Figure 35 Ensure that the cam pin is installed in the bolt group. Firing without the cam pin installed will explode the weapon.

f.

Drop in and seat the firing pin (Figure 36). 1-26

g.

Pull out on the bolt (Figure 37).

Figure 36 h. Replace the firing pin retaining pin (Figure 38).

Figure37

Figure 38

1-27

i. j.

Engage and then push the charging handle part way (Figure 39). Slide in the bolt group (Figure 40).

Figure 39 k. l.

Figure 40

Push the charging handle and the bolt carrier group together (Figure 41). Join the upper and the lower receivers (Figure 42).

Figure 41 m. Engage the receiver pivot pin (Figure 43).

Figure 42

CAUTION:

Figure 43 Selector lever must be on SAFE or SEMI before closing the upper receiver. 1-28

n. o. p.

Close the upper and the lower receiver groups. Push in on the takedown pin. Place the rifle on the buttstock and press down on the slip ring with your hand (Figure 44). Install one handguard on top and the other on the bottom. NOTE: The round handguards are identical (top or bottom).

q. 7.

Snap on sling.

Perform a before operation check and a function check a. Remove excess oil, see (Figure 45).

Figure 44 b.

Figure 45

Retract the bolt to ensure free movement between the bolt carrier and the gas tube. CAUTION: Check to ensure that no round is in the chamber.

c.

Perform function check to ensure that selector lever works properly.

1)

SAFE:

Pull charging handle to the rear and release. Place the weapon on SAFE. Pull trigger. Hammer should not fall. 1-29

2)

SEMI

3)

AUTO

Place selector lever in SEMI. Pull trigger and hold to rear. Hammer should fall. Pull charging handle to rear and release. Release trigger and pull again. Hammer should fall. Place selector lever on AUTO. Pull charging handle to rear and release. Pull trigger and hold to rear. Hammer should fall. Pull charging handle to rear three times and release. Release trigger and pull again. Hammer should fall.

d. 8.

Insert the magazine and check to ensure that it is secure.

Disassemble, clean, and reassemble the magazine. a. b. Release the base catch (Figure 46), use any flat tip metal like screw driver. Remove the magazine base (Figure 47).

Figure 46 c. Jiggle the spring and the follower for removal (Figure 48).

Figure 47

Figure 48 NOTE: d. Do not remove follower from spring.

Wipe dirt from the tube, spring, and follower; then lightly lube the spring. 1-30

e. f.

Insert the follower and jiggle spring to install. Slide the base under all four tabs until the base catches. NOTE: Ensure that the printing is on the outside of the base during reassembly.

REFERENCES: FMFM 0-8, Basic Marksmanship TM 05538C-10/1A, Rifle 5.56mm M16A2 W/E

1-31

TASK: CONDITIONS:

ZERO THE M16A3 SERVICE RIFLE (1-4) GIVEN THE M16A3 SERVICE RIFLE WITH MAGAZINE, AMMUNITION, AND A TEST TARGET. THE SEABEE MUST ZERO THE RIFLE AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDLINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided an M16A3 rifle, magazines, ammunition, data book, and a 25 meter zeroing target.

Standard:The Seabee must zero the rifle, fire the weapon, and determine the adjustments needed, and apply the corrections to his/her rifle. Administrative Note: See : WEAPONS HANDLING, SHOULDER FIRED WEAPONS (1-1)

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Place the weapon in condition 4. (See : WEAPONS HANDLING, SHOULDER FIRED WEAPONS (11).) Establish the initial sight setting on the windage indicator, the elevation knob, and the front sight post. a. Depress the detent on the front sight and rotate the front sight either up or down until the base of the sight is flush with the surrounding housing (Figure 1). Center the rear sight aperture by turning the windage knob left or right. This is called the initial sight setting (Figure 2).

2.

b.

Figure 1

Figure 2

c.

Rotate the elevation knob in the down direction (counterclockwise). The elevation knob should stop three clicks past the 300-meter mark. The rear sight should be all the way down on the last 1-32

whole "click" before it bottoms out. Once it bottoms out, rotate the rear sight elevation knob up (clockwise) four clicks. This places the elevation setting at 8/3-2, which is the initial sight setting for the rear sight (Figure 3).

Figure 3 NOTE: Large aperture marked 0-2 is used for target engagement during limited visibility or when a greater field of view is desired. Small aperture is used for zeroing and normal firing situations. If your range scale will not line up in the above manner, an armorer will be required to adjust the range scale for you.

NOTE:

3.

Zero the rifle using the 25-meter zeroing procedures. a. Perform the following steps and establish a zero at 25 meters. 1) Establish initial sight setting on the windage indicator, elevation knob, and the front sight post (as performed in paragraph 2). Rotate the elevation knob "up" one click past the 300-meter mark. From this point on, the rear sight elevation knob should not be moved. Make all required elevation adjustments on the front sight post only. "LOAD," taking the weapon to condition 3. "MAKE READY," taking the weapon to condition 1. Aim and fire a 3-shot group at the center of the target bull's-eye. NOTE: a) Use only authorized ammunition that is manufactured according to U.S. 1-33

2)

3) 4) 5)

or NATO specifications. WARNINGS: Do not fire if ammunition has the following: (1) Serious corrosion. (2) Dented cartridges. (3) Cartridges with loose bullets. (4) Cartridges exposed to extreme heat (135 until they have cooled. F) (5) Cartridges with the bullet pushed in (short rounds). b) 6) Keep the ammunition dry, clean, and free of dirt and debris.

If your shot group is not in the center of the bull's-eye, use the squares on the target sheet to calculate the required "clicks" necessary to move your next shot group into the bull's-eye. The squares are numbered around the edges of the target to equal the number of "clicks" required to move the shot group to the bull's-eye (Figure 4). Rotate the front sight post clockwise to raise your next 3-shot group. (One click will move the strike of the bullet one vertical square on the target sheet.) Rotate the front sight post counterclockwise to lower your next shot group. (One click, equals one square.) Make the changes in windage with the windage knob. (Three clicks will move the strike of the bullet one horizontal square on the target sheet.)

7)

8)

9)

10) Turn the windage knob counterclockwise to move the shot group to the left. 11) Turn the windage knob clockwise to move the shot group to the right. 12) Aim and fire another 3-shot group. 13) Make all required elevation and windage adjustments. 14) Aim and fire a final 4-shot group at the center of the target bull's-eye to confirm the zero setting. 15) If your group is in the center of the target, rotate the elevation knob one click "down." This calibrates your battle sight zero. (The range scale's 300-meter mark should now be aligned with the mark on the receiver.) 16) "UNLOAD," taking the weapon to condition 4. 17) The front and rear sight setting are recorded and stored in the buttstock of the rifle.

1-34

Figure 4

REFERENCES: FMFM 0-8, Basic Marksmanship TM 05538C-10/1A, Rifle 5.56mm M16A2 W/E

1-35

TASK: CONDITIONS:

ENGAGE TARGETS WITH THE M16A3 SERVICE RIFLE (1-5) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIROMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), AN M16A3 SERVICE RIFLE, ALL INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT (782 GEAR), FIELD PROTECTIVE MASK, AND AMMUNITION. THE SEABEE MUST EFFECTIVELY ENGAGE TARGETS WITH THE M16A3 SERVICE RIFLE AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical scenario in a combat environment (day and night), an M16A3 service rifle, all individual combat equipment (782 gear), a field protective mask, and ammunition.

Standard:The Seabee must handle the weapon safely at all times, select the correct ammunition, apply the fundamentals of marksmanship, load, estimate range to target, respond to fire commands, and then effectively hit the targets at different ranges, day and night. The Seabee must don, clear, and check the field protective mask, and engage a target. The Seabee must also perform immediate action and remedial actions, then unload and ensure that the weapon is completely safe. Administrative Notes: The marksmanship training program includes preliminary training, and known and unknown distance firing. Marksmanship training also includes the field firing techniques of offense, defense, fire and movement, varied circumstances, and firing within an NBC environment. See: WEAPONS HANDLING, SHOULDER FIRED WEAPONS (1-1).

Attachment: (A1)

FUNDAMENTALS OF MARKSMANSHIP

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Apply the basic marksmanship fundamentals. (The Seabee must demonstrate proficiency in the application of the fundamentals of marksmanship as outlined in Attachment (A1). These fundamentals are prerequisites to performing the task). a. Proper aiming of the M16A3 service rifle. 1) 2) 3) 4) b. c. Sight alignment Stock weld Eye relief Sight picture

Proper breath control. Proper trigger control. 1) Uninterrupted 1-36

2) d.

Interrupted

Proper shooting positions. 1) 2) 3) 4) Sitting Kneeling Prone Standing

e.

Compensate for the effects of weather. 1) 2) 3) 4) Wind Temperature Precipitation Light

2.

Place the weapon in condition 4. (See: WEAPONS HANDLING, SHOULDER FIRED WEAPONS (11).) Prepare the M16A3 service rifle for firing. a. Ensure that the weapon is properly assembled and functioning for firing. (See TASK: MAINTAIN THE M16A3 SERVICE RIFLE (1-3).) Ensure that you use the correct ammunition. 1) Use only authorized ammunition that is manufactured according to U.S. or NATO specifications. WARNINGS: Do not fire if ammunition has the following: a) b) c) d) e) 2) Serious corrosion Dented cartridges Cartridges with loose bullets Cartridges exposed to extreme heat (135 until they have cooled F) Cartridges with the bullet pushed in (short rounds)

3.

b.

Keep the ammunition dry, clean, and free of dirt and debris.

3) Execute "LOAD," taking the weapon from condition 4 to condition 3. (See: WEAPONS HANDLING, SHOULDER FIRED WEAPONS (1-1).) 4) Execute "MAKE READY," taking the weapon from condition 3 to condition 1. (See: WEAPONS HANDLING SHOULDER FIRED WEAPONS (1-1).) 1-37

4.

Estimate the range to target. a. Estimate the range to target by eye using the mental unit of measure method. 1) Visualize a 100-meter distance on the ground (Figure 1).

Figure 1 NOTES: Sloping ground changes the appearance of 100-meter lengths. Ground that slopes upward makes these distances look longer than 100 meters, and ground that slopes downward makes these distances look shorter than 100 meters. Thus, the tendency is to underestimate 100-meter lengths on upslopes and overestimate them on downslopes. The accuracy of the 100-meter method depends on how much ground is visible. However, this method is most true at long ranges. If a target is at a range of 500 meters or more, and you can only see part of the ground between yourself and the target, it is hard to use this method with accuracy. 2) With this unit of measurement, mentally determine how many of these 100-meter units are between your position and the target. NOTES: Mental estimates should be checked by pacing off distance. The average man takes about 130 steps per 100 meters. 3) For distances beyond 500 meters (Figure 2), perform the following:

1-38

a) b) c)

Pick a point halfway to the target. Count the number of 100-meter lengths to the halfway point. Double that number to get the range to the target.

Figure 2 b. Estimate the range to target by eye using the appearance of object method. NOTE: When there are hills, woods, or other obstacles between the observer and target, or where most of the ground is hidden from view, it is impractical to apply the mental unit of measure method to determine range. In such cases, another method, based on appearance of objects, may be used. Through practice the Seabee must learn how objects familiar to him appear at various known ranges.

1) 2)

Watch a man when he is standing 100 meters away. Fix the appearance of his size and the details of his features and equipment firmly in your mind. Watch him in the kneeling position, then in the prone position. Compare the appearance of a man at 100, 200, 300, and 500 meters. NOTES: A series of mental pictures is now established. When time and conditions permit, accuracy can be improved by averaging a number of estimates by different Seabees to determine the range.

3)

5.

Engage the target using field firing techniques. a. Search for targets. 1) Perform a hasty search of the area.

2)

Conduct a 30-second visual search of the terrain to check for enemy activity when you move into an area. 1-39

3)

Perform a detailed search of the area using the 50-meter overlapping strip method (Figure 3).

Figure 3 4) Visually scan the area in an arc of 180-degrees over 50 meters of distance at a time, beginning with the terrain nearest your position at either flank. Search each 50 meters of distance from flank to flank using a 10-meter overlap to ensure that all areas are surveyed.

5)

b.

Possible indicators of targets. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Sound Terrain features that may offer cover and concealment for the enemy Improper camouflage Movement on the terrain Outlines that contrast with the background Shine of metal objects

c.

Techniques for target location. 1) 2) 3) Maintain surveillance over the area. Continue to glance at various points, focusing on specific features (rocks, trees, trenches, etc), after completing the detailed search. Repeat all steps in the detailed search periodically and anytime that you have been distracted from your area.

1-40

6.

Perform the fundamentals of marksmanship. a. b. c. d. e. Assume a firing position (Refer to performance step1.). Compensate for the effects of weather. Obtain the proper sight alignment. Obtain the proper sight picture. Apply the proper trigger control.

7.

Respond to the fire commands. NOTE: A complete fire command consists of six elements, easily remembered by the memory aid ADDRAC: ALERT, DIRECTION, DESCRIPTION, RANGE, ASSIGNMENT, and CONTROL.

a.

The squad leader issues the following fire commands and the Seabee reacts accordingly. 1) 2) 3) ALERT: "SQUAD," "FIRE TEAM," etc. DIRECTION of target: "RIGHT FRONT," "LEFT FRONT," etc. DESCRIPTION of target: "ROCK PILE IN DRAW," "TALL TREE AT EDGE OF HEDGEROW," "STONE HOUSE," "RIGHT OF STONE HOUSE, SMALL SHED," etc. RANGE setting: "ONE-SEVEN-FIVE," "TWO-FIVE-ZERO," "FOUR-HUNDRED," etc. ASSIGNMENT: "AUTOMATIC RIFLEMAN; RAPID," "FIRST TEAM; ASSULT RIFLEMAN; RAPID," etc. CONTROL: "COMMENCE FIRING," "ON MY SIGNAL," "AT MY COMMAND..." EXAMPLE OF COMPLETE FIRE COMMAND: "SQUAD" "RIGHT FRONT" "TROOPS IN TRENCH LINE" "TWO-FIVE-ZERO" "AUTOMATIC RIFLEMAN, SUSTAINED RATE, "FIRST TEAM, AT THE RAPID RATE," "ALL OTHERS, FIRE AND MANEUVER LEFT." "COMMENCE FIRING"

4) 5)

6)

8.

Engage the target. a. Identify the type of target and use the correct procedure for engaging that specified type. 1) Stationary targets a) Stay concealed. b) 2) Locate enemy.

Multiple targets 1-41

a) b) c) d)

Stay concealed. Locate all enemy positions. Engage enemy position, which represents the greatest threat. Engage other targets in rapid succession. NOTE: Consider speed but emphasize accuracy.

3)

Moving targets a) b) Concentrate on the location of the most prominent target. Note point of disappearance of target.

b. 9.

Select correct fire procedures according to the position of the target and terrain features.

Assume field firing positions. a. (See TASK: ASSUME FIELD FIRING POSITIONS (1-15) .)

10. Fire the M16A3 service rifle while wearing the field protective mask. a. Don, clear, and check your mask (See TASK: DON THE MCU-2A/P PROTECTIVE MASK (1-34).) Hold your head high against the side of the top of the stock. NOTES: This movement ensures that your eyes are well above the rifle and assists you in obtaining the correct horizontal alignment on the target. Placing your chin on either side of the stock will cause the muzzle of the rifle to pull to the right or left. Keep both eyes open at all times for better vision and depth perception. c. With your eyes above the rifle, move your hand slightly forward just before aligning the rifle on the target, forcing the rifle muzzle to drop. NOTE: You may find it difficult to align the sights of your rifle while wearing the mask. The thickness of the lens and the bulk of the filter make it hard to obtain a good stock weld. To overcome this difficulty, place the butt of the stock slightly down and outward in your shoulder.

b.

Avoid extreme firing positions in an attempt to obtain normal sight posture. Such a firing position could result in breaking the mask's seal. 11. Fire the M16A3 service rifle at night. a. Adjust the rear sight aperture (Figure 4).

CAUTION:

1-42

Figure 4 1) 2) Flip the rear sight aperture to expose the larger aperture marked "0-2." Rotate the rear sight elevation knob down until the 3 is aligned with the mark on the receiver. You will automatically get a zero of 200 meters. Use the 0-2 aperture when shooting at night (e.g., in a city or in a dense jungle).

b.

Assume a good firing position. NOTE: The same principles descibed in this task can be applied in any firing position (i.e., sitting, kneeling, standing, or prone).

c.

Hold your head well above the stock of the weapon and maintain observation using both eyes. NOTE: Your head must be well above the rifle to observe your target and the path of your tracer, and to get proper line of sight and fire alignment.

d. e.

When the target is illuminated, quickly acquire it in your sights. Shift your entire body to align on target with the best natural point of aim possible. NOTE: You may want to place your chin on or near the top of the rifle stock to facilitate a stock weld that aligns the center line of sight with the center line of the rifle.

f. g. h. i. j.

Depress the muzzle of your rifle and fire one tracer round of ammunition. Lock your body and "FREEZE." Observe the path of the tracer to impact. Adjust your entire body position to compensate for any errors. Fire additional rounds of ammunition while holding your corrected point of aim.

1-43

NOTE:

Avoid the natural tendency to elevate the muzzle until the front sight aligns with the target. This common error results in high misses.

12. Perform immediate action. (See: WEAPONS HANDLING, SHOULDER FIRED WEAPONS (1-1).) 13. Perform remedial action. (See: WEAPONS HANDLING, SHOULDER FIRED WEAPONS (1-1).) 14. "UNLOAD, SHOW CLEAR". (See: WEAPONS HANDLING, SHOULDER FIRED WEAPONS (1-1).)

REFERENCES: FMFM 0-8, Basic Marksmanship Weapons Drill Guide Battle Drill Guide FMFM 6-5, Marine Rifle Squad FMFM 6-8, Supporting Arms Observer, Spotter, and Controller FM 21-75, Combat Skills of the Soldier MCO 3574.2G, Marksmanship Training with Individual Small Arms TO 14P4-15-1, Operation and Maintenance Instructions with Illustrated Parts Breakdown, Chemical Biological Mask Type, MCU-2A/P TM 05538C-10/1A Rifle 5.56mm M16A2 W/E

1-44

ATTACHMENT (A-1) FUNDAMENTALS OF MARKSMANSHIP (1-6) 1. Aiming a. Sight Alignment The fundamental element of sight alignment is the relationship between the front and rear sight and the aiming eye. This relationship is critical to the aiming process and must remain consistent from shot to shot. There are three factors involved in obtaining and maintaining sight alignment: stock weld, eye relief, and the relationship between the front and rear sight. b. Sight Picture Sight picture is the placement of the tip of the front sight post in relation to the target while maintaining sight alignment. The tip of the front sight post is placed at the center of the target. Stock weld is the exact placement of the cheek against the stock of the rifle. The head should be as erect as possible so Seabees look straight out the aiming eye and straight through the rear sight aperture.

c.

Stock Weld

1) Eye Relief Eye relief is the distance between the rear sight aperture and the aiming eye. Eye relief varies from one position to another and is controlled by stock weld. Normal eye relief is 2-6 inches from the rear sight aperture. 2) Relationship between the Front and Rear Sights The most natural relationship between the front and rear sights is to center the tip of the front sight in the rear sight aperture. This is accomplished by looking through the rear sight aperture and focusing on the tip of the front sight. The rear sight aperture appears blurry. 2. Breathing a. Breath Control Proper breath control is critical to the aiming process. Breathing causes the body to move. This movement transfers to the rifle, making it impossible to maintain proper sight picture. It is critical that Seabees interrupt their breathing at a point of natural respiratory pause before firing a shot. A respiratory cycle lasts 4 to 5 seconds. Inhaling and exhaling require about 2 seconds each. Between each respiratory cycle there is a natural pause of 2 to 3 seconds. The pause can be extended up to 15 seconds. During the pause, breathing muscles are relaxed and the sights settle at their natural point of aim. Seabees must fire the shot during the respiratory pause. 3. Trigger Control NOTE: Trigger control is the skillful manipulation of the trigger that causes the rifle to fire without disturbing sight alignment or sight picture. Controlling the trigger is a mental process, while pulling the trigger is a mechanical process. The two techniques of trigger control are uninterrupted and interrupted.

a.

Uninterrupted Trigger Control

1-45

Using the uninterrupted trigger control technique, the trigger is pulled to the rear in a single, smooth motion. It is critical that the initial amount of trigger pressure is applied rapidly (normally one half the amount of the total trigger weight). Without disturbing sight alignment, apply the remaining pressure at a slower rate until the shot is fired. b. Interrupted Trigger Control Using the interrupted trigger control technique, the application of trigger pressure is interrupted for a short time. This occurs if the sight picture cannot be maintained for the time required to fire the shot using uninterrupted trigger control. If an error in aiming is detected, the applied pressure is maintained while the rifle returns to the aiming point. The application of trigger pressure is resumed until the shot is fired. 4. Positions a. Prone Positions There are two types of prone positions: straight-leg and cocked-leg. Both positions are steady, easy to assume, and present a low silhouette. These positions provide maximum body contact with the ground and maximum stability for firing. After assuming the prone position, Seabees place as much body weight as possible behind the weapon. The angle of the body should not exceed 10 to 20 degrees to the right or left of the line of fire. If this position is used correctly, the weapon's recoil is absorbed by the whole body and not just the shoulder. 1) Perform the following steps to assume the straight-leg prone position (Figure 1F).

Figure 1 a) Stand erect (Figure 1A). b) Face the target at an angle of not more than 20 degrees to the right of the line of fire. 1-46

c) Place your left hand under handguard. d) Spread feet approximately shoulder width apart. e) Lower into position by dropping to both knees (Figure 1B). f) Position upper body on ground using your right arm to break fall (Figure 1C) while fully extending and inverting left elbow (Figure 1D).

g) Rotate your elbow into a position directly underneath the rifle. NOTE: The key to the prone position is the full extension and bending of the arm at the elbow directly underneath the rifle. h) Grasp rifle butt with your right hand and place into the right shoulder pocket (Figure 1E). i) j) Grasp pistol grip with your right hand. Rotate your body to the right and lower your right elbow to ground.

k) Place cheek firmly against stock to obtain a firm stock weld. l) Point feet outboard.

m) Move your left hand to a location under the handguard, which provides maximum bone support and stability for the weapon. 2) Perform the following steps to assume the cocked-leg prone position (Figure 2F).

Figure 2 a) Stand erect (Figure 2A). b) Face the target at a 10 to 20 degree angle to the right of the line of fire. 1-47

c) Place your left under the handguard. d) Spread feet approximately shoulder width apart. e) Lower into position by dropping to both knees (Figure 2B). f) Position upper body on ground using your right arm to break the fall (Figure 2C) while fully extending and inverting left elbow (Figure 2D).

g) Rotate your elbow into a position directly underneath the rifle. NOTE: The key to the prone position is the full extension and bending of the arm at the elbow directly underneath the rifle. h) Draw your right knee up not to exceed 45 degrees. i) j) Grasp rifle butt with your right hand and place into your right shoulder pocket (Figure 2E). Grasp pistol grip with your right hand.

k) Rotate your body to the right and lower your elbow to the ground. l) Place cheek firmly against stock to obtain a firm stock weld.

m) Point your right foot outboard and the left inboard. n) Move your hand to a location under the hand guard, which provides maximum bone support and stability for the weapon. b. Sitting Positions There are three types of sitting positions: crossed-ankle, crossed-leg, and open-leg. All positions are easy to assume, present a medium silhouette, provide some body contact with the ground, and form a stable firing position. These positions allow easy access to the sights for zeroing. After assuming the sitting position, be sure as much of the body weight as possible is behind the weapon. 1) The crossed-ankle sitting position provides a broad base of support and places most of the body's weight behind the weapon to allow quick shot recovery. Perform the following steps to assume the crossed-ankle position (Figure 3F).

1-48

Figure 3 a) Stand erect (Figure 3A). b) Face the target at a 10 to 30 degree angle to the right of the line of fire. c) Place left hand under handguard. d) Bend at knees and break fall with right hand (Figure 3B). e) Push backward with feet to extend legs and place buttocks to ground (Figure 3C). f) Cross left ankle over right ankle.

g) Bend forward at waist. h) Place left elbow on left leg below knee (Figure 3E). i) j) Grasp rifle butt with right hand and place into right shoulder pocket. Grasp pistol grip with right hand.

k) Lower right elbow to inside of right knee. l) Place cheek firmly against stock to obtain a firm stock weld.

m) Move left hand to a location under the handguard, which provides maximum bone support and stability for the weapon.

2) The crossed-leg sitting position provides a medium base of support and places some of the 1-49

body's weight behind the weapon for quick shot recovery. Seabees may experience a strong pulse beat in this position due to restricted blood flow in the legs and abdomen. An increased pulse causes a vertical bouncing movement of the front sight. Unless a very consistent rhythm of shooting is established, shots may be strung high and low over the aiming point. Perform the following steps to assume the crossed-leg position (Figure 4G).

Figure 4 a) Stand erect (Figure 4A). b) Face the target at a 45 to 60 degree angle to the right of the line of fire. c) Place left hand under handguard. d) Cross left leg over right leg (Figure 4B). e) Bend at knees while breaking fall with right hand (Figure 4C). f) Place buttocks on ground close to crossed legs (Figure 4D). NOTE: Ensure that the lower portions of your legs are supported by your feet. g) Bend forward at waist. h) Place left elbow on left leg at the bend of the knee (Figure 4E). i) Grasp rifle butt with right hand and place into right shoulder pocket (Figure 4F).

j) Grasp pistol grip with right hand. k) Lower right elbow to inside of right knee. l) Place cheek firmly against stock to obtain a firm stock weld. 1-50

m) Move left hand to a location under the handguard, which provides maximum bone support and stability for the weapon. 3) The open-leg sitting position provides a medium base of support, places very little of the body's weight behind the weapon, and provides minimal bone support. Perform the following steps to assume the open-leg position (Figure 5F).

Figure 5 a) Stand erect (Figure 5A). b) Face the target at a 30 to 40 degree angle to the right of the line of fire. c) Place feet approximately shoulder width apart. d) Place left hand under handguard. e) Bend at the knees while breaking fall with right hand (Figure 5B). Push backward with feet to extend legs and place buttocks on ground (Figure 5C). f) Place left elbow on left leg below knee.

g) Grasp rifle butt with right hand and place into right shoulder pocket.

h) Grasp pistol grip with right hand. i) Lower right elbow to inside of right knee (Figure 5E). 1-51

j)

Place cheek firmly against stock to obtain a firm stock weld.

k) Move left hand to a location under the handguard, which provides maximum bone support and stability for the weapon. c. Kneeling Positions. There are three types of kneeling positions: high-kneeling, medium-kneeling, low-kneeling. All positions are easy to assume, present a medium silhouette, provide limited body contact with the ground, and form a stable firing position. Kneeling positions provide maximum mobility for quick reaction. After assuming the kneeling position, place as much of your body weight as possible behind the weapon. 1) Perform the following steps to assume the high-kneeling position (Figure 6G).

Figure 6 a) Stand erect (Figure 6A). b) Face approximately 45 degrees to the right of the line of fire. c) Place left hand under handguard. d) Step forward with left foot toward target (Figure 6B). Feet should be approximately shoulder width apart. e) Bend at knees. 1-52

f)

Place right knee on ground.

g) Curl toes of right foot under (Figure 6C). h) Place right side of buttocks on heel of right foot (Figure 6D). i) j) Bend forward at waist. Place back of left arm on left knee (Figure 6E).

k) Lean slightly forward into sling for support. l) Grasp rifle butt with right hand and place into right shoulder pocket.

m) Grasp pistol grip with right hand. n) Lower right elbow to a natural position (Figure 6F). o) Place cheek firmly against stock to obtain a firm stock weld. p) Move left hand to a location under the handguard, which provides maximum bone support and stability for the weapon.

2) Perform the following steps to assume the medium-kneeling position (Figure 7F).

1-53

Figure 7 a) Stand erect (Figure 7A). b) Face approximately 45 degrees to the right of the line of fire. c) Place left hand under handguard. d) Step forward with left foot toward target (Figure 7B). Feet should be approximately shoulder width apart. e) Bend at knees. f) Place right knee on ground.

g) Place top of right foot flat on ground (Figure 7C). h) Place right side of buttocks on heel of right foot (Figure 7D). i) j) Bend forward at waist. Place back of left arm on left knee (Figure 7E).

k) Lean slightly forward into sling for support. l) Grasp rifle butt with right hand and place into right shoulder pocket.

m) Grasp pistol grip with right hand. n) Lower right elbow to a natural position. 1-54

o) Place cheek firmly against stock to obtain a firm stock weld. p) Move left hand to a location under the handguard which provides maximum bone support and stability for the weapon. 3) Perform the following steps to assume the low-kneeling position (Figure 8D)

Figure 8 a) Stand erect (Figure 8A). b) Face approximately 45 degrees to the right of the line of fire. c) Place left hand under handguard. d) Step forward with left foot toward target (Figure 8B). Feet should be approximately shoulder width apart. e) Bend at knees. f) Place right knee on ground.

g) Place outside of right foot flat on ground (Figure 8C).

h) Place right side of buttocks on inside of right foot (Figure 8D). i) Bend forward at waist. 1-55

j)

Place back of left arm on left knee (Figure 8E).

k) Lean slightly forward into sling for support. l) Grasp rifle butt with right hand and place into right shoulder pocket.

m) Grasp pistol grip with right hand. n) Lower right elbow to a natural position. o) Place cheek firmly against stock to obtain a firm stock weld. p) Move left hand to a location under the handguard, which provides maximum bone support and stability for the weapon. d. Standing Position (Figure 9D) By establishing a solid foundation and controlling the balance of the weapon, the standing position can be extremely effective. Standing is the least steady of the four basic firing positions. However, movement can be reduced to allow Seabees to maintain an acceptable aiming area. The entire position is supported by the Seabees' legs and feet and provides a very small area of contact with the ground. In addition, the body's center of gravity is high above the ground. Therefore, maintaining balance is critical. The rifle should be held, or supported, as naturally as possible. Avoid holding the weapon by the magazine since this raises the weapon's balance point high above the supporting hand and reduces stability. Perform the following steps to assume the standing position.

Figure 9 1) Stand erect (Figure 9A). 2) Face approximately 90 degrees to the right of the line of fire. 3) Place feet approximately shoulder width apart. 1-56

4) Place left hand under handguard. 5) Grasp pistol grip with right hand. 6) Place rifle butt into right shoulder pocket (Figure 9B). 7) Invert left elbow across rib cage (Figure 9C). 8) Rest left arm naturally against rib cage. 9) Lower right elbow to a natural position. 10) Place cheek firmly against stock to obtain a firm stock weld. NOTE: The use of sling can enhance stability and greatly increase accuracy. 5. Physical and Psychological Effects of Weather on Seabees a. Wind Seabees can learn to be extremely effective while shooting in windy conditions if they apply a few basic techniques and develop the proper mental attitude. Interrupted trigger control is an effective technique used to reduce the wind's effects. Subtle changes to the basic shooting positions can reduce movement of the rifle due to wind. b. Temperature In extreme heat, Seabees may experience rapid fatigue. This can cause blurred vision and reduce concentration levels. Being in good physical condition can offset these effects. Heat waves (mirages) can distort the shape of the target or the appearance of the front sight post. Blackening the sights reduces this effect. In extreme cold, Seabees shiver and feel uncomfortable while holding a frigid rifle. Trigger control is difficult to execute properly with numb fingers. Proper dress in cold climate is critical. c. Precipitation It is easy to lose concentration when wet and uncomfortable. Proper dress reduces the effects of precipitation. If precipitation is heavy, sight picture is difficult to achieve. Seabees who wear glasses can experience difficulty aiming due to water droplets collecting on the lenses. NOTE: Personnel who wear glasses carry "rain free" spray, or similar products with them to shield water from the lenses in precipitation, etc.

d.

Light Light conditions can change the appearance of a target. Light affects each Seabee differently. Light can affect range estimation, visual acuity, or the placement of the tip of the front sight on the target. Through proper training, Seabees can learn to offset changes in light conditions. By maintaining a center of mass hold during zeroing, you can reduce the effects of light. 1) Bright light conditions exist under a clear blue sky with no fog or haze present to filter the sunlight. Bright light can make a target appear smaller and farther away. As a result, it is easy 1-57

to overestimate range. Take care when estimating range during bright light. Loss of visual acuity can cause surroundings to bleed into the actual target, making it seem indistinct. By maintaining a center of mass hold, regardless of how indistinct the target appears; you can ensure the best chances for an effective shot. Reflection of light off the sights makes it difficult to establish sight picture. By blackening the sights, you can reduce the reflection of light. 2) Overcast conditions exist when a solid layer of clouds obstructs the sun. The amount of available light changes as the overcast thickens. Overcast conditions can make a target appear larger and closer. As a result, it is easy to underestimate range. Take care when estimating range during overcast conditions. During a light overcast, the target appears very distinct. As the overcast thickens, it becomes difficult to identify the target from the surroundings. By maintaining a center of mass hold, you can reduce the effects of an overcast condition on a weapon's true zero. Normally, rifle sights appear very distinct during overcast condition, making it easy to establish sight picture. It is critical that you blacken sights to contrast with the target and the surroundings. 3) Haze and hazy conditions exist when fog, dust, humidity, or smoke is present. Hazy conditions can make a target appear indistinct, making it difficult to establish sight picture. In high temperatures, ground mirage can cause a target to appear indistinct and to drift from side to side. Mirage created by the heat of the barrel can cause difficulty in seeing the sights clearly. By maintaining a center of mass hold, regardless of how indistinct the target appears, you ensure the best chances for an effective shot.

REFERENCE: FMFM 0-8, Basic Marksmanship

1-58

TASK: CONDITIONS:

MAINTAIN THE M9 SERVICE PISTOL (1-7) PROVIDED AN M9 SERVICE PIST0L MAGAZINES, AND SMALL ARMS MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT CASE. THE SEABEE MUST MAINTAIN THE M9 SERVICE PISTOL AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided an M9 service pistol, a bore brush, cleaner, lubricant and preservative (CLP), and clean rags.

Standard:The Seabee must safely handle the weapon at all times. The Seabee must disassemble, inspect, and clean the weapon, ensuring that it is free of dirt, oil, and carbon. The Seabee must also lubricate, reassemble, and perform preventive maintenance and apply function checks. Administrative Note See: WEAPONS HANDLING, HANDGUNS (1-2)

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1 Handle the weapon safely at all times. a. Apply the following safety rules at all times: 1) 2) 3) 4) b. Treat every weapon as if it were loaded. Never point a weapon at anything you do not intend to shoot. Keep finger off trigger until ready to fire. Keep weapon on SAFE until you intend to fire.

Weapons Condition: A weapon readiness/safety status is described by one of four conditions. s The conditions are listed below.

CONDITION CODES 1-59

Condition 1

Magazine inserted, round in chamber, slide forward, hammer down and decocking/safety lever on. Not applicable to the M9. Magazine inserted, chamber empty, slide forward, and decocking/safety lever on. Magazine removed, chamber empty, slide forward, and decocking/safety lever on.

Condition 2 Condition 3

Condition 4

c.

Parts of a weapon (Figure 1)

Figure 1 2. Disassemble the weapon. a. b. c. Place the weapon in CONDITION 4. Hold the pistol in the right hand with the muzzle slightly elevated. Press the disassembly lever release button with the forefinger (Figure 2).

d.

Rotate the disassembly lever downward until it stops, then pull the slide and barrel assembly forward and remove with the thumb (Figure 3).

1-60

Figure 2 WARNING:

Figure 3 Use care when removing the recoil spring and spring guide. Due to the amount of compression, the assembly will be released under spring tension and could cause possible injury to personnel, or may become damaged or lost.

e.

Slightly compress the recoil spring and spring guide, while at the same time lifting and removing the recoil spring and spring guide. Allow the recoil spring to stretch slowly (Figure 4). Separate the recoil spring from the spring guide (Figure 5).

f.

Figure 4

Figure 5 g. Push in on locking block plunger while pushing the barrel slightly forward. Lift and remove locking block and barrel assembly from the slide (Figure 6).

Figure 6 1-61

NOTE: h.

Further disassembly (beyond the above) is not allowed.

Disassemble the magazine. 1) Grasp the magazine firmly with the floorplate up and the back of the magazine tube against the palm of your hand. Remove the floorplate by pushing down on the floorplate retainer stud in the center of the floorplate. At the same time, slide the floorplate forward for a short distance using the thumb (Figure 7).

2)

Figure 7 3) While maintaining the magazine spring pressure with the thumb, remove the floorplate from the magazine.

4) Remove the floorplate retainer and magazine spring and follower from the magazine tube. Remove the floorplate retainer from the magazine spring (Figure 8).

1-62

Figure 8 3. Perform preventive maintenance checks on the M9 pistol. a. Inspect the slide assembly. 1) 2) b. Check for free movement of the decocking/safety lever and firing pin block. Check for rear sight looseness.

Inspect the barrel assembly. 1) 2) 3) Inspect the bore and chamber for pitting or obstructions. Check the locking block plunger for free movement of the locking blocks. Inspect the locking lugs and barrel lugs for cracks and burrs.

c.

Inspect the recoil spring and recoil spring guide. 1) 2) 3) Check the recoil spring for damage and straightness. Check the recoil spring guide for straightness and smoothness. Check to ensure that the recoil spring guide is free of cracks and burrs.

d.

Inspect the receiver assembly. 1) 2) 3) Check for bends, chips, and cracks. Check for the movement of the slide stop and magazine catch assembly. Check the guide rails for excessive wear, burrs, cracks, or chips.

e.

Inspect the magazine assembly. 1-63

1) 2)

Check spring and follower for damage. Ensure that the lips of the magazine are not excessively bent and are free of cracks and burrs. Check the magazine to ensure that it is not bent or dirty.

3) 4.

Clean and lubricate the M9 pistol. a. Clean the slide assembly. 1) 2) 3) Clean the slide assembly with a cloth. Use a soft brush and a CLP to assist in the removal of excess dirt and carbon buildup. Ensure that the decocking/safety lever, breech face, slide guides and extractor are free of excess dirt and residue (Figure 9).

Figure 9 4) b. Wipe dry with a cloth and apply a light coat of CLP.

Clean the barrel assembly. 1) Insert the bore brush into the chamber end of the barrel; ensure that it completely clears the muzzle before pulling it back through the bore. Repeat several times to loosen carbon deposits.

1-64

2) 3) 4)

Dry the barrel by pushing a swab through until a clean swab can be observed. Clean the locking block with a soft brush. Apply a light coat of CLP to the barrel and chamber area. Lubricate the exterior surfaces of the barrel and locking lugs.

c.

Clean the recoil spring and the recoil spring guide. 1) 2) Clean the recoil spring and the recoil spring guide using CLP and a soft brush or cloth. Apply a light coat of CLP to the recoil spring and the recoil spring guide.

d.

Clean the receiver assembly. CAUTION: Do not allow the hammer to fall with a full force by pulling the trigger when the slide is removed because damage to the receiver will occur. If necessary, the hammer may be lowered manually.

1) 2)

Wipe the receiver assembly clean with a cloth. Use a soft brush for hard to clean areas. Pay special attention to the disassembly lever, trigger, slide stop, hammer, and magazine release button. Apply a light coat of CLP after cleaning.

3) e.

Clean the magazine assembly. 1) 2) 3) Wipe the magazine tube and follower with a clean cloth and CLP. Wipe the magazine spring, floorplate retainer, and floorplate with a clean cloth. Apply a light coat of CLP after cleaning.

5.

Reassemble the M9 service pistol. a. Grasp the slide with the bottom facing up. Grasp the barrel assembly with the locking block facing up (Figure 10). Insert the muzzle of the barrel assembly into the forward open end of the slide. At the same time, lower the rear of the barrel assembly by aligning the extractor cutout with the extractor. The locking block will fall into the slide. Insert the recoil spring guide into the recoil spring. Insert the end of the recoil spring guide into the slide recoil spring housing. At the same time, compress the recoil spring and lower the spring guide until it fully seats onto the locking block cutaway (Figure 11).

b.

c. d.

1-65

Figure 10 CAUTIONS:

Figure 11 Ensure the hammer is uncocked and the firing pin block lever is in the down position. If the hammer is cocked, carefully and manually lower the hammer. Do not pull the trigger while placing the slide unto the receiver. Before assembly, ensure that the decocking/safety lever is in the SAFE (down ) position.

e.

Grasp the slide and the barrel assembly, sights up, and align the slide onto the receiver assembly and hold. At the same time, rotate the disassembly latch lever upward. A click indicates a positive lock. (Figure 12).

Figure 12 f. Reassemble the magazine. 1) Insert the follower into the top coil of the magazine spring (Figure 13). The top coil has an upward and forward pointing end. Ensure that the notches on the follower and the magazine tube are on the same side. Insert the magazine spring with the follower into the magazine tube (Figure 13) Turn the magazine bottom up with the backside against the palm of the hand (Figure 13). Attach and center the floorplate retainer onto the bottom spring coil (Figure 13).

2) 3) 4)

1-66

Figure 13 CAUTION: After insertion, spring tension must be maintained using the thumb. Do not place the lips of the magazine tube on a hard surface during reassembly.

5)

Push and hold the magazine spring and floorplate retainer down. At the same time, slide the floorplate over the sidewalls until it fully seats. This will be indicated by a click.

6.

Perform a safety and function check on the M9 service pistol. WARNING: Before performing the following safety/function check, clear the pistol and magazine to ensure that the weapon is not loaded.

a.

Depress the slide stop. Insert an empty magazine into the pistol, and ensure that the magazine catch locks the magazine in place. Retract the slide and release it. The magazine follower should push up on the slide stop, locking it to the rear. Depress the magazine release button allowing the magazine to fall free. Ensure that the decocking/safety lever is in the SAFE (down) position. Depress the slide stop allowing the slide to return fully forward. At the same time, the hammer should fall to the full forward position. Squeeze and release the trigger. The firing pin block should move up and down. The hammer should not move. Place the decocking/safety lever in the fire (up) position. Squeeze the trigger to check the double action. Hammer should cock and fall. Squeeze the trigger again and hold to the rear. Manually retrack and release the slide while holding the trigger to the rear. Release the trigger; a click should be heard and the hammer should not fall. Squeeze the trigger to check the single action. The hammer should fall.

b.

c. d.

e.

f. g. h.

i.

NOTE:

If the above safety/function checks perform as indicated, the pistol is mission 1-67

ready. If the checks do not perform as indicated, return weapon to unit armorer.

REFERENCES: FMFM 0-8, Basic Marksmanship TM 1005A-10/1, Pistol Semiautomatic, 9mm M9

1-68

TASK: CONDITIONS:

ENGAGE TARGETS WITH THE M9 SERVICE PISTOL (1-8) PROVIDED A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT, AND A M9 SERVICE PISTOL WITH TWO MAGAZINES, AND ALL INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT (782 GEAR). THE SEABEE MUST EFFECTIVELY ENGAGE TARGETS WITH HE M9 SERVICE PISTOL AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided an M9 service pistol, two magazines, ammunition, and all individual combat equipment.

Standard:The Seabee must handle the weapon safely at all times, select the correct ammunition, apply the fundamentals of marksmanship, load, fire, and effectively hit targets. The Seabee must also perform immediate action to clear a stoppage and unload, ensuring the weapon is safe after firing. Administrative Notes: The marksmanship training program includes preliminary training, and known and unknown distance firing. Marksmanship training also includes the field firing techniques of offense, defense, fire and movement, varied circumstances, and firing within a CBR environment. See: TASK: MAINTAIN THE M9 SERVICE PISTOL (1-7)

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Handle the weapon safely at all times. The following safety rules apply at all times: 1) 2) 3) 4) 2. Treat every weapon as if it were loaded. Never point a weapon at anything you do not intend to shoot. Keep finger straight and off trigger until ready to fire. Keep the weapon on SAFE until you intend to fire.

Ensure that the weapon is properly assembled and functioning properly for firing. (See TASK: MAINTAIN THE M9 SERVICE PISTOL (1-7) .) Load the magazines. a. Hold the magazine in one hand. Place a cartridge on the follower in front of the lips with the other hand. Press down and slide the cartridge completely back under the lips (Figure 1).

3.

1-69

Figure 1 b.

Figure 2

Repeat the steps above until the magazine are fully loaded (15 cartridge). NOTE: There are holes on the backside of the magazine to allow for visual counting of cartridges (Figure 1).

4.

Load the weapon. WARNING: The M9 pistol incorporates single and double action modes of fire. Anytime the trigger is pulled with the decocking/safety lever in the fire (up) position and a round is in the chamber, the pistol will fire from the hammer down, half cock or full cock positions.

NOTE:

The decocking/safety lever must be placed in the down position, which indicates the pistol is in a safe condition before loading (CONDITION 4).

a.

Insert the loaded magazine into the magazine well of the pistol until a click of the magazine catch is heard. This will ensure proper catch engagement (Figure 2). With the pistol pointing in a safe direction, grasp the serrated portion of the slide and retract the slide to the rear. Releasing the slide will strip a cartridge from the magazine and chamber it. WARNING: The pistol is now in CONDITION 1. Place the pistol in the holster. NOTES: For double action firing, the hammer must be in the forward or half-cocked position. Squeezing the trigger will cock and release the hammer, firing the pistol. After the first shot, the pistol will continually fire in the single action mode. When the hammer is in the down position, the single action-firing mode can be accomplished by manually cocking the hammer with the thumb. When the last round in the magazine has been fired, the slide will remain to the rear.

b.

5.

Engage targets with the M9 service pistol. a. Grip the pistol properly. NOTES: The proper grip provides maximum control of the pistol and a foundation for the movement of the trigger finger. The proper grip will also help control sight 1-70

alignment. The pistol will not slip during recoil if the proper grip is obtained. Seabees must establish their grip immediately upon contact with the pistol. 1) 2) 3) 4) Place the web of the shooting hand in firm contact with the backstrap of the pistol. Place the hand high on the pistol grip. Place the palm in firm contact with the side of the pistol frame. Wrap the bottom three fingers of the shooting hand around the front of the pistol and firmly grasp the pistol. Lay the thumb naturally along the side of the pistol and provide enough resistance to ensure a secure grip.

5)

b.

Draw the pistol from the holster. 1) Draw the pistol straight up until the muzzle clears the holster. (The upper arm should be level with the ground). The thumb should make contact with the pistol grip and the trigger finger should be straight along the receiver. Rotate the muzzle towards the target. The non-shooting hand moves across the body and grasps the pistol grip. CAUTION: Care must be taken while placing the non shooting hand on the pistol grip to ensure the hand does not pass in front of the muzzle.

2)

3)

Place the decocking/safety lever in the fire position (removing from a CONDITION 1 to ready to fire) as the arms are extended toward the target. Once the arms are fully extended and the pistol is level with the line-of-sight, the Seabee is in the ready position.

c.

Fire the pistol 1) 2) Aim center-mass of the target. Continue firing until the target has been incapacitated.

d.

Return the pistol to the tactical carry position once the threat has been eliminated. 1) Place the decocking/safety lever in the SAFE position. This will place the pistol in CONDITION 1. Lower your arms until the pistol is at a 45-degree angle to the body. Holster the pistol. NOTES: Holstering does not have to be a precise movement. However, safety is a critical factor. Two hands on the weapon ensure positive control. Ensure the decocking/safety lever is in the SAFE position. Bring the pistol back to a position directly above the holster while keeping the muzzle pointed in a safe direction. 1-71

2) 3)

a) b)

c) d) e) f) 6.

Use your non-shooting hand to lift the flap of the holster. Rotate the muzzle of the pistol down. Align the muzzle with the holster. Push the pistol snugly into the holster and fasten the flap.

Perform immediate action to clear a stoppage in the service pistol. NOTE: Immediate action is the prompt action taken by the Seabee to correct a stoppage. The procedure for applying immediate action should become instinctive to the Seabee without the Seabee attempting to discover the cause. It is important that the user apply immediate action instinctively to correct a stoppage. Weapon needs to be on SAFE when performing immediate/remedial action. During the firing sequence, if the weapon does not function, initiate immediate action procedure. If a spent case is ejected, immediately place the weapon on SAFE and inspect for a bullet in the bore. TAP Tap the bottom of the magazine to ensure that it is fully seated in the magazine well. Pull the slide fully to the rear and release. Sight and fire.

Warning:

RACK BANG a.

Perform remedial action when the slide is fully forward and the pistol fails to fire. Note: Remedial action is the continued effort to make a weapon operational when immediate action fails.

1) 2) 3)

Squeeze the trigger. Replace the ammunition if the pistol still fails to fire. Perform a detail inspection to determine the stoppage or malfunction if the pistol still fails to fire.

b.

Perform remedial action when the slide is not fully seated forward. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Remove your finger from the trigger. Place the decocking/safety lever in the SAFE (down) position. With the other hand, attempt to push the slide fully forward If the slide will not move forward, remove the magazine. Grasp the slide and retract it to the rear, locking it back with the slide stop. Inspect the chamber and bore and remove any obstructions. Insert another loaded magazine into the pistol. 1-72

8) 9)

Release the slide, allowing it to go fully forward. Place the decocking/safety lever in the FIRE (up) position, aim and attempt to fire.

10) Perform a detailed inspection to determine the stoppage or malfunction if the pistol still fails to fire. c. 7. Evacuate the weapon to your unit armorer if the cause for stoppage cannot be determined.

Unload the M9 service pistol. a. b. c. Place the decocking/safety lever in the SAFE (down) position. Depress the magazine release button and remove the magazine. With the pistol pointed in the safe direction, grasp the slide serration and fully retract the slide to remove the chambered cartridge. Lock the slide to the rear using the slide stop and visually inspect the chamber to ensure that it is empty. Release the slide stop allowing the slide to move forward. Rotate the decocking/safety lever to the SAFE (up) position. The pistol is now in CONDITION 4.

d.

e. f. 8.

Unload the magazine. a. With one hand, hold the magazine upright with the front end forward. With the thumb firmly pressed down on the cartridge rim, push forward. As the cartridge moves forward, tip it upward and out with the index finger. Repeat the above step until the magazine is empty.

b.

REFERENCES: FMFM 0-8, Basic Marksmanship TM 1005A-10/1, Pistol, Automatic, 9mm M9

1-73

TASK: CONDITIONS:

PARTICIPATE IN A SECURITY PATROL (1-9) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), A WARNING ORDER, A PATROL ORDER, INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT (782 GEAR), EQUIPMENT UNIQUE TO THE PATROL (PYROTECHNICS, FLASHLIGHTS, LUMINOUS TAPE, MAP AND COMPASS, RADIO, WHISTLES, ORGANIC WEAPONS WITH AMMUNITION, GRENADES, ETC.). THE SEABEE MUST PERFORM ASSIGNED DUTIES TO CONTRIBUTE TO ACCOMPLISHING THE MISSION OF THE SECURITY PATROL AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical scenario in any combat environment (day and night), a warning order, a patrol order, individual combat equipment, and organic weapon with ammunition. The Seabee must perform assigned duties to contribute to accomplishing the mission of a security patrol. The Seabee must follow instructions prescribed in the warning order to assist in patrol preparation. The Seabee must follow the guidance dictated in the patrol order during conduct of the security patrol, and the Seabee must contribute to the patrol debrief.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Prepare for the patrol. a. Receive the warning order, which should include the following: 1) The friendly and enemy situation (SALUTE, DRAW-D, HAS) (See Figure 1) 2) The patrol mission 3) General patrol organization and assignment of responsibilities 4) Task assignments to subordinate leaders 5) Time schedule and locations for patrol preparation 6) Individual uniform, equipment, weapons, and prescribed load of rations, water, and ammunition 7) Assignment of crew-served weapons (if required) and any special equipment or pyrotechnics b. Prepare assigned weapons, ammunition, rations, water, uniform, and equipment. c. Assist with the preparation of other patrol equipment or materials, as directed.

1-74

Figure 1 1-75

d. Follow the time schedule (Reverse Planning) e. Receive the patrol order (SMEAC) (Figure 1), listen carefully, and take notes as needed. In particular, note: 1) Your fire team responsibilities within the patrol during movement and at halts. 2) Your individual responsibilities within the fire team. 3) Primary and alternate routes. 4) Location of rallying points and actions at rally points. 5) The fire support plan and any on-call targets. 6) The communications plan, to include call signs, frequencies, hand and arm signals (Use the standard hand and arm signals on page 2-52 through 2-54), a code words, and the challenge and password for each day (primary and alternate). f. Ask questions as needed. g. Perform patrol inspections, as appropriate. Check the troops for completeness and correctness of uniform and completeness and operational condition of equipment and weapons. h. Perform patrol rehearsals, as appropriate. Patrol leader rehearses the patrol through the following: 1) Actions at the objective, at danger areas and on enemy contact. 2) Moving into FPP and objective rallying point. 3) Departure and reentry. 4) Communications and visual signals. 5) Movement of patrol. 2. Conduct security patrol. a. Follow the patrol leader's guidance as outlined in the patrol order. b. Follow all orders given by superiors. 3. Perform patrol debrief, as appropriate. a. Report should be a complete account of everything of military importance observed or encounter by the patrol. b. Report should include the following information: 1) Size and composition of patrol.

2) Tasks (mission). 3) Time of departure and return. 1-76

4) Routes, out and back (show by sketch, azimuth, trace on map). 5) Terrain (general description to include any manmade or natural obstacles and critical terrain features which, if occupied by either enemy or friendly forces, would allow them to control the surrounding area.) 6) Enemy (size, activity, location, unit, time, equipment). 7) Any map corrections.(show on map). 8) Results of encounters with the enemy. 9) Miscellaneous information (everything not covered elsewhere in report).

REFERENCES: FMFM 6-5, Marine Rifle Squad FMFM 6-7, Scouting and Patrolling for Infantry Units

1-77

TASK: CONDITIONS:

PERFORM AS A MEMBER OF A CONVOY (1-10) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT, A WARNING ORDER, A MOVEMENT ORDER, INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT (782 GEAR) AND LOGISTICS SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS. THE SEABEE MUST PERFORM ASSIGNED DUTIES TO CONTRIBUTE TO ACCOMPLISHING THE MISSION OF THE CONVOY MOVEMENT AS PERTHE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical scenario in any combat environment, a warning order, a movement order, individual combat equipment, and weapon with ammunition. The Seabee must perform assigned duties to contribute to accomplishing the mission of a convoy movement. The Seabee must follow instruction prescribed in the warning order to assist in convoy preparation and follow the guidance dictated in the movement order.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Prepare for the convoy. Receive the warning order and movement order (Convoy Order). Warning order - is issued to alert units that will participate in the planned moved. It states the general purpose of the convoy, the destination, the type of movement, and the approximate schedule. Movement order - is issued by a commander covering the details for a move of his/her command. It includes current situation; mission of the convoy; concept of operations for the movement; administrative and logistic procedures and responsibilities; and command, control, and communications assignments and techniques. 2. Identify the elements of the convoy organization and be familiar with their responsibilities. a. A convoy is a group of vehicles organized for the purpose of control and orderly movement with or without escort protection. Purpose of convoy is to ensure that troops, material, and equipment arrive at the proper place, at the proper time in effective condition to accomplish the mission. Convoy Organization 1) Elements generally include: a) Transport element CESE to move personnel, supplies, and equipment. 1-78

b.

c.

b) Escort and security element c) Various support elements (1) Refueling equipment and personnel (2) Food service support (3) Material handling equipment (4) Medical support d) Command and Control element includes: (1) Vehicles (2) Communication equipment (3) Convoy chain of command 2) All convoys regardless of size are composed of at least three functional parts. a) Head (1) First vehicle(s) in convoy (2) This is where the pacesetter is located. Convoy commander is not usually located in the lead vehicle. b) Main Body Contains vehicles carrying troops, equipment and supplies

c) Trail Last vehicle(s) in convoy.

3) Key personnel in a convoy a) Convoy Commander b) Vehicle Commander - Directs vehicle hardening operation and conducts immediate action drills. c) Pacesetter (1) Placed in the lead vehicle as the head of the convoy. (2) Maintains the rate of march necessary to meet the schedule. (3) The slowest vehicle in the convoy. d) Trail Officer (Senior Enlisted.) The trail officer decides whether to recover, repair, or destroy the equipment that 1-79

impedes the progress of the convoy. e) Trail Maintenance Officer 1) Rides at the rear of the column with maintenance personnel and equipment. 2) In a small convoy, the trail officer and the trail maintenance officer may be the same individual. f) d. Security Team Leader

Convoy Movements 1) Types of Convoys a) Administrative Convoys 1) Contact with the enemy is remote or improbable. 2) Example of administrative convoys are troops movement, general cargo movement, POL movement and ammunition movement. b) Tactical Convoys - The likelihood of enemy contact is the basis for tactical classification. 2) Three basic types of formations are: a) Close column (1) The convoy is formed as compactly as practicable Distances between vehicles are usually less than 80 meters. This allows for maximum command and control. CAUTION: Close interval could lead to an easier target and bottle up convoy in the event of an ambush. Close column should not be utilized in high enemy threat conditions.

(2) Vehicles follow at the closest distance which safety, traffic conditions, and tactical situation permit. (3) Passing through congested areas where maximum control is required. (4) For night convoys under blackout conditions when visual contact must be maintained. b) Open Column (1) Elements of the convoy are widely separated for passive defense and driving safety (Distances range from 80 to 100 meters). (2) Reduce fatigue and dust conditions. (3) Best possible compromise between requirements for maximum route use and tactical dispersion. 1-80

c) Infiltration (1) Used primarily to provide maximum secrecy, deception, and dispersion. (2) Accomplished by dispatching individual or small groups of vehicles over a specified route. (3) Has much less control and drivers must be given extensive briefing concerning routes, speeds, and traffic restrictions. e. Convoy Defense 1) Characteristics of vehicular ambushes: a) Lasts the minimum time necessary to accomplish the mission. b) Occurs in two phases: (1) Short period of heavy fire. (2) Assault of the ambushed vehicles to capture equipment, complete the annihilation of personnel, and destroy vehicles. c) Basic weapons used by the enemy are small arms. d) Mines can be used to: (1) Disable vehicles. (2) Cause personnel casualties. e) Ambushes can happen ANYWHERE (1) Ravines (2) Heavily wooded areas (3) Jungle covered areas (4) Villages (5) Flat terrain which offers a minimum of cover and concealment

2) Preparation of Security Vehicles a) Personnel must have all-around observation and fields of fire and be able to throw or fire grenades without hindrance. b) Be able to debark from the vehicle rapidly with minimum restrictions. c) "Hardening" a vehicle provides the personnel with a degree of protection. (1) Remove canvas, bows, windshields, and doors. 1-81

(2) Tailgate is lowered to a horizontal position. (3) A piece of pipe or metal called a "Garrote Bar" may be affixed to the front of the vehicle in a vertical position extending above the driver's head. (a) It is used to prevent decapitation if wire is stretched across the road. (b) If no Garrote Bar is available, remove windshield and leave windshield FRAME in place. d) Sandbags are placed on the floorboards one layer thick. SAFETY NOTE: Sandbags must not interfere with the safe operation of the vehicle. e) The bed of the vehicle has two layers of sandbags that are staggered. f) On the side of the bed, sandbags are stacked five layers high and interlocked.

g) Sandbag running boards, battery boxes, and fuel tanks. 3) Personnel Organization a) A squad sized unit is the normal unit for a security vehicle. b) Squad leader is vehicle commander - Positioned in the bed of the vehicle to best control the squad and driver reaction to an ambush. c) Assistant driver is seated in the cab with the driver. (1) Prepared to aid the driver in controlling the vehicle. (2) Remains with the vehicle after debarkation to act as close security except during an ambush. (3) Does not accompany maneuvers executed by the occupant squad. d) Corner Sentries (1) Positioned in the four corners of the vehicle bed. (2) Each observes and covers an arc of 90 degrees. Each should be armed with automatic weapons. (3) They fire immediately from their positions should the vehicle be ambushed. (4) Their fires cover the debarkation of the squad should the vehicle be halted in the killing area. (5) They are the FIRST ON the vehicle and the LAST OFF. e) Machinegun Team (1) While with the vehicle, they should be POSITIONED FACING OUT THE REAR OF THE VEHICLE. 1-82

NOTE: If this is a lead vehicle, machine gun should face forward. (2) Must be prepared to exit quickly and provide supporting fire to the others exiting the vehicle. f) f. Remaining squad personnel are positioned in the bed of the vehicle facing outboard.

Immediate Action Upon Enemy Contact 1) Ambush a) An ambush is nearly always an unexpected encounter. b) Immediate action drills are simple courses of action designed to deal with the problem of unexpected encounters. c) When vehicles in the kill zone are fired upon: (1) A driver must pull his/her vehicle far enough forward, or off of the path of travel, to allow other vehicles to clear the kill zone. If a vehicle stops as soon as they are free of the kill zone, they risk "bottle necking" and forcing all vehicles behind them to stop in the kill zone and face decimation. (2) Sentries return fire IMMEDIATELY. (3) Vehicles halt when they clear the kill zone and personnel dismount and take IMMEDIATE action. (a) Near ambush (50 meters or less) - Assault through ambush (b) Far ambush (greater than 50 meters) - By keeping convoy moving, break contact d) Following vehicles approaching the kill zone: (1) Halt short of the zone. (2) Personnel dismount and take IMMEDIATE action against enemy position. (3) If vehicles are ahead and out of the kill zone, personnel dismount and set up security. (4) If a HARDENED vehicle is FORCED to stop in the kill zone: (a) ALL available weapons are used to return fire IMMEDIATELY. (b) Personnel remain in the vehicle. (c) On first slackening of fire, personnel dismount. (d) Personnel deploy as directed by the vehicle commander. (e) Lay down base fire to cover the dismount of the four sentries. (f) If no cover is available after dismounting, an IMMEDIATE frontal assault may be executed. 1-83

(g) If cover is available, take cover and IMMEDIATELY build a suppression of fire and employ a maneuver element against the enemy position. 2) Air attacks a) Air attack is a type of ambush. b) Air threats vary from armed helicopters to high performance aircraft. c) Convoys face greatest danger of air attack while: (1) Moving along open roads. (2) During halts with no overhead cover. d) Procedures used in a ground ambush are also applicable to air attack. e) Two types of defense (active and passive) can be used. f) Active Defense (1) ALL weapons in the convoy fire on the aircraft. (2) The key is to put up large volumes of fire. (3) Tips for small arms air defense (a) Lead aircraft crossing your position. (b) Take cover if possible. (c) Support your weapons if possible. (d) Lie on your back if caught in the open. (e) Disperse g) Passive defense (1) Used when the convoy is without significant firepower. (2) The key is to prevent attacks by hostile aircraft by: (3) Dispersion (4) Lookout procedures (5) Camouflage and concealment (6) Communications security 3) Artillery or Indirect Fire a) May be used to destroy or harass a convoy or interdict the forward movement of supplies and personnel. 1-84

b) Three defense options may be used. (1) Halt in place (2) Continue the convoy (3) Disperse quickly to concealed positions. c) Casualties can be reduced by: (1) Increasing speed. (2) Increasing dispersion. (3) Wearing individual protective equipment. (4) Using the vehicle for protection.

REFERENCES: FMFM 4-9, U.S. Marine Motor Transport FMFM 6-4, U.S. Marine Rifle Company/Platoon Manual

1-85

TASK:

PREPARE INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT FOR TACTICAL OPERATIONS (1-11) GIVEN INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT (782 GEAR) THE SEABEE MUST PREPARE 782 GEAR FOR TACTICAL OPERATIONS AS PER REFERENCES.

CONDITIONS: STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a complete, but disorganized pile of individual combat equipment (782 gear). The Seabee is also provided maintenance equipment, such as soap, water, a stiff bristle brush, and a clean cloth. The Seabee must inspect the 782 gear to determine its serviceability and clean and repair those articles requiring services. The Seabee must adjust the belt to fit the contour of his/her body. The Seabee must place the articles in the proper location.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Receive the standard issued 782 gear. The standard issue of 782 gear are listed below: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Pistol belt Pack combat medium Suspenders Ammo pouch Canteen cover, canteen, and canteen cup First aid packet Entrenching tool and cover Poncho Shelter half with one tent pole, five tent pins and guy line 1 each 1 each 1 each 2 each 1 set 1 each 1 set 1 each 1 set 1 set 1 each 1 each 1 each 1 set 1-86

10) Mess kit with knife, fork, and spoon 11) Bayonet or K-bar** 12) Kevlar helmet 13) Camouflage cover 14) Hat and mosquito net

NOTE:

** These items may or may not be issued.

a. Clean and maintain the 782 gear. 1) Dip the equipment vigorously in a pail of warm, soapy water. 2) Scrub any soiled spots lightly with a brush, or use a white or colorfast cloth. 3) Dry items in the shade or indoors. NOTES: Do not dry items in the sun because direct sunlight will discolor them. Do not dry 782 gear in a mechanical/commercial dryer because this creates excessive wear and may damage the dryer. b. Clean and maintain the canteens and canteen cup. 1) Wash the canteens and canteen cup with warm, soapy water. 2) Rinse thoroughly. 3) Keep the canteen cup clean and dry when not using. c. Inspect, maintain, and clean the flak jacket. NOTES: Flak jacket is an armor vest designed to provide protection against low-weight, high velocity shell, mortar, and grenade fragments. Wear the jacket over your utility shirt but under additional outside layers of clothing if possible. Adjust the side laces to make the armor vest fit the body, leaving enough room for air to circulate, above all, do not fit too tightly. 1) Visually inspect the flak jacket. a) Inspect for bunching caused by lumps or distortion in the ballistic nylon filter. b) Inspect for tears, punctures, or damages to the outer nylon cover. c) Inspect for an increase in weight, which indicates that the nylon filter has become wet. d) Inspect for a damaged or dirty hook-and-pile Velcro fastener. NOTE: Clean the hook-and-pile fastener by washing it with warm, soapy water or by brushing, as necessary. e) Inspect for broken or missing laces.

2) Repair the flak jacket. a) Repair outer cover. (1) Check to see if the inner vinyl plastic envelope has been damaged. 1-87

(2) Cover any damage to the outer layer with waterproof tape to prevent further damage. NOTE: Turn in a damaged jacket as soon as possible. Until it is possible to turn in the jacket, make necessary temporary repairs. b) Remove any bunching in the jacket. (1) Insert your hand through the jacket armholes. (2) Lift and shake the ballistic layers back into position. (3) Smooth the whole area with your hands. 3) Clean the flak jacket. a) Brush off mud and loose dirt. b) Wash the front, back, and the inside of the jacket. c) Air dry the jacket. d. Clean and maintain the helmet. 1) Care for the helmet. a) Do not heat water in it. b) Do not hammer with it. c) Do not dig with it. 2) Clean the suspension, headband, chinstrap, and retention band of the helmet. a) Wash the suspension, headband, chinstrap, and retention band. b) Air dry the items above. 2. 3. Turn in any damaged 782 gear and replace with new one. Assemble the components of the 782 gear after the repairs and maintenance have been accomplished (Figure 1).

1-88

Figure 1 NOTE: a. This procedure is for the fighting load carrier.

Fit and adjust the cartridge belt. 1) Slide the two metal keepers away from the belt buckle and the adjusting clamp. 2) Unlock the adjusting clamp by spreading the looped webbing apart. 3) Slide the adjusting clamp toward the belt buckle to loosen the belt, and then slide it away from the belt buckle to tighten it. 4) Squeeze the adjusting clamp to lock the cartridge belt in place. 5) Slide the metal keepers so that one is next to the belt buckle and the other is next to the adjustable clamp. NOTE: Ensure that each adjusting clamp is about the same distance from the belt buckle. 6) Buckle and place the cartridge belt.

b.

Attach the magazine pouches to the cartridge belt.

NOTE:

Attach one magazine pouch to the left side of the cartridge belt next to the 1-89

belt buckle, and attach the other pouch to the right side of the cartridge belt next to the buckle. 1) Pull each slide keeper attached to the pouches to an open position, and then slide it over one thickness of the webbing. NOTE: Ensure that the slide keepers are vertical and the bottom holes are out beyond the webbing. 2) Push the slide keeper down and into the bottom hole. c. Attach the suspenders to the cartridge belt and magazine pouches. 1) Open all suspender snap hooks by pushing the hooks up and out of the retainers. 2) Attach the back suspender snap hooks into the eyelets on each side of the two, center, top eyelets at the back of the cartridge belt. 3) Attach the front suspender snap hooks to the top eyelet nearest the buckle on each end of the cartridge belt, or fasten the snap hook on the eyelet of each magazine pouch. d. Attach the canteen cover. 1) Attach one canteen cover to the right side of the cartridge belt using the two slide keepers on the back of the canteen cover. 2) Put the canteen cup into the canteen cover, insert a canteen, and secure the snaps. NOTE: Ensure canteen is placed on hips with indented side of cups toward individual.

e.

Attach the first aid kit - Attach the pouch to the center of the back of the cartridge belt using the slide keeper on the back of the pouch.

f.

Adjust the front and back suspender straps. 1) Put on the cartridge belt and fasten the buckle. 2) Adjust the length of the front and back suspender straps so that the cartridge belt hangs evenly at your waist and is positioned comfortably. a) Pull down on the loose end of each strap to tighten (to raise the cartridge belt), or lift the end of each strap buckle to loosen (to lower the cartridge belt). b) Secure the loose ends of the straps with the elastic loops. NOTE: Although you can adjust the back suspender strap alone, use the buddy system to make it easier.

4.

Assemble the components of the helmet. a. Adjust the headband. 1-90

1) Open all headband clips. 2) Make the headband larger than your head size. 3) Put the headband on your head as you would a hat. NOTE: Ensure that the leather is against your head, that the buckle is at the back, and that all six metal clips are open and face down. 4) Adjust the headband until it fits snugly. 5) Take off the headband. b. Insert the headband into the helmet. 1) Slip the clips over fixed web straps, centering the two front clips. 2) Close all clips. 3) Put the helmet on your head. NOTE: If the helmet is too high, adjust the drawstring tab toward the center of the helmet. If it sits too low, adjust the drawstring tab toward the rim of the helmet. c. Put the camouflage helmet cover on the helmet (Figure 2). 1) Put the cover over the helmet so that the end marked "front" covers the bill of the helmet. 2) Pull the cover over the back and sides of the helmet, and then thread each end of the chin strap rough slits on the side of the cover. 3) Extend the six cover retaining tabs down and around the fixed web strap of the suspension system (not the headband) and fasten the tab onto itself by using the hook and pile (Velcro) closures. 4) Place the elastic helmet band over the helmet and cover.

Figure 2 5. Don the flak jacket, 782 gear and helmet.

1-91

REFERENCE: FM 21-15, Care and Use of Individual Clothing and Equipment

1-92

TASK: CONDITIONS:

PERFORM INDIVIDUAL MOVEMENT (1-12) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT (782 GEAR), WEAPON WITH AMMUNITION, AND AN AREA TO TRAVERSE CONTAINING BOTH NATURAL TERRAIN FEATURES AND MAN-MADE OBSTACLES. THE SEABEE MUST PERFORM INDIVIDUAL MOVEMENT DURING DAYLIGHT AND DARKNESS ACCORDING TO THE TERRAIN AND TACTICAL SITUATION AND AVOID BEING DETECTED AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical scenario in any combat environment (day and night), individual combat equipment (782 gear), weapon with ammunition, and an unfamiliar area to traverse containing both natural terrain features and man-made obstacles.

Standard:The Seabee must perform individual movement to avoid detection. The Seabee must demonstrate the high crawl, low crawl, rush and walk movement techniques. During darkness, the Seabee must demonstrate the night walk and creeping movement techniques. The Seabee must vary the techniques according to the terrain and obstacles, properly reacting to unexpected illumination at night. Administrative Notes: The following guidelines apply to all movements: Move from one concealed position to another, using available cover and concealment. Remain motionless when not changing position. Lift your head slowly and steadily when observing, avoiding abrupt movements. Select your next position before moving. Make certain the enemy is not there.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Perform individual movement during daylight. a. Determine the correct individual movement technique. 1) Use the HIGH CRAWL when: a) The route you have selected provides good cover and concealment. b) Poor visibility reduces enemy observation. c) Greater speed of movement is required. 2) Use the LOW CRAWL when: 1-93

a) The route you have selected provides cover or concealment less than one foot high. b) Visibility provides the enemy good observation. c) Speed is not required. 3) Use the RUSH when cover is limited and when speed is essential. 4) Use the WALK when enemy presence and location are not known. b. Execute the HIGH CRAWL (Figure 1). 1) Keeping your body free of the ground, rest your weight on your forearms and lower legs. 2) Cradle your rifle in your arms. NOTE: Ensure that the muzzle of your rifle is off the ground. 3) Keep your knees well behind your buttocks so that you stay low. 4) Move forward by alternately advancing your right forearm and left knee, then left forearm and right knee. c. Execute the LOW CRAWL. 1) Keep your body as flat on the ground as possible. 2) Grasp the rifle sling at the upper sling swivel. Let the balance of the rifle rest on your forearm and the butt of the rifle drag on the ground (Figure 2).

Figure 1

Figure 2

NOTE: Ensure that the muzzle of your rifle is off the ground. 3) Push your arms forward and pull your right leg forward (Figure 3).

1-94

Figure 3 4) Move forward by pulling with your arms and pushing with your right leg. 5) Continue this push-pull movement until you reach your next position. NOTE: Change your pushing leg frequently to avoid fatigue. d. Execute the RUSH (Figure 4). NOTE: The numbers in Figure 4 correspond to those in Performance Step 1.d.1) through 1.d.6).

1) From the prone position slowly raise your head and select your next position. 2) Lower your head, draw your arms in to your body, keep your elbows down, and pull your right or left leg forward. With one movement, raise your body by straightening your arms.

1-95

Figure 4 3) Spring to your feet, and step off with either foot. Run to the next position. NOTE: When running to change your position, spring up, run with your body bent low, zigzag and drop to the deck quickly, a little to the right or left of your objective. Roll over or crawl to the desired position. 4) Plant both feet to stop. 5) Drop quickly to your knees and fall forward, breaking your fall with the butt of your rifle. 6) Roll on your side; place the butt of the rifle in the hollow of your shoulder, then roll into a firing position. e. Execute the WALK. 1) Carry your rifle at the ready. 2) Watch the ground in front of you; look for trip wires or boobytraps. 1-96

3) Maintain your balance by taking short steps. 4) Observe constantly your front and flanks. 2. Perform individual movement during darkness. NOTE: The following guidelines apply to movement at night.

Move silently. Advance in bounds (short moves). DO NOT RUN except in an emergency. Take advantage of sounds, which may distract the enemy to cover your movements. Fall silently, without making an outcry. Follow a terrain feature in each bound. When there are no terrain features to serve as guides, move in a straight or nearly straight line from one defined point to another, or maintain direction using a compass. Execute the NIGHT WALK technique (Figure 5). 1) Lift the forward foot high enough to clear any stiff grass, brush, or other obstructions. 2) Lower the forward foot gently, toe first, with your weight still balanced on the rear foot; use the forward foot to explore the ground for objects which might cause a noise (e.g., leaves, sticks, etc.). 3) Lower the heel of your forward foot slowly; gradually transfer the weight of your body to that foot. 4) Continue walking in this manner, until you have reached your objective.

a.

b.

Execute the creeping technique (Figure 6). 1) Carry your rifle at the ready. 2) Carry the weight of your body balanced on your rear foot until you find a secure spot to plant your forward foot. NOTE: The low crawl and high crawl are not suitable at night when you are very near the enemy. They cause a shuffling noise, which is too easily heard. 3) Get down on your hands and knees. 4) Lay your rifle on the ground at your side.

1-97

Figure 5 5) Begin to creep.

Figure 6

a) Feel with your hands for twigs, leaves, or other substances that might cause noise. b) Clear a spot on which to place your knee. c) Keep your hand on the cleared spot while you bring your knee forward. NOTE: Keep your hand in place until your knee meets your hand. d) Repeat this action with your other hand and knee. 6) Clear an area for your rifle. 7) Lift up and move your rifle. 3. React to unexpected illumination. a. React to ground flares. 1) Move quickly and away from the lighted area. 2) Look for other members of your squad and attempt to link up with them.

b.

React to aerial flares 1-98

===================================== IF =====================================y ou hear the firing of a flare, you are in a heavily wooded or vegetated area and are caught in the light of a flare, you are in an open area and are caught in the light of a flare,

================================= THEN ================================= hit the deck, taking the best cover available. FREEZE in place until the flare burns out.

crouch low or get in the prone position and remain motionless.

NOTE: To protect your night vision, close your shooting eye while the flare is burning. When the flare burns out, the closed eye will still have its night vision and you can still engage targets.

REFRENCES: FMFM 6-7, Scouting and Patrolling for Infantry Units FM 21-75, Combat Skills of the Soldier

1-008-99

TASK: CONDITIONS:

PREPARE A FIRETEAM FIRE PLAN AND FIRE PLAN SKETCH (1-13) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT, COMMANDER S GUIDANCE, INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT AND WEAPONS WITH AMMUNITION. THE SEABEE MUST PREPARE FIRETEAM F IRE PLAN AND FIRE PLAN SKETCH AS PER THE REFERENCE.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical scenario in any combat environment, the commander guidance, individual combat equipment and weapon with ammunition. s

Standard:The Seabee must prepare fire team fire plan and fire plan sketch.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. 2. Received the operation order, which will include the fire plan sketch. Formulate the team's fire plan to cover entire sector assigned with the heaviest possible volume of fire. a. Develop fire plans by including the assigned individual sectors of fire, individual fighting positions, fire team leader, automatic rifleman (AR), rifleman number one (R1), rifleman number two (R2), and fire team sectors of fire. Draw the Fire Plan Symbol 1) Draw a sector of fire (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). NOTE: Sectors of fire are shown by two arrows composed of broken lines (Figure 1).

b.

Figure 1

NOTE:

A weapon symbol is normally used in conjunction with the symbol for a sector of fire (Figure 2) 1-100

Figure 2 2) Draw a direction of fire (see Figure 3, 4, 5 and 6). NOTES: A principal direction of fire (PDF) is represented by a solid arrow. To prevent confusion with similar symbols, the symbol representing a PDF is always shown together with the appropriate weapon symbol (Figure 3).

Figure 3 NOTE: Symbols for sectors of fire and PDF are often combined (Figure 4).

Figure 4

NOTE:

A special PDF symbol is used to indicate final protective lines (FPL). Heavily shaded portions along the PDF symbol indicate areas of grazing fire (Figure 5). 1-101

Figure 5 NOTE: The final protective line (FPL) or principal direction of fire (PDF) symbol is usually combined with the sector of fire and weapon symbol (Figure 6).

Figure 6 c. Sketch the Fire Plan (Figure 7). NOTES: Fire team leader to squad leader submits fire plan sketch for approval. It must include the following: Key terrain features and distances. Fire team's primary fighting positions. Individual sectors of fire. PDF or FPL for automatic rifleman. Magnetic north indicator to show direction fire team is facing. A line drawn around the fire team fighting position shows the forward edge, flanks, and rear of individual fighting positions. A symbol indicating unit size and identification is placed within a break along the rear edge. 1-102

Figure 7

REFERENCE: FMFM 6-5, U.S. Marine Rifle Squad Manual

1-103

TASK: CONDITIONS: STANDARD:

REACT TO INDIRECT FIRE (1-14) GIVEN INCOMING ROUNDS. THE SEABEE MUST REACT TO INDIRECT FIRE AS PER THE REFERENCES.

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee, while in a static defensive position, while moving on foot, and while mounted in a motorized convoy, is provided an audible signal that indirect fire is being received. The Seabee must identify the warning signals of incoming shells, shout the verbal warning, and react to each situation by assuming the best possible covered position.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Identify the warning signals of incoming rounds. NOTE: Indirect fire will normally come from artillery, mortars, rockets, or similar weapons.

a. Identify the sound of incoming shells. b. Identify a shouted warning of "INCOMING" from someone who hears the shells coming before you do. c. Identify the sound of shells passing overhead or exploding nearby, but not yet zeroed in on your location. 2. React to incoming rounds if on foot. a. Shout "INCOMING" when you hear any of the warnings. b. Hit the deck, taking the best cover available. c. Wait for your fire team leader's command or signal to get up. d. Move very rapidly through the impact area, keeping your body as low as possible. 3. React to incoming rounds if in a defensive position. a. Shout "INCOMING" when you hear any of the warnings. b. Remain in your position. c. Take advantage of available cover. - Crouch down in your fighting hole for very good protection (Figure 1). WARNING: Incoming indirect fire zeroed in on your position may indicate a coming attack by ground forces, so be prepared.

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Figure 1 4. React to incoming rounds if in a motorized convoy. ============================== THEN ============================== remain in the vehicle and assume the lowest possible position. immediately disembark, move away from the vehicle, and hit the deck, taking the best cover available.

============================== IF ============================== the vehicle continues to move,

the vehicle is immobilized,

REFERENCE: FM 21-2, Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Level 1

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

ASSUME FIELD FIRING POSITIONS (1-15) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT (782) AND M16A3 WITH AMMUNITION. THE SEABEE MUST SELECT A FIELD FIRING POSITION DURING DA YLIGHT AND DARKNESS ACCORDING TO THE TERRAIN FEATURE/OBSTACLE AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical scenario (day and night), individual combat equipment (782 gear) and the M16A3 rifle. The Seabee must assume the following field firing positions using the M16A3: fighting hole, rubble pile, standing, kneeling supported, kneeling unsupported, wall or barricade, modified, forward slope, rooftop, and bunker/window. The Seabee must use cover and concealment and must remain as low as possible.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Assume field firing positions with the M16A3. a. Assume a fighting hole firing position (Figure 1).

Figure 1 NOTE: When you enter the fighting hole, add or remove dirt, sandbags, or other supports to fit your height; then assume a comfortable firing position. 1) Place your right foot to the rear as a brace. 2) Lean forward until your chest is against the forward wall of the fighting hole. 3) Extend your left arm and elbow over the forward side of the fighting hole.

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4) Place the butt of your rifle into the pocket formed in your right shoulder; then grasp the pistol grip with your right hand. 5) Place your right elbow on the solid support of the parapet of the fighting hole or the sandbags beside the fighting hole. 6) Obtain a stock weld and relax. b. Assume a firing position on a rubble pile (Figure 2).

Figure 2 1) Present the lowest possible silhouette in a good prone position behind the rubble. 2) Use the rubble to achieve maximum support c. Assume the standing position (Figure 3). 1) Face the target, execute a facing movement to the firing side, and spread feet a comfortable distance apart. 2) With the firing hand on the pistol grip and the non-firing hand on either the upper handguard or bottom of the magazine, place the butt of the rifle in the pocket formed by the firing shoulder so that the sights are level with the eyes. 3) Aim naturally at the target and distribute the body weight evenly on both feet.

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Figure 3 d. Assume the kneeling-supported position (Figure 4). 1) Assume a good kneeling position. 2) Shift your weight forward until your shoulder, arm, and leg come in contact with the support. NOTE: The rifle must not touch nor rest on the support since the friction of the rifle against the support would slow recovery between shots and would limit your ability to rapidly shift your point of aim. e. Assume the kneeling unsupported position (Figure 5).

Figure 4

Figure 5

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1) The non-firing elbow should be pushed forward of the knee so that the upper arm is resting on a flat portion of the knee to provide stability. 2) The trailing feet can be placed in a comfortable position f. Assume a wall or barricade position (Figure 6). 1) Fire around the wall, rather than over it, to reduce chances of being seen by the enemy. 2) Stay low and close to the wall. 3) Fire from the shoulder that lets you stay behind cover.

Figure 6 g. Assume a modified firing position (Figure 7). 1) Take advantage of available cover and use anything that helps to steady the rifle. 2) Adjust the position to fit the available support for the handguard 3) Use the non-firing hand on any part of the rifle to hold it steady. 1-109

NOTE: Modified positions can result in small zero changes due to shifting pressure and grip on the rifle. h. Assume the forward slope position (Figure 8).

Figure 7 1) Assume a good, open-legged, sitting position. 2) Adjust this position to the slope of the ground. i. Assume a rooftop position (Figure 9).

Figure 8

Figure 9 Place your left arm over the top of the roof in a manner which can hold the weight of your body, but not expose too much of your head and shoulders.

j. Assume the bunker/window position (Figure 10). 1-110

Figure 10 Remain well back in the shadows of the room to conceal your position from the window opening. Positioning your body back from the window will prevent your rifle from protruding through the opening.

REFERENCES: FM 23-9, M16A1/M16A2 Rifle Marksmanship STP 21-1-SMCT, Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Level 1

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

REACT TO ENEMY DIRECT FIRE (1-16) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT (782 GEAR), INCOMING SMALL ARMS FIRE FROM AN ENEMY AMBUSH, AND CARRYING TOA WEAPON WITH AMMUNITION. THE SEABEE MUST REACT TO ENEMY DIRECT FIRE AS PER THE REFERENCE.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical scenario in any combat environment (day or night), individual combat equipment (782 gear), incoming small arms fire from an enemy ambush, and carrying TOA weapon with ammunition. The Seabee must react to the enemy direct fire. The Seabee must take quick measures against direct fires and the appropriate (hasty defensive) actions to prevent injury or death, and improve individual protection while remaining in the position per reference listed at the end of this task. See TASK: PERFORM INDIVIDUAL MOVEMENT (1-12)

Standard:

Administrative Note:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. React to the direct fire of enemy small arms. a. Seek a covered and concealed position. 1) Build a hasty defensive position. NOTE: In positioning for hasty defense, there is insufficient time to prepare standard fighting holes. The Seabee must use natural depressions, shell craters, or old enemy positions, if available, and must quickly improve them to provide minimum adequate cover. The Seabee must emphatically and effectively defend the assigned sector of fire and must get under cover quickly, not perfectly.

a) Use existing hole. b) Dig prone shelter. c) Prepare position with cover. d) Use trenches. 2) Ensure that position allows for return fire. 3) Ensure that position affords protection from ground observation and enemy fire. 4) Avoid moving about to reduce risk of exposure. b. Stay low and move utilizing the appropriate form of individual movement, taking maximum advantage of available cover. (See TASK: PERFORM INDIVIDUAL MOVEMENT (1-12).) 1-112

- Maneuver to a better vantagepoint to deliver more effective fire upon the enemy. 2. Return fire. a. Locate targets, engaging known or suspected targets. b. Return a high volume of accurate fire, and attempt to suppress enemy fire. c. Restore security from ground attack. 3. Respond to the unit leader. a. Report the contact; wait for and/or follow instructions. b. Continue the advance, as directed.

REFERENCE: STP 21-1-SMCT, Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Level 1

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

CONSTRUCT FIGHTING POSITION (1-17) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), COMMANDER'S GUIDANCE, INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT (782 GEAR), AND WEAPON WITH AMMUNITION. THE SEABEE MUST CONSTRUCT A FIGHTING POSITION THAT PROVIDES COVERAGE OF THE SECTOR OF FIRE AND SUFFICIENT PROTECTION FROM AN ENEMY DIRECT AND INDIRECT FIRE AS PER THE REFERENCES. S

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical scenario in any combat environment (day and night), commander's guidance, individual combat equipment (782 gear), and weapon with ammunition. The Seabee must construct a hasty fighting position, an individual fighting position, and an improved two-man fighting position. The position must cover the assigned sector of fire and provide sufficient protection from enemy direct and indirect fire. Two Seabees may be evaluated simultaneously for construction of a twoman fighting position.

Standard:

Administrative Note:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Receive the operations order which include the sector of fire and the type of fighting position to be constructed. NOTE: The process of constructing a fighting position should begin immediately once a unit is halted defensively. The position should be continually improved until departing the site. The process begins with a hasty fighting position and continues to develop into an integrated, hardened position.

2.

Organize the ground. a. Select the best site for a fighting position, if your squad leader did not specifically assign a location. 1) Select a position that will blend with the terrain and not contrast with the background. NOTE: Do not dig near an isolated tree, a clump of bushes, or any object that stands out from the surrounding terrain. 2) Ensure that the location gives frontal protection from direct fire. 3) Ensure that the location allows you or your unit to fire. 4) Select a site, which conceals your position from enemy aircraft, as well as ground troops, if possible. NOTE: If the position is under a bush or tree or in a building, it is less likely to be seen from above. Leaves, straw, or grass placed on the floor of the hole hide the 1-114

contrast of the fresh earth with the ground around it. Do not use sticks; they may stop grenades from rolling into the grenade sumps. b. Mark the position for sector of fire stakes with aiming and limiting stakes. c. Partially clear fields of fire within your assigned sector. - See Performance Step 6 of this task. NOTES: Do not destroy natural camouflage around your position. Save grass clumps,etc., for camouflage later. Do not disclose your position by carelessly clearing fields of fire and leaving tracks to and around the position. 3. Construct a hasty fighting position. a. Use a natural hole or ditch, if available. NOTE: The position should be in a small depression or hole at least 1/2 meter (18 inches) deep.

b. Dig or scrape a depression to protect you while in a prone position if a natural hole or ditch is not available (Figure 1).

Figure 1 1) Remove the topsoil of the selected position carefully so that it may be used to camouflage the position. 2) Dispose of the excess dirt under bushes, on dirt roads, or in streams, ponds, or ravines. 1-115

4.

Construct an individual fighting position (Figure 2). NOTE: Sometimes you may have to build and occupy a one-man fighting position. The hole of a one- man position is only large enough for you and your equipment.

Figure 2 a. Dig a hole about armpit deep. NOTE: Do not disturb the natural concealment around your position while digging. Avoid creating fresh paths near the position. Use old paths or vary the route to and from the position. Camouflage the path if necessary.

b. Shape the hole to fit the natural cover available. c. Leave enough earth at the base of the hole to form a fire step. d. Dig a grenade sump at the bottom of the hole. e. Build a parapet around the hole. 1-116

1) Use dirt taken from the hole to form the parapet or use a natural parapet, such as a tree or mound. 2) Leave enough distance between the hole and the parapet to make an elbow rest where you can put your elbows when firing. 5. Construct a two-man fighting position (Figure 3).

Figure 3 NOTES: In the defense, you and another Seabee may build a two-man fighting position. Keep the hole small. The smaller the hole, the less likely it is that rounds, grenades, or air burst fragments will get into it. It should be large enough for you and your buddy in full combat gear. It should extend beyond the edges of the frontal cover enough to let you and your buddy observe and fire to the front. The hole is usually dug straight, but it may be curved around the frontal cover. To curve the hole, simply extend one or both ends of it around the frontal cover (Figure 4).

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Figure 4 Dig a trench-shaped grenade sump at each end of the position (Figure 5). -Dig the trenches as wide as an entrenching tool blade, as deep as the entrenching tool, and as long as the position is wide. Slope the floor toward the sumps. NOTE: The slope should be steep enough so that a grenade thrown in the position will roll into one of the sumps.

--

Figure 5 6. Complete clearing fields of fire. 1-118

a. b. c. 7.

Clear only what is absolutely necessary. Get into firing position, and check observation and fields of fire. Save any cut foliage, dirt, grass clumps, etc., for camouflaging the position.

Improve your fighting position. a. Camouflage the fighting position. NOTE: Camouflage is continuous throughout the occupation of a defensive position.

1) Camouflage your position using the natural materials you saved from clearing the field of fire. NOTE: Replace the materials often since they quickly wilt and change color. 2) Check the camouflage by moving 35 meters to the front and looking back at your fighting position. 3) Continue camouflaging as needed. b. Construct overhead covers (Figure 6).

Figure 6

REFERENCES: FMFM 6-5, Marine Rifle Squad FM 21-2, Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Level 1 FM 21-75, Combat Skills of the Soldier

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

CAMOUFLAGE SELF AND INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT (1-18) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT (782 GEAR) INCLUDING HELMET WITH CAMOUFLAGE COVER AND BAND, TOA WEAPON, CAMOUFLAGE FACE PAINT (OR SUBSTITUTE), BURLAP OR CLOTH STRIPS, SANDBAGS, AND NATURAL VEGETATION. THE SEABEE MUST CAMOUFLAGE SELF AND INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT TO AVOID DETECTION AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Condition: The Seabee is given a tactical scenario in any combat environment (day and night), individual combat equipment (782 gear), including helmet with camouflage cover and band, TOA weapon, camouflage face paint (or substitute), burlap, cloth strips, or tape, natural vegetation, and the assistance of another Seabee.

Standard:The Seabee must paint all of his/her exposed skin with the appropriate colors and remove all shiny objects (such as rings and watches). The Seabee must also break up the outline of his/her helmet, equipment, and web gear so that he/she blends with his/her environment.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Define camouflage, cover, and concealment. a. CAMOUFLAGE: Anything you use to keep yourself, your equipment, and your position from looking like what they really are. You can use natural and man-made materials for camouflage. Anything that gives protection from bullets, fragments of exploding rounds, flame, nuclear effects, and biological and chemical agents. Cover can also conceal you from enemy observation. Cover can be natural or man-made.

b.

COVER:

c.

CONCEALMENT: Anything that hides you from enemy observation. Concealment does not protect you from enemy fire.

2.

Explain the principles of camouflage. a. Study the terrain and vegetation of the area in which you are to operate. b. Select out and use the camouflage material that best blends with that area (Figure 1).

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Figure 1 c. Change camouflage when moving from one area to another, as needed, to blend with the surroundings. d. Remove all jewelry, such as watches, rings, or any other shiny objects. e. Dull all shiny areas that cannot be removed. 3. Camouflage exposed skin (Figure 2).

Figure 2

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NOTE:

Work with another Seabee when applying camouflage paint to your skin.

a. Paint shiny areas of the skin (forehead, cheekbones, nose, and chin) with a dark color. b. Paint shadow areas (around the eyes, under the nose, and under the chin) with a light color. c. Use both light and dark colors to paint the exposed skin on the neck, throat, ears, and backs of the hands. NOTES: Apply a two-color combination of camouflage stick in an irregular pattern. Do not camouflage the palms of the hands if you use hand and arm signals. 4. Camouflage the helmet (Figure 3).

Figure 3 a. Insert foliage or cloth strips into the slits in the cover of your helmet. b. Pull out the back of the cover so it hangs loose. c. Hang foliage or cloth strips over the rim of the helmet to break up the shadow under the helmet. 5. Camouflage individual equipment. a. Camouflage your weapon. - Use burlap, sandbags, or strips of cloth or tape to cover the weapon and to change its outline. NOTE: Ensure weapon's operability.

b. Camouflage your web gear. - Change the outline of all web gear on your body with leaves, strips of cloth, or tape. 1-122

6.

Maintain camouflage. a. Inspect the position from the enemy's side when camouflage is complete. NOTE: This inspection should be done from about 35 meters forward of the position.

b. Check the camouflage periodically to see that it stays natural looking and conceals the position. c. Change and improve camouflage when it becomes ineffective.

REFERENCES: FM 5-20, Camouflage FM 21-2, Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Level 1 FM 21-75, Combat Skills of the Soldier

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

PARTICIPATE IN SQUAD-SIZE DEFENSE (1-19) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), AN ORAL FIVE-PARAGRAPH FRAGMENTARY ORDER ISSUED BY THE SQUAD LEADER, INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT (782 GEAR), AND TOA WEAPON WITH AMMUNITION. (THE SEABEE IS PART OF A SEABEE SQUAD WITH ITS EQUIPMENT, SUCH AS ENTRENCHING TOOL, PONCHO, BARBED AND CONCERTINA WIRE WITH ASSOCIATED TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT, SANDBAGS, BOOBY TRAPS, MINES, PYROTECHNICS, BINOCULARS OR NIGHT OBSERVATION DEVICES, FIELD TELEPHONE OR RADIO.) THE SEABEE MUST UNDERSTAND THE SQUAD'S MISSION AND EXECUTE REQUIRED ACTIONS AS PER THE FRAGMENTARY ORDER AND THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: Performing as a member of a squad, the Seabee is provided a tactical scenario in any combat environment (day and night), fragmentation order, individual combat equipment, and TOA weapon with ammunition. The Seabee must perform their assigned duties and follow instructions prescribed in the fragmentary order to assist in the squad defense.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Receive the fragmentary order, which will be organized under the acronym SMEAC (Figure 1). NOTE: Members of a squad may receive a defensive fragmentation order from their squad leader or their fire team leader. Normally, the squad leader passes down the fragmentation order through the fire team leaders so that Seabees can remain at their defensive positions and maintain security. The tactical scenario will always dictate.

2. 3.

Assume a hasty firing position at your assigned sector of fire. Begin construction of your fighting position after the squad leader inspects your tentative position and adjust it as necessary. (See TASK: CONSTRUCT FIGHTING POSITION (1-17).) NOTE: Security must be maintained during the construction of fighting positions. The tactical scenario and guidance published in the fragmentation order will dictate how many Seabees are to maintain security while the remainder of the squad is involved with construction of the defensive position.

4.

Construct obstacles and barriers; and emplace mines and boobytraps as directed. (See TASKS: EMPLOY THE M49A1 TRIP FLARE (1-29) and EMPLOY THE M18A1 CLAYMORE MINE (1-30). )

NOTE:

Obstacles must be covered by fire and must be located beyond handgrenade range. Utilize KOCOA (See Figure 1, Task: Participate in a Security Patrol (1-6)) through all steps.
DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS ORDER

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1.

Situation: a. Enemy Forces - Consists of the composition, disposition, location, movement, capabilities, and recent activities of enemy forces. Friendly Forces - A statement of the mission of the next higher unit, location and mission of adjacent units, and commander's intent from two levels higher. the

b.

c.

Attachments and Detachments - Units attached to or detached from the squad by higher headquarters, including the effective time of the attachment or detachment.

2.

Mission: A clear, concise statement of the task the squad must accomplish.

3.

Execution: a. Concept of Operations - The concept of the operation is the squad leader's brief summary of the tactical plan the squad is to execute and the commander's intent. Subordinate Tasks (Missions) - In each succeeding paragraph, missions are assigned to each fire team and any attached units. Coordinating Instructions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Organization of the ground and priority of work (SAFE) Types and locations of fighting positions, to include alternate and supplementary (if used) Lateral and forward sectors of fire Principal direction of fire (PDF) for the automatic rifleman Location of light assault and crew-served weapons (if any) Location of the security area and defensive perimeter. The Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) level Obstacle and barrier plan The fire support plan (naval gunfire, artillery, mortars, air support)

b.

c.

4.

Administration and logistics: This paragraph contains information or instructions pertaining to rations and ammunition; location of the distribution point, corpsman, and aid station; the handling of prisoners of war; and other administrative and supply matters.

5.

Command and signals: a. Special instructions on communications, including prearranged signals, password and countersign, radio call signs and frequencies, emergency signals, radio procedures, pyrotechnics, and restrictions on the use of communications. Locations of the platoon commander, the platoon right guide, and the squad leader.

b.

Figure 1 5. Conduct the defense. NOTE: Normally, the enemy will precede an attack with fires from any or all of the following weapons: artillery, naval gunfire, mortars, machine guns, tanks, and aircraft.

a. Take covers during the preparatory bombardment and maintain surveillance to the front, flanks, and rear. 1-125

b. Engage the enemy when they penetrate your forward sector of fire or when given the signal to open fire. NOTE: The automatic riflemen's priority of fires goes to enemy automatic weapons, rocket launchers, and other crew-served weapons. Automatic riflemen will continue to increase their rate of fire as the enemy comes closer.

c. Fire the final protective fires (FPF) on signal. NOTES: An FPF is an immediately available interlocking, prearranged barrier of fire designed to impede enemy movement across defensive lines or areas. A PDF is the direction of fire assigned or designated as the main direction in which a weapon will be oriented. It is selected based on the enemy, mission, terrain, and weapons capability. d. Engage the enemy with handgrenades and hand-to-hand combat when the enemy reaches the squad fighting position. s e. Do not vacate your position until ordered by higher authority to pursue the enemy or to withdraw.

REFERENCES: FMFM 6-5, Marine Rifle Squad FMFM 6-4, Marine Rifle Company/Platoon OH 6-1, Ground Combat Operations

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

OPERATE NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (1-20) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN A NIGHT COMBAT ENVIRONMENT AND NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG'S). THE SEABEE MUST VIEW OBJECTS AT NIGHT USING NVG'S AS PER THE REFERENCE.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: Given a tactical scenario in any combat environment (during darkened conditions or at night using natural (ambient) light), the Seabee is provided an assigned sector of observation, the night vision goggles (NVGs) AN/PVS-7 (7A, 7B, or 7C), and appropriate carrying case, complete with the battery(ies).

Standard:The Seabee must prepare the NVGs for operation. The Seabee must operate the goggles to achieve night vision, i.e., the Seabee must observe and be able to identify objects in their sector; perform shutdown; and perform operator-level preventive maintenance checks and services (PMCS) on the goggles. The Seabee must report all unusual conditions noted during daily (routine) checks/services or when in actual operation to organizational maintenance. Administrative Notes: NVGs are precision electro-optical instruments and must be handled carefully. For the purpose and ease of training, this task primarily addresses AN/PVS-7C goggles. DO become thoroughly familiar with the resources listed at the end of this task. Ensure that caps remain on the objective and eyepiece lenses when not in use. If a cap is missing, use cleaning tissues and a rubber band to cover the lens only until you can get a replacement cap. When removing NVGs from their carrying case, ensure that the goggles and the case are inspected for missing or broken parts. Always return the goggles to their case after each NVG mission.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Familiarize yourself with the content of the (NVGs) AN/PVS-7C Kit (Figure 1).

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Figure 1 a. Describe the operator controls on the NVGs. 1) INFRARED (IR) ILLUMINATOR - The infrared illuminator is an infrared diode that is used to illuminate an area not more than 2 meters (approximately 6 feet) in front of the goggles. When the IR illuminator is turned on, a red indicator light will be seen in the left eyepiece. WARNING: The IR illuminator is an active device that can be detected by night vision devices. Exercise caution when using it.

2) ROTARY SWITCH a) On the Facemask: The rotary switch provides control of the system. With the goggles on the facemask, the operator turns the knob from the OFF position one stop to the rear ON position. To use the IR illuminator, depress the button located on top of the switch knob, and turn the knob one additional stop to the rear IR ON position. A red LED will light up in the viewing area of the left eyepiece to indicate that the IR illuminator is on. Off the Facemask (Hand-held): To use the goggles as a hand-held, while removed from the facemask, the rotary switch must be moved one stop to the forward ON position. To use the IR illuminator, depress the button located on top of the switch knob, and turn knob one additional stop to the forward IR ON position.

b)

c)

Objective Focus Ring:

Adjust the objective lens focus from 25 cm to infinity. 1-128

d)

Eyepiece Focus Ring:

Permits the operator to adjust the individual eyepiece cell.

b) Locate the operator controls on the NVGs (Figure 2).

Figure 2 2. Prepare the goggles for wearing and operation. CAUTION: Operate the goggles under nighttime conditions only. Using the goggles during the day, or in a brightly-lit source, even at night, can permanently damage the image intensifier.

a.

Execute Performance Verification Test 1) Check completeness of the kit and condition of components. 2) Check Facemask Assembly a) Head strap assembly present and serviceable 1-129

b) Carriage mechanism moves and secures goggles WARNING: The goggles must be turned OFF before moving to raised position. Failure to turn off will expose you to detection. c) Pivot assembly pivots smoothly and locks in both positions. 3) Check Goggles Assembly a) Switch moves to all positions (push for IR) b) Optics clean and not scratched c) Windows free of moisture d) Battery hatch seals present and free from cuts and dryrot b. Install Batteries (Figure 3) NOTE: Ensure that the rotary switch is in OFF position before installing batteries.

Figure 3 1) AA Batteries Open the battery compartment hatch by turning the locking tab turn counterclockwise. Insert two AAbatteries in battery holder, one positive end and one negative first. Close hatch and secure by turning the locking tab a quarter turn clockwise. NOTE: To check proper insertion of the battery in the dark, feel that raised (positive) contact is positioned closer to the eyepiece lenses. 2) Lithium Batteries

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Open the battery hatch. Insert the lithium battery with the button (negative end) up into the holder. Close hatch. NOTE: To insert the lithium battery in the dark, install battery with raised contact up.

c.

Remove the eyepiece lens cap and the objective lens cap and pull the neck cord and place it around your neck. Donning and Fitting the Facemask (Figure 4)

d.

Figure 4 1) Remove the facemask from the carrying case. 2) Straighten out the head strap and attach chin strap by either snap. Position the cushion to fit comfortably against the face. Pull the carriage to the extreme forward position. 3) Hold the carriage with one hand and the back of the head strap with the other. Bring the facemask against the face while pulling the head strap over the head. 4) Pull the side straps until the facemask is just fitted against the face. 5) Adjust the top strap until the cushion is just above the eyebrows and the side straps are just clearing the ears. 6) Slide the cushion on the frame, if necessary, for a comfortable position on forehead and cheeks. 7) Continue adjusting the side and top straps for a comfortable and firm fit against the face. 8) Snap the loose end of the chinstrap and adjust both strap ends for a snug fit. 1-131

9) Insert the goggles in the carriage with a firm pressure until you hear a click (Figure 5)

Figure 5 10) Readjust the straps, if necessary, for a secure and comfortable fit. 11) With the chin strap snug, the side strap can be loosened to relieve pressure against the face. This adjustment should be made during periods of light activity and will allow the goggles to be worn for long period of time without pain and discomfort. 3. Operate the (NVGs) AN/PVS-7C a. Operation of Goggles ON the Facemask 1) Turn the goggles on by pulling the switch knob away from the objective lens to the rear ON (on the facemask position) 2) Adjust eye relief and span distance for the most comfortable use of the goggles. Obtain a circular field, of view. 3) Adjust the objective focus ring for the sharpest view. For most operational situations, the objective lens will be focused at or near infinity (all the way counterclockwise).

4) Turn the eyepiece focus rings on each eyepiece lens for the sharpest view.

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5) To use the IR illuminator, depress the button on top of the switch knob, and turn the knob one more stop to the IR ON position. Objects within two meters to your front should become brighter, and a red indicator light will appear in the left eyepiece. WARNING: The IR illuminator is an active device that can be detected by night vision devices. Exercise caution when using it. b. Operation as a Hand-Held Viewer 1) If the goggles are to be used as a hand-held viewer, follow all the general procedures, except that it will not be mounted on the facemask. 2) Remove the eyepiece lens cap and the objective lens cap and pull the neck cord and place it around your neck. 3) Push the rotary switch one position toward the objective lens to the forward ON (off the facemask position) 4) Adjust eye span distance for circular field of view. 5) Adjust the objective focus ring for the sharpest view. For most operational situations, the objective lens will be focused at near infinity (all the way counterclockwise). 6) Turn the eyepiece focus ring on each eyepiece for the sharpest view. 7) To use the IR illuminator while the goggles are hand-held, depress the button on top of the switch and push the knob one more stop toward the objective lens to the forward IR ON (off the facemask position). c. Operation in Humid or Cold Conditions If the eyepiece lenses become fogged during use, clean the lenses and install demist shields. Remove the goggles from the facemask, turn eyepiece focus ring until eyepiece cell is above the retainer and press the demist shields by the edges only until firmly seated in the rear of the eyepiece lens. Reinstall goggles on facemask and refocus eyepiece lenses for sharpest view.

d. Operation in Dusty or Sandy Conditions If operating in dusty or sandy areas, install sacrificial filter over the objective lens. This protects the glass lens. When the sacrificial filter becomes scratched, pitted, or impairs vision, it will be replaced by your field support organization.

e. Facemask Adjustment with Chemical-Biological Mask 1) When donning the facemask with Chemical-Biological Mask, loosen the side and top strap, pull the cushion to the bottom of the metal frame, and the carriage to the extreme forward position. 2) Place the facemask against the protective mask, with the cushion resting on top of the eye lens outserts. The cushion should be at or below the bottom of the outserts. 3) Adjust the top and side straps for a comfortable and secure fit. NOTE: 4. The chin strap is not used with the Chemical-Biological Mask.

Shutdown Procedure 1-133

a.

ON Facemask 1) Turn the switch knob to the OFF position. 2) Remove the goggles from the facemask by depressing the release button on the carriage and pulling goggles away from your face. Allow goggles to hang by neck cord around the neck. 3) Unfasten the chin strap, and holding the facemask by the carriage, lift it up and back off your head. NOTE: If the goggles are to worn again by the same operator, the straps need not be loosened, as the facemask will slip on over the head to the same position and fit.

4) Remove the battery from the battery compartment and close the hatch. 5) Remove the demist shields and sacrificial filter, if applicable. 6) Remove goggles from around the neck. Replace eyepiece and objective lens caps. 7) Replace all equipment in the carrying case. b. Hand-Held Mode 1) Turn the switch to the OFF position. Allow goggles to hang by cord around the neck. 2) Remove the battery from the battery compartment and close the hatch. 3) Remove the demist shields and sacrificial filter, if applicable. 4) Remove goggles from around the neck. Replace eyepiece and objective lens caps. 5) Replace all equipment in the carrying case. 5. Operator Maintenance s CAUTION: Be sure the Rotary Switch is in the OFF position and batteries are removed before performing maintenance.

NOTE:

Operator maintenance is limited to cleaning of exterior surfaces, lenses, sacrificial filter, demist shields, and replacement of the battery and neck cord.

a.

Cleaning of Exterior Surface CAUTION: Use lens paper or clean cloth only. 1) Wipe exterior surfaces to remove dust, dirt, or sand. Wipe exterior surfaces clean with dry lint free cloth. If necessary, use cloth dampened with clean water to remove dirt and grease. 2) After immersion in salt water, all equipment must be washed in clean water to remove salt residue. Ensure that the battery compartment lid is closed and secure prior to washing. While immersed in clean water, rotate each lens focus adjustment through its entire range of movement three or four times. After washing, wipe all exterior surfaces with a dry, lint-free cloth. 1-134

b.

Cleaning of Lens, Sacrificial filter and Demist Shields Remove all loose dirt from the eyepiece and objective lenses, filter, or shields. Dampen a folded lens paper with clean water. Lightly wipe once in a circular motion. Turn the paper to a clean area. Repeat this procedure until the glass is clean. Follow up with a dry lens paper.

REFERENCE: SW215-AK-MMO-010: Operator and Maintenance Manual for AN/PVS-7C s

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TASK: CONDITIONS: STANDARD:

EMPLOY TECHNIQUES OF UNAIDED NIGHT VISION (1-21) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY NIGHT TIME COMBAT ENVIRONMENT. THE SEABEE MUST EMPLOY THE TECHNIQUES OF UNAIDED NIGHT VISION TO OPERATE TACTICALLY DURING THE HOURS OF DARKNESS.

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: Given a tactical scenario in any combat environment (at night or when visibility is poor), the Seabee is provided his/her sector of observation. The Seabee must detect and report all movement within his/her assigned sector out to 500 meters, using at least one of the techniques of unaided night vision. The Seabee must also report observations and detections as soon as possible.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Obtain night vision by applying the principles required for night observation. a. Use the dark adaptation technique. 1) Allow your eyes to adjust to the darkness. 2) Use the red-lighted method; remain in a red-lighted area for 20 minutes, followed by 10 minutes in a darkened area. b. Use the off-center vision technique to focus on a subject. 1) Focus your eyes on an object without looking directly at it. 2) Look 6 to 10 degrees away from an object. In effect, look out of the corner of your eye. c. Use the scanning technique. 1) Move your eyes in short, abrupt, irregular movements over and around the target. 2) Use the off-center vision technique, pausing for a few seconds after each eye movement. 2. Preserve night vision when the area is temporarily lighted by illumination and flares, etc. a. Close and cover one eye to preserve the night vision in that eye. b. When darkness returns, allow the other eye to adapt to the darkness. Use the night vision retained by your protected eye. NOTE: When night vision has been attained, straining will not make it more effective. However, practice in identifying objects at night will improve your perception.

c. Use your other senses to assist your eyesight.

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NOTE:

In trying to detect the enemy in a sector of observation, use the following techniques: Listen for sounds. Look and smell for dust or vehicular exhaust. Look for movement. Look for positions. Look for outlines or shadows. Look for shine or glare. Look for contrasting colors.

3.

Report all observations.

REFERENCES: FMFM 6-7, Scouting and Patrolling for Infantry Units FM 21-75, Combat Skills of the Soldier

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

REPORT INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION (1-22) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), THE SALUTE REPORT FORMAT, VISIBLE ENEMY ACTIVITY, AND FRIENDLY AND ENEMY EQUIPMENT, WEAPONS, AND AIRCRAFT. THE SEABEE MUST ACCURATELY REPORT INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION IN A TIMELY MANNER AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: Given a tactical scenario in any combat environment (during the day or at night), the Seabee is provided a communication equipment, message book, binoculars and/or night vision devices (NVDs), visible enemy and friendly activity, and the SALUTE report format. The Seabee must observe activities and gather data on the enemy as to size, activity, location, unit, time, and equipment (SALUTE). The Seabee must report all information, completely and accurately, as soon as possible following the SALUTE report format.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Observe and analyze the enemy. a. Observe the size of the aggressor unit. 1) Record the number of personnel. 2) Record the number of vehicles. b. Observe the activity of the aggressor unit. - Record what the enemy is doing. c. Determine the location of the aggressor unit. 1) Give grid coordinates (at least 6 digits). 2) Refer to the location from known point, including distance and direction (or azimuth) from known point. d. Determine the types of aggressor unit. - Describe patches, clothing, distinctive signs or symbols, and/or identification numbers on vehicles. e. Note the time of sighting the aggressor unit. f. Determine the type of equipment that the aggressor unit has available. 1) Describe small arms. 1-138

2) Describe automatic weapons. 3) Describe indirect support weapons. 4) Describe direct support weapons. 5) Describe armored vehicles. 6) Describe personnel carriers. 7) Describe CBR equipment. 2. Complete the SALUTE report and submit it as soon as possible. SALUTE REPORT FORMAT DESCRIPTION S -- Size of enemy unit A -- Activity of the enemy (If moving, Always give direction of movement) L -- Location (6-digit grid coordinates) U -- Unit markings (signs or symbols uniform worn, vehicle identification) T -- Time of sighting (date-time group, local or Zulu/Greenwich Mean Time) E -- Equipment carried by the enemy including their weapons MESSAGE S -- "Line Alpha Platoon Minus" A -- "Line Bravo -- Moving South, On Road, In Column"

L -- "Line Charlie -- 947859 U -- Line Delta-- Red Patches

T -- Line Echo-- 150930Z March 92"

E -- Line Foxtrot-- 25 Rifles, 3 Lt anti armor Rockets, 2 Lt Machine Guns

REFERENCES: FMFM 6-5, Marine Rifle Squad FMFM 6-7, Scouting and Patrolling for Infantry Units FM 21-75, Combat Skills of the Soldier STP 21-1-SMCT (FM-21-1), Soldier? s Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Level I

1-139

TASK: CONDITIONS:

CONDUCT A VEHICLE SEARCH (1-23) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT, COMMANDER S GUIDANCE AND VEHICLE WITH SIMULATED BOMB PLANTED IN A HIDDEN LOCATION. THE SEABEE MUST CONDUCT A VEHICLE SEARCH AS PER REFERENCE.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: Given a tactical scenario in any combat environment (day or night), the Seabee is provided a commander guidance and a vehicle with simulated bomb planted in a s hidden location The Seabee must understand and demonstrate proper vehicle search procedure.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Receive, understand and demonstrate vehicle search procedure. a. Prepare for the search 1) Select a search area Note: The search area is usually located near the Guard Post or near the entry/exit point of the installation. 2) Direct the vehicle to the search area Note: Allow only one vehicle in the search area at a time 3) Direct passenger to exit the vehicle (search if required) 4) Have assistant escort passengers to a designated guarded area 5) Direct the vehicle operator to shut-off engine, and have him/her open all doors and compartments including trunk, engine compartment and personal baggage 6) Have the assistant escort the vehicle operator to the designated guarded area b. Perform a systematic search Note: The following are guidelines for conducting a systematic search: Work around the vehicle in a circular like manner Close each door/compartments after searching that part of the vehicle Use your eyes not your hands in the search Use a flashlight to check darken area 1-140

Use a mirror attached to a metal or wooden rod to check under the vehicle Look for anything that your Guard Orders tell you to include weapons, ammunition, firearms, explosives, classified materials and contrabands

2) Inspect the front of the vehicle a) Check around the bumper and around grill and radiator b) Check under the fenders and inside wheelwells 3) Inspect the engine compartment a) Check for any items attached to the bulkheads and hood areas b) Check for tampering of the soundproofing/fireproofing materials c) Check for hidden items in and around accessories such as filters, starters, alternators, etc. 4) Inspect the sides and undercarriage a) Check components of the exhaust system b) Check around the frame rails 5) Inspect the rear of the vehicle a) Check the trunk area b) Check the outside rear of the vehicle to include the bumper c) Check cargo area 6) Inspect the interior of the vehicle a) Check under and behind the seats b) Check under the dashboard panel c) Check for tampering of areas such as door panels c. Determine result of search 1) If no suspicious items are found, direct the vehicle operator drive the vehicle from the search area 2) If a suspected explosive device or suspicious items are found, perform the following: a) Immediately stop your search b) Secure the area c) Search the vehicle operator and passengers d) Notify the Officer of the Day by phone or messenger 1-141

Note:

Do not use a radio to send a message.

REFERENCE: FMFM 7-37, Vehicle Bomb Search Reference Publication

1-142

TASK: CONDITIONS:

PROCESS ENEMY PERSONNEL (1-24) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), TOA WEAPON WITH AMMUNITION AND SUSPECTED ENEMY PERSONNEL. THE SEABEE MUST PROCESS ENEMY PERSONNEL AS PER THE FIVE S's.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: Given a tactical scenario in any combat environment (during the day or at night), the Seabee is provided suspected enemy personnel with weapons, equipment, documents, and identification tags; a boot lace or 72-inch nylon cord; and assistance, if possible. The Seabee must restrain suspected enemy personnel, and process enemy prisoners of war (EPW) from capture through headquarters, following the sequence of the five S's, i.e., search, segregate, silence, speed, and safeguard. The Seabee must tag prisoners and secure weapons, paper, and equipment for safe and expeditious evacuation.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Search, restrain, and tag suspected enemy personnel; and secure equipment, property, and papers. a. Prepare to search each EPW. NOTE: Never attempt to search or to even get within an arm's reach of an EPW until you have him in an off-balance or immobile position.

1) Disarm suspected enemy personnel and confiscate all weapons. 2) Indicate by speech and actions that you are confident and will shoot if necessary. 3) DO NOT allow the EPW to talk, look back, move arms, or otherwise distract you. 4) Order the EPW to spread-eagle against a tree or wall, or get in a pushup position with his knees on the ground. WARNING: Casualties and corpses may be boobytrapped. When you approach a motionless body, proceed cautiously to search. Lay next to him and roll him over, keeping his body between you and a possible grenade or weapon that may be concealed under him. b. Initiate the search. NOTE: If a guard is assisting your search, keep out of his line of fire. One Seabee conducts the search while the other remains far enough away to observe the EPWs. DO NOT get between the EPW and the guard at any time!

1) Search the EPW's body.

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- Pat the EPW's entire body, paying particular attention to his armpits, arms, back, groin area, and legs. 2) Search the EPW's clothing. - Search the clothing folds around his waist, chest, and the top of his boots. NOTE: Knives can be concealed on a string around the neck or taped to any area of the body. Be extremely cautious when putting your hand in an EPW's pocket or in the fold of his clothes. He/she may grab your arm and throw you. If possible, turn pocket inside out.

3) DO NOT relax your guard after completing your search. c. Restrain the EPWs. - Tie the EPW's hands behind his back, using a piece of rope, a bootlace, or any appropriate binding material. d. Secure and process equipment, property, and papers. 1) Take equipment, property, and papers. NOTE: Leave identification papers and protective masks with the EPWs. 2) Give written receipt for any property taken. 3) Tag personal property and documents or use a piece of paper to note information (Figures 1 & 2 show a front and rear view of a combination capture and document tag).

1-144

Figure 1 e. Tag EPWs.

Figure 2

1) Write the following information on the EPW tag or piece of paper (Figure 2). a) Date and time of capture b) Place of capture (grid coordinates or reference from a known point) c) Circumstances of capture (how it happened) d) Weapons (type) e) Documents 1-145

f)

Capturing unit (complete unit identification)

2) Tie the tag securely around the EPW's neck (or around his arm if his hands are tied behind his back). 2. Segregate EPWs. Isolate to reduce talking and the possibility of organization. Separate EPWs as follows: a. b. c. d. e. 3. Gender Commissioned Officers Noncommissioned Officers Enlisted Personnel Civilian Combatants

Silence EPWs. Maintain the silence from segregation through the remaining procedures, using a gag, tape, etc., if necessary.

4.

Speed EPWs to the rear. Release EPWs, captured gear, and documents to higher authority as soon as possible so that all can be transported to the interrogation area.

5.

Safeguard EPWs. a. b. c. Allow no abuse of EPWs. Protect EPWs from hazards of enemy fire. Do not allow anyone to give EPWs food, water, or cigarettes unless authorized by assigned interrogator. If an EPW is wounded and cannot be evacuated through the usual channels, apply first aid and then release him/her to a medical corpsman for treatment, ensuring that he is guarded and that security precautions are exercised.

d.

REFERENCES: FMFRP 0-14, Marine Corps Supplement to DoD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms FM 19-15, Civil Disturbances FM 21-75, Combat Skills of the Soldier FM 21-150, Combatives

1-146

TASK: CONDITIONS:

SUBMIT A SPOT REPORT (1-25) PROVIDED A REQUIREMENT TO SUBMIT A SPOT REPORT, A RADIO, A MESSAGE BOOK, BINOCULARS, AND/OR NIGHT VISION DEVICES, PAPER, AND PENCIL. AS PER THE REFERENCES, OBSERVE ACTIVITIES, GATHER DATA ON THE ENEMY AND SUBMIT A REPORT WITHOUT ERROR IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SALUTE REPORT FORMAT.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED FOR TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a compass, a radio, call signs, a frequency, binoculars and/or a night-vision device, visible enemy activity, a message book, pen or pencil, paper, and the SALUTE report format.

Standard:The Seabee must observe and report data as soon as it is known using the SALUTE format. The Seabee must submit a spot report along with any additional documentation, such as maps, photographs, overlays, sketches, and captured documents, without error to higher authority. Administrative Note: See: TASK: REPORT INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION (1-22)

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Prepare a spot report using the SALUTE report format. (See TASK: REPORT INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION (1-22).) Submit the spot report to higher authority.

2.

REFERENCES: FMFM 6-5, Marine Rifle Squad FMFM 6-7, Scouting and Patrolling for Infantry Units FM 7-8, The Infantry Platoon and Squad (Infantry, Airborne, Air Assault, Ranger) FM 21-75, Combat Skills of the Soldier

1-147

TASK: CONDITIONS:

PERFORM AS A MEMBER OF NMCB INTERIOR GUARD (1-26) NMCB COMMANDER MAY ESTABLISH AN INTERIOR OF THE GUARD TO PRESERVE ORDER, PROTECT PROPERTY AND ENFORCE THE SEABEE MUST HAVE A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF THE NMCB INTERIOR OF THE GUARD ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND ELEMENTS OF THE ORGANIZATION AS TO THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND FUNCTIONAL CONTRIBUTION TOWARD FULFILLING THE MISSION OBJECTIVE AS PER REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided with a mission of the Naval Mobile Construction Battalion (NMCB).

Standard:The Seabee must identify the elements of the Interior of the Guard organization and be familiar with their function and responsibilities.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1 2. Identify the elements of the organization and be familiar with their responsibilities. Know your Chain of Command; who they are and state their function as a member of the battalion interior of the guard organization NOTE: You fall into one of the following members of the battalion. Therefore , know what your responsibilities are so that you can function properly and effectively towards mission accomplishment.

3.

State battalion member duties and responsibilities. s a. As the Commanding Officer (CO) of the battalion or Officer in Charge (OIC) of an independent detail, you have the following responsibilities to the organization. 1) 2) you have the ultimate responsibility for the security of the command. you are responsible for providing an interior guard adequate to cope with any threat to the safety, security or good order of the battalion.

b.

As the Security Officer (S.O.) , your responsibilities are as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) supervises the entire interior guard. you may be assigned various other duties pertaining to the security of the command. you are the CO's personal representative. you receives orders from the CO only. NOTE: During an emergency, the senior officer present may issue orders to the Security Officer for the employment of the guard. 1-148

c.

As the Command Duty Officer (CDO), your duties includes but are not limited to the following: 1) 2) you supervise the main guard. you are in charged with the execution of all orders of the CO concerning security of the area within his assigned jurisdiction and the safety and general duties of the command. In the absence of special instructions from the CO, you will inspect the guard as often as he considers necessary. NOTE: You will inspect at least once between midnight and daylight. Whenever necessary, you direct inspections of the guard by other officers/noncommissioned officers of the guard.

3)

4)

In case of alarm, you would acts immediately to protect life and government property and preserve order. Takes orders only from the CO or Security Officer. Keeps the Officer Of The Day (OOD) informed of his location at all times. Maintains a CDO log, which contains a concise account of his tour of duty. When formal relief is prescribed, you will examine the log of the OOD, cause any errors therein to be corrected, and effect the relief of the OOD. You then report to the CO or his/her representative with the new CDO.

5) 6) 7) 8)

d.

As the Officer Of the Day (OOD), your duties includes the following: 1) 2) Ensures proper instruction, discipline, and performance of the duty of the main guard. Obeys the orders of the CO, Security Officer, and CDO. NOTE: You also report to the CDO any additional orders, which he/she or other authorized persons have issued.

3)

Ensures that all members of the guard are correctly instructed in their orders and duties and that they understand and properly perform them. Inspects the guard when directed by the CDO but must inspect each relief at least once while on post. NOTE: Ensures that the men/women, their arms, and their equipment are in proper condition.

4)

5) 6) 7)

Keeps the Junior Officer Of the Day (JOOD) informed of his/her location at all times. When an alarm is sounded, you will expeditiously form the reserve, if necessary. If the situation is serious, you notify the CDO immediately. Details personnel to raise and lower the National Ensign at Morning and Evening Colors. NOTE: Also ensures that the National Ensign is kept in good condition and never handled except in the performance of duty. You report to the CDO when the flag is not in serviceable condition. 1-149

8) 9)

Ensures that reliefs are posted on schedule. Unless otherwise ordered, you may permit members of the guard not on post to leave the Quarterdeck for short periods of time.

10) Informs the CDO immediately of any dangerous, suspicious, or unusual occurrence. 11) Notifies the CDO when any person is apprehended by the guard and will detain such person at the Quarterdeck for appropriate action by the CDO. 12) Insures the security of prisoners under charge of the guard. 13) When formal relief is prescribed, you will examine the log of the Junior Officer Of the Day (JOOD) and cause any errors therein to be corrected and effect the relief of the Junior Officer Of the Day (JOOD) before being relieved. 14) Maintains an OOD log, which contains a concise account of his tour of duty. e. As the Junior Officer Of the Day (JOOD), your duties are the following: 1) Assists the OOD in ensuring proper instruction, discipline, and performance of duty of the main guard. Obeys the orders of the CO, Security Officer, CDO, and OOD. Ensures that the property under charge of the guard is cared for and accounted for properly. Assigns members of the guard for reliefs. NOTE: "Reliefs", in this case, are defined as "Those members of the interior guard, who under the supervision of and including a Petty Officer Of the Watch (POOW), have the same watch."

2) 3) 4)

5) 6)

Ensures that all reliefs are turned out for posting at the proper time. Ensures that Petty Officers of the Watch (POOWs) understand their duties thoroughly and carry them out promptly and efficiently. When absent from the Quarterdeck, you will direct the Petty Officer Of the Watch (POOW) of the relief on post to perform his/her Quarterdeck duties until his return. Keeps the Petty Officer of the Watch (POOW) informed of his/her location at all times. When the Petty Officer Of the Watch (POOW) of the relief on post is absent from the Quarterdeck, the JOOD assumes his/her duties temporarily, or designates another member of the guard to do so.

7)

8) 9)

10) Ensures that the Quarterdeck and its grounds are maintained in proper conditions. 11) Informs the OOD immediately of any dangerous, suspicious, or unusual occurrence. 12) Notifies the OOD when any person is apprehended by the guard. 13) Forms the guard whenever necessary. 1-150

14) When formal relief is prescribed, you will effect the relief of the Petty Officers of the Watch (POOWs). 15) Maintains the JOOD log and enters therein concise accounts of all important and pertinent vents which transpire during the tour of duty and which affect the guard. NOTE: The JOOD must exercise care in preparing the log, which is an official record of the command.

16) Signs your name and rate/rank under your last entry in the log. f. As the Petty Officer of the Watch (POOW), your duties are the following: 1) 2) Supervises the members of the guard assigned to his/her relief (duty section). Performs the Quarterdeck duties of the JOOD when the latter is absent from the Quarterdeck. Obeys orders from the CO, Security Officer, CDO, OOD, and JOOD. Assigns sentries on your relief to posts. a) You prepare, in duplicate, a list showing the number of relief, each member's name, rank/rate, and assigned post. You keep one copy and give the other to the JOOD.

3) 4)

b) 5) 6)

Must understand the special orders of every sentry on your relief. You must form your relief in sufficient time to accomplish the following: a) b) c) Issue guard property/equipment. Inspect appearance, fitness for duty, and condition of arms. Issue ammunition and supervise loading of weapons (if authorized).

7) 8)

Reports immediately to the JOOD all violations of regulations and unusual occurrences. Notifies the JOOD when any person is detained, or apprehended by the guard. -Escorts all persons apprehended to the Quarterdeck for appropriate action by the CDO.

g.

As the Fire and Security, your duties includes but not limited to the following: 1) You will memorize, understand, and comply with the general orders for sentries. NOTE: In addition, you will understand and comply with the regulations relating to general orders, and with special orders applying to their particular posts.

2)

As supernumeraries, you will understand the special orders for all posts on which they could be posted, and comply with those for the particular post if posted thereon as a sentry. As members of the guard not on post, you will remain in the immediate vicinity of the 1-151

3)

Quarterdeck except when granted permission to leave by the OOD. 4) Memorize the General Orders of the Sentry. NOTES: General orders apply to all sentries of the main and special guards, but not to the brig guards. Sentries are required to memorize, understand, and comply with the eleven general orders unless otherwise instructed by special orders. 5) Know the challenge (Countersign) procedures a) When a challenge and password are prescribed, the challenge is given by the sentry after the person has advanced to be recognized. -A sentry observes a person approaching his/her post during the time for challenging.

b)

The person challenged should then give the password. -While the person is still far enough away for the sentry to take effective protective measures in case the individual should rush him after being challenged, the sentry commands, "HALT! Who is there?" NOTE: Both the challenge and the password are given in a low tone to prevent them from being heard by others.

--

After receiving a reply (such as, LT Jones, B Company, NMCB4") indicating the individual is friendly and may be authorized to pass, the sentry says, "Advance Captain Jones to be recognized."

When LT Jones Reaches a point where the challenge is spoken in a low tone, and can be heard only by him/her, the sentry again commands, "HALT!" The sentry gives the challenge to LT Jones (e.g. BASEBALL"). Upon receiving the correct password from LT Jones (e.g. "ROOSTER"), and otherwise satisfying himself/herself that LT Jones is authorized to pass, the sentry says, "Advance LT Jones", and salutes, if appropriate. Use deadly force as the last resort and on the following situations: a) Deadly force is defined as "that force which a person uses with the purpose of causing or, which he knows or should reasonably know, would create substantial risk of causing death or serious bodily harm." Deadly force is justified only under conditions of extreme necessity and only as a last resort when all lesser means have failed or cannot reasonably be employed. The firing of weapons at another person by a member of the guard is considered justified only under one or more of the following circumstances: (1) (2) In self defense and defense of others. In defense of assets involving national security. 1-152

6)

b)

c)

(3)

In defense of property not involving national security but inherently dangerous to others. To prevent or interrupt serious offenses against persons. To make an arrest or apprehension. To prevent escapes.

(4) (5) (6) d)

Additional requirements for the use of firearms: (1) WARNING SHOTS are prohibited and WILL NOT BE FIRED. (2) When a firearm is discharged, it will be fired with the intent of rendering the person(s) at whom it is discharged incapable of continuing the activity or course of behavior prompting the individual to shoot. (3) Shots shall be fired only with due regard for the safety of innocent bystanders. (4) In the case of holstered weapons, a weapon should not be removed from the holster unless there is reasonable expectation that use of the weapon may be necessary.

e)

All watchstanders are required to know and understand the Commanding Officer's Rules of Engagement (ROE). These ROE take precedence over all other guidance.

REFERENCE: NAVMC 2691A, U.S. Marine Interior Guard Manual

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TASK:

PERFORM AS A FIRE TEAM MEMBER IN CIVIL DISTURBANCE SITUATIONS (1-27) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT, COMMANDER S GUIDANCE AND RIOT CONTROL EQUIPMENT. THE SEABEE MUST PERFORM THEIR ASSIGNED DUTIES AS AFIRE TEAM MEMBER IN CIVIL DISTURBANCE SITUATIONS AS PER THE REFERENCES.

CONDITIONS:

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical scenario in any combat environment, commander guidance and riot control equipment. s

Standard:The Seabee must perform their assigned duties as a fire team member in a civil disturbance situation.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Describe the procedure necessary to perform as a fire team member in civil disturbance situations. a. Demonstrate weapons stances 1) Use riot baton except for extremely violent crowds, the baton is the most appropriate weapon. (see Figure 1 through 4).

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Figure 1 NOTES: Parade Rest Position On-Guard Position Parade rest position is the relax ready position. The feet are shoulder width apart. The left palm is facing out. The right palm is facing in toward the body. The hands are approximately 6 inches from the ends of the baton. NOTES:

Figure 2

The on-guard position is the ready position. It should not be maintained for long periods of time because it is tiring. To assume the position, the left foot is placed forward of the right foot. The feet are spread apart, and the knees are slightly bent. The right hand and the butt end of the baton are placed snugly against the hip. The body is bent slightly forward at the waist. The left arm is bent so that the forearm protects the soldiers throat area, yet allows a thrust to be made.

1-155

PORT POSITION

Figure 3

Figure 4

NOTES: The port position is a ready position. It is particularly well suited for individual defense. The right hand and forearm are level with the left shoulder. The striking end of the baton bisects the angle between the neck and the left shoulder. The baton is held approximately 8 inches from the body. The feet are shoulder width apart. 2) 3) Use rifle if a situation is serious. A mix of batons and rifles may be required. Use the riot control agents or water to distract, deter, or disable. Usually their effects are temporary. Use riot control formations. Past civil disturbances indicate that the most frequently used formations are as follows: the line, the wedge, and the echelon. (See Figure 5 through 8).

4)

1-156

Figure 5 a) Line shall be use to hold the crowd or to deny access to restricted streets or areas.

Figure 6 b) Wedge shall be use to penetrate and split crowds. (Figure 7)

1-157

Figure 7 c) Echelon shall be use to move crowds away from buildings, fences, and walls. (Figure 8A).

Figure 8A

1-158

Figure 8B d) Diamond and Circle shall be use offensively to enter a crowd or to apprehend ring leaders. NOTES: When encountering large riotous groups, it may be best to employ vehicles with troops on foot in crowd control formations. Many suitable variations of the crowd control formations can be employed. But appropriate commands and signals must be devised to execute the formations. 5) Apply the Apprehension, Search and Come-along Techniques as require. a) Apprehend the lawbreakers and turn them over to the civilian authorities at the earliest possible moment.

b) Search the detainees immediately if the Rules of Engagement do not forbid this. SEARCHES MUST BE CONDUCTED BY AT LEAST TWO PEOPLE. SAFETY WARNING: Use caution when conducting physical searches. Individuals may be carrying sharp objects such as hypodermic needles.

(c)

Come-along techniques shall be use to move resisting offenders. Flexcuffs or handcuffs must be placed on resisters before moving them.

REFERENCE: FM 19-15, Civil Disturbances

1-159

TASK: CONDITIONS:

ENGAGE TARGETS WITH HAND GRENADES (1-28) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), INDIVIDUAL COMBAT EQUIPMENT (782 GEAR), THE VARIOUS TYPES OF HAND GRENADES, AND A TARGET. THE SEABEE MUST EFFECTIVELY ENGAGE TARGETS WITH HAND GRENADES AS PER THE REFERENCE.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical scenario in any combat environment, individual combat equipment (782 gear), helmet, body armor, ear plugs, hand grenades, and a target. The Seabee must inspect, carry, and prepare hand grenades for throwing, and effectively engage targets within 5 meters, using one of the positions discussed below.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Inspect hand grenade for defects. a. Check the grenade fuze assembly for tightness. NOTE: The fuze must be tightly fitted to the grenade fuze well. If the fuze is loose, obtain another grenade.

b.

Check the safety pin pull ring 1 (Figure 1) and the safety pin 2 (Figure 1) to ensure that they are securely attached to the fuze. Check the safety clip 3 (Figure 1) and make sure it is attached to the fuze and safety lever 4 (Figure 1). Check the safety lever 4 (Figure 1) and make sure the safety lever is not broken. NOTE: If the safety lever is broken, obtain another grenade.

c.

d.

2.

Carry hand grenades properly in the holders on the M16 ammunition pouch (Figure 2).

3.

Figure 1 Prepare hand grenade for throwing. 1-160

Figure 2

a.

Grip the hand grenade firmly as shown (Figure 3).

Right-handed Grip Figure 3 b. Hold the safety lever down firmly under your thumb. NOTES:

Left-handed Grip

Left-handed throwers should ensure that the top of the fuze points down. The opposite hand should be able to pull the safety pin straight out.

4.

Engage target with hand grenade. NOTE: Use any of the appropriate positions when engaging your target. Your tactical situation will dictate which position to use. The three common positions are standing, kneeling, and prone.

a.

Assume the STANDING POSITION to allow the greatest throwing distance (Figure 4).

Figure 4

Figure 5

1) Stand half facing the target with your weight balanced evenly on both feet.

1-161

2) Hold grenade in front of your body, shoulder high; then remove the safety clip 3 (Figure 1). 3) Hook forefinger of your other hand through the safety pin pull ring 1 (Figure 1) attached to the safety pin 2 (Figure 1) 4) Remove the safety pin by pulling and twisting the safety pin pull ring. 5) Throw grenade, and follow through by stepping forward as you throw. 6) Fall forward, face down, on the ground. NOTE: When possible, keep your eyes on the target to observe the strike of the grenade to make corrections, if necessary, in the next throw. b. Assume the KNEELING POSITION when you have a low wall, shallow ditch, or similar cover for protection. 1) Hold grenade shoulder high, half face the target, and kneel on your knee nearest the target (Figure 5). 2) Hold grenade in front of your body, shoulder high; then remove the safety clip. 3) Hook the forefinger of your other hand through the safety pin pull ring attached to the safety pin. 4) Remove the safety pin by pulling and twisting the safety pin pull ring. 5) Throw the grenade, and continue to fall forward, face down, upon the ground. c. Assume the PRONE POSITION when you are pinned down by hostile fire and are unable to rise to engage target. 1) Lie on your back with your body perpendicular to the grenade's line of flight 5, (Figure 6). hold grenade in front of your body, shoulder high; then remove the safety clip. 2) Hook forefinger of your other hand through the safety pin pull ring attached to the safety pin. 3) Remove the safety pin by pulling and twisting the safety pin pull ring. 4) Hold on to any substantial object 6 (Figure 6) while throwing to improve range and accuracy. 5) Throw grenade 7 (Figure 6), and roll onto your stomach 8 (Figure 6) to complete followthrough.

1-162

Figure 6

REFERENCE: FM 23-30, Grenades and Pyrotechnic Signals

1-163

TASK: CONDITIONS:

EMPLOY THE M49A1 TRIP FLARE (1-29) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), AN M49A1 TRIP FLARE, FIELD WIRE OR STRING, TREES OR STAKES, AND DIRECTION OF PROBABLE ENEMY ADVANCE. THE SEABEE MUST EMPLOY/RECOVER AN M49A1 TRIP FLARES AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: Given a tactical scenario in any combat environment (day and night), an M49A1 trip flare, trip wire, field wire or string, trees or stakes, and direction of probable enemy advance. The Seabee must emplace arm, camouflage, and recover an M49A1 trip flare without causing an accidental detonation.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. 2. Inspect for corrosion and usability or defect. Emplace the M49A1 trip flare (Pull-Pin Method). NOTE: The burning period of the M49A1 trip flare is 55 to 70 seconds, the illumination radius of the trip flare is 300 meters, and the trip flare is initiated by a taut or loose trip wire. The trip flare produces approximately 50,000 candlepower of illumination. Never look directly at a burning flare because it can damage your eyes.

CAUTION:

a.

Attach the trip flare to a post, or tree in a vertical position between 15 to 18 inches above the ground using the mounting bracket 1 (Figure 1). Position the flare to illuminate the field toward the enemy.

1-164

Figure 1 b. Lower the trip flare 2 into the mounting bracket. Slide the flare downward until the bottom edge of the lever 3 is approximately within 1/16 of an inch above the mounting bracket 1. Tighten the upper wingnut 4 to clamp the flare into the mounting bracket.

c. 3.

Arm the trip flare. a. b. Attach the trip wire to an anchor, then to the trigger 5. Pull on the trip wire until the tabs/wings of the trigger are in a vertical positions 6 (Figure 2) over the safety lever 7 and secure it. NOTE: For the loose trip wire initiation, attach the trip wire to the eye of the safety pin 8 on the top of the trip flare.

c. d. e. f.

Figure 2 Depress the safety lever 7 against the flare. Ensure the trigger is in a vertical position 6 over the safety lever 7. Remove the safety clip 9. Carefully release hold on the lever 7, allowing the lever to rest against the trigger 6. NOTE: The trip flare is now armed.

4.

Camouflage the trip flare. NOTE: The terrain will dictate what type of camouflage to use. The important factor is to conceal the trip flare from the enemy's view. Ensure your camouflage is positioned where it will NOT catch on fire. If possible, position your camouflage out in front of your trip flare and NOT on top of it.

5.

Recover the trip flare. 1-165

a. b. c. d. e.

Remove the camouflage. Insert the safety clip. Cut the trip wire near the trigger. Unscrew the top wingnut on the bracket and remove the flare. Remove the mounting bracket from where it is mounted.

REFERENCES: FM 5-34, Engineer Field Data FM 23-30, Grenades and Pyrotechnic Signals

1-166

TASK: CONDITIONS:

EMPLOY THE M18A1 CLAYMORE MINE (1-30) GIVEN A TACTICAL DEFENSIVE SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), AN M7 BANDOLEER CONTAINING AN M18A1 CLAYMORE MINE, AN M57 FIRING DEVICE, AN M40 TEST SET, FIRING WIRE WITH ELECTRICAL BLASTING CAP. THE SEABEE MUST EMPLOY/RECOVER THE M18A1 MINE AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: Given a tactical defensive scenario in any combat environment (day and night), an M7 bandoleer containing an M18A1 claymore mine, M57 firing device, M40 test set, firing wire with electrical blasting cap, E-Tool, individual combat equipment (782 gear), wood stakes, helmet, and body armor and hearing protection.

Standard:The Seabee must perform circuit testing, install, arm, camouflage, and fire the M18A1 mine to cause detonation or recover the mine without causing accidental detonation. Administrative Notes: During training, the Seabee will wear 782 gear, helmet, and body armor. When armed with a rifle, the rifle will be positioned over the Seabee's back using the sling or placed alongside the Seabee with muzzle pointing towards the enemy.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. 2. Inspect all components for serviceability. Perform circuit testing. a. Remove the dust covers 1 from the connectors of the M57 firing device and the M40 test set (Figure 1) Plug the M40 test set into the M57 firing device. NOTE: One out of every six bandoleers has an M-40 test set. A green tag identifies the bandoleer.

b.

c.

Swing the safety bail 2 on the M57 firing device to the FIRE position 3. NOTE: The safety bail swings between the FIRE position 3 and SAFETY position 4.

d.

Depress the firing handle 5 and watch the window 6 of the M40 test set for a flash of light. NOTE: Flashing light indicates that the M57 and M40 are functioning correctly. If you still do not see a light, this indicates that the firing wire is defective. This will happen if you drag the firing wire across a sharp object when moving away from the mine. If this is the case, you must start over with a new firing wire or repair the damaged wire.

e.

Place the safety bail in the SAFE position 4 (Figure 1). 1-167

f.

Remove the dust cover from the other side of the M40 test set and the shorting plug 10 from the connector of the firing wire. Plug the connector of the firing wire 7 (Figure 2) into the M40 test set 8.

g.

Figure 1 WARNING:

Figure 2

Place the attached blasting cap 9 behind a tree, in a hole, or under a sandbag to avoid injury if the blasting cap detonates during the circuit checks. Before testing, move to a safe distance.

h. i.

Swing the safety bail on the M57 firing device to the FIRE position. Depress the firing handle, and watch the window of the M40 test set for a flash of light, which indicates a good circuit. NOTES: If you cannot see a light, check all the plug connections to make sure they are tight, then try again. If you still do not see a light, this is a good indicator that the firing wire is defective. This will happen if you drag the firing wire across a sharp object when moving away from the mine. If this is the case, you must start over with new firing wire or repair the old wire.

j. k. 3.

Place the M57 firing device on safe. Disconnect the M40 test set and M57 firing device from the firing wire connector.

Install the mine. a. b. c. Put the shorting plug 10 (Figure 2) back on the firing wire connector. Tie the shorting plug end of the firing wire to a fixed object (stake, tree, etc.) at the firing position. Select a site within 250 meters of the desired sector of fire (kill zone) (Figure 3).

1-168

Figure 3 CAUTION: Ensure that friendly troops are no closer than 16 meters to the rear of the mine. If within 16 to 100 meters of rear, ensure that cover is available. During installation, the M57 firing device must be kept beside the Seabee installing the mine to prevent accidental firing by another Seabee.

d.

Place bandoleer on your shoulder and unroll the firing wire to the selected position for placing the mine. Remove the mine from the bandoleer. Open both pairs of legs to a 45-degree angle with two legs facing the front and two legs facing the rear of the mine. Position the mine on the ground with the words "FRONT TOWARD ENEMY" pointing toward the kill zone. Push the legs about one-third of the way into the ground. NOTE: There are two types of sights on the M18A1 claymore mine. They are the slit type peep sight and the knife-edge sight. If you have the slit-type peep sight, proceed to step h. If you have the knife-edge sight, proceed to step i.

e.

f.

g.

h.

Using the SLIT-TYPE PEEP SIGHT, select an aiming point (tree, rock, etc.) about 50 meters (approximately 150 feet) to the front of the mine and about 2 1/2 meters (8 feet) above the ground (Figure 4).

Figure 4

Figure 5

1-169

- Position your eye about 6 inches to the rear of the sight and aim the mine toward the center of the target area. NOTE: i. The groove of the sight should be in line with the aiming point.

Using the KNIFE-EDGE SIGHT, select an aiming point at ground level about 50 meters (approximately 150 feet) in front of the mine. - Position your eye about 6 inches to the rear of the sight and align the two edges of the sight with the aiming point (Figure 5).

4.

Arm the mine. a. b. Ensure that the firing device is in your possession. Unscrew one of the shipping plug priming adapters and carefully slide the slotted end of the priming adapter onto the firing wire of the blasting cap 11, between the crimped connection and the blasting cap (Figure 6). Insert the blasting cap into the detonator well 12, and screw in the adapter.

c.

Figure 6 WARNINGS: To avoid premature detonation, do not drop the blasting cap! Always point the blasting cap out and away from the body.

d.

Secure the firing wire to an anchor point about 1 meter to the rear of the mine so that the mine will not become misarranged if the wire is disturbed.

5.

Camouflage the mine and the firing wire. NOTE: The terrain will determine the type and amount of camouflage needed. Remember that your camouflage must blend the mine with the surrounding area so the enemy is unable to visually detect it.

a. b. 6.

Recheck the aim of the mine. Bury the firing wire, if possible, and move back to your firing position.

Fire the mine. a. Retest the circuit with the M40 test set after the firing wire is laid out and after the blasting cap is placed inside the mine. 1-170

NOTE:

To retest the circuit, see step 2 (perform circuit testing). Ensure that all friendly troops within 250 meters to the front and sides and 100 meters to the rear of the mine are under cover. Position yourself behind cover or in a fighting position when re-testing the circuit with a blasting cap inserted in the mine.

WARNING:

b.

Ensure that the safety bail on the M57 firing device is in the SAFE position until ready for use. NOTE: In a training situation, do not leave the firing devices connected to the firing wire until actual time of firing.

c.

Position the firing-device safety bail to the FIRE position when the lead element of enemy formation approaches within 6-9 meters (20-30 feet) of the mine. Squeeze the firing device handle with a firm, quick squeeze to fire the mine.

d. 7.

Recover the mine. a. b. Place the M57 firing device safety bail in the SAFE position. Disconnect the firing wire from the M57 firing device and replace the dust covers on the connectors. NOTE: c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Ensure that you keep the firing device with you throughout the recovery process.

Untie the firing wire from the anchor point at the firing position. Move to the claymore and unscrew and remove the priming adapter from the mine. Remove the blasting cap from the priming adapter and place it back on the firing wire spool. Screw the adapter back into the detonating well. Remove the firing wire from the anchor point, and place the blasting cap inside the firing wire reel. Pick up the mine and secure the folding legs against the bottom of the mine. Roll up the firing wire. Repack the mine and accessories into the M7 bandoleer.

REFERENCES: FM 5-34, Engineer Field Data FM 20-32, Mine/Countermine Operations

1-171

TASK: CONDITIONS:

LOCATE POSSIBLE MINE AND BOOBYTRAP SITES (1-31) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY OR NIGHT), CONTAINING POSSIBLE MINE AND BOOBYTRAP SITES. THE SEABEE MUST LOCATE POSSIBLE MINE AND BOOBYTRAP SITES BY TERRAIN ANALYSIS, EITHER FROM A STATIONARY OBSERVATION POINT OR WHEN MOVING THROUGH AN AREA AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: Given a tactical scenario in any combat environment (day and night) containing possible mine and boobytrap sites, body armor, helmet, probe (nonmetallic), engineer tape or rope, wood stakes, and a map of the area. The Seabee must reduce the effectiveness of enemy mines and boobytraps by properly demonstrating general precautionary measures. The Seabee must search, detect, mark, and report mines and boobytraps without causing an accidental detonation.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Demonstrate general precautionary measures. a. b. c. d. 2. Wear body armor and a helmet. Approach mines and boobytraps with caution. Travel with a companion (buddy system). Maintain dispersion/intervals of personnel.

Search for enemy mines and boobytraps. CAUTION: Do not wear sunglasses, because they make you less able to detect trip wires, camouflaged mines, and boobytraps.

a.

Search for trip wires in the following places: 1) Across trails 2) On the shoulders of roads at likely ambush sites 3) Near known or suspected anti-tank or anti-vehicle mines 4) Across the best route through dense plant growth 5) In villages and on roads or paths into them 6) In or around likely helicopter landing sites 7) In approaches to enemy positions 8) At bridges, fords, and ditches 1-172

b.

Search for indications of mine and boobytrap placement using terrain analysis in the following places: 1) Mud smear, mudballs, dung, boards or other material on a road 2) Signs of road repair 3) Disturbed tire marks, ruts, or skid marks 4) Wires leading away from the side of a road 5) Unusual terrain features 6) Suspicious items in trees or bushes 7) Enemy markings (The enemy will mark most mine/boobytrap locations in some way.) 8) Where civilians travel NOTE: Civilians may know where mines or boobytraps are located; so observe where they don't go. 9) Enemy flags, banners, equipment, or supplies

3.

Detect enemy mines and boobytraps. NOTE: Detect mines by probing suspicious spots or piercing the earth with a sharp object (nonmetallic). This is the best way to find buried mines, but it is slow work and must be done carefully.

a.

Prepare for probing. 1) Remove any personal items that might interfere with your ability to probe. NOTE: These items might include ALICE pack or web gear. Depending upon the circumstances under which you find yourself, these items may either be staged or placed behind you and pulled along as you go. Probing is only done as a last resort. Always keep your weapon ready and close by you. 2) Securely fasten or remove your helmet. 3) Roll up your sleeves. NOTE: This will help you detect trip wires at night or in thick vegetation. 4) Lower your body as you look and feel downward. 5) Inspect the ground for a spot to place your knees.

b.

Conduct probing. 1) Hold the probe in your hand, palm up at approximately forty-five (45) degrees. 2) Probe from a prone or kneeling position. 1-173

3) Probe every 2 inches across a 1-meter front. 4) Push the probe gently into the ground at an angle less than 45 degrees. 5) Put just enough pressure on the probe to sink it slowly into the ground. NOTE: If the probe does not go into the ground, chip or pick away the soil with the tip of the probe. Remove the dirt by your hand. 6) Stop probing, and remove the earth when a solid object is touched. 4. Mark the mine or boobytrap. a. b. Remove enough dirt from around the mine to determine the type of mine. Mark the mine and trip wires by tying a piece of paper, cloth, or engineer tape to a stake, and put the stake in the ground by the mine and trip wires. NOTE: Any available marking method may be used as long as each member of the unit understands it.

5.

Report the mine or boobytrap. a. Report the type of boobytrap or mine. NOTES: If the type of mine or boobytrap is known, report what it is, e.g., M15 anti-tank mine with M5 pressure release firing device. If the type of mine or boobytrap is unknown, describe the features of it. b. Report the location where you found the mine or boobytrap, including any landmarks found on the map, reference points in relation to the mine or boobytrap, distinct terrain features, etc. Report the method you used to mark the mine or boobytrap.

c.

REFERENCES FM 5-34, Engineer Field Data FM 20-32, Mine/Countermine Operations

1-174

TASK: CONDITIONS: STANDARD:

IDENTIFY NATO NBC MARKERS (1-32) GIVEN NATO NBC MARKERS. THE SEABEE MUST IDENTIFY NATO NBC MARKERS AS PER THE REFERENCES.

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided with a locally manufactured or standard NBC marking set, and sufficient data to properly complete a contamination marker.

Standard:The Seabee must state the shape, colors, and purpose of the standard NBC contamination markers provided. Based on scenario provided, the Seabee will select the appropriate marker, and will record necessary information on the front side of the marker.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Identify the radiological contamination marker (Figure 1).

Figure 1 a. b. c. d. 2. Indicate the shape of the marker. Indicate the color of the marker - white background with the word "ATOM" printed in black. Indicate the purpose of the marker. Indicate the information to be recorded on the front side of the marker.

Identify the biological contamination marker (Figure 2). a. Indicate the shape of the marker.

b.

Indicate the color of the marker - blue background with the word "BIO" printed in red. 1-175

c.

Indicate the purpose of the marker.

Figure 2 d. 3. Indicate the information to be recorded on the front side of the marker.

Identify the chemical contamination marker (Figure 3).

Figure 3 NOTE: PNP Persistant Non-Persistant

a. b. c.

Indicate the shape of the marker. Indicate the color of the marker - yellow background with the word "GAS" printed in red. Indicate the purpose of the marker. 1-176

d. 4.

Indicate the information to be recorded on the front side of the marker.

Identify the marker for a chemical minefield (unexploded mines) (Figure 4). a. b. Indicate the shape of the marker. Indicate the color of the marker - red background with the words "GAS MINES" printed in yellow.

Figure 4 c. d. Indicate the purpose of the marker. Indicate the information to be recorded on the front side of the marker. NOTE: Contamination markers are placed facing away from the contaminated area or minefield. When coming upon a marker with no writing or marking on the side you are facing, stop breathing; don and clear the field protective mask. Possibly, you have walked through the contaminated area.

WARNING:

5.

NBC Contamination Marking Kit, M274 (Figure 5).

1-177

Figure 5

REFERENCES FMFM 11-1, Nuclear, Chemical & Defensive Biological Operations in the FMF FM 3-3, Chemical and Biological Contamination Avoidance

1-178

TASK: CONDITIONS:

MAINTAIN THE MCU-2A/P PROTECTIVE MASK (1-33) GIVEN THE CURRENT MCU-2A/P MASK, SPARE PARTS, CLEANING MATERIALS, AND REPLACEMENT CANISTER (FILTER). THE SEABEE MUST MAINTAIN THE MASK AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided an MCU-2A/P protective mask, spare parts, to include replacement canister (filter), and authorized cleaning materials.

Standard:The Seabee must inspect, disassemble, clean, and replace worn or unserviceable parts of the MCU-2A/P protective mask using prescribed replacement parts, procedures, and cleaning materials/solutions. The Seabee must identify each part of the protective mask, and explain the procedures, techniques, and authorized cleaning agents for the mask.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: NOTE: The protective mask is the single most important item of individual protective equipment in NBC Warfare! As such, it must be carefully inspected and maintained. The Seabee must ensure that his or her mask is serviceable before he needs it in a contaminated environment.

1.

Inspect the MCU-2A/P series field protective mask (Figure 1). a. b. c. Remove the mask from the carrier. Take off outsert before inspecting mask. Check facepiece 1 for cracks, tears, or deterioration and separation between silicone, rubber, and the metal parts. Check faceseal (not shown on figure 1) for cracks or tears. Run finger over seal to inspect for nicks or surface irregularities. Faceseal must be soft, smooth, and pliable. Check forehead, temple, and neck tabs 3 for nicks or rips on ends of tabs where buckles connect. Run a finger around curves where tabs join facepiece to check for nicks. Check buckles 4 for bends, cracks or looseness where molded into the facepiece tabs. Pull on head harness straps. Make sure the buckles hold the strap tight. Check head harness 5 for tears, surface dirt, or mildew. Pull straps to make sure they have not lost their elasticity. Check side voicemitter retaining ring 6 for corrosion or looseness.

d.

e. f. g.

h.

i.

1-179

Figure 1` j. Check side voicemitter 7 for dents, punctures, or cracks. Check also for the four pins in the center face toward the outside of mask. Check front voicemitter retaining ring 8 for tightness using the tips of two fingers on the flat part of the ring. 1-180

k.

NOTE:

Do not attempt in any way to loosen front voicemitter ring during check for tightness.

l.

Check front voicemitter 9 for punctures or cracks. Check also for the four pins in the center face toward the outside of mask.

m. Check for outlet valve cover 10 for cracks, rips and general cleanliness inside and out. n. Check outlet valve disc and valve disc body 11 for curls, nicks, rips, dirt or moisture. Turn disc to make sure it is not stuck to valve seat. Smooth disc so that it lies flat on valve seat. Push cover back on outlet valve. Make sure cover is seated firmly. Check nosecup 12 for cracks or cuts, and that it is sealed around outlet valve flange and securely held around the front voicemitter. Also inspect for valve seat separation from the nosecup, and that nosecup valve discs are not cut and torn. Turn the discs with the tip of a finger to make sure discs are not stuck on valve seats. Check external drinking tube 13 for cracked or cut rubber and dented, cracked or loose coupling. Check internal drinking tube 14 for cracks, cuts, and to see if it is loose on the feed-thru pipe. Check inlet valve disc 15 for curls or tears. Turn disc to make sure it is not stuck to valve seat. Check lens 16 for stains or punctures; any signs of separation between the mask lens and facepiece. Check canister (filter) 17 for cracks, dents, or holes around the seams, dirt clogging the air intake and for damaged threads. Check protective hood for damage. Check carrier for damage, wear, missing straps or fasteners.

o.

p. q. r. s.

t.

u. v.

w. Check waterproofing bag for damage. x. 2. Check outsert for damaged or missing rubber strap or clips.

Maintain the MCU-2A/P protective mask. a. Clean the mask. 1) Remove the outsert from mask. 2) Separate hood from mask. 3) Unscrew and take canister off mask. Set canister in a clean dry place. WARNING: Do not let the canister get wet. The canister will be ruined if it becomes wet. 4) Remove haze from mask lens by scrubbing with wet cloth and mild liquid detergent.

WARNING: Do not place mask in boiling water. Lens damage will result. Do not drywipe lens. Lens damage may result. 1-181

NOTE: Clean the mask with mild liquid detergent and warm water to remove dirt. 5) Immerse mask, hood and outsert in mild liquid detergent and warm water. Agitate around to clean thoroughly 6) Use warm water to rinse all parts. Move parts around quickly while rinsing to remove all detergent. (Sanitize if required). 7) Dry all parts using a soft, dry cloth. Shake and dry again. 8) Hang up all parts and allow to air dry. 9) Attach hood (if applicable). 10) Replace outsert. 11) When mask is completely dry, screw in canister. b. Sanitize/disinfect masks and drinking tube. 1) Unscrew canister. Remove outsert from mask. Set canister aside in a dry area away from water to prevent water damage. 2) Soak mask in mild liquid detergent and warm water. Swirl mask about for 2 or 3 minutes. Rinse twice in clean warm water. Swirl about for 2 or 3 minutes each time. 3) Prepare enough sanitizing/disinfecting solution (made from mixing two tablespoons of liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of water to sanitize and three tablespoons to disinfect) to cover mask and outsert, soak and swirl mask and outsert for five minutes. Rinse twice in clear warm water. Swirl about two to three minutes. 4) Fill canteen with sanitizing solution. Put on canteen cap and shake canteen. 5) Flip up canteen cap cover. Push mask drinking tube coupling in canteen cap. Ensure that pin in cap enters coupling. 6) Turn up canteen. Squeeze its sides to force liquid through drinking tube. Repeat until all liquid is used. 7) Repeat step 6., using only clean water, to remove any liquid left. 8) Disconnect coupling from canteen. Flip down canteen cap cover. 9) Dry all mask parts with a soft dry cloth or allow to air dry. 10) Reassemble mask. 11) When mask is completely dry, screw in the canister.

c. d.

Clean the carrier. Brush any dirt or grit from carrier using a brush dipped in clean cool water. Replace the mask to the carrier. 1-182

e.

Report any discrepancies according to unit SOP.

REFERENCES: TO 14P4-15-1, Operation and Maintenance Instructions with Illustrated Parts Breakdown, ChemicalBiological Mask Type MCU-2A/P FM 3-3, Chemical and Biological Contamination Avoidance

1-183

TASK: CONDITIONS:

DON THE MCU-2A/P PROTECTIVE MASK WITH HOOD (1-34) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN A COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND IGHT), THE MCU-2A/P PROTECTIVE MASK WITH HOOD IN ITS CARRIER, AND AN NBC ALARM OR ORDER TO MASK. DON, CLEAR, AND CHECK THE MASK WITHIN 9 SECONDS AND ADJUST THE HOOD WITHIN 6 SECONDS (FOR A TOTAL OF 15 SECONDS) AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING Conditions: The Seabee is provided an MCU-2A/P protective masks with hood and presented with a recognizable NBC alarm or is ordered to mask.

Standard:The Seabee must recognized standard NBC alarms and take immediate action in donning and clearing the protective mask. The Seabee must stop breathing, don and clear the protective mask with hood within 9 seconds, and sound the alarm to fellow Seabees.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Recognize the NBC alarm(s) (vocal, visual, and percussion). a. b. c. Recognize vocal alarm: "GAS! GAS!". Recognize visual alarm. Recognize percussion NBC alarms. 1) Metal on metal 2) Sirens, intermittent horns, or other devices as outlined by unit's SOP. 2. Don, clear, and check your mask within 9 seconds. a. b. c. STOP BREATHING! Close eyes tightly Remove your headgear. 1) Place it in a convenient location, e.g., between your legs or hung on your arm, 2) Avoid contaminated surfaces, whenever possible. NOTE: If you are wearing glasses, take them off. d. With left hand, grasp carrier flap tab. With a quick firm motion pull outward to open the carrier. Reach into carrier with right hand. Grasp mask and withdraw the mask and hood from carrier. NOTE: Never remove the mask from the carrier by pulling on the outlet valve cover. The cover may tear.

1-184

e.

Hold outlet valve assembly in palm of one hand. Using free hand, push forehead hair aside. Place mask on face, forcing chincup tightly against chin. Pull head harness over head using the quickdon tab. Grasp a neck strap in each hand and tighten with small jerking motion. Cover opening at bottom of outlet valve with palm of hand before expelling air that has been held in lungs. Press palm of one hand over the canister opening. Inhale to determine whether an airtight seal of mask against face has been obtained. If mask collapses against the face while inhaling and remains collapsed while you hold your breath, it is leak tight. If mask does not collapse, check for hair or other material between mask seal and the face. Tighten straps if necessary and recheck. NOTE: Do not fully collapse mask against the face to avoid adversely affecting the seals.

f. g.

h.

i. j.

Open eyes and RESUME NORMAL BREATHING. Pull back of hood over head so that hood covers head. Drape cape over shoulders. Make sure that the cape is under neck cord. Use neck cord fastener to tighten neck cord until hood is held snugly around neck. Pass straps under arms. Place neck cord over rug of hook fastener. Take hook of the strap and fasten to the rug with the neck cord between the ends of the fastener.

k. l.

m. Replace headgear and close carrier. n. 3. Continue your mission.

Sound the alarm to warn others (vocal, visual, and percussion). a. b. c. Give vocal signal for chemical/biological attack, such as "GAS! GAS!". Give visual signal for chemical/biological attack. Give percussion signal for chemical/biological attack, by banging metal on metal or a siren.

4.

Remove the mask and hood. NOTE: Remove the mask and hood only after tests have been conducted or the order ALL CLEAR/ UNMASK has been given.

5.

Stow the mask with hood. a. b. c. d. e. Unfold hood and loosen neck cord. Turn hood inside out. Spread hood flat, with the face opening up. Unfasten underarm straps and hood temple straps. Place mask face down on hood and insert the canister through face opening. Adjust mask neck straps so ends are within 1 inch of buckles. 1-185

f. g. h. i. j.

Fasten hood temple straps over mask temple tabs. Turn hood right side out. Stretch hood face opening around top and sides of mask lens. Ensure hood covers top of the outlet valve cover. If hood is to be worn in temperature below 30 (-1 or above 90 (32 stretch lower part of F C) F C), face opening over outlet valve portion of the assembly so that the outlet valve cover is outside hood. Raise back of hood up and over face of mask. Reverse head harness over face of mask. Fold sides of hood so that it crosses over the outlet valve.

k. l.

m. Tuck underarm straps into V at outlet valve. n. o. Raise folded hood up covering the head harness and eyelens outsert. Stow mask and hood in carrier.

REFERENCES: TO 14P4-15-1, Operation and Maintenance Instructions with Illustrated Parts Breakdown, ChemicalBiological Mask Type MCU-2A/P FM 3-3, Chemical and Biological Contamination Avoidance.

1-186

TASK:

DON INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING TO MISSION-ORIENTED PROTECTIVE POSTURE (MOPP) LEVEL 4 (1-35)

CONDITIONS: GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), AND ALL MOPP GEAR. STANDARD: THE SEABEE MUST DON/WEAR INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING TO MOPP 4 WITHIN 8 MINUTES OF NOTIFICATION AS PER THE REFERENCES.

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided MOPP gear (chemical protective overgarment, field protective mask, overboots, and protective gloves) in an on-call simulated environment. The Seabee must correctly don appropriate levels of MOPP, 1 through 4 within 8 minutes. The Seabee must correctly identify various stages of MOPP and optional variants of MOPP levels 1, 2, and 3.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. State the five MOPP levels. NOTE: MOPP level 0 is the condition that exists when a Seabee has all of his or her MOPP gear available, but is not wearing it.

a.

Use the chart (Figure 1) to aid in defining what is worn and what is carried for MOPP levels 0 through 4.

1-187

Figure 1

1-188

b. 2.

Check Figures 2 through 5, and describe MOPP level conditions.

Don the protective clothing and equipment for MOPP level 1 (Figure 1). a. Don overgarment trousers over normal duty uniform or over undergarments in hot weather. 1) Adjust waistband of overgarment trousers for a comfortable fit. NOTE: b. Do not fasten the bottom of the trousers.

Don overgarment blouse. NOTE: Body armor is worn under the overgarment blouse. 1) Zip up blouse. 2) Fasten closures. 3) Snap the three snaps along the rear of the blouse to the trousers. WARNING: Failure to snap the rear snaps located on the rear of the blouse will allow it to ride up your back, exposing your back to contamination.

3.

Don the additional protective clothing for MOPP level 2 (Figure 1). a. Put the chemical protective overboots on over your combat boots and lace them. 1) When lacing your boots (fishtail type overboot), start from the front eyelet using equal amounts of lace tied through the eyelet. 2) Pass the lace through the side eyelet (from out going into eyelet) and over the top of the boot. 3) Continue to the rear eyelet/eyelets and pass the lace through and again over the top of the boot. NOTE: Two types of chemical protective boots are overboot and fishtail. Two types of chemical protective fishtail boot are available. A single rear eyelet and a double rear eyelet. Pass the lace through the appropriate eyelet and over the top of the boot.

4) Excess lace should be criss crossed around the top of the boot and tied off near the top. Tuck laces inside the overgarment trouser leg. b. Blouse the garment trouser legs over the chemical protective boots by closing the leg openings and securing the velcro closure of the overgarment trouser legs. NOTE: Overgarment may be worn open or closed, based upon temperature. Tropical Skin Protection (TSP), used to combat blister agents, should be applied to the skin on areas where overgarment articles overlap, such as neck, ankles and wrists.

4.

Don additional protective clothing for MOPP level 3 (Figure 1). a. Don protective mask with hood. (See TASK: ON THE MCU-2A/P PROTECTIVE MASK WITH HOOD (1-34).) 1-189

b.

Zip the zipper, draw the cord, and fasten arm straps and Velcro closures on the overgarment blouse.

5.

Don additional protective clothing and equipment for MOPP level 4 (Figure 1). a. b. Don the chemical protective glove set (rubber gloves with liners). Loosen sleeve cuff and place protective gloves under sleeve cuff and reseal overgarment sleeve. NOTE: Whenever possible the Buddy System should be used to aid in the donning of MOPP equipment.

REFERENCES: FMFM 11-1, Nuclear, Chemical, and Defensive Biological Operations in the FMF FM 3-4, NBC Protection FM 3-3, Chemical and Biological Contamination Avoidance

1-190

TASK:

PERFORM BASIC BODY FUNCTIONS WHILE IN MISSION ORIENTED PROTECTIVE POSTURE (MOPP) LEVEL 4 (1-36) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), CANTEEN WITH M1 NBC CAP, M8 DETECTOR PAPER, AND DECONTAMINATION KIT WHILE DRESS IN MOPP 4. THE SEABEE MUST PERFORM THE BASIC BODY FUNCTIONS WHILE IN MOPP 4 AS PER THE REFERENCES.

CONDITIONS:

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a field protective mask, canteen with an M1 NBC cap, M291 decon kit, and MOPP 4 conditions.

Standard:The Seabee must drink from the canteen using the drinking tube apparatus, decontaminating the male end of the drinking tube. The Seabee must describe procedures necessary in performing bodily functions, particularly decontamination of exposed areas of the body and clothing. Additionally, the Seabee will state the procedures necessary to sleep safely while in MOPP 4. See TASK: DECONTAMINATE THE SKIN USING THE M291 DECONTAMINATION KIT (1-38)

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Drink while wearing the MCU-2A/P protective mask. WARNINGS: Ensure that all mating surfaces, to include protective gloves, canteen cap, and quick connects, have been checked for contamination, utilizing M8 or M9 detector paper. (See TASK: IDENTIFY CHEMICAL AGENT (1-37)) for instruction. Chemical agents can be swallowed and cause sickness or death. When contamination is found, decon with applicable decon kits. Care should be taken not to break the mask's seal during any portion of this or any mask operation while in a contaminated environment. CAUTION: If the drinking system leaks, pinch the external drinking tube where it connects to the outlet valve body to prevent inhalation of agent vapors until a replacement mask is obtained or the wearing of the mask is no longer required.

a.

Steady mask and pull drink tube coupling out of outlet valve cover. NOTE: The outlet valve cover must be outside hood to obtain access to the drinking tube.

b. c. d.

Take out canteen and flip open cover on M-1 canteen cap. Push coupling into canteen cap so that pin enters coupling Grasp outlet valve assembly with thumb at bottom and forefinger at top. Push forefinger toward mouth to get internal drinking tube end between teeth. 1-191

NOTE: e.

Water may leak into mask if mouth is taken off drinking tube.

Raise canteen and drink. After several swallows, stop sucking and allow air in mask to enter canteen. This will prevent canteen from collapsing. Repeat drinking procedure as required. (Figure 1)

Figure 1 f. Disconnect drinking tube by blowing into drinking tube while twisting and pulling coupling out of canteen. Push coupling firmly back into its socket. Flip down cover on canteen cap and return canteen to the carrier. Return hood to original position (if required).

g. h. i. 2.

Use the head. WARNING: When Seabees need to relieve themselves in MOPP 3 or MOPP 4, they must carefully avoid getting contaminants on exposed skin or clothing worn under the overgarments. Using the buddy system, if possible, Seabees should follow these steps:

a.

Select an area for a "cathole" to deposit and bury body wastes.

NOTE: b.

Avoid low lying areas and areas with heavy brush.

Provide security.

1-192

NOTE: c.

Whenever possible, use the buddy system.

Scrape away surface area to a minimum depth of 2 inches, using entrenching tool. Area should be large enough to hold your weapon and 782 gear Dig a cathole approximately 1 foot deep. NOTE: Cathole should be within arm's reach of the area for your weapon and 782 gear.

d.

e.

Place your weapon and 782 gear in the prepared area, retaining your M291 skin decon kit on your person. NOTE: In combat areas retain your armored vest and helmet. DECONTAMINATE THE SKIN

f.

Remove packets from your M291 skin decon kit. (See TASK: USING THE M291 DECONTAMINATION KIT (1-38).) Decontaminate your protective gloves. Pull up your overgarment jacket. 1) 2) Grasp the bottom edge of jacket.

g. h.

Fold the jacket back on itself once, just enough to open your overgarment trousers.

i. j.

Decontaminate your gloves again, if necessary. Unsnap and unzip your overgarment trousers. Peel them down carefully, (do not roll) and away from your body as required to perform the specific elimination function.

k. l.

Remove your protective gloves carefully, setting them close by. Unbutton and open your utility trousers, if you are wearing them. Be careful to avoid touching contaminated overgarment.

m.

Lower your trousers and underwear, and eliminate waste. WARNING: Exercise extreme care in the storage and handling of toilet paper. This material will easily absorb contamination when exposed.

n.

Have your M291 skin decon kit handy. Use the decon kit to decontaminate the skin that may have become contaminated.

o. p.

Pull up your underwear and utility trousers, and secure them. Put your gloves back on. Avoid touching the outside of your gloves, which might be contaminated.

q.

Pull up your overgarment trousers, and refasten them. 1-193

r. s. t. u. v. 3. 4.

Pull your overgarment jacket back into place. Collect and secure your 782 gear and weapon. Ensure that all used toilet paper and decon wipes are in cathole Fill in cathole, pack it down, and camouflage the area. Continue the mission.

If necessary to relieve yourself in your overgarment, change as soon as possible. Before sleeping. a. b. c. d. Protect yourself with overhead cover, if possible. Ensure that there are no exposed body parts and that chemical protective clothing fits properly. Ensure that the hood is fitted properly and is worn correctly with mask. Use the buddy system to periodically check on each other while sleeping.

REFERENCES: FM 3-4, NBC Protection FM 21-11, First Aid for Soldiers TO 14P4-15-1, Operation and Maintenance Instructions with Illustrated Parts Breakdown, ChemicalBiological Mask Type, MCU-2A/P.

1-194

TASK: CONDITIONS:

IDENTIFY CHEMICAL AGENTS (1-37) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), M9 AND M8 DETECTOR PAPER, A M256A1 CHEMICAL AGENT DETECTOR KIT, AND A CONTAMINATED AREA, EQUIPMENT AND/OR OBJECTS WHILE DRESSED IN MOPP 4. THE SEABEE MUST IDENTIFY CHEMICAL AGENTS AS PER THE REFERENCE.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a simulated CBR environment, a M256A1 chemical agent detector kit, to include M8 and M9 detector paper, in an area where chemical agents are present. The Seabee will be at MOPP level 4.

Standard:The Seabee must properly identify chemical agents present in liquid or vapor form.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: NOTE: When identifying chemical agents, use the most expedient method. Using M8 or M9 detectors will take only seconds,whereas using the M256A1 will take approximately 15 minutes. Disadvantages of M8 and M9 over the M256A1 are their inability to test for vapor hazards and the limited number of agents detected.

1.

Test for liquid chemical agents. NOTES: If suspected surface contamination is in liquid form (puddles, small drops, or barely visible droplets), test for a toxic agent with M8 paper. M8 paper is issued with your field protective mask and the M256A1 chemical agent detector kit as an SL-3 component. a. Use M8 detector paper. 1) Remove and open M8 paper from M256A1 kit or mask carrier, tearing off and discarding the plastic bag (Figure 1). Test the liquid (Figure 2).

2)

Figure1 a)

Figure 2

Tear out a sheet of M8 paper (use half a sheet if it is perforated). 1-195

b)

Expose M8 paper to suspected liquid agent. NOTES: Ensure that the M8 paper is held in the down position to prevent liquid contaminates from running onto protective glove. Blot, do not rub, the M8 on suspected contamination.

c)

Compare any color changes, by observing the colors shown on the inside cover of the book of M8 paper (Figure 3). (1) Yellow/gold indicates presence of a G series nerve agent. (2) Dark green indicates presence of a V series nerve agent. Pink-red indicates the presence of an H series blister agent.

(3)

(4) Some G agents give a red-brown color which is between typical H and G color. Figure 3 Some decontaminants will produce false positive tests on M8 paper. In an area where decontaminants have been used, positive results must be confirmed by tests with the sampler-detector (M256A1). Some decontaminants also produce false indications on the sampler-detector. This can be determined by checking the decontaminant itself with a samplerdetector. Never assume that an area is uncontaminated. When in doubt, re-test the area with an M256A1 kit and report the findings. b. Use M9 detector paper. NOTE: M9 detector paper is usually issued 1 roll per squad or gun team and is worn around the ankles, wrists, and biceps on the exterior of protective clothing. M9 paper is not designed to specifically identify chemical agents. Its purpose is simply to detect their presence.

1) 2) 3) 4)

Open package of M9 paper. Unroll a small portion of detector paper. Blot, do not rub, the M9 tape on suspect liquid. Observe for a color change. NOTE: Like M8 paper, this tape is designed to change colors when in contact with a chemical agent. However, when in contact with contamination, it can

appear as a light pink color to a reddish brown or violet color, signifying a chemical agent is present. It will not identify specific chemical agents. 1-196

2.

Use the M256A1 chemical agent detector kit. CAUTIONS: Do not use an outdated sampler detector because it may give inaccurate test results. Do not touch sampler detector test spots. (Dirt and oil from gloves will give inaccurate test results.) To avoid inaccurate test results, open the sampler detector bag, and conduct tests while facing into the wind. (This will keep the vapors from your equipment and clothing from causing inaccurate test results.) Do not use this kit if you are color blind or cannot see colors correctly. (Color comparisons are used during tests. A wrong reading of results might cause removal of protective equipment while toxic agents are present.) Do not expose the sampler detector to any type of moisture. (This can cause inaccurate test results.) Before breaking glass ampoules, place heater pads on each side of the sampler detector, covering the ampoules to be broken. (These pads will prevent exposure to the reagents and pieces of glass shards from cutting or puncturing protective gloves and hands.) Avoid venting vapors when conducting tests. Do not use the red lens of a flashlight when performing tests at night. Avoid sampling in smoke or smoke screens. NOTE: Ideally, a watch is worn outside protective clothing. If none is available, use radio or the operator will estimate by counting the wait times (l0 minutes, 5 minutes, etc.).

a.

Prepare the M256A1 kit for use. 1) Ready the kit. a) b) 2) 3) Put the shoulder strap over your head and one shoulder. Adjust the shoulder strap; the kit will hang at waist level.

Fasten the kit to the belt, hooking the waist belt-attachment strap to belt (Figure 4). Open the kit. a) b) Pull the strap away from the fastener strip. Grasp the case top, and pull it up while turning it away from your body (Figure 5).

1-197

Figure 4 c) d) Take out the instruction cards and read both sides.

Figure 5

Take out a sampler detector and read both sides of the sampler detector bag. (1) Observe all warnings. (2) Tear the protective bag along the line marked by arrows (Figure 6). Be careful not to destroy instructions. (3) Carefully pull out the sampler detector, and save the bag for reference to instructions.

b.

Test for toxic vapors. 1) 2) Observe all warnings. Swing out the heater; remove and save the two loose pads (Figure 7).

Figure 6 a) b) 3) Save the pads under the hinged heater. Swing the heater back into place.

Figure 7

Remove the pull tab marked number 1 (Figure 8). Pull upward to expose the lewisite detecting tablet.

4)

Mark the lewisite rubbing tab. 1-198

a) b)

Bend the tab over the lewisite detecting tablet. Rub the UPPER HALF of the tab until a mark is visible (Figure 9).

Figure 8 5) 6)

Figure 9

Hold the sampler detector with the test spots and arrow pointing up. Using the heater pads, crush four ampoules in the three center pockets marked number 3 (Figure 10). NOTE: Nerve agent spots may be difficult to wet with solutions as the kit ages. Work solutions into the spot carefully while pressing the protective strip over the nerve agent spot.

7) 8) 9)

Turn the sampler detector upside down and verify wetting of test spots. Hold the sampler detector with the test spots and arrow pointing down. Using the heater pads, squeeze the ampoules to force liquid through the formed channels (Figure 11).

Figure 10

Figure 11

10) Put your thumb on the protective strip over the middle of the test spot.

11) Swing the heater away from the test spot (Figure 12). 1-199

WARNING:

Avoid hot vapors that may burn you when crushing heater ampoules. Vent away from body.

a)

Activate the first heater ampoule marked number 4. (1) Be sure to use the heater pads. Crush one green ampoule, and swing the heater immediately over the test spot (Figure 13).

Figure 12 (2)

Figure 13

Hold the sampler detector to one side when venting to avoid vapors.

12) After 2 minutes, swing the heater away from the test spot, and swing the protective strip away from test spots. WARNING: Do not hold the sampler detector in direct sunlight while exposing the test spots. You may not be able to obtain accurate test results.

13) Expose the test spots to air for 10 minutes. NOTE: Hold the sampler detector by the hinged protective strip.

14) After 10 minutes, activate the second heater ampoule marked number 4 (Figure 14). a) b) Crush the second green ampoule. Swing the heater immediately over the test spot.

15) After 1 minute, swing the heater away from the test spot. 16) Hold the sampler detector with the test spots and arrows pointing down. 17) Using the heater pads, crush the remaining ampoules marked number 5. Be sure to wet the test spots by squeezing the ampoules to force the liquid onto the test spots (Figure 15).

1-200

Figure 14 18) Rub the lewisite detecting tablet again. a) b) Bend the tab over the lewisite detecting tablet.

Figure 15

Rub the BOTTOM HALF of the tab until a mark is visible (Figure 16). c) Compare the colors to determine whether conditions are dangerous or safe.

19) Turn the sampler detector over to the reverse, and compare the colors of the test spots with those shown on the sampler detector (Figure 17).

Figure 16

Figure 17

20) Look for a change in the color of the rub marks on the lewisite detecting tab. 21) If your kit has a fourth instruction card, use it to compare the colors to determine whether conditions are dangerous or safe. NOTES: Compare the blood agent (round spot) and the lewisite (rubbing tab) tests after 10 minutes or exposure time. Blister agents (H and CX) develop color immediately after all the ampoules are broken. Nerve agent requires a waiting period of 3 minutes. If no color develops with the M256A1 kit, a positive nerve test is indicated. Disregard any small blue or blue-green areas under the plastic rim of the 1-201

nerve agent spot. Look at the rub marks on the lewisite tablet, rubbing the tab very closely. At low concentrations, the change may be very slight. Compare it with the second rub mark before judging. Yellow and orange sometimes occur on a blood agent spot when no agent is present. Pink or blue must be present to indicate blood agents. Consider any combination of colors or a rainbow effect, which includes pink or blue, as a positive blood agent test. If the blood agent is indicated, repeat the testing for toxic agent vapors with a fresh sampler detector for blood agent only. If a blood agent is not indicated the second time, then the blood agent is not present. If a blood agent is indicated the second time, then a blood agent is present. Before you dispose of the sampler detector, contact the OIC for disposal instructions, which are consistent with the local unit's NBC SOP. Each sampler detector contains 2.6 mg of mercuric cyanide, which is considered hazardous waste.

REFERENCE: TM 3-6665-307-10, Operator's Manual for Chemical Agent Detector Kit; M256A1

1-202

TASK:

DECONTAMINATE SKIN AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT USING THE M291 DECONTAMINATION KIT (1-38) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), A DECON KIT, AND CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION ON THE SKIN IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT. THE SEABEE MUST DECONTAMINATE THE SKIN AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT USING A DECON KIT WITHIN 1 MINUTE AFTER DISCOVERING THE PRESENCE OF CONTAMINATION AS PER THE REFERENCES.

CONDITIONS:

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided an M291 decontamination kit and simulated chemical contamination on the skin. The Seabee must properly demonstrate the use of the M291 skin decon kit by decontaminating a simulated chemical agent from the hand and/or face within 1 minute of discovering the presence of the contamination.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: NOTES: The M291 is used primarily to decontaminate skin and personal equipment contaminated with a liquid chemical agent. When you discover or suspect that chemical agents are present on the skin, react immediately. For training purposes, the contaminants will be simulated. 1. Avoid further contamination. a. Put on your mask and hood, even if your face and/or hands are contaminated. If your face is contaminated, do not fasten your hood. WARNING: If contamination has gotten into your eyes immediately flush eyes with water to prevent serious injury.

b. 2.

Seek overhead cover, or use a poncho for protection against further contamination.

Use the M291 skin decontamination kit. NOTE: The M291 Skin Decontamination Kit consists of a wallet-like carrying pouch containing 6 individual decon packets. This is enough to do 3 complete skin decontamination. Each packet contains an applicator filled with decontamination powder. The kit is expendable, so the carrying pouch may be thrown away after the packets are all used.

a.

Inspect the M291 kit. 1) Inspect the kit for loose black powder. If no powder is detected, the kit is ready for use. 2) If powder is detected, inspect each packet for leaks. 3) Discard all leaking packets. 1-203

4) Reinsert good packets into carrying pouch with TEAR LINE at bottom. NOTE: If there are less than four skin decontamination packets in the kit, request an additional kit. Continue to use your kit until packets are gone.

WARNING: FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY. MAY BE SLIGHTLY IRRITATING TO SKIN AND EYES. KEEP DECONTAMINATION POWDER OUT OF EYES, CUTS, AND WOUNDS. USE WATER TO WASH TOXIC AGENT OUT OF EYES, CUTS, AND WOUNDS AND SEEK MEDICAL TREATMENT. 3. Decontaminate your skin. a. Decontaminate the skin (No facial contamination). 1) Remove skin decon packet from carrying pouch. 2) Tear open at notch. NOTE: Although any notch may be used to open the packet, opening at TEAR LINE will position the applicator for easier use.

3) Remove applicator from packet and discard empty packet. 4) Slip fingers into handle. 5) Thoroughly scrub exposed skin (of hands) until completely covered with black powder from the applicator. 6) Thoroughly scrub exposed skin (of neck and ears) until completely covered with black powder. NOTE: This procedure is the same for any exposed skin area except for a contaminated face.

7) Redo hands, if necessary, until completely covered with black powder. 8) Discard applicator. 9) Put on your protective gloves. 10) Cover all skin areas that were decontaminated. b. Decontaminate the face (with mask) WARNING: WHEN PERFORMING THIS PROCEDURE, PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION TO THE AREAS AROUND THE MOUTH, UPPER LIP, AND CORNERS OF THE NOSE BECAUSE THEY ARE HARD TO DECONTAMINATE.

YOU MUST HOLD YOUR BREATH WHILE DOING THE FOLLOWING STEPS. IF YOU NEED TO BREATH BEFORE YOU FINISH, RESEAL YOUR MASK, CLEAR AND CHECK IT, GET YOUR BREATH, THEN RESUME DECONTAMINATING PROCEDURE. 1) Scrub face. 1-204

NOTE:

Thoroughly scrub exposed skin of face until completely covered with the black powder.

a) Hold breath, close eyes, grasp mask beneath chin and pull away from chin enough to allow one hand between the mask and your face. Hold mask in this position during steps b) through f). b) Scrub up and down across face beginning at front of one ear, across the nose to the other ear. (1) Scrub across face to corner of nose. (2) Scrub extra stroke at corner of nose. (3) Scrub across nose and tip of nose to other corner of nose. (4) (5) Scrub extra stroke at corner of nose. Scrub across face to other ear.

c) Scrub up and down across face beginning where step b) ended (at the ear), to mouth and to end of jawbone. (1) (2) (3) Scrub cheek to corner of mouth. Scrub extra stroke at mouth. Scrub across closed mouth to center of upper lip.

(4) Scrub extra stroke above upper lip. (5) Scrub across closed mouth to other corner of mouth. (6) (7) Scrub extra stroke at mouth. Scrub across cheek to end of jawbone.

d) Scrub up and down across face beginning where step c) ended, to chin and around to other end of jawbone. (1) (2) (3) Scrub across and under jaw to chin, cupping chin. Scrub extra stroke at cleft of chin. Scrub across and under jaw to end of jawbone.

e) Turn your hand out, and quickly wipe the inside of mask that touches your face. f) Discard applicator.

g) Immediately seal, clear, and check mask. 2) Scrub neck and ears. 1-205

a) Remove second skin decon packet from carrying pouch. b) Tear open at notch. c) Remove applicator from packet, and discard empty packet. d) Slip finger(s) into handle. e) Thoroughly scrub skin of neck and ears until completely covered with black powder. f) Redo hands until completely covered with black powder.

g) Discard applicator. h) Put on your protective gloves. i) Cover other skin areas that you have decontaminated.

REFERENCES: FMFM 11-1, Nuclear, Chemical, and Defensive Biological Operations in the FMF FM 3-4, NBC Protection FM 3-5, NBC Decontamination TM 3-4230-229-10 (SS 010-AA-MMO-0010)

1-206

TASK: CONDITIONS:

EXCHANGE MOPP GEAR (1-39) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), A DECONTAMINATION KIT, A CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE OVERGARMENT, OVERBOOTS, PROTECTIVE GLOVES, AND A FIELD PROTECTIVE MASK WITH HOOD IN A SECURE/UNCONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENT (MOPP EXCHANGE AREA) WHILE DRESSED IN MOPP 4 GEAR. THE SEABEE MUST EXCHANGE MOPP GEAR AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: Given a simulated chemical or biological scenario in a combat environment, the Seabee and an assistant (buddy), will be provided decontaminants applicable to the scenario, a complete set of MOPP gear, to include overgarments, overboots and protective gloves, and a field protective mask in an uncontaminated environment while dressed in contaminated MOPP 4 equipment.

Standard:The Seabee must demonstrate the use of applicable decontaminates and procedures in exchanging MOPP equipment without contaminating themselves or their assistant (buddy). Administrative Notes: Chemical contamination is usually the most dangerous form of contamination, considered the most difficult to remove/neutralize. Procedures used to decontaminate chemical contamination also can be used for decontaminating biological and radiological contamination. Some decontaminants used to remove chemical contamination are caustic (a substance that burns or destroys the organic tissue by the chemical action) and are not used to reduce the hazards of other types of contamination. Buddy teams must be formed when conducting a MOPP gear exchange. A buddy team is formed by pairing two Seabees to assist one another. See TASKS: IDENTIFY CHEMICAL AGENTS (1-37) DECONTAMINATE SKIN AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT USING DECONTAMINATION KIT (1-38)

PERFORMANCE STEPS: NOTES: Seabees will form buddy teams. These team members will decontaminate each other, following all instructions from the Seabee assigned to lead the exchange. Space the teams in columns of two's, perpendicular to wind direction, with 1 to 3 meters between each team. The exchange site is preselected in an uncontaminated environment by the unit's CBR personnel. CBR team members will prepare and mark the area, provide replacement equipment, MOPP gear, and any other logistical requirements that may be needed based on contaminants and unit mission. The team controls the contamination spread by placing contaminated materials downwind. Contaminated clothing and equipment is placed in piles behind each team. 1-207

WARNING:

Should anyone suspect that a Seabee's skin or undergarments have become contaminated at any time during the exchange procedure, the process will be stopped. Decontaminate immediately, using the decontaminants provided. Following the prescribed procedures and proceed with the MOPP gear exchange.

1.

Decontaminate personal equipment. NOTE: When no material is provided on which the decontaminated equipment may be placed, such as a plastic sheet or poncho, then decontaminate a poncho following the steps below and place it upwind of the column.

a.

Cover gear and equipment, poncho first, with STB/HTH dry mix and brush or rub it into the material. Work from top to bottom, starting with your helmet. Gently remove excess decontaminants. Set gear aside on an uncontaminated surface (plastic, poncho, or similar material).

b. c. 2.

Decontaminate hood. a. Loosen your buddy's neck cord and hood straps from his underarms, and reattach the Velcro patches to his/her hood. Decontaminate the hood and exposed parts of your buddy's mask (including the canister and drinking tube) with decontaminants provided. (See TASK: DECONTAMINATE SKIN AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT USING DECONTAMINATION KIT (1-38).) CAUTION: When decontaminating the hood and mask using the M291 skin decon kit, use decon packet 2 first, then decon packet 1. Start with the mask eyelens outserts and wipe from the top of the hood down. Use decon 1 wipe last to get rid of any residue remaining on the eyelense outserts. (The lens will not cloud up.)

b.

c.

After wiping your buddy's mask, have your buddy use the decon kit to decontaminate his/her gloves.

3.

Remove overgarment. NOTES: To prevent the spread of contamination, instruct the Seabee undressing to turn around when necessary. This will limit the spread of contamination. When removing any portion of the overgarment, avoid touching the black liner or inside of the article. a. Remove overgarment blouse.

1)

Unfasten the jacket snaps on the back and front of your buddy's jacket, as well as the draw cord and zipper. Instruct your buddy to turn around. With your buddy's back to you, reach up and grasp the shoulders with both hands. 1-208

2) 3)

4)

Tell the Seabee to straighten his/her arms and make a fist with both hands when removing the blouse. This will prevent the gloves from being pulled off. Remove the jacket by pulling it straight back and down. Do not allow the blouse to brush up against you. NOTE: This procedure will turn the jacket inside out.

5)

b.

Place the jacket on the ground next to the Seabee with the black (uncontaminated) side up. NOTE: Your buddy will stand on it later while redressing.

c.

Open the trouser cuffs (including zipper and Velcro), the waist snap, zipper, and, if necessary, the waist tabs on your buddy's trousers. CAUTION: Do not kneel down on the deck to open trouser legs; you can become contaminated! It is recommended that you spread your legs and bend over at the waist to get as low and stable as possible.

d. f. g.

Turn the trouser's openings to the front (your buddy is still facing away from you). Step onto the rear edge of the trousers with your booted foot. Instruct your buddy to remove first one foot, then the other. Discard the trousers. NOTE: Do not reverse roles. Only your buddy's overgarments are to be removed at this time.

4.

Remove overboots. a. b. Ensure that your buddy is next to his/her jacket. Untie or cut the strings/laces of your buddy's boot (chemical protective boot fishtail type). If wearing chemical protective overboots type, step out of overboots (with buddy help) onto the s black side of jacket. The boot nearest the jacket will be removed first. With your buddy still facing away, step on the rear of the boot and instruct your buddy to step out of the boot and place his/her clean or unprotected boot on the uncontaminated surface of the jacket. Repeat the procedure for the other foot. CAUTION: Do not allow your buddy to place his unprotected boot anywhere but on the jacket. Should it come into contact with soil or other contaminated surfaces, decontaminate it.

c.

d.

5.

Remove protective gloves. a. b. Have your buddy work his/her gloves off from the fingertips. If necessary, help so that your buddy does not touch the outside of the gloves with bare hands. NOTE: Do not reverse roles. Only your buddy will remove overboots and gloves at this time. 1-209

6.

Put on overgarment. a. Open a package of new overgarment and present it to your buddy, but do not touch the overgarment. Have your buddy reach into the package and pull out the overgarment (either piece first) without touching the outside of the package. Your buddy puts on the trousers and the jacket, fastens the overgarment, but leaves the trouser legs open. NOTE: Do not reverse roles. Only your buddy will put on clean garments at this time.

b.

c.

7.

Put on overboots and gloves. a. Pick up package containing clean overboots, and open it without touching the overboots that are inside. Have your buddy reach into the package (without touching the outside of package), remove the overboots, and put them on. Your buddy fastens the trousers legs over his/her laced overboots. Ensure that all Velcro fasteners, zippers, and ties are fastened. Open package containing clean gloves without touching the gloves that are inside. Have your buddy remove the clean gloves from the package (without touching the outside of the package) and put them on. NOTE: Do not reverse roles. Only your buddy will put on clean overboots and gloves at this time. Ensure that the gloves and boots have a light powdery coating.

b.

c. d.

8.

Secure hood. a. b. Decontaminate protective gloves. After decontaminating protective gloves, unroll your buddy's hood; attach the shoulder straps and tighten the neck cord. Your buddy should check all zippers and ties on the hood and overgarments to ensure that they are closed.

c.

9.

Reverse roles, repeating Performance Steps 2 through 7.

10. Secure gear. a. b. c. Secure individual gear. Put gear back on and move to assembly area. Use the buddy system to check the fit of and secure all gear. NOTES: The effectiveness of the decon procedures just performed can be checked with the M256A1, M8 paper, or M9 tape for chemical decon. (See TASK: IDENTIFY CHEMICAL AGENTS (1-37).) Additionally, the OIC must maintain strict discipline over contaminated Seabees 1-210

to prevent unnecessary movement within the area. These procedures are necessary to control the spread of contamination.

REFERENCES: FMFM 11-10 (FM 3-5), NBC Decontamination STP 21-1-SMCT, Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks - Skill Level 1

1-211

TASK: CONDITIONS: STANDARD:

REACT TO A NUCLEAR ATTACK (1-40) GIVEN A NUCLEAR ATTACK WITH OR WITHOUT WARNING. THE SEABEE MUST REACT TO THE ATTACK AS PER THE REFERENCES.

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a nuclear attack scenario with or without warning. The Seabee will be instructed to take immediate action.

Standard:The Seabees must take immediate action to protect themselves from the effects of a nuclear blast. The Seabee will explain all procedures that cannot be simulated, and will emphasize that the fighting hole is the best protection for immediate action during a nuclear attack.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Take immediate action for a nuclear attack without warning. NOTES: Upon seeing a brilliant flash of light, an exceptionally loud explosion, or when the alarm is sounded, immediate action must be taken. Never hesitate in taking immediate action. When possible, look for protective cover. Your weapon should be placed under your body whenever possible. Always wear your standard issue battle equipment while in combat, especially your helmet and body armor. a. React without weapon. 1) 2) 3) Immediately drop face down, if possible, with feet toward blast. If cover is available, use it. Close your eyes. Protect or cover exposed skin by putting hands and arms under or near the body and keeping your helmet on. Keep your head down.

4) b.

React with weapon. 1) 2) 3) Immediately drop face down. If cover is available, use it. Close your eyes. Protect or cover exposed skin by putting hands and arms under or near the body and keeping your helmet on. Ensure that your weapon is placed under your body or beside you with the strap/sling wrapped tightly around your arm. 1-212

4)

5) c.

Keep your head down.

Remain face down for 90 seconds or until all debris has stopped falling. NOTE: Whenever possible, use any protection available, such as fighting holes. Fighting holes provide excellent protection against nuclear weapon effects. Other examples of hasty protection may include: ditches, culverts, hills, large rocks, or armored vehicles. Simply, put anything between yourself and the nuclear weapon's blast (Figure 1).

Figure 1 2. Take appropriate action for an imminent nuclear attack with a 2-minute warning. NOTE: If time permits, your unit will be notified that a nuclear attack is imminent. Take immediate action as illustrated Figure 2 below. However, if time does not permit or you are caught unprotected, take advantage of any protective shelter available.

a.

Move to a fighting hole or protective shelter, staying low. NOTE: Fighting positions with overhead cover provides excellent protection and help to reduce fallout.

b.

Once in your fighting hole, lie on your back with your legs drawn up to your chest (Figure 2).

1-213

Figure 2 c. Remain in this position for 90 seconds following the blast, or until the blast waves pass over and debris stops falling. Once the debris has stopped falling, cover the fighting hole with material. This material will protect against possible fallout. An example might be a poncho, poncho liner, or other material large enough to cover the position. Check yourself and others for injuries, brush any dust/dirt particles from yourself or buddy, check weapons and equipment for damage, and prepare to continue the mission. Decontaminate radiological hazard. 1) 2) 3) 4) Brush or wipe the radiological contamination from individual equipment. Wash equipment with warm, soapy water (if available). Set it aside to dry on an uncontaminated surface (plastic, poncho, or similar material). The CBR team will provide detection equipment, such as radiac instruments, necessary to determine the completeness of decontamination procedures.

d.

e.

f.

REFERENCES: FMFM 11-8, NBC Contamination Avoidance FMFM 11-9, NBC Protection

1-214

TASK: CONDITIONS:

REACT TO CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL ATTACK (1-41) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), A CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL ATTACK, MOPP GEAR, A PONCHO, AND AN ALARM OR AN ORDER TO DON PROTECTIVE CLOTHING. THE SEABEE MUST REACT TO A CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL ATTACK AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a simulated chemical or biological attack scenario, a field protective mask, poncho, MOPP gear, applicable detection equipment, and a verbal command to initiate immediate action.

Standard:Immediately upon hearing the verbal alarm "Gas" or "Spray," the Seabees must take immediate action, must identify the type of attack and must take appropriate action to protect themselves from the effects of a biological or chemical attack. The Seabees will also explain the purpose of those procedures that cannot be simulated. See TASKS: DON THE MCU-2A/P PROTECTIVE MASK (1-34) DON INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING TO MOPP 4 (1-35) IDENTIFY CHEMICAL AGENTS (1-37) DECONTAMINATE SKIN AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT USING THE M291 DECONTAMINATION KIT (1-38)

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. React to a biological or chemical attack. a. b. Stop breathing! Don protective mask with hood; do not fasten the hood. (See TASKS: DON THE MCU-2A/P PROTECTIVE MASK (1-34).) Sound the alarm. Use verbal or visual signals. (See TASKS: DON THE MCU-2A/P PROTECTIVE MASK (134).)

c.

d.

Seek overhead cover if the mission permits. A poncho over your fighting hole will do if substantial overhead cover is not available. Go to MOPP level 4. (See TASK: DON INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING TO MOPP 4 (135).) WARNING: Assume the worst. During a chemical or biological attack, it may be impossible for you to identify the type or number of agent(s) employed - go to MOPP 4. 1-215

e.

f.

Conduct individual decontamination, as necessary. (See TASK: DECONTAMINATE SKIN AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT USING THE M291 DECONTAMINATION KIT (1-38). ) Identify chemical agents using standard detection equipment, when directed. (See TASK: IDENTIFY CHEMICAL AGENTS (1-37).) Continue the mission.

g.

h. 2.

React to a spray attack. a. b. Stop breathing! Don protective mask with hood; do not fasten the hood. (See TASKS: DON THE MCU-2A/P PROTECTIVE MASK (1-34).) Sound the alarm. d. Use verbal or visual signals.

c.

Take additional protective measures against a spray attack. 1) 2) Sit on the ground with your weapon across your knees (Figure 1). Get under the poncho or other repellent material large enough to cover yourself and the equipment. Your poncho acts as a protective barrier against gross amounts of liquid contaminants. CAUTION: Ensure that the poncho is fully draped around you (Figure 2). Often, the trailing edge will ride on top of the canteens, leaving parts of your body exposed to contamination.

Figure 1

Figure 2

WARNING:

Ensure that liquid contaminants do not saturate your protective overgarment while you are under the poncho, thus rapidly reducing the overgarment's effectiveness.

1-216

3)

Go to MOPP level 4. (See TASK: DON INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING TO MOPP 4 (1-35).)

e.

Remain under your poncho at least 90 seconds, until droplets of contamination have stopped pelting your poncho or the "ALL CLEAR!" command has been given. Avoid allowing liquid contaminants to contact with the protective overgarment when coming from under the poncho. Conduct individual decontamination, as necessary. (See TASK: DECONTAMINATE SKIN AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT USING THE DECONTAMINATION KIT (1-38).) Identify chemical agents using standard detection equipment, when directed (See TASK: IDENTIFY CHEMICAL AGENTS (1-37).) Continue the mission.

f.

g.

h.

REFERENCES: FMFM 11-1, Nuclear, Chemical, and Defensive Biological Operations in the FMF FM 3-4, NBC Protection

1-217

TASK: CONDITIONS:

TREAT A CHEMICAL AGENT CASUALTY (1-42) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), A CHEMICAL AGENT VICTIM, AND THE APPROPRIATE ANTIDOTE AND DECONTAMINATION KIT. THE SEABEE MUST TREAT THE CHEMICAL AGENT CASUALTY AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical CBR scenario in a simulated CBR environment, a chemical agent casualty, necessary equipment to perform self/first aid, MOPP equipment, including a field protective mask, decontamination kit(s), and written or verbal instructions about the casualty's current condition and symptoms.

Standard:The Seabee, in MOPP level 4, will properly identify the chemical agent affecting the casualty by observing symptoms. The Seabee will also treat the casualty by using appropriate first aid measures. The Seabee will explain those procedures that cannot be simulated in detail. See TASKS: DON THE MCU-2A/P PROTECTIVE MASK WITH HOOD (1-34) DON INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING TO MOPP 4 (1-35) PERFORM BODILY FUNCTIONS WHILE IN MOPP 4 (1-36) DECONTAMINATE SKIN AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT USING THE DECONTAMINATION KIT (1-38) APPLY BASIC FIRST AID (1-43)

PERFORMANCE STEPS: WARNINGS: Many chemical agents have similar symptoms at the onset; for example, headaches, nausea, dizziness, and tightness in chest or difficulty in breathing. Use caution when diagnosing and administering medication to any casualty, particularly a chemical agent casualty. Misdiagnosing a casualty can have severe adverse effects. Never use your own medication to treat a chemical agent casualty. In most cases, the casualty will have the necessary medication for his treatment. 1. Nerve agent poisoning a. Symptoms of nerve agent poisoning 1) Mild symptoms. Casualties may be coherent and experience one or all of the following: a) b) c) Unexplained runny nose Unexplained sudden headache Drooling 1-218

d) e) f) g) h)

Difficulty with vision (dimness of vision) Tightness in chest/difficulty in breathing Localized sweating/muscle twitching in contaminated area of the skin Stomach cramps Nausea NOTES: With mild symptoms, self-aid is a viable option. Using Nerve Agent Pyridostigmine Pretreatment (NAPP), a standard issue pre-treatment used in combating nerve agent poisoning, (Figure 1) will counteract the effects of the agent, depending on the length of exposure to and concentration of the agent.

Figure 1 2) Severe symptoms. Casualties with severe symptoms can experience most or all of the mild symptoms and most or all of the symptoms listed below: a) b) c) d) e) Strange or confused behavior Wheezing, severe difficulty in breathing, and coughing Red eyes with possible tearing Vomiting Severely pinpointed pupils 1-219

f) g) h) i) j) b.

Severe muscular twitching and general weakness Involuntary urination and defecation Convulsions Unconsciousness Respiratory failure

Treating a nerve agent casualty. 1) Take steps to protect yourself and to warn others. a) b) c) If you are not wearing your mask stop breathing, don, clear, and check your mask. Sound/give the alarm. Administer self-aid (See Performance Step 1.a.c.), if you feel any mild symptoms of nerve agent poisoning. Decontaminate exposed skin, as necessary.

d) 2)

Leave the casualty in the position he is found, when possible. Reposition the casualty only when it is necessary to don, clear and adjust his mask, or to administer medication. Masking the casualty. a) b) c) d) e) f) Ensure that the casualty is on his back. Place the mask on the casualty. Tighten the head harness straps. Instruct the casualty to clear the mask if he can follow instructions. Check for a complete seal by covering the inlet valve(s) of the mask. Pull the hood over the casualty's head, neck, and shoulders.

3)

4)

Administering nerve agent antidote (NAA) (Figure 2).

Figure 2 CAUTION: The injector is armed! Do not place your thumb over the green (needle) part of the injector because you might accidentally inject 1-220

yourself. a) Evaluate the casualty's condition and determine the proper medication to administer. (1) For mild symptoms, administer one NAA kit and wait ten minutes. If symptoms persist, readminister every five minutes for a maximum of three sets. (2) For advanced nerve agent poisoning, administer NAA kits, one after the other for a maximum of three. (a) (b) Remove autoinjectors from the casualty's cargo pocket. With one hand, hold one set of injectors by the plastic retaining clip (Figure 3).

Figure 3 (c) With your free hand, check the casualty's thigh to avoid buttons or other objects in his pockets.

(d) Administer the atropine. Grasp the small injector, the Atropine, and then pull it from the clip with a smooth motion. Form a fist around the injector without covering or holding the needle (green) end. Place the green end of the injector against the casualty's outer thigh muscle (Figure 4).

1-221

Figure 4 WARNING:

Figure 5 To avoid the casualty from sustaining additional damage, do not inject areas surrounding the knees, hips, or bones. Inject a thin casualty in the upper, outer part of his buttocks (Figure 5)

Push the injector into the casualty's thigh with firm, even pressure until the injector functions. Hold the injector in place for at least 10 seconds.

(e) Administer 2 Pam Chloride injection. Pull out the large injector (Figure 6), and then form a fist around it. Avoid placing your thumb over the black (needle) tip.

Figure 6 Place the black (needle) end against the casualty's thigh. Push the injector into the casualty's muscle with firm, even pressure until the injector functions.

b)

Hold the injector in place for at least 10 seconds.

Repeat steps (d) through (e) above until the casualty has received a total of three sets of antidote injections. 1-222

c)

Secure used injectors. (1) Push the needle of each used injector through one of the breast pocket flaps of the casualty protective overgarment (Figure 7). s

Figure 7 (2) Bend the needle points to form a hook, without tearing or puncturing your protective gloves or clothing. d) If the casualty has exposed skin, decontaminate the area by using a decontaminating kit (See TASK: DECONTAMINATE SKIN AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT USING THE DECONTAMINATION KIT (1-38)), dress casualty to MOPP level 4. (See TASK: DON INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING TO MOPP 4 (1-35).) Treat the casualty for shock and seek medical attention. Medevac the casualty as soon as possible.

e) f) 5)

Administer Chemical Agent Nerve Antidote (CANA). WARNINGS: The CANA autoinjector looks similar to that of the 2 Pam Chloride in the NAA kit. Exercise extreme care to prevent improper usage of the CANA. Improper usage of the CANA can be fatal to the casualty. Use CANA only as an anticonvulsant to combat nerve agent poisoning. Treat a convulsing nerve agent casualty.

(1) Locate the CANA. Location and storage of the CANA will vary according to unit SOPs. (2) Treat convulsions immediately. It may be necessary to restrain the casualty while injecting with CANA. 1-223

(3) Refer to figures 3 and 5 when administering the CANA. (4) Refer to figure 7 for placing the autoinjector under the casualty's breast pocket flap. c. Perform self-aid for nerve agent poisoning. 1) Upon recognizing any one or several of the nerve agent symptoms listed above, you should don, clear, and check your field protective mask. (See TASKS: DON THE MCU-2A/P PROTECTIVE MASK WITH HOOD (1-34).) Administer NAA kit according to Figure 8. When self-administering the NAA kit, self-inject yourself in the meaty portion of your thigh (Figure 8). Remember, that if you are a thin Seabee, you can use the upper part of your buttocks.

2) 3)

Figure 8 WARNINGS: Administer only one NAA kit at a time, and then wait 10 minutes. If necessary, readminister an additional NAA kit. Never self-administer the CANA. Use it only as a buddy aid. If you think that you need it--you don't! 2. Blood agent poisoning.

NOTE:

Surviving a blood agent attack primarily depends on the concentration and length of exposure. Seabees who fail to perform proper immediate action will likely become casualties.

a.

Identify symptoms of blood agent poisoning. 1-224

1)

Following moderate exposure. a) b) c) d) e) Headache Vertigo - dizziness Nausea Tightness in chest/coughing Irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat

2)

Following moderate exposure. a) b) Increased depth of respiration within seconds Labored breathing resulting from an increased need for oxygen or inadequate air exchange in the lungs (Dyspnea) Possible, a persistent cough with much frothy sputum Discoloration of the casualty's lips and finger tips. Convulsions in 20 to 30 seconds Coma

c) d) e) f) b.

Treat a blood agent casualty. NOTE: Due to the rapid effects of this chemical agent, there is currently no antidote to combat it.

1) 2) 3) 3.

Immediately mask the casualty. Treat the casualty for shock. Medevac the casualty as soon as possible.

Blister agent poisoning. a. Identify symptoms of blister agent poisoning. NOTE: For instructional purposes all blister agent symptoms have been grouped together. Symptoms and agent effects depend on agent concentration, length of exposure, and specific type of agent.

1)

Mild exposure. a) b) c) Nausea Dizziness Itching or tingling of the skin 1-225

d) e) f) g) 2)

Vomiting Cramps Diarrhea Reddening of the skin

Moderate exposure. NOTE: Some blister agents, particularly arsenicals, will create spontaneous casualties. The symptoms listed above, as well as those listed below, will be quickly noted. Even though other blister agents (e.g., vesicants) will create casualties, the symptoms may develop over time with no noticeable, immediate effects.

a) b) c) d) e) f) b.

Immediate and intense pain, particularly in the eyes and respiratory tract Inflammation and blisters Blindness Wheals or welts/small hard blisters Coughing up blood Shock

Treat a blister agent casualty. 1) 2) Mask the casualty. Decontaminate the casualty's eyes, if necessary. (See TASK: DECONTAMINATE SKIN AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT USING THE M291 DECONTAMINATION KIT (1-38). ) Decontaminate the casualty's exposed skin, if necessary. WARNINGS: Do not use the M291 kit to decontaminate the casualty's eyes. Doing so will aggravate the casualty's condition and will cause him extensive damage. Do not decontaminate blisters with M291 kit. Do not open blisters. Cover them loosely with a field dressing and secure. Should a blister open, treat it as an open wound. (See TASK: APPLY BASIC FIRST AID (1-43).) 4) 5) 6) Dress the casualty to MOPP 4. Treat the casualty for shock. Medevac the casualty as soon as possible.

3)

4.

Choking agent poisoning. 1-226

a.

Identify a choking agent casualty. 1) Mild exposure a) b) c) d) e) f) Headaches Nausea Tightness in chest Tears/watery eyes Dry throat Vomiting WARNING: With ordinary field exposure, death will probably not occur. However, prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor and neglect or delay in the masking can be fatal.

2)

Moderate exposure. a) b) c) d) Hacking cough Rapid shallow breathing Red/pinkish sputum Shock

b.

Treat a choking agent casualty. 1) Mask the casualty. NOTE: Monitor the casualty to ensure that his airway does not become blocked by material he coughs up. It may be necessary to place the casualty on his side to clear his airway.

2) 3) 5.

Treat the casualty for shock. Medevac the casualty as soon as possible.

Riot control agents. a. Identify symptoms of riot control agents. 1) 2) 3) 4) Sneezing Runny nose Slight tearing Pepperlike taste 1-227

5) 6) 7) 8) b.

Involuntary closing of the eyes Profuse tearing Coughing Severe irritation of the upper respiratory tract

Treatment of riot control agent casualty. 1) 2) Assist the casualty in masking. Move the casualty to an uncontaminated area (upwind is recommended), expose the casualty to fresh air, and have the casualty face into the wind. Wash/rinse exposed skin. If contamination, in liquid or solid form, has gotten into the eyes, force open the eyes and flush with large amounts of water. WARNING: Do not touch your face or rub your eyes . Doing so can cause an intense burning sensation in the affected areas.

3) 4)

REFERENCES: FM 3-4, NBC Protection FM 3-5, NBC Decontamination FM 21-11, First Aid for Soldiers TM-285, Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries STP 21-1-SMCT, Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Level 1 NAVMED P-5041

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TASK: CONDITIONS: STANDARD:

APPLY BASIC FIRST AID (1-43) GIVEN A COMBAT CASUALTY, FIRST AID KIT, AND APPROPRIATE MATERIALS. THE SEABEE MUST APPLY THE BASIC FIRST AID AS PER THE REFERENCES.

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a combat casualty, the first aid kit, and the appropriate materials.

Standard:The Seabee must apply basic first aid including all basic life support, treatment of burns, soft tissue injuries, and splint fractures. The Seabee must also use the safety precautions for those treatments.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Perform basic life support. a. Apply lifesaving steps. 1) Clear the airway. a) b) c) Place the casualty on his back and kneel beside his head. Clear the airway by removing any obstruction in the mouth. Perform the head-tilt chin lift, or the jaw-thrust technique to open the airway (Figure 1).

Figure 1

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2)

Check for breathing (look, listen, and feel). a) Look towards the casualty's chest, observing for the rise and fall of his chest (Figure 2).

Figure 2 b) c) d) Listen for the sounds of breathing. Feel chest for signs of breathing. Restore breathing by performing mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. (see Performance Step 1.e)

3)

Stop the bleeding. a) Check the casualty for wounds. NOTE: Look for both entry and exit wounds (Figure 3).

Figure 3

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b)

Identify the pressure points of the body (Figure 4).

Figure 4 (1) Apply pressure dressing (See Performance Step 1.c.). (2) Apply tourniquet (See Performance Step 1.d.). 4) Prevent and treat for shock (See Performance Step 1.f.).

1-231

5)

Protect and dress the wound (Figure 5).

Figure 5 a) b) c) Do not try to replace protruding organs 1. Cover wound and organs with dressing 2. Bandage securely 3. NOTE: Remember the following when giving first aid to a casualty:

(1) Do act promptly but calmly. (2) Do reassure the casualty, and gently examine him to determine whether he needs first aid. (3) Do give lifesaving measures as required. (4) Do evacuate the casualty as soon as possible. (5) Do get medical assistance as soon as possible. (6) DON'T position a casualty on his/her back if he is unconscious or has a wound on his face or neck. (7) DON'T remove clothing from a casualty by pulling or tearing it off. (8) DON'T touch or try to clean dirty wounds, including burns. (9) DON'T remove dressing and bandages once they have been put on a wound. (10 DON'T loosen a tourniquet once it has been applied. (11) DON'T move a casualty who has a fracture until it has been properly splinted, and only if it is absolutely necessary. (12) DON'T give fluids by mouth to a casualty who is unconscious, nauseated, or vomiting, or who has an abdominal or neck wound. (13) DON'T permit the head of a casualty with a head injury to be lower than his body. 1-232

(14) DON'T try to push protruding intestines or brain tissue back into a wound. (15) DON'T put any medication on a burn. (16) DON'T administer first-aid measures which are unnecessary or beyond your ability. b. Evaluate a casualty. 1) Check the casualty for responsiveness by gently shaking or tapping him while calmly asking, "Are you okay?" a) Ask a conscious casualty to identify the location(s) of pain or to identify the area in which there is no feeling. If he or she has an airway obstruction, clear the airway. Proceed to the next step if the casualty is unconscious. Call for assistance if needed.

b) c) 2)

Check for breathing. a) b) c) Determine if the casualty is breathing. Attempt to resuscitate if the casualty is not breathing. Clear the airway obstruction if it is apparent, then ventilate.

3)

Check for pulse. a) b) c) If pulse is present and the casualty is breathing, proceed to Step (4). Start to resuscitate if pulse is present, but the casualty is still not breathing. If pulse is not present, seek medical assistance.

4)

Check for bleeding. a) b) c) Look for spurts of blood or blood-soaked area of clothing. Check for both entry and exit wounds. Perform the needed first-aid measures if the casualty is bleeding from an open wound.

5)

Check for shock. Begin the treatment immediately if signs or symptoms of shock are present.

6)

Check for fractures. a) b) Check for signs or symptoms of fractures or spinal injury, and treat as necessary. Check for signs or symptoms of fractures of the limbs and other body areas (for example, shoulder or hip), and treat as necessary.

7)

Check for burns. 1-233

a) b) 8) c.

Look carefully for reddened skin or singed clothing. Begin the treatment if the above signs or symptoms are found.

Check for possible head injury (concussion, skull fracture, etc.).

Apply pressure dressing. NOTE: The Seabee must apply a pressure dressing on a simulated casualty to prevent the wound from bleeding. He or she must decide how to secure the dressing, depending on the location of the wound. The Seabee must practice applying bandages to the elbow, head, shoulder, leg, and foot.

1)

Locate all wounds. Look for both entry and exit wounds. NOTE: A bullet usually makes a smaller wound where it enters than where it exits.

2)

Stop the bleeding only; do not touch or try to clean the wound. a) Cut and lift clothing away from the wound to expose it. WARNING: b) Do not try to remove objects from the wound.

Put a field first aid dressing on the wound, trying not to contaminate the dressing or the wound. (1) Remove the dressing from its plastic envelope and twist it to break the paper wrapper. (2) Grasp the dressing and unfold with both hands. (Do not touch the side of the dressing that goes on the wound). (3) Place the dressing on the wound without letting it touch anything else. (4) Wrap the dressing around the wound and tie the ends securely with a square knot. NOTE: If possible, tie the knot directly over the wound.

(5) If the bleeding continues after the dressing is secured on the wound, press the bandage for 5 to 10 minutes. (6) If more pressure is needed to stop the bleeding, put a thick pad on top of the dressing, and tie the ends of the dressing over the pad. (7) If the wound is in an arm or leg and the bleeding has not stopped, raise the injured limb above the level of the heart. NOTE: Elevating the limb helps slow or stop the bleeding. Do not, however, raise a limb with a broken bone unless it is properly splinted. 1-234

WARNING:

(8) If blood is spurting from the wound, apply pressure on the appropriate pressure points to stop bleeding (see Figure 4). NOTE: This pressure should stop or at least slow the flow of blood from the heart to the wound until a pressure dressing can be put on it.

(9) Keep pressure on the pressure point even after the wound is dressed. (10) Apply a tourniquet if wound continues to bleed (see Performance Step d, 2)). (11) Seek medical assistance immediately. d. Apply a tourniquet. 1) Perform the following first aid measures. a) Perform the basic ABC treatment on casualty; check his airway, breathing, and circulation. Check for other injuries and perform proper treatment. Select suitable material to use as a tourniquet (belt, rope, shoestring, torn clothing, scarf, etc.).

b) c)

2)

Use a tourniquet. NOTE: The tourniquet should not be used unless a pressure dressing has failed to stop the bleeding or an arm or leg has been cut off. The reason is because on some occasions, tourniquets have injured blood vessels and nerves. If left in place too long, a tourniquet can cause loss of an arm or leg. Once applied, it must stay in place and the casualty must be taken to the nearest medical treatment facility as soon as possible.

a)

Place the improvised tourniquet. (1) Place the tourniquet around the limb, between the wound and the body trunk (or between the wound and the heart). (2) Place the tourniquet 2 to 4 inches from the edge of the wound site. NOTES: Never place the tourniquet directly over a wound or fracture or directly on a joint (wrist, elbow, or knee). For wounds just below a joint, place the tourniquet just above and as close to the joint as possible. The tourniquet should have padding underneath. If possible, place the tourniquet over the smoothed sleeve or trouser leg to prevent the skin from being pinched or twisted. If the tourniquet is long enough, wrap it around the limb several times, keeping the materials as flat as possible. Damaging the skin may deprive the surgeon of skin required to cover an amputation.

b)

Use the half-knot technique. (1) Tie a half-knot. 1-235

(2) Place a stick on top of the half-knot. c) Use the full knot technique. d) Tie the full knot over the stick.

Use the twisted stick technique. (1) Fasten the tourniquet to the limb by looping the free ends of the tourniquet over the ends of the stick. Then bring the ends around the limb to prevent the stick from loosening. Tie them together under the limb. NOTE: In the case of amputation, dark oozing blood may continue for a short time. This is the blood trapped in the area between the wound and the tourniquet.

(2) Twist the stick until the tourniquet is tight around the limb and/or the bright red bleeding has stopped. 3) Dress the wound/amputation. a) Remove and use the casualty's field dressing from his first aid kit, if available. NOTE: The following may also be used as dressing: gauze, cravat, bandages, T-shirts, other shirts, bed linens, trouser legs, scarves, or any other items made of pliable and durable material that can be folded, torn, or cut to desired size.

b)

If possible, remove as much clothing as needed from around the casualty's injury. Cut the clothing and carefully lift clothing away from the wounded area to avoid further contamination. NOTES: Do not tear the clothing. Do not touch the wound. Keep the wound as clean as possible. If it is dirty, leave it that way.

CAUTION:

If in a chemical (toxic) environment, do not expose wound(s). IMMEDIATELY place the dressing over the wound(s) and secure in place.

c)

Place the dressing on the wound and secure in place. (1) Remove the dressing from wrapper. (2) Grasp the tails of the dressing with both hands. (3) Hold the dressing directly over the wound. 1-236

(4) Pull the dressing open. (5) Place it directly over the wound. (6) Hold the dressing in place with one hand. (7) Use the other hand to wrap the tails around the dressing and the injured body part/stump to anchor dressing securely in place. (8) Tuck/tie each dressing tail in, around, and under the already wrapped portion to SECURE dressing in place. NOTE: The casualty's sock or other material may be placed over the field dressing to protect the amputation. Apply dressing firmly to prevent slipping and to stop the blood flow to the rest of the limb.

CAUTION:

d)

If bleeding continues, do the following: (1) Place a wad of padding on top of the field dressing DIRECTLY over the wound. (2) Place an improvised dressing (or cravat, if available) over the wad of padding. (3) Wrap the ends tightly around the limb, covering the previously placed field dressing. (4) Tie the ends together in a nonslip knot, directly over the wound site. (5) Raise the wounded limb 2 to 4 inches by placing the limb on top of a log or other suitable object.

e)

Treat for shock, if required. (1) Place the casualty's arm(s) and hand(s) on his or her chest. (2) Cover the casualty to keep warm until he or she is transported to a medical facility. Ensure body temperature is normal. (3) Elevate the casualty's lower extremities.

4)

Mark the casualty. a) Mark the casualty by writing a capital "T" (for tourniquet) on his forehead. NOTE: Ensure that the marking is visible. Use dark marker, if available; if not, use soot, mud, or victim's blood.

b)

Write the time and date on tourniquet and casualty's forehead to indicate when the tourniquet was applied.

e.

Perform mouth-to-mouth/mouth-to-nose resuscitation. 1) Evaluate the casualty. 1-237

a)

Check for unresponsiveness. Gently shake the casualty and ask, "Are you O.K.?"

b) 2)

If the casualty does not respond, call for help.

Position the casualty. a) b) Lay the casualty on his back on a firm surface. If the casualty is lying on his chest (prone position), cautiously roll the casualty onto his back, as a unit, so that the body does not twist. (1) Straighten the casualty's legs. (a) Take the casualty's arm that is nearest to you and move it so that it is straight and above his head. (b) Repeat procedures for the other arm. (2) Kneel beside the casualty with your knees near his shoulders (leave space to roll the body). (a) Place one hand behind the head and neck for support. (b) With your other hand, grasp the casualty under his arm. (3) Roll the casualty towards you using a steady and even pull. NOTE: His head and neck should stay in line with his back.

(4) Return the arms to the casualty's side. Straighten the legs. 3) Open the airway of an unconscious casualty. NOTE: The tongue is the most common cause of an airway obstruction. In most cases, the airway can be cleared by simply extending the neck, which pulls the tongue away from the air passage in the throat (Figure 6).

Figure 6 a) Move (roll) the casualty onto his back. 1-238

NOTE:

Take care in moving a casualty with a possible neck or back injury. Moving an injured neck may permanently injure the spine.

b)

Perform the head-tilt chin lift, or the jaw-thrust technique to open the airway. (1) Perform the head-tilt chin-lift technique. (a) Kneel beside the casualty's head and place one hand on his forehead. (b) Place the fingertips of your other hand under his chin. (c) While pressing on his forehead to tilt the head back, lift his chin forward to open his airway (Figure 7).

Figure 7 NOTE: Be careful not to press against the soft tissues under the chin; doing so may obstruct the airway. The teeth should be brought close together, but the mouth should not be closed completely.

(2) Perform the jaw-thrust technique.

(a) Place hands at the angles of the casualty's lower jaw on both sides. (b) Displace the jaw by tilting the head backwards (Figure 8).

Figure 8 1-239

NOTE:

The jaw-thrust technique is applied when a casualty has a possible neck or back injury. The head can be supported carefully without tilting it or turning it.

4)

Maintain an open airway. NOTE: Opening the airway often allows the casualty to breathe normally again. It should remain open so that the casualty will receive an adequate supply of oxygen.

5)

Perform preliminary steps for resuscitation. a) Check for breathing by placing your ear over the casualty's mouth and nose. (1) Look toward his chest, observing for the rise and fall of the casualty's chest (Figure 9).

Figure 9

(2) Listen for the sounds of breathing. (3) Feel for signs of breathing. b) c) 6) If the casualty is breathing, maintain the airway. If the casualty is not breathing, administer mouth-to-mouth/mouth-to-nose resuscitation.

Perform the mouth-to-mouth/mouth-to-nose resuscitation. a) Place one of your hands on the casualty's forehead and pinch his nostrils together with your thumb and index fingers, using the same hand (Figure 10).

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Figure 10 (1) Let this hand exert pressure on the forehead to maintain the backward head tilt and to maintain an open airway. (2) With the other hand, keep your fingertips on the chin (or your hand under the neck) to hold it upwards. b) Take a deep breath and place your mouth (forming an airtight seal) around the casualty's mouth. NOTE: If the injured person is small, cover both the nose and mouth with your mouth, sealing your lips against the skin of his face.

c)

Within 3 to 5 seconds, blow two full breaths into the casualty's mouth, taking a breath of fresh air each time before you blow. (1) Watch from the corner of your eye for the casualty's chest to rise. (2) Release the casualty's nose after the final breath. NOTES: If the chest rises, sufficient air is getting into the casualty's lungs. If the chest does not rise, do the following and then attempt to ventilate again: Reestablish the airway. Ensure that air is not leaking from around your mouth or from the casualty pinched nose. s

d)

Attempt to locate a pulse on the casualty, after giving two full breaths. (1) Place the first two fingers of your hand on the groove beside the casualty's Adam's apple (Figure 11).

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Figure 11 (2) Feel for the pulse on the side of the neck closest to you. (3) Maintain the open airway by keeping your other hand on the casualty's forehead. (4) Allow 5 to 10 seconds to determine whether there is a pulse. (a) If a pulse is not found and the casualty is breathing, STOP; allow casualty to breathe on his own. (b) If a pulse is found and the casualty is not breathing, continue mouth-tomouth/mouth-to-nose resuscitation. (c) e) f) If a pulse is not found, seek medical assistance.

Repeat Steps e.(6) (a) through (d) if the casualty is still not breathing. Repeat this procedure at a rate of one breath every 5 seconds to achieve 12 breaths per minute. Feel for a pulse after every 12th breath. NOTE: If a pulse is not detected, start closed chest heart massage immediately.

g)

h)

Continue mouth-to-mouth/mouth-to-nose resuscitation until the casualty breathes on his own, until another person relieves you, until you are too tired to continue, or until medical assistance arrives. NOTES: After a period of resuscitation, the casualty's stomach may bulge from incoming air. Usually this is due to the casualty's head being tilted improperly. Reposition the head and continue. DO NOT attempt to push out air by pressing on the stomach. If your breathing has been very deep and rapid for too long, you may tingle, become weak, dizzy, or even faint. It is best to administer only four full quick breaths then to adjust your breathing to the rate of approximately once every 5 seconds. Do this with only a moderate increase in normal volume and you will then be able to continue to give mouth-to-mouth/mouth-to-nose resuscitation for a longer period without experiencing temporary ill effects.

f.

Treat a casualty for shock. 1-242

WARNINGS: Unless shock is prevented or treated, death may result even though the injury would not otherwise be fatal. Shock may result from any injury but is more likely to result from a severe injury. 1) Identify signs/symptoms of shock. a) b) c) d) e) f) 2) Look for restlessness, thirstiness, skin paleness, and rapid heartbeat. Look for calmness and tiredness. Look for sweating, and cool, clammy skin. Look for gasping breath or shallow, rapid breathing. Look for staring blindly into space. Look for blotchiness or bluish coloring around the mouth.

Treat him/her at once for shock, if the casualty is in shock or is about to go into shock. a) Keep the casualty warm. Maintain normal body temperature. NOTE: b) c) It may be necessary to place ponchos or blankets under and over him.

Loosen the casualty's clothing at the neck, waist, and wherever it restricts circulation Reassure the casualty by being calm and self-confident. Assure him that he will be taken care of.

3)

Place the casualty in a comfortable position, depending on his condition.

CONDITIONS a) If he is conscious,

ACTIONS place him on his back with his feet raised 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 in) (Figure 12). place him on his side or abdomen with his head turned to the side (Figure 13).

b)

If he is unconscious,

1-243

Figure 12 c) d) If he has a head wound, If he has a face or neck wound,

Figure 13 raise his head higher than his body. sit him up and lean him forward with his head down or in the position for an unconscious casualty. sit him up or lay him down on the injured side. lay him on his back with his head turned to the side.

e)

If he has a sucking chest wound,

f)

If he has an abdominal wound,

g.

Perform the abdominal thrust. WARNING: The abdominal thrust should not be used if the casualty has an abdominal wound, is pregnant, or is so large that you cannot wrap your arms around his or her abdomen (stomach).

1)

Apply abdominal thrust for a conscious casualty. a) b) Stand behind the casualty and wrap your arms around his abdomen. Make a fist with one of your hands, and grasp it with the other. NOTE: The thumb side of your fist should be against the casualty's abdomen between his waist and rib cage (Figure 14).

c)

Give six to ten quick, inward and upward pulls (thrusts) (Figure 15).

1-244

Figure 14 d)

Figure 15

Repeat abdominal thrust until the casualty can talk and breathe normally, until a qualified person relieves you, or until the casualty becomes unconscious and requires medical assistance.

2)

Apply abdominal thrust for an unconscious casualty. a) b) c) Position casualty on his back. Perform the thrust astride the casualty. Straddle (in the astride position) the thighs of the casualty (Figure 16).

Figure 16 d) Place the heel of one of your hands against the casualty's abdomen between the waist and the rib cage. Put your second hand on top of the first one. Provide inward and upward thrusts to the casualty. Apply a quick, inward and upward abdominal thrust toward the casualty's head. Do this six to ten times in rapid succession.

e) f)

2.

Treat burns. a. Recognize the degrees of burns. 1) Identify first degree burns. NOTE: First-degree burns are those resulting from overexposure to the sun, light contact with hot objects, or scalding by hot water or steam. The severe sunburn should receive medical care as soon as possible.

a) b) c) 2)

Check for redness or discoloration. Check for mild swelling and pain. Check for rapid healing.

Identify second degree burns. NOTE: Second-degree burns are those resulting from deepened sunburn, contact 1-245

with ignited liquids, such as gasoline, kerosene, or similar products. a) b) c) d) e) Check for deeper tissue destruction than first-degree burn. Check for red or mottled appearance of skin. Check for development of blisters. Check for considerable swelling over a period of several days. Check for wet appearance on the surface of the skin due to the loss of body fluids through the damaged layers of the skin.

3)

Identify third degree burns. NOTE: Third degree burns can be caused by flame, ignited clothing, immersion in hot water, contact with hot objects, or electricity. Temperature and duration of contact are important factors in determining the extent of tissue destruction.

a) b) c) 4)

Check for deep tissue destruction. Check for white or charred appearance of skin. Check for complete loss of all layers of the skin.

Classify the severity of burns. NOTE: The amount of body surface that is burned is very important in determining the seriousness of the burn. A very rough but reasonably accurate estimate of the amount of body surface burned is determined by the rule of nines.

a)

Classify burns as critical (severe) according to the following guidelines: (1) All burns of whatever degree and extent if they are complicated by respiratory tract injury and other major injuries or fractures. (2) Third degree burns involving critical areas such as the face, hands, or feet. (3) Third degree burns which involve more than 10 percent of the body surface. (4) Second degree burns which involve more than 30 percent of the body surface.

b)

Classify burns as moderate according to the following guidelines: (1) Third degree burns of 2 to 10 percent of the body surface, which do not involve the face, hands, or feet. (2) Second degree burns which involve 15 to 30 percent of the body surface. (3) First degree burns involving 50 to 75 percent of the body surface.

c)

Classify burns as minor according to the following guidelines: (1) Third degree burns of less than 2 percent of the body surface if no critical areas 1-246

are involved. (2) Second degree burns involving less than 15 percent of the body surface. (3) First degree burns of less than 20 percent of the body surface. 5) Evaluate the casualty for conditions requiring basic lifesaving measures. NOTE: a) b) c) d) e) 6) If necessary, apply the following basic lifesaving measures:

Clear the airway. Restore breathing. Apply cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Prevent shock. Stop bleeding.

Apply first aid for burns. a) Remove the casualty from the sources of burns. (1) Remove the casualty from thermal burns. (a) Remove the casualty quickly and cover the thermal burn with a field jacket or any large nonsynthetic material. CAUTION: Synthetic materials will melt and cause further injury.

(b) Roll the casualty on the ground to smother the flames. (2) Remove the casualty from electrical burns. (a) Remove the casualty by using a nonconductive material such as wood, bamboo etc. CAUTION: Do not make body-to-body contact with the casualty or touch any wires because you could also become a casualty.

(b) Turn off the electrical current if the switch is nearby, but do not waste time looking for it. (3) Remove the casualty from chemical burns. (a) Remove liquid chemicals by flushing with as much water as possible. (b) Remove dry chemicals by brushing off loose particles and flushing with large amounts of water. CAUTION: Do not use the bare surface of your hand because you could become a casualty. 1-247

(c) b)

Smother burning white phosphorous with water, a wet cloth, or wet mud.

Expose the burn. (1) Cut and gently lift away any clothing covering the burned area without pulling clothing over burns. (2) Leave any clothing in place that is stuck to the burns. WARNING: Do not lift or cut away any clothing if in a chemical environment.

NOTE:

Remember, blisters are burns. Do not decontaminate skin where blisters have formed.

c)

Apply a field dressing. (1) Grasp the tails of the casualty's dressing in both hands. (2) Hold the dressing directly over the wound with the white (sterile) side down. (a) Pull the dressing open. NOTE: Use the cleanest improvised dressing material available if a field dressing is not available.

(b) Place it directly over the wound. NOTE: If the casualty is able, he or she may hold the dressing in place.

(3) Hold the dressing in place with one hand and use the other hand to wrap one of the tails around the body or injured area. (4) Wrap the other tail in the opposite direction until the dressing completely covers the wound. (5) Tie the tails into a knot over the outer edge of the dressing. 7) Take the following precautions for burns. a) b) c) d) Do not place a dressing over the face or genital area. Do not break blisters. Do not apply grease or ointments to the burns. Check electrical burns for an entry and exit where the electricity passed through the body. Give the casualty only small amounts of water if he or she is conscious and not nauseated. 1-248

e)

f) 8) 3.

Treat for shock.

Seek medical aid.

Treat soft tissue injuries. a. Treat an abdominal wound. 1) Position the casualty on his back with his knees up to prevent further exposure of the bowel/intestines. NOTE: The knees-up position helps relieve pain and assists in the treatment of shock.

2)

Expose the wound. a) Remove the casualty's clothing to expose the wound. WARNING: However, do not attempt to remove clothing that is stuck to the wound; it may cause further injury.

NOTE: b) 3)

Do not remove protective clothing in a chemical environment.

Apply the dressing over the protective clothing.

Pick up any organs that may be on the ground. a) b) Do this with a clean, dry dressing or with the cleanest available material. Place the organs on top of the casualty's stomach.

WARNINGS: Do not probe, clean, or try to remove any foreign object from the stomach. Do not touch any exposed organs with your bare hands. Do not push organs back inside the body. 4) Apply a field dressing. NOTE: Use the casualty's field dressing, not your own. Improvised dressings may be made from clothing, blankets or other material available if the field dressing is not large enough for the entire wound. If this is the case, use the cleanest improvised dressing material available.

a) b) c)

Cover the field dressing with improvised reinforcement material (cravat, strips of torn Tshirt, or other cloth), if available, for support and additional protection. Tie the improvised bandages on the opposite side of the dressing tie. Keep the casualty in the knees-up position and evacuate him as soon as possible. WARNING: Casualties with stomach wounds should not be given food or water. (Moistening the lips is allowed.)

5)

Seek medical aid. 1-249

b.

Treat a sucking chest wound. 1) Locate the open chest wound(s). 2) Examine the casualty to determine the entry and exit wounds.

Expose the wound. If appropriate, cut or remove the casualty's clothing to expose the entire area of the wound. WARNINGS: Do not remove clothing that is stuck to the wound because additional injury may result. Do not remove protective clothing in an NBC environment. Apply dressing over the protective clothing.

3)

Open the casualty's field dressing. Tear open one end of the plastic wrapper covering the field dressing and remove the inner packet (field dressing). NOTES: Be careful not to destroy or touch the inside of last wrapper. The plastic wrapper will be used to create an airtight seal over the wound. Any airtight material may be used such as cellophane wrappers or foil.

4)

Place the inside surface of the plastic wrapper directly over the wound, and hold it in place when the casualty exhales. Apply the field dressing to the wound or over protective clothing, if appropriate. a) Use your free hand and shake open the field dressing. (1) Place the white side of the dressing directly over the plastic wrapper, covering the open wound. (2) Hold the field dressing securely in place to create an airtight dressing. NOTE: If the casualty is able, he may assist. Use the casualty's field dressing, not your own.

5)

b) c)

Have the casualty breath normally. Maintain pressure on the dressing while wrapping both tails around and under the body. Bring the tails around to the starting point (chest) where both can be grasped.

d)

Apply pressure while the casualty is exhaling (Figure 17).

1-250

Figure 17 Tie the tails into a nonslip knot (square knot) over the center of the field dressing. NOTE: The nonslip knot creates additional pressure on the wound and also assists in creating an airtight seal.

6)

Position the casualty in the prone position with his injured side toward the ground or in a sitting position, whichever makes breathing easier. Seek medical aid.

7) c.

Treat a head injury. 1) Evaluate casualty for open head injuries: a) b) c) Deformity of the head (abnormal pit or depression in the skull) Blood or other fluid escaping from the scalp, ears, or nose Object protruding from the head (e.g., glass, skull fragments, etc.) or exposed brain matter

2)

Evaluate casualty for closed head injuries: a) b) Nausea or vomiting, convulsions or twitches, confusion or slurred speech Current or recent unconsciousness

3)

Apply first aid. a) b) Clear the airway (see Performance Step 1.a.). Position the casualty. (1) Elevate the head injury slightly. NOTE: Treat as a possible neck or spinal injury until proven otherwise. Do not elevate the casualty's head if he is accumulating fluids in his throat. 1-251

CAUTION:

(2) When there is bleeding from the mouth and throat, position the casualty on his side so that blood will drain out of his mouth and not down into the windpipe. c) Control bleeding and protect the wound. (1) Do not attempt to remove an imbedded object from the head. (2) In severe head injuries where brain tissue is protruding, leave the wound alone. (3) Carefully place a first aid dressing over the tissue. (4) Do not remove or disturb any foreign matter that may be in the wound. d) Apply dressing and bandages. (1) When applying dressing, have the conscious casualty sit up unless other injuries are evident or he is unable to sit up under his own power. (2) Position the casualty on his side with his face turned. (3) If the casualty is unconscious, has a severe head injury, or you strongly suspect a possible neck/spinal cord injury, immobilize the casualty and bandage in place. NOTE: Figure 18 represents various methods of securing field dressing on casualties with head injuries.

Figure 18 e) f) Do not give the casualty anything to drink. Treat the casualty for convulsions. WARNING: Convulsions (seizures/involuntary jerking) may occur after a mild head injury. When the casualty is convulsing, protect him from hurting himself.

(1) Ease him to the ground; support his head and neck. WARNING: Do not forcefully hold the arms and legs if they are jerking because this can lead to broken bones. 1-252

(2) Ensure that the airway is open and kept clean, and call for assistance. g) 4. Treat for shock (See Performance Step 1.f.).

Treat fractures. a. Splint an open fracture. NOTE: Open fractures are those in which the broken bone has pierced the overlying skin. The bone itself may break the skin, or a missile or shell fragment may go through the flesh and the bone.

1)

Stop the bleeding. Apply a dressing and bandage as you would for any other wound.

2)

Immobilize the fracture. a) Apply an expedient splint. (1) Tie the fractured leg to the other leg as a splint if circumstances make it necessary to move a casualty before splinting (Figure 19).

Figure 19 (2) Grasp the casualty beneath his armpits and pull him in a straight line, ensuring that the victim does not roll or move sideways. b) Splint the fracture. (1) Apply the principle, "SPLINTING THEM WHERE THEY LIE." NOTE: This means to splint the fractured part before attempting to move the casualty and without changing the position of the fractured part. If a bone is in an unnatural position or a joint is bent, do not try to straighten it. If a joint is not bent, do not try to bend it.

(2) Apply splint so that the joints above and below the fracture are immobilized. (3) Place a splint on each side of the wound (Figure 20). 1-253

Figure 20 (4) Use padding between the injured part and the splint to prevent undue pressure and further injury to tissue, muscles, blood vessels, and nerves (Figure 21).

Figure 21 NOTE: This is especially important at the crotch, in the armpit, and on places where the splints come in contact with bony parts, such as the elbow, wrist, knee, and ankle joint.

(5) Bind splints securely with bandages at several points above and below the fracture, but do not bind tightly enough to interfere with the flow of blood. (6) Tie bandages with a nonslip knot and put the knot on the outer splint. (7) Support a splinted arm that is bent at the elbow with a sling. 1-254

NOTE:

A sling is also used to support a sprained arm or an arm with a painful wound (Figure 21).

b.

Splint a closed fracture. NOTE: A closed fracture is a broken bone that does not break the overlying skin. Tissue beneath the skin may be damaged. A dislocation is when a joint, such as a knee, ankle, or shoulder, is not in proper position. A sprain is when the connecting tissue of the joints has been torn. Dislocations and sprains should be treated as closed fractures.

1)

Identify signs/symptoms of closed fractures. Deformity, tenderness, swelling, pain, inability to move the injured part, discolored skin at the injury site, sharp pain upon movement of a fracture. CAUTION: Do not encourage the casualty to move the injured part to identify a fracture since such movement could cause further damage to surrounding tissue and promote shock.

NOTE:

If you are not sure whether a bone is fractured, treat the injury as a fracture.

2)

Evaluate the casualty. a) b) Perform any necessary lifesaving measures. Monitor the casualty for conditions that may require basic lifesaving measures. CAUTION: Unless there is immediate life-threatening danger, such as a fire or an explosion, do not move the casualty with a suspected back or neck injury. Improper treatment may cause permanent paralysis or death.

c) d)

Locate the site of the suspected fracture. Ask the casualty for the location of the injury. NOTE: Example: "Do you have pain? Where is it tender? Can you move your arm/leg?"

e) f)

Look for an unnatural position of the extremity. Look for a bone sticking out (protruding) (See Performance Step 4.a.). CAUTION: Loosen any tight or binding clothing. Remove all the jewelry from the casualty and place it in his pocket. Tell the casualty not to move at this time. If swelling occurs later, further bodily injury can occur.

NOTE:

Boots should not be removed from the casualty unless they are needed to stabilize a neck injury, or there is actual bleeding from the foot.

g)

Reassure the casualty. Tell him or her that you will be taking care of him and that aid is on the way. 1-255

3)

Gather splinting materials. a) b) c) Use tree branches, boards, tent poles, etc. Improvise padding with a jacket, blanket, poncho, shelter half, or leafy vegetation. Use parts of the casualty's body to immobilize a suspected fracture of an arm or leg. For example, use the chest wall to immobilize the injured arm.

4)

Pad the splints. Pad the splints where they touch any part of the body, such as the elbow, wrist, knee, ankle, crotch, or armpit area.

5)

Check the circulation below the site of the injury. a) Check skin and look for a pale, white, or bluish-gray color of the skin which indicates poor circulation. Check circulation of a dark-skinned person by depressing toe or fingernail beds and observing how quickly the color returns.

b)

6)

Check the temperature. Use your hand to compare the temperature of the injured side with uninjured side of the body. NOTE: The injured side may be colder to the touch indicating poor circulation.

7)

Immobilize the fracture. a) Apply and tie the splint in place. (1) Splint the fracture(s) in the position found. WARNING: Do not attempt to reposition or straighten the injured part.

(2) If it is an open fracture, stop the bleeding and protect the wound. (3) Cover all wounds with field dressing before applying a splint. NOTE: Remember to use the casualty's field dressing, not your own. If bones are protruding, do not attempt to push them back under the skin.

WARNING:

(4) Apply dressing to protect the area. (5) Tie the splints. (6) Secure each splint in place above and below the fracture site. NOTE: Use cravats or improvised cravats, such as a strip of cloth or belts, 1-256

to secure each splint. (7) With minimal motion to the injured areas, place and tie the splints with the bandages. (8) Push cravats through and under the natural body curvature (spaces). (a) Gently position improvised cravats and tie in place. (b) Use nonslip knots. (9) Tie all knots on the splint away from the casualty. CAUTION: Do not tie knots directly over suspected fracture/dislocation site.

b)

If you suspect a fracture or dislocation below the elbow, splint and bandage the arm to the body (Figure 22).

Figure 22

1-257

REFERENCE: FM 21-11, First Aid for Soldiers

1-258

TASK: CONDITIONS:

PERFORM BASIC FIRST AID PREVENTIVE MEASURES (1-44) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF POTENTIAL INJURIES, AND APPROPRIATE MATERIALS. THE SEABEE MUST PERFORM BASIC FIRST AID PREVENTIVE MEASURES AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical scenario in any combat environment, and the signs and symptoms of various heat, cold, and foot injuries.

Standard:The Seabee must perform preventive measures identify injuries and treat heat, cold, and foot injuries.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Prevent and treat heat Casualties. a. Prevent heat injuries. 1) Consume adequate amounts of water. NOTE: The ideal fluid replacement is water. The availability of sufficient water during work or training in hot weather is very important as the body can lose more than one quart per hour through sweating.

2)

Drink at least one full canteen of water each hour. NOTE: Prevention also depends on proper clothing and appropriate activity levels. Acclimatization and protection from undue heat exposure are also very important.

3)

Instruct possible victims about living and working in hot climates. NOTES: Other conditions which may increase heat stress and cause heat injury include infections, fever, recent illness or injury, overweight, dehydration, exertion, fatigue, heavy meals, and alcohol. Salt tablets should not be used as a preventive measure.

b.

Identify heat injuries. 1) Check for muscle cramps in the arms, legs, and/or stomach after prolonged exertion in hot weather. NOTE: 2) Heat cramps are due to insufficient salt in the body

Look for presence of wet skin and extreme thirst.

c.

Treat symptoms. 1-259

1) 2) 3) 4) 2.

Move the casualty to a shaded area or improvise shade. Loosen his clothing. Have him drink at least one canteen full of water slowly. Seek medical aid if cramps continue.

Identify and treat heat exhaustion. NOTE: Heat exhaustion is due to a loss of water through sweating without adequate fluid replacement.

a.

Identify symptoms. 1) Look for weakness or faintness, dizziness or drowsiness, cool, pale (or gray), moist (sweaty) skin, headaches, and loss of appetite. Check heat cramps, nausea (urge to vomit) with or without vomiting, urge to defecate, chills (gooseflesh), rapid breathing (shortness of breath), confusion, or tingling of hands or feet.

2)

b.

Treat symptoms. 1) 2) Move the casualty to a shady area, or improvise shade and have him lie down. Loosen or remove his clothing and boots unless in a chemical environment. Pour water on him, and fan him if it is a very hot day. Elevate his legs. Have him drink at least one canteen full of water slowly. If possible, ensure that the casualty does not participate in strenuous activity for the remainder of the day. Monitor the casualty until the symptoms are gone, or if the symptoms persist, seek medical aid.

3) 4) 5)

6)

3.

Identify and treat heatstroke. NOTE: This is a medical emergency and can be fatal if not treated promptly and correctly. It is caused by a failure of the body's cooling mechanisms. Inadequate sweating is a factor.

a.

Identify symptoms. 1) Check for flushed, hot and dry skin, dizziness, confusion, headaches, seizures, nausea, rapid respiration, and rapid and weak pulse.

2) Look for sudden unconsciousness or collapse. b. Treat symptoms. 1) Cool the casualty immediately by moving him into a shaded area. 1-260

2) 3)

Remove outer garments and/or protective clothing if the situation permits. Pour water over him or immerse him in water and fan him to bring about the cooling effect of evaporation. Massage his skin. Elevate his legs. Have him drink water slowly if conscious. Seek medical aid because the casualty should be transported to a medical treatment facility as soon as possible. CAUTION: DO NOT delay evacuation to start cooling measures. The cooling measures can be done en route.

4) 5) 6) 7)

4.

Prevent and treat cold injuries. a. Prevent hypothermia (severe chilling). 1) 2) 3) b. Avoid rapid and uncontrollable loss of body heat. Equip and dress properly (as appropriate for conditions and exposure). Have proper diet and sufficient rest.

Identify symptoms. 1) 2) 3) Look for shivering (the body's attempt to generate heat). Look for faint or irregular pulse. Look for drowsiness, mental slowness, stiffness, and uncoordinated movement with minimal function. Look for shock, glassy eyes, slow and shallow breathing, and weak or undetectable pulse. Check for unconsciousness. Look for frozen extremities and irregular heart action.

4) 5) 6) c.

Treat hypothermia. 1) 2) Send for help as soon as possible. Cover the casualty immediately with dry clothing or a sleeping bag, and then move him to a warm place. Give warm liquids gradually. WARNING: 4) Do not force liquids on an unconscious or semiconscious person.

3)

Transport the casualty on a litter. 1-261

WARNING:

Be alert for signs of shock, and be prepared to start basic life support measures.

5)

Treat severe hypothermia, basing treatment upon following principles: a) b) c) d) Stabilize the temperature. Attempt to avoid further heat loss. Handle the casualty gently. Evacuate as soon as possible.

5.

Prevent and treat frostbite. NOTE: Frostbite is the injury of tissue caused by exposure to freezing temperature. Frostbite can cause the lose of limbs or other serious, permanent injury. It is the most common cold injury. Frostbite may involve only the skin (superficial), or it may extend to a depth below the skin (deep). If a frostbitten area of the body is thawed and then refrozen, the effects are more severe.

a.

Prevent frostbite. 1) Dress to protect yourself. NOTE: Wear sufficient clothing that is dry and loose, or wear several layers of warm coverings for protection against cold and wind. In high winds, take special precautions to protect your face.

2)

Keep your clothing and body dry. NOTES: Avoid overdressing which causes excessive perspiration. Change your socks whenever your feet become moist. In extremely low temperatures, do not touch metal with your bare skin.

3) 4)

Exercise exposed parts of your body frequently. Exercise your fingers and toes from time to time to keep them warm and to detect numb or hard areas. Warm your face and ears from time to time with your hands for the same purpose. Use the buddy system. a) b) Watch your buddy's face to see if any frozen spots show, and have him watch yours. Thaw any frozen spots immediately, using bare hands or other sources of body heat. NOTE: Any interference with the circulation of your blood reduces the amount of heat delivered to your extremities.

5) 6)

7)

Wear properly fitted clothing and equipment. 1-262

NOTE:

Tight-fitting socks, boots, and gloves are especially dangerous in very cold climates.

b.

Identify symptoms. 1) 2) Look for superficial frostbite primarily involving the skin and the tissue just beneath the skin. Look for initial and superficial frostbite indicated by redness of the skin in light-skinned individuals and grayish coloring of skin in dark-skinned individuals. Look for blistering occurring 24 to 36 hours after exposure and sloughing (casting off) of the superficial skin. Identify the symptoms of the deep frostbite. NOTE: Deep frostbite (freezing) preceded by superficial frostbite, involving freezing of the tissue below the skin, and possibly even muscles and bone.

3)

4)

a) b) c)

Look for unthawed, painless, pale-yellowish, and waxy-looking skin. Look for tissue, which is frozen, swollen or wooden to the touch. Look for blisters appearing within 12 to 36 hours after exposure (curtailed by rapid and proper rewarming). NOTE: Without proper treatment, gangrene can occur.

c.

Treat frostbite. 1) Move casualty into a heated shelter if possible. Seek shelter from the wind. Remove all items, which constrict circulation without causing further injury to the frostbitten area.

2) 3)

Warm frostbite victim by body heat when in the field. Place frostbitten hands in casualty's armpits and frostbitten feet on the stomach or between the thighs of another person. Warm frostbitten ears and face by placing your hands on injured area. Treat casualty with frostbitten feet as a litter case, and avoid walking if possible.

4) 5) d.

Protect the affected area from further injury by covering it lightly with a blanket or any dry clothing. WARNINGS: Never rub or massage a frostbitten area. This may tear the frozen skin tissue and cause infection or gangrene. Never rub part of the body with ice, snow, or cold water. Never forcibly remove frozen shoes, mittens, or clothing; thaw them first. Never rewarm the frostbitten area by exposure to an open fire. 1-263

NOTE: e. 6.

Overheating can cause additional pain or injury.

Ensure that casualty is prepared for pain when thawing occurs.

Prevent and treat snow blindness or snowburns. NOTE: Snow blindness is due to a glare on unprotected eyes from an ice field or a snowfield. It is more dangerous on cloudy or hazy days when Seabees are less wary. Once you have had snow blindness, you are more susceptible to further injury.

a.

Prevent snow blindness. 1) 2) 3) Wear sunglasses when conditions warrant. Carry an extra pair of sunglasses in case of damage. Improvise eye covering by cutting narrow slits in a small piece of cardboard, wood, leather, or cloth, and tie it over the eyes.

b.

Identify symptoms. 1) 2) Look for sensation of grit in the eyes with pain in and over the eyes. Look for watering, redness, headache, and increased pain on exposure to light. NOTE: If a snowburn is neglected, the result is the same as sunburn. The same condition that causes snow blindness can cause sunburn of the skin, lips, and eyelids.

c.

Treat the snow blindness. 1) 2) Cover the victim's eyes with a dark cloth to shut out all light. Take victim to a medical treatment facility.

7.

Prevent and treat blisters. a. Prevent blisters. NOTE: Blisters are caused by ill-fitting footwear, heat, moisture, and friction. Feet rubbing inside the shoe over a period of time may result in this condition. 1) 2) 3) 4) b. Wear properly fitting boots and shoes. Wear properly fitting and clean socks. Keep feet clean and dry. Use foot powder.

Identify symptoms. 1) 2) Look for redness and soreness of the skin. Look for puffiness in the sore area. 1-264

3) 4) c.

Look for fluid buildup under the skin. Look for broken skin.

Treat blisters. NOTE: If blisters develop and medical personnel are not available, you should follow the steps listed below:

1) 2)

Wash the blister area. Dress blisters with an antiseptic, gauze pad, and tape. NOTE: Do not puncture blisters since infection can easily become a very real and disabling factor.

7.

Prevent immersion foot. NOTE: Immersion foot and trench foot are injuries that occur from fairly long exposure to cool and wet socks and boots or tightly laced boots which impair circulation. This can be very serious and can lead to loss of toes or part of the foot. Wear clean, dry socks and boots at every opportunity. Dry the feet as soon as possible after getting them wet. Warm them with the hands. Apply foot powder and dry socks.

1) 2)

3) Exercise feet continually by wiggling the toes and bending the ankles if it becomes necessary to wear wet boots and socks. Never wear tight boots. e. Identify symptoms. 1) 2) 3) Look for cold and numb feet, and weak pulse. Look for hot, burning, and shooting pains as the body parts are warmed. Check for pale skin with a bluish cast, decreased pulse, blistering, swelling, redness, heat, bleeding, and gangrene ( advanced stages occur in 24 to 48 hours).

f.

Treat immersion foot. 1) Expose foot to air to gradually rewarm the injured part. NOTE: 2) 3) 4) DO NOT massage or moisten the skin.

Protect the affected parts from trauma and secondary infection. Dry feet thoroughly and avoid walking. Seek medical treatment.

8.

Prevent and treat fungal infection (athlete's foot). NOTE: Fungal infection usually occurs between the toes and on the soles of the feet. 1-265

a.

Prevent the fungal infection. 1) 2) 3) Clean and dry feet daily. Apply foot powder daily. Wear clean socks.

b.

Identify symptoms. 1) 2) 3) Look for itchy feet. Look for cracks in the skin between the toes. Look for flaky patches of skin.

c.

Treat fungal infection. 1) 2) 3) Apply foot powder daily. Apply fungicidal ointment. Seek medical aid if Performance Steps 8.c.1) and 8.c.2) fail to clear up the infection.

REFERENCE: FM 21-11, First Aid for Soldiers

1-266

TASK: CONDITIONS:

PRACTICE BASIC FIELD SANITATION (1-45) GIVEN ENTRENCHING TOOL (E-TOOL), ALICE PACK, TOILETRIES, WATER, A CANTEEN WITH CUP, PURIFICATION TABLETS, AND NECESSARY FIELD EQUIPMENT IN A SECURE COMBAT ENVIRONMENT. THE SEABEE MUST PRACTICE BASIC FIELD SANITATION AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided an E-tool, an ALICE pack, toiletries, water, a canteen with cup, purification tablets, and necessary field equipment in a secure combat environment. The Seabee must demonstrate how to maintain physical and mental fitness and personal hygiene. The Seabee must purify water and construct a cat hole and straddle trench to dispose of human waste.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: NOTE: Personal hygiene protects against disease-causing germs that are present in all environments. Practicing personal hygiene prevents spreading of disease-causing germs, promotes health among Seabees, and improves morale.

1.

Clean your skin. a. b. Wash your body frequently from head to foot with cloth, soap, and water. Wash armpits, groin area, face, ears, hands, and feet.

2.

Clean your hair. WARNING: a. b. Do not share combs or shaving equipment with other Seabees.

Keep your hair clean, neatly combed, and trimmed. Wash your hair and entire scalp with soap and water at least once a week. NOTE: Ensure that you rinse your hair thoroughly.

c.

Shave as often as the water supply and tactical situation permit. WARNING: Beard growth may prevent proper fit of protective mask.

3.

Clean your hands. a. Wash your hands with soap and water after any dirty work, after each visit to the head, and before eating. Keep your fingernails closely trimmed and clean. Do not bite your fingernails, pick your nose, or scratch your body. 1-267

b. c.

4.

Clean your clothing and sleeping gear. a. b. c. Wash or exchange your clothing when it becomes dirty, if the situation permits. Wash or exchange your sleeping bag when it becomes dirty. Shake your clothing and sleeping gear, and air them regularly in the sun if they cannot be washed or exchanged.

5.

Perform oral hygiene. a. Clean your mouth and teeth thoroughly and correctly after each meal with a toothbrush and toothpaste. Cut a twig from a tree and fray it on one end (Figure 1) to serve as a toothbrush if one is not available.

b.

Figure 1 c. d. 6. Use mouthwash, if available, to help kill germs in your mouth. Use dental floss or toothpicks to help remove food between your teeth.

Maintain physical fitness. Exercise during lulls in combat.

7.

Obtain rest or sleep. NOTE: For good health, 6 to 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep each day is desirable. Take advantage of rest periods and off-duty time to rest or sleep during combat.

8.

Maintain mental fitness. a. b. Concentrate on performance of your jobs. Maintain positive thinking. NOTE: You must enter the combat with absolute confidence in your ability to do your job.

c.

Control your fear. NOTE: Do not let your imagination and fear run wild. Remember, you are not alone. You are part of a team. There are other Seabees nearby even though they cannot always be seen. Everyone must help each other and depend on each other. 1-268

9.

Dispose of human waste. a. b. Dig a cat hole (Figure 2) approximately 1-foot wide and 1-foot deep. Dig a straddle trench (Figure 3) approximately 4-foot long, 2 1/2 feet deep and 1 foot wide.

Figure 2 c.

Figure 3

Completely cover excrement and pack down with dirt after each use.

10. Purify water. a. b. Draw water upstream from other activities as shown (Figure 4). Use iodine tables. 1) Remove the cap from your canteen and fill the canteen with the cleanest water available. 2) Put two tablets in the canteen.

Figure 4 NOTE: Double the amount if you have a 2-quart canteen. 3) Replace the cap and wait 5 minutes. 4) Shake the canteen. 5) Loosen the cap and tip the canteen over to allow leakage around the canteen threads. 1-269

6) Tighten the cap and wait another 25 minutes before drinking (total of 30 minutes). c. Use calcium hypochlorite. 1) Fill the canteen with the cleanest water available. Leave an airspace of 1 inch or more below the neck of the canteen. 2) Fill a canteen cup half full of water and add the calcium hypochlorite from one ampule. Stir with a clean tick until the powder is dissolved. 3) Fill the cap of a plastic canteen half full of the solution in the cup. 4) Add it to the water in the canteen. 5) Place the cap on the canteen. 6) Shake it thoroughly. 7) Loosen the cap slightly and invert the canteen. Let the treated water leak onto the threads around the neck of canteen. 8) Tighten the cap on the canteen and wait at least 30 minutes before using the water for drinking or cooking. d. Boil the water. NOTE: This method is used when purification compounds are not available. However, it has the following disadvantages:

1) You need fuel to boil the water. 2) Water can take a long time to boil and then cool. 3) Boiled water needs residual protection against recontamination. 4) Water must be held at a rolling boil for at least 15 seconds to make it safe for drinking.

REFERENCES: FM 21-10, Field Hygiene and Sanitation NAVMED P 5010 CHAPTER 9

1-270

TASK:

TRANSPORT CASUALTIES, USING MANUAL CARRIES AND IMPROVISED STRETCHERS (1-46) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), A COMBAT CASUALTY REQUIRING MOVEMENT, A SEABEE ASSISTANT, AND MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS WHICH CAN BE USED TO IMPROVISE A STRETCHER. THE SEABEE MUST TRANSPORT CASUALTIES USING VARIOUS MANUAL CARRIES AND IMPROVISED STRETCHERS, AS PER THE REFERENCES.

CONDITIONS:

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical scenario in any combat environment, combat casualties requiring movement, a Seabee assistant, and miscellaneous materials which can be used to improvise as a stretcher. The Seabee must transport casualties using various manual carries and improvised stretchers.

Standard:

PERFORMANCE STEPS: NOTES: Before attempting to move an injured Seabee, evaluate the type and extent of the injury if the situation allows. Ensure that bandages over wounds will not come off and that broken bones are properly immobilized and supported to prevent them from cutting through muscle, blood vessels, and skin. One or two bearers may do manual carries; use two-man carries whenever possible. 1. Use manual carries to transport a casualty. a. Use the fireman's carry.

Figure 1

1) Properly position the unconscious or disabled Seabee. 1-271

2) Roll the Seabee from his back to his abdomen. a) Kneel at the Seabee's uninjured side (Figure 1). b) Place his arms above his head and cross his ankle farther from you over the one closer to you. c) Place one of your hands on the shoulder farther from you and your other hand in the area of his hip or thigh, then gently roll him toward you onto his abdomen (Figure 2). 3) Raise the Seabee from the ground (Figure 3).

Figure 2

Figure 3

a) After rolling the wounded Seabee onto his abdomen, straddle him. b) Extend your hands under his chest and lock them together. 4) Lift the Seabee to his knees as you move backward (Figure 4). 5) Continue to move backward, thus straightening the Seabee's legs and locking his knees (Figure 5)

Figure 4

Figure 5

6) Walk forward, bringing the Seabee to a standing position but tilted slightly backward to prevent his knees from buckling 1 (Figure 6). 1-272

7) Free your left arm, maintaining support of the Seabee with your right arm. a) Quickly grasp his left wrist and raise his arm high 2. b) Instantly pass your head under his raised arm, releasing his arm as you pass under it 3. c) Move swiftly to face the Seabee and secure your arms around his waist 4. d) Immediately place your right toe between his feet, and spread his feet 6 to 8 inches apart. 8) With your right hand, grasp the Seabee's left wrist and raise his arm over your head (Figure 7).

Figure 6

Figure 7

9) Bend at the waist and knees; then pull the Seabee's arm over your left shoulder and down your back, thus bringing his body across your shoulders 5 (Figure 8).

Figure 8 - At the same time, pass your left arm between his legs. 10) Place the Seabee's left wrist in your left hand, and place your right hand on your right knee for support in rising 6. 1-273

11) Rise with the Seabee in the correct position 7. - Free your right hand to use as needed. b. Use the alternate fireman's carry NOTES: The alternate method for raising a Seabee from the ground should be used only when the bearer believes it is safer for the Seabee because of the location of his wounds. Use extreme care to prevent the Seabee's head from snapping back and causing a neck injury. 1) Kneel on one knee at the Seabee's head, rolling him on his stomach and facing his feet (Figure 9). - Then extend your hands under his armpits, down his sides, and across his back. 2) As you rise, lift the Seabee to his knees (Figure 10).

Figure 9

Figure 10

3) Secure your arms around the Seabee's waist, with his body tilted slightly backward to prevent his knees from buckling. 4) Place your right foot between his feet, spread his feet 6 to 8 inches apart, and raise him to a standing position with his knees locked. 5) Repeat steps 5, 6, and 7 as in Figure 8. c. Use the supporting carry (Figure 11). 1) Raise the Seabee from the ground as in the fireman carry. s 2) With your right (left) hand, grasp the Seabee's right (left) wrist and draw his arm around your neck. 3) Place your left (right) arm around his waist. (The Seabee is thus able to walk, using you as a crutch.). d. Use the arms carry (Figure 12).

1-274

Figure 11 1) Lift the Seabee from the ground as in the fireman's carry. 2) Carry the Seabee high to lessen fatigue. e. Use the saddle back carry (Figure 13).

Figure 12

1) Have the wounded Seabee circle his arms around your neck. 2) Stoop, raise him upon your back, and clasp your hands beneath his thighs. f. Use the "pack strap" carry. 1) Lift the Seabee from the ground as in the fireman's carry. 2) Supporting the wounded Seabee with your arm around him, grasp his wrist closest to you, and place his arm over your head and cross your shoulder. 3) Move in front of him while supporting his weight against your back. 4) Grasp his other wrist, and place this arm over your shoulder 8 (Figure 14).

1-275

Figure 13

Figure 14

3) Raise the wounded Seabee to an upright position as in the fireman's carry. 4) Support the wounded Seabee by placing an arm around his waist, and move in front of him. 5) Bend forward, and hoist him as high on your back as possible so that all his weight is resting on your back 9. g. Use the pistol-belt carry. 1) Link together two pistol belts to form a sling. NOTE: If pistol belts are not available, use other items such as one rifle sling, two cravat bandages, two litter straps, or any suitable material which will not cut or bind the wounded Seabee.

2) Place the sling under the Seabee's thighs and lower back 10 (Figure 15 ) so that a loop extends from each side. 3) Lie between the Seabee's outstretched legs 11. 4) Thrust your arms through the loops; grasp the Seabee's hand and trouser leg on his injured side.

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Figure 15 5) Roll toward the Seabee's uninjured side onto your abdomen, bringing the Seabee onto your back 12. 6) Adjust the sling as necessary. 7) Rise to a kneeling position 13 (Figure 16). (The belt will hold the Seabee in place.).

Figure 16

Figure 17

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Figure 18

Figure 19

8) Place one hand on your knee for support and rise to an upright position 14. NOTE: Your shoulders now support the Seabee. 9) Carry the Seabee so that your hands will be free to fire your rifle to climb banks, or to surmount obstacles 15. h. Use the pistol-belt drag (Figure 17). 1) Extend two pistol-belts or similar objects to their full length, and join them together to make a continuous loop. 2) Roll the Seabee on his back. 3) Pass the loop over the Seabee's head and position it across his chest and under his armpits. Cross the remaining portion of the loop, thus forming a figure eight. 4) Lie on your side with your back toward the Seabee, resting on your left elbow. 5) Slip the loop over your right arm and shoulder, and turn onto your abdomen, thus enabling you to drag the Seabee as you crawl. i. Use the neck drag (Figure 18). 1-278

1) Tie the Seabee's hands together, and loop them around your neck. 2) Crawl and drag the Seabee with you. j. Use the one-man supporting carry (cradle drop drag) (Figure 19). 1) With the Seabee lying on his back, kneel at his head 16. - Then slide your hands, with palms up, under the Seabee's shoulders and get a firm hold under his armpits. 2) Partially rise and support the Seabee's head on one of your forearms 17. (Bring your elbows together, and let the Seabee's headrest on both of your forearms.) 3) Rise and drag the wounded Seabee backward, while he is in a semi-sitting position 18. 4) If approaching steps, back down them; support the Seabee's head and body, and let his hips and legs drop from step to step 19. k. Use the two-man support carry (Figure 20).

Figure 20 NOTE: This is the most useful two-man carry for a distance.

Figure 21

1) With a man on each side, bring the Seabee to his feet, and support him with your arms around his waist (Figure 20).

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2) Grasp the Seabee's wrists and draw his arms around your necks. 3) Support his thigh with your other hand and lift (Figure 21). l. Use the two-man arms carry (Figure 22).

Figure 22 NOTE: Use this for carrying an injured Seabee for a short distance and for placing him on a litter. The taller of the two bearers should position himself at the Seabee's head. 4) Kneel at one side of the Seabee 20. a) Extend the Seabee's arms above his head. b) Place your arms beneath his back, waist, hips, and knees. 5) Lift the Seabee as you rise to your knees 21. 6) As you rise to your feet, turn the Seabee toward your chest 22. 7) Carry him high to lessen fatigue 23. 1-280

m. Use the two-man fore and aft carry (Figure 23).

Figure 23 1) (First bearer) Spread the Seabee's legs; kneel between his legs with your back to the Seabee. Position your hands behind his knees 25. 2) (Second Bearer) Kneel at the Seabee's head; slide your hands under his arms and across his chest. Lock your hands together 24. 3) Rise together, lifting the Seabee 26 (Figure 24).

Figure 24 4) Use the alternate position with the injured Seabee between you 27 (Figure 24). Use the two-hand seat carry (Figures 25 and 26). 1-281

n.

Figure 25

Figure 26

1) Kneel on each side of the Seabee at his hips when he is lying on his back. 2) Pass your arms under the Seabee's thigh and back, and grasp the other bearer's wrists. 3) Rise and lift the injured Seabee. 2. Improvise stretchers to transport a casualty. a. Improvise a stretcher with a poncho and poles. 1) Open the poncho and lay the two poles (or limbs) lengthwise across the center. Reach in; pull the hood toward you and lay it flat on the poncho (Figure 27). 2) Fold the poncho over the first pole (Figure 28).

Figure 27

Figure 28

3) Fold the remaining free edge of the poncho over the second pole (Figure 29). 1-282

Figure 29 b. Improvise a stretcher with poles and jackets.

Figure 30

1) Button two or three shirts or jackets, and turn them inside out, leaving the sleeves inside (Figure 30). 2) Pass the poles through the sleeves of the shirts or jackets (Figure 31). a) Cut holes in both shoulders of the shirts or jackets. b) Push poles through the holes. c. Improvise litters made by inserting poles through sacks or by rolling a blanket (Figure 32).

Figure 31

Figure 32

REFERENCE: FM 21-11, First Aid for Soldiers

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

PERFORM BASIC MAP READING (1-47) GIVEN A 1:50,000 MAP, A COORDINATE SCALE, PROTRACTOR, PAPER AND PENCIL IN A FIELD ENVIRONMENT. THE SEABEE MUST PERFORM BASIC MAP READING AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a 1:50,000 map, a coordinate scale, a protractor, paper, a pencil, and six-digit grid coordinates to various natural and man-made features.

Standard:The Seabee must correctly identify the five colors of a map and what each color represents; accurately determine the six-digit grid coordinate of a specified point on a map to within +/-100 meters; accurately plot a six-digit grid coordinate on the map to within +/_100 meters; correctly identify the following natural features on the map: hill, finger, draw, saddle, ridge, and cliff; correctly identify the following man-made features on a map: church, school, building, road, railroad, bridge, and power lines; correctly measure the straight line distance between two points on the map to within +/-100 meters (the two points must be at least 4,000 meters apart); and correctly measure the curved line distance between two points on the map to within +/-200 meters (the two points must be at least 4,000 meters apart and must be along a road or other curved linear feature). Administrative Notes: For the five colors on a map, the Seabee may substitute "red/brown" for red and brown. When identifying a finger, a draw, and a ridge on a map, the Seabee must be provided two six-digit grid coordinates, one for each end of the specified feature. If your map does not have a cliff on it, the Seabee may be asked to identify a line drawing of a cliff.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Identify the five colors of a map and what each color represents. a. Black - represents man-made features such as buildings, roads, trails, power lines, mines, and towers Blue - represents hydrography or water features such as streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, swamps, and reservoirs Green - represents vegetation such as orchards, forests, and shrubs Red - represents major roads and other cultural features such as populated areas and boundaries Brown - represents contour lines NOTE: Newer maps have combined red and brown to the color identified as "red/brown." This was done because the color red did not show up well under a red lens flashlight. Therefore, the Seabee may substitute "red/brown" for red and brown; 1-284

b.

c. d. e.

however, he/she must still identify what "red/brown" represents, i.e., major roads and contour lines. 2. Determine the six-digit grid coordinate of a specified point on a map. a. Determine the four-digit grid coordinate of a specified point on the map. EXAMPLE:Let's say that you desire to determine the grid coordinates of point C in Figure 1 to the nearest 1,000 meters. First identify the grid square in which it is located. The cardinal rule of map reading is "READ RIGHT, THEN UP." In other words, looking at the numbers at the bottom of the map, read from left to right until you identify the last north-south grid line before arriving at point C. This is grid line 30. Write "30" on a piece of paper. Now look at the numbers on the side of the map and read UP until you identify the last east-west grid line before arriving at point C. This is grid line 50. Write "50" beside the "30." The identity of the grid square is 3050. Note that the point where these two grid lines intersect is in the lower left hand corner of the grid square. In other words, grid squares are identified by the grid lines that intersect in the lower left hand corner (Figure 1).

Figure 1 b. Locate points within a grid square. EXAMPLE:Imagine dividing the grid square into 100 smaller squares. The coordinates of a point in such a grid square have six digits (numbers). Each of the grid squares in Figure 2 is 1,000 meters wide and 1,000 meters high. One of the grid squares is divided into 100 smaller squares, each 100 meters wide and 100 meters high. Note that the lines within the grid square also read "RIGHT, THEN UP." In a six-digit grid coordinate, such as 284936, the first 3 numbers (284) are the "READ RIGHT" part; whereas, the last 3 numbers (936) are the "THEN UP" part.

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Figure 2 NOTE: The protractor has three coordinate scales, one for 1:50,000 maps, one for 1:100,000 maps, and one for either 1:25,000 or 1:250,000 maps. Use the scale that fits your map. In this case, it should be the 1:50,000 scale that is in the upper left hand corner of the protractor.

c.

Locate point C in grid square 3050, using the coordinate scale on your protractor and the following procedures: 1) Place the proper coordinate scale of your protractor on the map so that the zero-zero point is to the BOTTOM RIGHT of the scale (Figure 3).

Figure 3 2) Place the zero-zero point at the lower left hand corner of grid square 3050 (Figure 4).

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Figure 4 3) Keep the horizontal line of the scale directly on top of the east-west grid line (in this case, grid line 50), and slide it to the right until the vertical line of the scale touches the point C for which the coordinates are desired (Figure 5). 4) Examine the two sides of the coordinate scale to ensure that the horizontal line of the scale is aligned with the east-west grid line, and the vertical line of the scale is parallel with the northsouth grid line.

Figure 5 5) Determine your RIGHT reading by first reading the value of the grid line to the left of point C (30). Add to this value the number which tells how far (in hundreds of meters) point C is into the grid square. In this case, it is 300 meters (Figure 6). You now have the complete RIGHT reading (303). 6) Next, determine your UP reading by first reading the value of the horizontal grid line below point C (50). Add to this value the number which tells how far up (in hundreds of meters) point C is into the grid square. In the case, it is 700 meters. You now have the complete UP reading of 507 (Figure 6). When determining both your RIGHT and UP reading, round your value to the closest number on your coordinate scale.

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Figure 6 7) By combining the RIGHT reading (303) with the UP reading (507), you have accurately determined the six-digit grid coordinate of point C (303507). 3. Plot a six-digit grid coordinate on the map. a. To locate the correct grid square, determine the four-digit grid coordinates from the given six-digit grid coordinates. Split your six-digit grid coordinates into two parts. For example, the grid coordinates 025672 would be split to read 025 (this is your RIGHT reading) and 672 (this is your UP reading). 1) Determine the vertical (north-south) grid line. It is the first two numbers of your RIGHT reading. In this case, it is 02 2) Determine the horizontal (east-west) grid line. It is the first two numbers of your UP reading. In this case, it is 67 3) Determine your four-digit grid coordinates. Combine the RIGHT reading with the UP reading. 02 + 67 = 0267 4) "READ RIGHT, THEN UP." Take the first two numbers of your new four-digit grid coordinate (02); and starting at the left side of your map, READ to the RIGHT until you find the vertical grid line that is labeled "02" (Figure 7).

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Figure 7 5) Take the last two numbers of your new four-digit grid coordinate (67); starting at the bottom of your map, "READ UP" until you find the horizontal grid line that is labeled "67" (Figure 7). Follow the vertical grid line "02" and the horizontal grid line "67" until they intersect. The two lines will intersect at the lower left hand corner of grid square 0267 (Figure 7). b. Finish determining the location of the six-digit grid coordinate using the 3rd and 6th numbers of the grid coordinate. 1) Determine the 3rd and 6th numbers of your six-digit grid coordinate. In this case, the 3rd number is 5. This is the number that you must "READ RIGHT." The 6th number is 2. This is your UP number. 025672 2) Place the proper coordinate scale of your protractor with the zero-zero point at the lower left hand corner of the grid square 0267, keeping the horizontal line of the scale directly on top of the east-west grid line (Figure 8). Remember that the zero-zero point is on the right side of the coordinate scale, but it is positioned on the lower left hand corner of the grid square.

Figure 8 3) Slide the protractor to the right until vertical grid line 02 intersects the horizontal scale at the 100-meter reading (5) (Figure 9). This point (025) is your RIGHT reading. 1-289

Figure 9 4) Determine the position of your UP reading by plotting a point adjacent to your vertical scale equal to your UP reading. In this case, the UP value of the vertical scale is at the 100-meter reading (2) (Figure 10). This point is not only your UP reading (672), but it is also the location of your six-digit coordinate, (025672).

Figure 10 4. Identify natural features on a map. a. Identify a hill on a map. - A hill is an area of high ground, From a hilltop, the ground slopes down in all directions. A hill is shown on a map by contour lines forming concentric circles. The inside of the smallest closed circle is the hilltop. for example, look at the hilltop located at 749843 in Figure 11.

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Figure 11 b. Identify a finger on a map. - A finger is a short, continous sloping line of higher ground, normally jutting out from the side of a ridge or hill. A finger is often formed by two roughly parallel draws. The ground slopes down in three directions and up in one. A contour line on a map depicts a finger with the closed end of the U or V pointing away from high ground (Figure 12).

Figure 12 c. Identify a draw on a map. - A draw is a short, continuous sloping line of low ground, normally cut into the side of a ridge or hill. Often, there is a small stream running down the draw. In a draw, there is essentially no level ground. Therefore, little or no maneuver room exists within its confines. If you are standing in the middle of a draw, the ground slopes upward in three directions and downward in the other direction. Contour lines on a map depict a draw with the closed end of the U or V pointing toward high ground (Figure 13).

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Figure 13 NOTE: Look at point (A) on figure 14. Is it a finger or a draw? Actually, it is neither. From the amount of information given in the figure, you cannot identify the type of terrain feature. You MUST look at the surrounding terrain features. If there is a hill in the direction of the open end of the U, then the feature is a finger; if not, it is a draw. If there is a stream in the middle of the feature, then it is a draw.

Figure 14 d. Identify a saddle on a map. - This is a dip or low point between two areas of higher ground. A saddle is not necessarily the lower ground between two hilltops; it may be simply a dip or break along a level ridge crest. If you are in a saddle, there is high ground in two opposite directions and low ground in the other two directions. a saddle is normally represented as an hourglass or by a figure-eight shaped contour lines (Figure 15).

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Figure 15 e. Identify a ridge on a map. - A ridge is a series of hills that are connected to each other near the top. A ridgeline may extend for many miles. It may be winding or quite straight. It may have a reasonably uniform elevation along its top or it may vary greatly in elevation (Figure 15). f. Identify a cliff on a map. - A cliff is a vertical or near vertical terrain feature. It is an abrupt change of the land. When a slope is so steep that the contour lines converge into one "carrying" contour of contours, this last contour line sometimes has tick marks pointing toward low ground (Figure 16).

Figure 16 5. Identify man-made features on a map. 1-293

Figure 17 depicts a church, school, building, road, railroad, bridge, and power line as shown on many maps.

Figure 17 NOTE: Each map may use different symbols for man-made features. The index (found in the lower left hand corner of most maps) will give the symbols for man-made features used by that particular map (Figure 18). Consult and review it every time you are issued a new map.

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Figure 18 6. Measure the straight-line distance between two points on a map. a. To determine the straight-line distance between two points on a map, lay a straightedge piece of paper on the map so that the edge of the paper touches both points and extends past them. Make a tick mark on the edge of the paper at each point (Figure 19). Remember that the center of the topographic symbol designates the exact location of the object on the ground; therefore,

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Figure 19 b. To convert map distance to ground distance, move the paper down to the appropriate unit of measure on the graphic bar scale, and align the right tick mark (b) with a printed number in the primary scale so that the left tick mark (a) is in the extension scale (Figure 20).

Figure 20 EXAMPLE: The right tick mark (b) is aligned with the 3,000 meter mark in the primary scale, thus the distance is at least 3,000 meters. Now look at the extension scale. It is numbered with zero at the right and increases to the left. When using the extension scale, always read RIGHT TO LEFT (Figure 21).

Figure 21 c. From the zero to the end of the first shaded square is 100 meters. From the beginning of the white square to the left is 100 to 200 meters; at the beginning of the second shaded square is 200 to 300 meters. Remember, the distance in the extension scale increases from right to left. To determine 1-296

the distance from tick mark (a), estimate the distance inside of the squares to the closest tenth. As you break down the distance between the squares in the extension scale, you will see that tick mark (a) is aligned with the 950 meter mark. Adding the distance of 3,000 meters determined in the primary scale, we find that the total distance between (a) and (b) is: 3,000 + 950 = 3,950 meters d. There may be times when the distance you measure on the edge of the paper exceeds the graphic scale. One technique you can use to determine the distance is to align the right tick mark (b) with a printed number in the primary scale, in this case, 5 kilometers (Figure 22). You can see that from point (a) to (b) is more than 6,000 meters. To determine the distance, place a tick mark (c) on the edge of the paper at the end of the extension scale (Figure 22).

Figure 22 e. You know that from point (b) to (c) is 6,000 meters (5,000 from the primary scale and 1,000 from the extension scale). Now measure the distance between points (a) and (c) on your sheet of paper in the same way you did before, only use point (c) as your right hand tick mark (Figure 23). The total ground distance between start and finish is 6,420 meters.

Figure 23 7. Measure the curved line distance between two points on a map. NOTE: To measure distance along a winding road, stream, or other curved line, you still use the straight edge of a piece of paper. In order to avoid confusion concerning the starting point and the ending point, a six-digit coordinate, combined with a description of the topographical feature, should be given for both the starting and ending points.

a.

Place a tick mark on the paper and map at the starting point from which the curved line is to be measured. Place a paper strip along the center of the irregular feature (Figure 24), and extend the tick mark onto the paper strip. 1-297

NOTE:

Because the paper strip is straight and the irregular feature is curved, the straightedge will eventually leave the center of the irregular feature. At the exact point where this occurs, place a tick mark on both the map and paper strip.

Figure 24 b. Keeping both tick marks together (on paper and map), place the point of the pencil close to the edge of the paper on the tick mark to hold it in place and pivot the paper until another straight portion of the curved line is aligned with the edge of the paper.Repeat this procedure while carefully aligning the straightedge with the center of the feature and placing tick marks on both the map and paper strip each time it leaves the center until you have ticked off the desired distance (Figure 25).

Figure 25 1-298

c.

Place the paper strip on a graphic bar scale and determine the ground distance measured. This is done in the same manner as measuring straight-line distance.

REFERENCES: FM 21-26, Map Reading and Land Navigation STP 21-1 SMCT, Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Level 1

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

NAVIGATE WITH A MAP USING TERRAIN ASSOCIATION (1-48) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), 2 VISIBLE FEATURES OR 1 FEATURE AND A KNOWN USER POSITION, S AND A 1:50,000 MILITARY MAP. THE SEABEE MUST NAVIGATE WITH A MAP USING TERRAIN ASSOCIATION.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: Placed in a field environment with recognizable terrain features during both day and night, the Seabee is provided a protractor, a 1:50,000 military map, his general current location (to within 1,000 meters), and a land navigation course consisting of two six-digit grid coordinates (checkpoints) that are at least 500 meters apart.

Standard:The Seabee must navigate to the two checkpoints using terrain association. Administrative Note: Due to the difficulties of navigating at night using terrain association, the night land navigation course should be run on a clear night and the Seabee should be provided his/her exact location.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Orient the map by inspection. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Observe the ground around you. Look at the topographical features of the area such as lakes, woods, reliefs, built-up areas, or hills. Look at the linear terrain features such as railroads, streambeds, and roads. Hold the map in a horizontal position, ensuring that the map is parallel to the ground surface. Select nearby features that will help you identify detail on both the ground and on the map. Identify at least three widely separated and points on both the ground and the map. Rotate the map until the features on the map are aligned with the same features on the ground (Figure 1).

Figure 1 1-300

2.

Determine your own location by map-terrain association (Figure 2). a. b. Compare map features with the surrounding terrain. Study nearby terrain and estimate your relationship to these features. 1) Identify some prominent characteristic on or near the linear feature such as a road, bridge, or stream junction. 2) Estimate the distance from your present position to the known point.

Figure 2 3. Plot the legs of your route on the map. a. b. c. Plot the checkpoints on your map. Decide on the order of your checkpoints. Draw a line on your map connecting your current location with your first checkpoint and your first checkpoint with your second checkpoint. NOTE: These lines do not have to be straight. Rather, they should follow a logical lay of the land, i.e., along valleys, draws, ridges, etc.

d.

Determine the distance of each leg. This is done by using the procedures for determining curved or straight line distances on a map. The distance should be expressed in meters. Determine the number of paces you must take to cover each leg. 1) First, you must know your own pace count. This is the number of paces that you must take to cover 100 meters. This number is found by each Seabee counting his paces as he walks a pace course that has been measured at 100 meters. The average Seabees pace count is 6066 paces (counting every other step) per 100 meters. 2) Divide the distance of each leg by 100. Then multiply this number by your pace count. For example, if the distance is 560 meters and your pace count is 62, then divide 560 by 100 to get 1-301

e.

5.6. Multiply 5.6 by 62 to get 347.2 (round off to 347) paces. You must take 347 paces to cover 560 meters. 4. Identify major terrain features. Before you start your march, study your map and identify major terrain features you can expect to see or encounter as the march progresses. NOTE: It will help to complete a "mental picture" of the route, "500 meters from here I should cross a stream; as I cross the stream I should see a hill with a distinct concave slope. This hill is about 400 meters northeast of the point where I cross the stream."

5.

Step off on the land navigation course. a. Maintain an accurate pace count. As you move along, remember that the actual distance you cover should match the ground distance determined from the map. EXAMPLE:If the map indicates that you should cross the stream after going 500 meters, you should, in fact, cross a stream at approximately that distance. If you encounter a stream after going only 100 meters, you know that either this is NOT the right one or you made a mistake when you determined your location. You can verify this by comparing the surrounding terrain with the terrain on the map. Does the terrain match up and does it appear in the right perspective? If not, the stream is probably a small intermittent stream that is not shown on the map. b. As you move along, compare the terrain that you see on the ground with the terrain that you see on the map. The best way to keep from getting lost, is to know exactly where you are at all times.

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NOTE:

Navigating at night using terrain association is more difficult since the surrounding terrain will be more difficult to see and to identify. You will have to depend on terrain as it is silhouetted against the night sky and the actual terrain that you are on at the time.

6.

Verify your position at every checkpoint. When you arrive at a checkpoint, conduct a detailed comparison between the ground position and the map position to ensure that you are at the correct checkpoint.

7.

Repeat performance steps 4 through 6 for each leg of the course.

REFERENCE: FM 21-26, Map Reading and Land Navigation

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

NAVIGATE WITH A MAP AND COMPASS (1-49) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), A LENSATIC COMPASS, AND A 1:50,000 MILITARY MAP. THE SEABEE MUST NAVIGATE WITH A MAP USING A COMPASS AS PER THE REFERENCE.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: In a field environment during both day and night, the Seabee is provided paper, a pencil, a protractor, a lensatic compass, a 1:50,000 military map, the six-digit grid coordinate of their current location, and the six-digit grid coordinates of and the MAGNETIC azimuths to four checkpoints.

Standard:The Seabee must navigate to the four checkpoints, using a map and compass. Administrative Notes: The land navigation route must have at least four separate direction changes, must be a total of 2400 meters in length during the day and 1200 meters in length during the night, and must have no major obstacles (such as ponds, etc.) that the Seabee must navigate around. The Seabee will not be permitted to use a flashlight after he/she begins the first leg of his/her night land navigation course.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Navigate during the day with a map and compass. a. b. c. d. Plot the checkpoints on the map. Determine the distance of each leg. Determine the number of paces you must take to cover each leg. Shoot your first azimuth using the compass-to-cheek technique (Figure 1).

Figure 1 1) Open the compass so that the cover is vertical, forming a 90-degree angle with the base. 1-304

2) Move the rear sight to the rearmost position to release the dial, then fold it slightly forward. 3) Turn the thumb loop all the way down and insert your thumb. Form a loose fist under the compass, steady it with your other hand, and raise it to eye level. 4) Look through the lens at the black index line and the red numbers on the compass dial. 5) Keeping the compass level, rotate your entire body until the magnetic azimuth you desire is directly under the black index line. 6) Glance up and ensure the sighting wire is still centered in the rear sight notch. 7) Select a steering mark. Shoot your azimuth, select the best steering mark on this azimuth, and head to it. NOTES: A steering mark is a well-defined object on your line of march from which you can guide. These objects can be natural or manmade (hill, tree, building, etc.) or a celestial body (sun, stars, moon). One of the problems associated with selecting and using steering marks is that an object often looks suitable when you select it, but will become obscured as you approach it (Figure 2). This may confuse you and cause you to deviate from your intended line of march.

Figure 2 A good steering mark must have some distinct and unique features such as color, size, and shape. A good steering mark will have all three. This assures you that it will continue to be recognizable as you approach it.

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If several easily distinguishable objects appear along your line of march, the best steering mark would be the most distant object. This will enable you to travel farther with fewer references to the compass. If several easily distinguishable objects appear along your line of march, the best steering mark is the highest object. The higher steering mark is not as easily lost to sight as is a low steering mark that may blend into the background as you approach it. A steering mark should be continuously visible. If the terrain or vegetation ever blocks the steering mark from view, take out your compass and select an intermediate steering mark. Continue using intermediate steering marks until your original steering mark comes back into view. Steering marks are selected as the march progresses. e. Step off on the land navigation course. 1) Close your compass to protect it during movement and step off towards your steering mark. NOTE: The Seabee can use terrain association as he/she navigates to confirm his/her location. 2) Periodically spot-check your azimuth. If you become disoriented, then orient you map and try to determine your location using terrain association. NOTE: When orientating a map with a compass, remember that compasses measure magnetic azimuths. Since the north-seeking arrow of the compass points to magnetic north, pay special attention to the declination diagram. Use the following technique to orientate your map: a) With the map flat on the ground, place the straightedge (on the left side of the compass) along the MAGNETIC NORTH ARROW ON THE DECLINATION DIAGRAM so that the cover of the compass is pointing toward the top of the map. This will put the fixed black index line of the compass parallel to the magnetic north arrow of the declination diagram (Figure 3). b) Keeping the compass aligned as directed above, rotate the map and compass simultaneously until the north-seeking arrow is below the fixed black index line on the compass. Your map is now oriented.

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Figure 3 3) When you arrive at your steering mark, stop and select a new steering mark. Continue repeating performance steps 1.d. and 1.e. until you reach your checkpoint. 4) Maintain an accurate count of your paces. When you have counted the correct number of paces for that leg, then you should be at or near your first checkpoint. 5) When you reach your checkpoint, conduct a thorough map study to ensure that you are at the correct location. 6) Repeat performance steps 1.d. and 1.e. until you have completed all legs of your course. NOTE: Experienced Seabees can use the centerhold technique of shooting an azimuth instead of the compass-to-cheek technique. This is acceptable as long as the Seabee reaches his checkpoints.

2.

Navigate during the night with a map and compass. a. b. c. d. Plot the checkpoints on the map. Determine the distance of each leg. Determine the number of paces you must take to cover each leg. Set the compass for night use.

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NOTES:

The lensatic compass is equipped with special features, which enable you to follow an azimuth during periods of darkness. Around the base of the bezel ring is a series of 120 notches. On the forward edge of the body of the compass is a tiny bezel detent spring with its tip seated in one of the notches. As the bezel ring is turned, the spring moves from notch-to-notch producing "clicks." Each click equals 3o (since there are 120 clicks on the compass and 360o). This clicking action, used in conjunction with the luminous markings on the compass, provides a means of setting your compass for night use. Luminous markings must be exposed to direct light prior to night use.

1) Rotate the bezel ring until the short luminous line is directly over the fixed black index line. 2) Divide the azimuth you plan to travel by 3 to get the number of clicks you must rotate the bezel ring. 3) Rotate the bezel ring the desired number of clicks in a counterclockwise direction (Figure 4).

Figure 4 NOTES: If the number of clicks is over 60, you can subtract this number from 120 and turn the bezel ring that number of clicks in a clockwise direction. Since it sounds illogical to rotate the bezel ring in a counterclockwise direction when shooting an azimuth of less then 180o, you should try it a couple of times during the day to prove to yourself that this is the correct direction. e. Shoot the azimuth for your first leg, using the centerhold technique (Figure 5).

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Figure 5 1) Open the compass cover so that the cover forms a straightedge with the base. 2) Move the rear sight to the rearmost position to allow the dial to float freely. 3) Place your thumb through the thumb loop and form a steady base with your third and fourth fingers. Extend both index fingers along the sides of the compass. 4) Place the thumb of the other hand between the lens (rear sight) and the bezel ring; place the remaining fingers around the fingers of the other hand. 5) Pull your elbows firmly into your sides. 6) Turn your entire body until the north-seeking arrow is under the short luminous line. f. Select a steering mark. NOTES: The general characteristics of a good steering mark for daylight navigation apply to steering marks selected for night navigation. However, as darkness approaches, keep the following factors in mind when selecting steering marks: Colors disappear at night and objects appear as black or gray silhouettes. If you select a steering mark during daylight because of its distinctive color, it will be of little value as darkness sets in. During darkness, steering marks must be closer than during daylight. During darkness, steering marks must have a distinctive silhouette. The silhouette of trees, bushes, and similar objects will change because you see them from slightly different angles as you move up or down hills and when you are detouring obstacles. This applies during daylight also, but to a lesser degree. If appropriate landmarks are not available at night, you may select a plainly visible star along your line of march to serve as a steering mark. Remember though, due to the Earth's rotation, any star that you choose will eventually either disappear under the horizon or will move too high in the sky to be of further use. If this happens, choose another steering mark. 1-309

g.

Step off by following the line indicated by the two luminous sighting dots on the compass cover. CAUTION: Do not follow the north-seeking arrow. Follow the two luminous sighting dots. 1) Close your compass to protect it during movement and step off towards your steering mark. 2) Periodically spot-check your azimuth. 3) When you arrive at your steering mark, stop and select a new steering mark. Continue repeating the performance steps in paragraphs 2.f. and 2.g. until you reach your checkpoint. 4) Just as in day land navigation, at night you should be familiar with the terrain that you will be negotiating. If you should be going down hill when you start off, but instead you are going up hill, then something is wrong. At night, you won't be able to use terrain association to the same extent as during the day. 5) Maintain an accurate count of your paces. When you have counted the correct number of paces for that leg, then you should be at or near your first checkpoint. 6) When you reach your checkpoint, conduct a thorough map study to ensure that you are at the correct location.

h.

Repeat performance steps 2.d. through 2.g. until you have completed all legs of your course.

REFERENCE: FM 21-26, Map Reading and Land Navigation

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TASK: CONDITIONS: STANDARD:

1 ORIENT A MAP USING FIELD EXPEDIENT TECHNIQUES (1-50) PROVIDED A MAP AND EITHER STARS, MOON, OR SUN. AS PER THE REFERENCES, ORIENT A MAP USING A CELESTIAL BODY WITHOUT ERROR.

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is placed in a field environment during either the day or night under partly cloudy conditions or better, and given a 1:50,000 military map, a stick (approximately 2-3 feet long), paper, pencil, and a small shadow casting stick (such as a pin, paper clip, match, twig, etc.).

Standard:The Seabee must orient a map using a celestial body. Administrative Notes: The accuracy of the techniques taught in this task are dependent upon the technique used, your location in relationship to the equator, and the time of day. The tester should determine the required degree of accuracy. For example, if the Seabee is using the North Star or the Southern Cross, then he should be within 5 degrees; whereas, a Seabee using the shadow tip technique should be within 20 degrees. The Seabee may use any of the following techniques for orienting his map. The techniques are listed in order from the most accurate to the least accurate.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Orient a map using the North Star. a. Locate the Big Dipper. NOTE: Because of the North Star's unique location in relation to the earth, its position remains constant over the North Pole. Since the North Star is not the brightest star in the northern sky, it is best located by using the prominent constellation the Big Dipper. The Big Dipper is made up of seven fairly bright stars in the shape of a dipper with a long, curved handle.

b.

Locate the pointer stars. NOTE: The pointer stars are the ones that form the outer-rim of the cup of the Big Dipper Figure 1).

_______________________ 1 The material in paragraph 3,4,5, and Figure 4,5,6,7, and 8 was adapted, by permission, from the book Better Ways of Pathfinding, Stockpole Company, Harrisburg, PA. copyrighted 1964 by Robert S. Owendoff, 5205 Lindsay Drive, Fairfax, VA. 22032. All rights reserved by copyright owner.

c.

Locate the North Star (Figure 1). 1-311

Figure 1 1) Observe the two pointer stars. 2) Allow the eyes to travel in a straight line from the top of the uppermost pointer star (Figure 1). NOTES: The North Star will be located approximately five times the width of the two pointer stars. The North Star is the only fairly bright star in that area of the sky and is located directly over the North Pole. It identifies the location of true north. The position of the Big Dipper changes continuously throughout the night (Figure 2). Although the Big Dipper will appear to rotate around the North Star, the pointer stars in the Big Dipper will always point toward the North Star as described above. Remember that the North Star is only visible to an observer in the Northern Hemisphere. For example, it is NOT visible to an observer in South America. The further north you are, the higher in the sky the North Star will be. As you move closer to the equator, parts of the Big Dipper may be hidden below the horizon.

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Figure 2 d. e. Lay the map on a flat surface so that it is parallel to the ground. Rotate the map so that the true north arrow on the declination diagram is pointing towards the North Star. - The map is now oriented to true north. NOTE: 2. The declination diagram is found in the bottom right hand margin of most maps.

Orient a map using the Southern Cross. NOTE: a. You must be located in the Southern Hemisphere to orient your map using true south.

Locate the Southern Cross. NOTES: This constellation consists of five stars, four of which form a distinct cross (Figure 3). Two of these are among the brightest stars in the heavens. The other two stars are less conspicuous, but are bright enough to be clearly recognized. The Southern Cross should not be confused with the "False Cross" located nearby (Figure 3). A distinction between the two can be made if you remember that the stars forming the "False Cross" are much more widely separated and are dimmer than the stars that form the Southern Cross.

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Figure 3 b. Locate true south. 1) When you have identified the Southern Cross, imagine that this cross is the frame of a kite. 2) Now, imagine that the kite has a STRAIGHT tail four and one-half times as long as the length of the kite. 3) The end of this tail is at a point over the South Pole. This is the location of true south. NOTES: There is no star at this point to use as a reference as with the North Star. In fact, this area is so void of stars that it is often referred to as the "coalsack." The closer to the South Pole you are, the higher in the sky the end of the "kite's tail" will be. Just as the Big Dipper rotates around the North Star, the Southern Cross also rotates around the "coalsack." c. d. Lay the map on a flat surface so that it is parallel to the ground. Rotate the map so that the true north arrow on the declination diagram is pointing directly away from true south (the Southern Cross). - The map is now oriented to true south. 3. Orient your map using the shortest shadow technique. 2 NOTES: The sun rises directly in the east and sets directly in the west only twice a year. ____________________ 2 Copyrighted material. See footnote 1 on page 1-086-1.

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The sun rises at a slightly different point as each day passes for a given location and also rises at a different azimuth for different latitudes on the same day. Because of the symmetry of the sun's movement with respect to the earth, the declination of the setting sun from true west is equal to the declination of the rising sun from true east for that day at that location. For example, if the sun rises at 5o north of true east on a particular day (in other words, 85o), then on that day the sun will set at 5o north of true west (in other words, 275o). Regardless of where you are on earth, a stationary object on the ground will cast its shortest shadow when the sun is at its highest point in the sky (a time known as solar noon). This shortest shadow lies on a true north-south line. a. Sometime before noon, drive a 3-foot stick into the ground in a level place. - Ensure that the stick is vertical (Figure 4). b. Place a mark on the ground where the end of the stick's shadow falls 1 (Figure 4).

Figure 4 3 NOTE: As the sun moves, the stick's shadow will move towards the stick and gradually become shorter.

c.

Observe the shadow and periodically mark where the end of the shadow falls. NOTE: When the sun reaches solar noon, the shadow will begin to lengthen 2 (Figure 4). When the shadow begins to lengthen, stop marking.

d. e.

Draw a curved line connecting all of the points 3 (Figure 4). Place a mark at the point on the curved line that is closest to the base of the vertical stick. This designates solar noon. Draw a straight line from this mark to the base of the stick 3 (Figure 4). This line is the true northsouth line.

f.

g. Determine the direction of north. ________________ 3 Copyrighted material. See footnote 1 on page 1-086-1.

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NOTE:

The direction of north can be determined by realizing that your first mark will always be to the WEST of the north-south line.

h. i.

Lay the map on a flat surface so that it is parallel to the ground. Rotate the map so that the true north arrow on the declination diagram points to the north. NOTE: This technique is extremely accurate. The shortcomings are that only a single determination of direction can be made per day, often an hour of patient waiting is required, readings can only be taken at mid-day, and the sun may disappear behind a cloud during a critical period.

4.

Orient your map using an improvised pocket navigator. 4 NOTES: The shadow-tip technique of determining direction was originated and developed by Robert S. Owendoff. Based on the principles of shadow-tip movement, Mr. Owendoff developed a device, called the pocket navigator. This paragraph will teach you how to make and use an improvised pocket navigator. If you place a stick vertically in the ground and trace the movement of the shadow tip as you did with the shortest shadow technique--doing this one day a month for a year--you would observe the following characteristics of the lines (Figure 5).

Figure 5 5 On two days a year (March 21 and September 23) the sun rises directly in the east, "rides the equator," and sets directly in the west. Because the sun is "riding the equator" during these equinoxes, a line connecting shadow tips throughout either of these days is a straight line. Following the fall equinox (September 23), the tilt of the earth's axis causes the sun to rise, follow a path, and set south of the equator. This deviation increases on a daily basis until December 22. December 22 is referred to as the winter solstice. During this period, shadow-tip lines become more distant from the base of the stick and more curved as the winter solstice is approached. Following the winter solstice, the deviation decreases until the sun once again "rides the equator" on the spring equinox (March 21).

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Following the spring equinox (March 21), the reverse takes place. Because of the tilt of the earth's axis during this season, the sun will rise, follow a path, and set north of the equator. This deviation increases on a daily basis until June 22. June 22 is referred to as the summer solstice. During this period, shadow-tip lines are closer to the base of the stick and more curved as the summer solstice is approached. Following the summer solstice, the deviation decreases on a daily basis until the sun once again "rides the equator" on the fall equinox (September 23). a. Use the background information provided in the previous notes to make an improvised pocket navigator (Figure 6). 1) Collect the following materials. a) A small piece of paper. b) A pin, nail, twig, match, or other such device to serve as a shadow-casting rod. c) Any marking instrument, such as a pen or pencil. 2) Set the small rod (1 or 2 inches long is fine) upright on the paper. 3) Mark the position where the base of the rod sits so it can be returned to the same spot for later readings.

Figure 6 6 4) Secure the paper so that it does not move. 5) Mark the location of the tip's shadow periodically.

____________________ 6 Copyrighted material. See footnote 1 on page 1-086-1.

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NOTES: Make the first mark soon after sunrise. The more marks you make, the more accurate your navigator will be. The piece of paper must remain in the same position throughout the entire day. 6) At the end of the day, connect the shadow tip markings. NOTES: The result will be a curved line (except on March 22 and September 22). If you were unable to take a full day's shadow tip markings, your observations can be continued on subsequent days, but the paper must remain in the position it was on the previous day. 7) Mark the direction of north with an arrow on the navigator as soon as it is determined. NOTE: b. See step 3.f. and 3.g.

Use the improvised pocket navigator to determine true north. 1) Hold the pocket navigator level with the rod in the upright position. 2) Slowly rotate the navigator until the shadow tip just touches the curve. NOTES: If it is morning, the shadow should touch the LEFT side of the navigator. If it is afternoon, the shadow should touch the RIGHT side of the navigator. The arrow now points to true north.

c. d.

Lay the map on a flat surface so that it is parallel to the ground. Rotate the map until the true north arrow on the declination diagram points in the direction of the true north arrow on your improvised pocket navigator. NOTE: This improvised navigator will work all day and will not be out of date for about one week.

5.

Orient your map using the shadow-tip technique. 7 a. Drive a stick into the ground at a level, brush-free spot. NOTE: b. c. d. The stick doesn't need to be vertical.

Immediately mark the shadow tip (1) (Figure 7). Observe the shadow tip until it moves at least 2 inches. Mark the new position of the shadow tip in the same way as the first one (2) (Figure 7).

____________________ 7 Copyrighted material. See footnote 1 on page 1-086-1

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e.

Draw a straight line through the two marks (3) (Figure 7). NOTES: This is an APPROXIMATE east-west line. As you remember from the shortest shadow technique, the first mark will ALWAYS point to the WEST.

f.

Determine true north. - Place your left foot by the first mark and your right foot by the second mark. NOTE: You are now facing the direction of true north.

g. h.

Lay the map on a flat surface so that it is parallel to the ground. Rotate the map so that the true north arrow on the declination diagram points in this direction.

Figure 7 8 NOTES: Inclining the stick to obtain a more convenient shadow, in size or direction, does not impair the accuracy of the shadow-tip technique. The shadow-tip technique is not as accurate as the shortest shadow technique. The maximum error will occur at sunrise, decrease to no error at solar noon, and increase in the opposite direction to a maximum error at sunset. If the situation permits, shadow-tip readings should be made only between the hours of 1000 and 1400. 6. Orient your map using the overhead star technique. 9

____________________ 8 Copyrighted material. See footnote 1 on page 1-086-1 9 Copyrighted material. See footnote 1 on page 1-086-1

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NOTE:

Any handy overhead star can be used to determine direction fairly accurately. This is done by carefully observing the movement of a single overhead star for a short period of time. This movement will indicate a true east-west direction from which true north can be determined.

a. b.

Choose an area of ground that has a view of the sky. Implant a stick about 2 feet long in the ground at a slight angle (Figure 8).

Figure 8 10 c. d. Lie down on your back on the ground with one eye directly underneath the top of the stick. Line up your eye and the tip of the stick with any overhead star. NOTE: e. A star that is directly overhead will give you the best reading.

Lie perfectly still and observe the direction of movement of the star. NOTE: The star will always move from EAST to WEST.

f. g.

Determine east-west movement. Orient yourself to the location of true north.

________________________ 10 Copyrighted material. See footnote 1 on page 1-086-1.

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h. i.

Lay the map on a flat surface so that it is parallel to the ground. Rotate the map so that the true north arrow on the declination diagram is pointing in the direction of true north. NOTE: Because you select a star that is directly overhead for this technique, its accuracy is not dependent upon the time of night.

7.

The watch technique of determining direction. Much has been written about the use of your watch to determine direction. This technique is inaccurate, confusing, and a waste of time when you consider that there are more accurate techniques for determining direction. You are not permitted to use this technique to orient your map.

REFERENCES: FM 21-2, Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Level 1 FM 21-26, Map Reading and Land Navigation FM 21-76, Survival FMFM 6-7, Scouting and Patrolling for Infantry Units Better Ways of Pathfinding, by Robert S. Owendoff

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

LOCATE AN UNKNOWN POINT BY RESECTION (1-51) PROVIDED A MAP, A COMPASS, A STRAIGHT EDGE, A COORDINATE SCALE AND PROTRACTOR, PENCIL, TWO IDENTIFIABLE FEATURES BOTH VISIBLE AND ON THE MAP, AND THE NEED TO DETERMINE YOUR UNKNOWN LOCATION. AS PER THE REFERENCES, LOCATE SELF BY A SIX-DIGIT GRID TO WITHIN 100 METERS OF THE ACTUAL GRID WITHIN 5 MINUTES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is placed in a field environment during the day and given a 1:50,000 military map, a lensatic compass, a coordinate scale and protractor, a pencil, a straightedge, and two features that can be identified both on the ground and on the map that are between 30and 150apart.

Standard:The Seabee must locate his position using a two-point resection and a six-digit grid coordinate. The Seabee must be within 100 meters of his location. Administrative Notes: See TASKS: PERFORM BASIC MAP READING (1-47) NAVIGATE WITH A MAP USING TERRAIN ASSOCIATION (1-48) NAVIGATE WITH A MAP AND COMPASS (1-49) CONVERT AZIMUTHS (1-54)

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. 2. Orient the map. (See TASK: PERFORM BASIC MAP READING (1-47) .) Locate the two known points on the ground and plot them on the map. NOTE: 3. The points must be located between 30 o and 150o apart.

Shoot a magnetic azimuth to the first known point using the compass-to-cheek technique. (See TASK: NAVIGATE WITH A MAP AND COMPASS (1-49)) . Convert the magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth. (See TASK: CONVERT AZIMUTHS (1-54).) NOTES: An azimuth is an angle measured in a clockwise direction from a predetermined base line. The reference point or base line we are referring to is north. There are three base lines; true north, magnetic north, and grid north (Figure 1). The most commonly used are magnetic and grid north.

4.

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Figure 1 Magnetic azimuths are measured with a compass. Magnetic north is usually symbolized on the declination diagram by a line ending with a half arrowhead (Figure 1). Anytime you use the compass to plan or follow an azimuth in the field, you must work with azimuths measured from magnetic north. Grid azimuths are measured with a protractor on the map using the grid lines. Grid north may be symbolized on the declination diagram by the letters GN (Figure 1). Anytime you use a protractor in conjunction with a vertical grid line to determine or plot an azimuth on a map, you must work with an azimuth measured from grid north. Since there is an angular difference between magnetic azimuths and grid azimuths, you must convert magnetic azimuths to grid azimuths when plotting azimuths on a map. a. Determine the G-M angle of the map. NOTE: The G-M angle is the angular difference between grid azimuths and magnetic azimuths and is located on the declination diagram of your map.

1) Locate the declination diagram. NOTES: It is normally located on the lower right margin of your map. Often the G-M angle is not expressed as a whole degree, for example, it may be expressed as 1/2o or 7o 15'. (Sixty minutes (') is equal to one degree (o).) 2) Round the G-M angle off to the nearest whole degree. NOTE: If the G-M angle is 1/2o or 30' then round the angle up to the next highest whole degree.

b.

Follow the directions on the conversion notes of the declination diagram to determine whether to add or subtract the G-M angle to convert the magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth (Figure 2).

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Figure 2 NOTE: Because each map is different, you must look at the conversion notes for that map to determine whether to add or subtract the G-M angle to convert magnetic azimuths to grid azimuths.

5.

Convert the grid azimuth to a grid back azimuth. NOTE: A back azimuth is the opposite direction of a particular azimuth. It is the same as doing an "about face."

a.

Determine if the azimuth is less than or equal to 180o. 1) If the azimuth is 180o or less, then add 180o. 2) If the azimuth is greater than 180o, then subtract 180o.

6.

Using your protractor, plot the grid back azimuth from the first point on your map (Figure 3). a. b. Place the protractor on the map with the index mark at center mass of the known point. Ensure that the protractor's vertical base line is parallel with the closest north-south grid line and the horizontal base line is parallel with the closest east-west grid line. Make a mark on the map at the desired grid back azimuth. Remove the protractor and draw a line connecting the known point and the mark on the map.

c. d.

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Figure 3 7. 8. Repeat steps 3, 4, 5, and 6 for the second known point. Extend the azimuth lines from these two points until they intersect. You are located at the point where these two lines intersect. NOTES: The order in which you convert the magnetic azimuth to a grid back azimuth is not important, as long as you eventually get the grid back azimuth. If you forget to convert the grid azimuth to a grid back azimuth, your two lines will not intersect unless you extend them backwards from your known points. Again, this is acceptable, as long as you get the correct location for your position. 9. Plot the location where the lines intersect and determine the six-digit grid coordinate. (See TASK: PERFORM BASIC MAP READING (1-47) .)

10. Conduct a map inspection to verify your location. (See TASK: NAVIGATE WITH A MAP USING TERRAIN ASSOCIATION (1-48).)

REFERENCE: FM 21-26, Map Reading and Land Navigation

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

LOCATE AN UNKNOWN POINT BY INTERSECTION (1-52) PROVIDED A MAP, A COMPASS, A STRAIGHT EDGE, A COORDINATE SCALE AND PROTRACTOR, PENCIL, THE LOCATION OF TWO KNOWN POINTS, AND THE NEED TO DETERMINE THE LOCATION OF A TERRAIN FEATURE OR OBJECT. AS PER THE REFERENCES, LOCATE THE POINT BY A SIX-DIGIT GRID TO WITHIN 100 METERS OF THE ACTUAL GRID WITHIN FIVE MINUTES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is placed in a field environment during the day, and given a 1:50,000 military map, a lensatic compass, a coordinate scale and protractor, pencil, a straightedge, the six-digit grid coordinate to your location, the six-digit grid coordinate to a second known location, and a visible object at an unknown location (the angle formed by the two known locations and the object at the unknown location must be 30 and 150).

Standard:The Seabee must determine the location of the unknown object by a six-digit grid coordinate to within 100 meters. Administrative Notes: The tester may provide the Seabee with the magnetic azimuth from the second known location in order to save time. See TASKS: PERFORM BASIC MAP READING (1-47) NAVIGATE WITH A MAP USING TERRAIN ASSOCIATION (1-48) NAVIGATE WITH A MAP AND COMPASS (1-49) LOCATE AN UNKNOWN POINT BY RESECTION (1-51) CONVERT AZIMUTHS (1-54)

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. 2. 3. Orient the map. (See TASK: PERFORM BASIC MAP READING (1-47) ) . Locate and plot your position on the map. Shoot a magnetic azimuth from your location to the unknown point, using the compass-to-cheek technique.(See TASK: NAVIGATE WITH A MAP AND COMPASS (1-49)) . Convert the magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth. (See TASK: CONVERT AZIMUTHS (1-54).) Using your protractor, plot this grid azimuth on the map from your plotted location. After moving to the second known location, repeat steps 3, 4, and 5. The distant object is located where the two lines intersect (Figure 1).

4. 5. 6.

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7.

Plot the location where the lines intersect and determine the six-digit grid coordinate. (See TASK: LOCATE AN UNKNOWN POINT BY RESECTION (1-51) and PERFORM BASIC MAP READING (1-47).) Conduct a map inspection to verify your location. (See TASK: NAVIGATE WITH A MAP USING TERRAIN ASSOCIATION (1-48).)

8.

Figure 1

REFERENCE: FM 21-26, Map Reading and Land Navigation

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

NAVIGATE AROUND AN OBSTACLE USING THE BOX METHOD (1-53) PROVIDED A COMPASS, AN ASSIGNED AZIMUTH AND THE REQUIREMENT TO DETOUR AROUND AN OBSTACLE. AS PER THE REFERENCE, NAVIGATE AN OBSTACLE USING THE BOX METHOD.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is placed in a field environment during both day and night and given a lensatic compass, a magnetic azimuth to a destination, and an obstacle to navigate around.

Standard:The Seabee must navigate around an obstacle during the day and night using the box technique.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Navigate around an obstacle during the day using the box technique. a. b. c. Observe the terrain. Determine the best route around the obstacle. Move around the obstacle. 1) Move at right angles (plus or minus 90o) from your original line of march. NOTE: If you turn right, add 90 to your azimuth. If you turn left, subtract 90 degrees from your azimuth. Remember the RALS rule; Right Add, Left Subtract.
o

2) Maintain an accurate pace count each time you change direction. NOTES: Paces taken at right angles of 90 must be counted so that upon bypassing the obstacle, you will know exactly how many paces it will take to return to your original line of march. All paces which are in the direction of your original line of march must be added to your original pace count. This will give you a good idea on how far you still have to travel to reach your destination. 3) Continue to move until you are on the opposite side of the obstacle. - If there are problems, repeat Performance Step 1.c.(1) through (3). d. Return to your original line of march.
o

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NOTE:

Return to your original line of march as soon as possible after bypassing the obstacle. The only sure way of knowing that you are on your original line of march is by maintaining an accurate pace count. Take a look at Figure 1 as an example. While moving on an azimuth of 90 , you come to an obstacle. Turn right changing o your azimuth to 180 . Travel 600 meters until you clear the obstacle. Turn left changing your azimuth to o 90 . Travel 500 meters until you are on the opposite side of the obstacle. Turn left o changing your azimuth to 360 . Travel 600 meters to get back to your original line of march. Turn right changing o your azimuth to 90 . You are now back on your original line of march, 500 meters closer to your check point.
o

EXAMPLE:

Figure 1 2. Navigate around an obstacle during the night using the box technique. a. b. c. Observe the terrain. Determine the best route around the obstacle. Move around the obstacle. 1) Move at right angles (plus or minus 90o) from your original line of march.

2) Hold the compass using the centerhold technique. 1-329

3) Make a 90 right turn. - Rotate your body until the center of the luminous letter "E" is under the luminous line. 4) Make a 90 left turn. - Rotate your body until the center of the luminous letter "W" is under the luminous line. CAUTION: DO NOT move the bezel ring.
o

5) Maintain an accurate pace count each time you change direction. NOTES: Paces taken at right angles of 90 must be counted so that upon bypassing the obstacle, you will know exactly how many paces it will take to return to your original line of march. All paces which are in the direction of your original line of march must be added to your original pace count. This will give you a good idea on how far you still have to travel to reach your destination. 6) Continue to move until you are on the opposite side of the obstacle. - If there are problems, repeat Performance Step 1.c.(1) through (3). d. Return to your original line of march. NOTE: Return to your original line of march as soon as possible after bypassing the obstacle. The only sure way of knowing that you are on your original line of march is by maintaining an accurate pace count.
o

REFERENCES: FMFM 21-26, Map Reading and Land Navigation FMFM 6-7, Scouting and Patrolling for Infantry Units

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

CONVERT AZIMUTHS (1-54) PROVIDED MAP, COMPASS, PROTRACTOR AND REQUIREMENT TO CONVERT AZIMUTHS. AS PER THE REFERENCE CONVERT AZIMUTHS FROM GRID TO MAGNETIC OR FROM MAGNETIC TO GRID WITHOUT ERROR.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a map, a lensatic compass, a protractor, a pencil, a straightedge, and the six-digit grid coordinates of a starting point and a destination.

Standard:The Seabee must correctly identify the grid azimuth between two points on a map and convert the grid azimuth to a magnetic azimuth. The Seabee must determine the grid azimuth to within 3accuracy.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Determine the grid azimuth between your starting point and your destination. NOTE: There are two methods used when measuring grid azimuths from one point to another on a map. Whichever method you use, remember that you are dealing with GRID AZIMUTHS. A grid azimuth CANNOT be followed with a compass.

a.

Determine the grid azimuth using the protractor and string method. 1) Modify your protractor. a) Using a needle and piece of thread, punch a SMALL hole through the index mark of your protractor. b) Tie a knot in the thread on each side of the protractor as close to the index mark as possible to secure the thread to the protractor. NOTE: The thread should be about 6 inches long. 2) Place the index mark of the protractor on your starting point. 3) Ensure that the vertical base line on the protractor is parallel with the closest north-south grid line on the map and the horizontal base line on the protractor is parallel with the closest eastwest grid line on the map. 4) Holding the protractor firmly against the map with one hand, stretch the piece of thread with your other hand so that the thread intersects your destination. 5) Observe the point where the thread intersects the inside scale of the protractor. NOTE: This is the GRID AZIMUTH from your starting point to your destination.

b.

Determine the grid azimuth using the protractor and pencil method.

1-331

NOTE:

As long as you travel in a STRAIGHT line from one point to another, the azimuth will never change. REMEMBER this key point as we move ahead.

1) Using a straightedge, draw a line connecting your start point and your destination. This line needs to be at least 4 inches long so that the line reaches the outer edge of the protractor. 2) Label the two points A and B; with point A being your start point (Figure 1).

Figure 1 3) Place the index mark of your protractor on the line you just drew where that line intersects a vertical grid line. This point should be as close to point A as possible (Figure 2). 4) Ensure that the entire vertical base line on your protractor is directly on the vertical grid line that your line intersects. If it is not, then your azimuth reading will be inaccurate (Figure 2). 5) Observe the point where the line intersects the inside scale of the protractor. This is the GRID AZIMUTH from point A to point B. NOTE: The reason for placing the index mark on a point where your line intersects a vertical or horizontal grid line instead of directly on point A is so that you get a more accurate reading. Remember, as long as you are on that straight line from point A to point B, the azimuth doesn't change.

1-332

Figure 2 2. Convert a grid azimuth to a magnetic azimuth. a. b. Look at the declination diagram located on the bottom of the map. Determine the G-M angle of the map by reading the conversion notes on the declination diagram. NOTE: Most declination diagrams have conversion notes telling you whether to add or subtract the G-M angle when converting azimuths. Follow the directions on the conversion notes (Figure 3).

1-333

Figure 3 3. Convert a magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth. Follow Performance Step 2 to accomplish this task.

REFERENCE: FM 21-26, Map Reading and Land Navigation

1-334

TASK: CONDITIONS:

DETERMINE THE ELEVATION OF A POINT USING A MAP (1-55) PROVIDED WITH A KNOWN LOCATION ON THE GROUND, A STANDARD 1:50,000 SCALE MILITARY MAP OF THE AREA, PROTRACTOR, AND A DESIGNATED PROMINENT TERRAIN FEATURE. AS PER THE REFERENCES, DETERMINE THE CORRECT ELEVATION OF THE TERRAIN FEATURE TO WITHIN HALF THE CONTOUR INTERVAL.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a military map, a protractor, and the six-digit grid coordinate of an object or a terrain feature located on the map.

Standard:The Seabee must determine the elevation of the object or terrain feature to within plus or minus half the contour interval of the map.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Identify a bench mark or spot elevation on your map. NOTE: Bench marks and spot elevations are used to indicate points of known elevations on a map.

a.

Identify a benchmark. NOTE: Benchmarks are symbolized by a black "X", such as "X BM 214" if monumented, or "X 214" if unmonumented. The 214 indicates that the center of the "X" is at an elevation of 214 meters (or feet) above mean sea level.

b.

Identify a spot elevation. NOTE: Spot elevations are shown by a black "" and are usually located at road junctions and on hilltops and other prominent terrain features. An example of a spot elevation is ". 76," indicating that the center of the "." is at an elevation of 76 meters (or feet) above mean sea level. Sometimes an "X" is used to mark spot elevations. Just look at the legend of your map to see which one is being used.

2.

Determine the elevation of a point on a contour line. a. Identify the contour interval of your map. NOTE: This is given in the marginal information of your map (normally at the lower, middle portion of the map). The contour interval measurement is the vertical distance between adjacent contour lines.

b.

Find the numbered index contour line nearest the point for which you are trying to determine the elevation. NOTE: An index contour line is a continuous contour line that is thicker than intermediate contour lines. Index contour lines have numbers on them designating the height of that contour line. 1-335

c.

Determine if your point is at a higher or lower elevation than the index contour line. 1) Examine the elevations of the index contour lines around your point. NOTE: If your point lies between two index contour lines that are not equal to each other, such as 500 and 600, then follow the steps in this paragraph.

2) Count the number of intermediate contour lines between your point and the lower of the two index contour lines (include the contour line that your point lies on). NOTE: An intermediate contour line is a finer line and does have its elevation given.

3) Multiply this number by the contour interval. 4) Add this number to the lower of the index contour line. NOTE: This is the elevation of your point. In Figure 1, point (a) is between the index contour lines 500 and 600. The lower index contour line is numbered 500. The upper index contour line is numbered 600. Going from the lower to the upper index contour line shows an increase in elevation. If point (a) is somewhere between 500 and 600 meters high, and it is on the SECOND intermediate contour line from the index contour line that marks 500 meters, and the contour interval is 20 meters, then the elevation of point (a) is 540 meters.

EXAMPLE:

Figure 1 d. Determine if your point lies between two index contour lines that are equal to each other, such as 500 and 500. If so, perform the following steps. 1) Determine the type of terrain feature that your point is located on. NOTE: The terrain feature will normally be a saddle or a relatively flat area of ground. 1-336

2) Count the number of intermediate contour lines between your point and the closest of the two index contour lines (include the contour line that your point lies on). 3) Multiply this number by the contour interval. 4) Determine if the terrain feature causes your point to lie higher or lower than the closest index contour line. In most cases, this point will always be lower. a) If your point is higher than the closest index contour line, then add the contour interval. b) If your point is lower than the closest index contour line, then subtract the contour interval. NOTE: This is the elevation of your point. EXAMPLE: Look at point (b) in Figure 1. Point (b) lies in a saddle between index contour lines 500 and 500. In this case, point (b) is lower than the closest index contour line 500. Since it is on the second intermediate contour line below 500, its elevation is 460 meters. 3. Determine the elevation of a point that is not located on a contour line. a. Determine the elevation of a hilltop, point (c) on Figure 2. - Add one-half the contour interval to the elevation of the last contour line. EXAMPLE: In this example, the last contour line before the hilltop is an index contour line numbered 600. Add one-half the contour interval, 10 meters, to this contour line. The elevation of the hilltop is 610 meters.

Figure 2 b. Determine the elevation of points falling between contour lines (Figure 2). - Determine how far between the two contour lines the point lies. 1-337

--

If the point is LESS than one-fourth or MORE than three-fourths the distance between contour lines, the elevation is the same as the closest contour line. EXAMPLE: In Figure 2, the elevation of point (a) is 540 meters.

--

If the elevation of the point is between one-fourth and three-fourths of the distance between contour lines, add one-half the contour interval to the last contour line. EXAMPLE: Point (b) in Figure 2 is one-half the distance between contour lines 600 and 580. The contour line immediately below point (b) is at an elevation of 580 meters. The contour interval is 20 meters; thus, one-half the contour interval is 10 meters. In this case, add 10 meters to the last contour line of 580 meters. The elevation of point (b) is 590 meters.

c.

Determine the elevation at the bottom of a depression (Figure 3). NOTE: The tick marks on the contour line forming a depression always point to lower elevations.

- Subtract one-half the contour interval from the value of the lowest contour line before the depression.

1-338

EXAMPLE:The lowest contour line before the depression in Figure 3 is 240 meters in elevation. Thus, the elevation at the edge of the depression is 240 meters. To determine the elevation at the bottom of the depression, subtract one-half the contour interval. The contour interval for this example is 20 meters. Subtract 10 meters from the lowest contour line immediately before the depression. The result is that the elevation at the bottom of the depression is 230 meters.

Figure 3

REFERENCES: FM 21-26, Map Reading and Land Navigation STP 7-11H24-SM, Soldier's Manual, Infantryman - MOS 11H, SL 2/3/4

1-339

TASK: CONDITIONS:

REPAIR (SPLICE) FIELD WIRE (1-56) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), A CUT OR SHORTENED FIELD WIRE, KNIFE AND/OR PLIERS, AND ELECTRICAL TAPE. THE SEABEES MUST REPAIR (SPLICE) FIELD WIRE ASPER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided with a shorted or cut piece of field wire WD-1/TT, a set of TE-33 (wire cutters, utility knife, carrying case), and electrical tape.

Standard:The Seabee must inspect the field wire for cuts and breaks. The Seabee must repair the field wire.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Repair a cut or shorted piece of field wire. a. b. Locate the section of double strand wire that contains the short or cut. Once the cut or short is located, cut the wire above the cut or shorted area and remove the problem wire. Split both pairs of double strand of wires approximately 10 inches in length. (WD-1/TT Field wire (split)) (Figure 1).

c.

Figure 1 d. Prepare the ends of the cut wires for splicing. 1) 2) Cut 6 inches from one of each pair (Figure 2). Cut and stagger the insulated wire about 6 inches. (Staggered WD-1/TT) (Figure 2).

1-341

Figure 2 e. Remove 6 inches of insulation from each of the wires, 2 inches at a time (Figure 3A). NOTE: 1) 2) 3) Each strand of wire has 3 steel and 4 aluminum or copper wires.

Remove the first 2-inch portion of insulation with the wireman pliers (Figure 3B). Remove the second 2-inch portion of insulation (Figure 3C). Slide the third 2-inch portion of insulation to the end of the wire so that the insulation is flush with the strands of wire (Figure 3D).

Figure 3 f. Tie the wires together using a square knot. 1) Select a long wire from one pair and a short wire from the other pair of wires so that the square knot remains staggered after the repair.

1-342

Figure 4 NOTE: The wires are staggered to prevent a short in the event the electrical tape comes off.

2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Twist wire 1 over and under wire 2 to form the first loop (Figure 4A). Twist wire 1 over and under wire 2 to form the second loop of the square knot (Figure 4B). Pull the knot tight leaving a 1/4-inch space between the knot and the insulation Figure4B). Follow the same steps for the second strand of wire that needs to be spliced. Remove the sections of the insulation from the tips of the conductors. Untwist the strands, and flex them. Separate the steel strands from the copper (Figure 5A).

1-343

NOTE:

Copper strands will stay bent when flexed and the steel will not.

9)

Cut the steel strands flush to the ends of the insulation (Figure 5B).

10) Cross the copper wires over the rest of the square knot (Figure 5C). 11) Wrap several tight turns over the bare part of the right-hand wire (Figure 5C). 12) Continue wrapping until you have made two turns onto the insulation. 13) Cut the extra copper wire from the ends of the strands and the knot will be completely seized (Figure 5D). 14) Repeat steps 9 through 13 for the right-hand end of the copper strands. 15) Tape the splice (Figure 6). a) Start taping at the center of the splice. Figure 5 b) c) Use a steady pull, and wrap the tape about 1-1/2 inches on the insulation at one end. Work the tape back over the knot (past the place you started) to cover about 1 1/2 inches onto the insulation on the opposite side. Work the tape back again to the center of the splice.

d)

Figure 6

REFERENCES: FM 24-20, Tactical Wire and Cable Techniques STP 7-11B1-SM, Soldier's Manual Infantryman, SL 1

1-343

TASK: CONDITIONS:

OPERATE A TA-1 TELEPHONE SET (1-57) PROVIDED A TA-1/PT, PLIERS OR KNIFE, AND PRE-INSTALLED FIELD WIRE LINE. AS PER THE REFERENCE, INSTALL THE TA-1 AND COMMUNICATE A MESSAGE TO THE OTHER END OF THE LINE AND RECEIVE A RING BACK.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINE TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a TA-1, a pre-installed wireline, and a distant telephone station.

Standard:The Seabee must install a TA-1 to the pre-installed wireline, communicate a message and receive a ringback on the TA-1/PT.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Describe the TA-1/PT. a. b. 2. The TA-1/PT is a lightweight, sound-powered, field telephone. The voice transmission range for the TA-1/PT is 4 miles using WD-1/TT field wire.

Identify the Controls and Indicators of the TA-1/PT. a. Familiarize yourself with (Figure 1 and Table 1).

Figure 1 Table 1 TA-1/PT Controls and Indicators

1-344

REFERENCE 1

CONTROL/INDICATOR Press-to-talk switch (PTT)

FUNCTION Pressed - Connects the transmitter to the wireline so that the operator can talk to a distant station. Resets visual indicator to the non-operated position. Released - Disconnects transmitter from the wireline and permits the operator to receive calls.

Generator lever

Pressed - Connects generator to the wireline and rotates the generator to signal a distant station. Released - Disconnects generator from the wireline.

3 4

Buzzer volume control Visual indicator

OFF position - Buzzer is disabled from incoming calls. Displays white, luminous marking when an incoming call is received. Indicator is reset to nonoperated position when press-totalk switch is pressed. Connects the telephone set to a wireline for transmitting and receiving messages.

Binding post connector

3.

Installing the TA-1/PT. a. Connect wireline WD-1/TT to the TA-1/PT binding posts. 1) 2) 3) Remove 2-inches of insulation to seize the wire ends. Separate the four copper strands from the three steel strands. Starting from the end with the plastic, tightly wrap the copper strands around the steel strands. Cut the steel strands at the end of the copper twist. Place the seized wire into the push buttons of phones, switchboard or junction panel. Release the binding posts, making sure the insulation is not in the grasp of the binding posts.

4) 5) 6) 4.

Operate the TA-1. a. b. c. Press and release the generator lever firmly about four to five times to signal the distant station. Listen for the distant station to answer. Depress the press-to-talk switch when ready to send a message or perform a "line check". Speak directly into the transmitter of the telephone. When listening to the distant station, release the press-to talk switch and listen.

d. 5.

Receive an incoming call.

1-345

a. b.

The buzzer sounds, except when the buzzer volume is set in the OFF position. The visual indicator shows four luminous markings that remain visible until the press-to-talk switch is depressed. Talk into the transmitter of the TA-1/PT and answer the call.

c. 6.

Explain the emergency operation of the TA-1/PT. a. If the transmitter is not operating, speak directly into the receiver. 1) 2) b. Do not press the press-to-talk switch. Listen to the receiver in the normal manner.

If the receiver is not operating, speak into the transmitter in the normal manner. 1) 2) Listen through the transmitter by placing the transmitter to your ear. Keep the press-to-talk switch depressed while listening as well as transmitting.

REFERENCE: TM-11-5805-243-12, Operation and Organizational Maintenance, Telephone TA-1/PT

1-346

TASK: CONDITIONS: STANDARD:

OPERATE A TA-312 TELEPHONE SET (1-58) PROVIDED WITH A TA-312 TELEPHONE SET, WD-1/TT, BATTERIES, AND TOOLS. AS PER THE REFERENCES, INSTALL THE TA-312, COMMUNICATE A MESSAGE TO THE OTHER END OF THE LINE, AND RECEIVE A RING BACK.

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided with a TA-312, two BA-30 (batteries), a pre-cut and spliced wireline, and a distant station with an operator.

Standard:Install a TA-312, conduct a verbal line check on the phone, and receive a ring back from the distant station.

PERFORMANCE STEPS 1. Describe the TA-312 telephone set. a. The TA-312/PT is a two-wire, battery-operated field telephone. It is rugged, lightweight, and waterproof. It may be used inside or outside under all conditions. All connections and operating controls of the TA-312/PT are located on the panel assembly and housing.

b.

2.

Describe the control indicators and functions. Using (Figure 1), and follow along with each control/indicator and its function. 1 Hook switch connects the telephone handset during operation. The switch will operate when the handset is removed from the telephone cradle. An incomplete current path will occur when the handset is seated in the cradle. Selector switch is a three-position switch that permits a carrier of electrical current. 1) Common Battery (CB) setting is used when all power needed to operate the telephone by a switchboard. system is being supplied a switchboard. Local Battery (LB) setting is used when all power needed to operate the telephone is supplied by (2) BA-30, dry cell batteries within the telephone. This is the most commonly used setting. Common Battery Signaling (CBS) setting is used where power for signaling is provided by a switchboard.

2)

3)

3 4

Buzzer Volume (LOW LOUD) control, adjusts the buzzer volume. EXT-INT switch allows the use of two types of handset/headphones. 1) 2) EXT position is used when using the H-144 switchboard headset. INT position is used when using the H-60/PT telephone handset. 1-347

5 6

H-60/PT audio connector for headset from a telephone switchboard. LINE 1 and 2 are binding posts used to connect WD-1/PT field wire.

Figure 1 3. Install the TA-312/PT for operation. a. Install two BA-30 dry cell batteries. 1) 2) 3) 4) Remove the handset from the retaining cradle. Rotate the battery compartment latch clockwise until the cover is released. Lift the cover to expose the battery compartment. Insert the batteries in the slots of the battery compartment. a) b) 5) Position one battery positive terminal up. Position the second battery positive terminal down.

Close the cover and turn the latch counterclockwise.

1-348

b. Set selector switch to LB (Local Battery) for point-to-point communication with another TA-312. c. Connect the wireline WD-1/TT. 1) 2) 3) Remove 2-inches of insulation to seize the wire ends. Separate the four copper strands from the three steel strands. Starting from the end with the plastic, tightly wrap the copper strands around the steel strands. Cut the steel strands at the end of the copper twist. Place the seized wire into the push buttons of phones, switchboard or junction panel. Release the binding posts, making sure the insulation is not in the grasp of the binding posts.

4) 5) 6) 4.

Operate and initiate a call to a distant station. a. b. c. d. e. f. Follow the steps to initiate a call. Position the selector switch in the LB (Local Battery) position. Position the EXT-INT switch in the INT position for use of the TA-312 handset. Make sure the handset is seated in the retaining cradle. Hold on to the phone with one hand and turn the crank handle three to four complete revolutions. Remove the handset from the retaining cradle and listen for the distant station to answer your call. EXAMPLE: (Distant station reply) "Headquarters Company 2/3, this is an unsecured line, may I help you sir".

g.

Respond to the distant station by sending your message. EXAMPLE: (Your response) "Headquarters Company 2/3 this is Bravo Company 2/3 line check". The distant station will inform you on how well your phone is working.

h.

Request a ring back from the distant station. EXAMPLE: (Your request) "Headquarters Company 2/3 give me a ring back on this line".

i. j. k. 5.

Standby to adjust the buzzer volume on the TA-312. Answer the ring back and inform them that you are up and operating.

Return the handset back to the retaining cradle. This concludes the operating procedures for the TA-312. Perform preventive maintenance on the TA-312/PT. Ensure that the telephone set is complete and intact. Ensure that the telephone set is properly installed. 1-349

a. b.

c.

Ensure the case, panel, connectors, controls, cord, and handset are clean and free of dirt, fungus, or corrosion. Inspect the battery compartment for cleanliness, and ensure that there is no foreign matter present. Check the condition of the batteries. Ensure the handset seats firmly in the retaining cradle and the retaining cradle springs maintain proper tension. Inspect the binding posts to ensure that the connections are tight. Check the cord on the handset for cracks or breaks. Ensure that all control knobs and switches operate properly without binding. Initiate a call and check the operation of the telephone set, by requesting a "line check". Report deficiencies and discrepancies to organizational maintenance.

d.

e. f.

g. h. i. j. k.

REFERENCE: TM 11-5805-201-12, Operator and Organizational Maintenance Manual

1-350

TASK: CONDITIONS:

OPERATE AN AN/PRC-119A RADIO SET (1-59) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT, AN AN/PRC119A, OPERATOR MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT, ANTENNA, BATTERY, FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENT, AND RADIO STATION WITHIN RANGE. THE SEABEE MUST OPERATE AN AN/PRC-119A AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a complete AN/PRC-119A, battery, call signs/frequency and a radio net within range of the AN/PRC-119A.

Standard:The Seabee must install and operate the AN/PRC-119A radio as follows: turn the radio upside down and install the battery, install the antenna, connect the handset, dial an assigned frequency, turn the radio on, and establish communication. The Seabee must also describe in his/her own words the basic characteristics of the AN/PRC119A. Administrative Note: See TASK: COMMUNICATE USING A RADIO (1-60)

PERFORMANCE STEPS: WARNING: DO NOT permit manpack or vehicular whip antennas to come in contact with high-power lines or other sources of electricity; injury or death could result.

1.

Describe the AN/PRC-119A set parts, controls and components. a. Receiver Transmitter RT Capabilities 1) 2) Replacement of the AN/PRC-77 Two uses: a) Manpack operation NOTE: FOR THIS PURPOSE, ONLY THE MANPACK OPERATION WILL BE COVERED.

b) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Can also be vehicle mounted

Provides built in Electronic Counter Measures - Also known as ECM Designed for secure voice and data communications Handles secure traffic without attached equipment Two modes of Operation for Receiver-Transmitter (RT) a) Single Channel (SC) mode - With eight preset channels NOTE: FOR THIS PURPOSE, ONLY SINGLE CHANNEL OPERATION WILL BE COVERED. 1-351

b) Frequency Hopping (FH) mode - With six preset channels 7) 8) 9) 2320 channels in Single Channel (SC) mode Single Channels are frequency modulated (FM) in very high frequency (VHF) band Emission is voice, data, and secure voice

10) Power drain - 10 to 30 hours NOTE: 11) Self-Test a) b) Built in Test (BIT) provides self-test Fast checks equipment condition DEPENDING UPON RT VERSION AND LEVEL OF USAGE.

12) Provides cipher text (CT) communications b. AN/PRC-119A, Manpack Radio Set Components 1) RT-1523 (Series) Transmitter Receiver a) b) c) 2) This radio is part of the SINCGARS family. VHF - FM combat net radio Provides primary means of command and control - Voice and digital data

Antenna - Radiates / receives signal for RT a) b) Radio Frequency (RF) Switch Position Planning Ranges NOTE: RANGES ARE BASED UPON LINE OF SIGHT AND ARE AVERAGE FOR NORMAL CONDITIONS. RANGE WILL DEPEND UPON LOCATION, WEATHER, AND SURROUNDING NOISE LEVELS.

3)

Battery Box a) b) Connects to RT Protects battery

4)

Handset - Used for voice communication

5)

Field Pack a) b) Carries components required for Manpack Field Packs may differ 1-352

c.

SINCGARS (Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System) Receiver-Transmitter Controls (Figure 1) 1) 2) Seven controls, plus the RT keypad and display for operator to use Several of the controls are used infrequently - But are available NOTE: SOME CONTROL POSITIONS FOUND ON THE RT ARE ENCLOSED IN A BOX. TO MOVE THE CONTROL INTO OR OUT OF THESE POSITIONS, THE OPERATOR MUST PULL OUT ON THE CONTROL KNOB. THESE CONTROLS ARE SPRING LOADED AND WILL RETURN TO NORMAL POSITION WHEN RELEASED.

Figure 1 d. FCTN (Function) Control Position and Uses 1) 2) Nine position switch OFF (boxed) Position a) b) c) 3) All power is shut off - All stored data is deleted after 5 seconds Radio is completely inoperative Used when out of action and for storage

TST (test) Position a) b) c) Starts RT self-tests Display shows results Routine step in start-up procedure

4)

SQ ON (squelch on) Position a) Normal operating position for FH (frequency hopping) mode 1-353

b) 5)

SC (single channel) mode - This position reduces noise

SQ OFF (squelch off) Position a) b) Not used in FH (frequency hopping) mode SC (single channel) mode - Helps bring in distant stations and work through jamming

6) 7)

LD (load) Position - Required for loading SC frequencies, FH data, and COMSEC Keys STBY (standby) Position a) b) c) Makes radio inoperative - But all stored data is retained In STBY - power is not drained from main source Setting FTCN to SQ ON - Returns radio to operational status

8)

Z-FH (zero-FH) Position a) b) Clears all FH data in five seconds Operator pauses in this position for 5 seconds when setting the FTCN switch OFF

e.

MODE Switch - Contains three positions for selecting SC, FH, and FH-M mode of operation 1) 2) 3) SC (Single Channel) - Places RT in SC mode FH (frequency hopping) - Places RT in FH mode FH-M (frequency hopping master) a) b) Places RT in FH-M mode This position is to be used NCS (net control stations) only

f.

COMSEC Switch - Provides five settings for control of RT COMSEC mode 1) PT (plain text) a) b) c) 2) Sets RT into a non-secure mode To prevent accidental selection - Operator must pull out on knob to enter or leave position Radio must be on PT position when using the CUE feature

CT (cipher text) a) b) c) Primary COMSEC setting for nets operating in secure mode Prevents enemy from intercepting your communications RT must have been loaded with required COMSEC key or key tape to use this setting 1-354

3)

Z (zero) a) b) c) Used to clear RT of stored COMSEC keys - Set switch to Z for 5 seconds Knob must be pulled to enter or leave this position When turning radio OFF - It is not necessary to use COMSEC switch Z setting in order to clear COMSEC keys

g.

CHAN (channel) Switch 1) Allows operator to: a) b) c) 2) Select among 8 SC and 6 FH channels Preset channels are tuned electronically for ease of operation Moving switch from one channel to another does net change

Channels 1 - 6 a) b) Used for SC and FH nets Routinely loaded with COMSEC keys and FH data

3)

CUE. a) b) With correct SC frequency loaded - Operator with a non-FH radio can contact a FH net May be used for another SC net if needed

4) h.

MAN. - May be used for another SC net

RF PWR (RF power) 1) Allows operator to: a) b) c) Adjust level of radio frequency (RF) power and related range of operation Basic rule - Used the least amount of RF power needed to communicate with other stations Manpack operators can conserve battery life by selecting lowest effective RF power setting Range is dependent upon weather, position, line of sight, and other factors

d) 2)

LO (low power) a) b) Operational range - 200 to 400 meters Used by closely deployed units

3) 4)

M (medium power) - Range approximately 400 meters to 5 kilometers HI (hi power) 1-355

a) b) 5) i.

Operational range - 5 to 10 kilometers Data transmission range - 1 to 5 kilometers

PA (power amplifier) - Used with vehicles only

DIM Control 1) 2) 3) 4) Adjust level of brightness of RT display Adjust knob clockwise - Increases level of sight Adjust knob counterclockwise - Dims the display light When using night vision goggles - DIM is set fully counterclockwise

j.

VOL/WHSP (volume/whisper) Control 1) Adjusts audio level a) b) 2) Turn knob clockwise - increases audio level Turn knob counterclockwise - decreases audio level

Whisper feature a) b) c) Operator can speak softly (whisper) Message will be heard at normal audio level Activated by pulling out on VOL knob

k.

RT Display 1) Located above keypad

2) 3)

Primary means by which the radio communicates with the operator SIG (signal) Display a) b) Located on left side of display window Displays relative power out of unit and strength of received signal

4)

LOW HUB (hold up battery) Display a) b) Located on right side of display window When HUB becomes weak - A diamond shaped light on right side of RT display will flash If HUB is dead or missing - Light will remain on 1-356

c)

d) 5)

Light only appears while RT display is active

M (message) a) Some versions (but not 119A of SINCGARS radio) display an "M" near right side of RT display This indicates that traffic is being sent over the net

b) l.

Keyboard display 1) 2) 3) One of the primary means for entering information into the radio Allows operator to obtain information from the radio Display will go blank for 7 seconds after latest entry has been made

m.

RT Keypad Buttons and Uses 1) 1 through 6 a) b) c) 2) Enables operator to enter numbers Most frequent use - Entry of SC frequencies Used also for changing net ID's

CMSC (COMSEC) Key a) b) Determines the COMSEC position being used RT display will show TEK 1 thru 5 or KEK (Channel 6) NOTE: There are two types of COMSEC keys, referred to a TEK's and KEK's

3)

FREQ (frequency) a) b) Key used to check, load, clear, and offset SC frequencies Check and change net ID's

5)

OFST (Offset) a) b) c) Used with FREQ and CHG buttons Key enables operator to offset SC Frequencies plus or minus 5 or 10 kHz OFST can only be used in SC mode

6)

CHG (Change) a) b) Used with DATA, OFST, or CMSC keys Key causes display to scroll through available data 1-357

7) 8)

CLR (Clear) - Used with other keys, CLR button deletes entries and stored data LOAD a) b) Used to load data into holding memory To retrieve data from permanent memory

9)

STO (Store) a) b) Press STO key to place data into permanent memory of the RT Use of STO key is the last step in various operator procedures

10) BATT (Battery) a) b) Used to check and set battery life condition in MANPACK radio When key is pressed - RT display shows battery life indication

11) CALL - Used to communicate between radio and a attached RCU 2. Set-Up Procedures for Manpack a. Install Battery for Manpack WARNINGS: THE LITHIUM BATTERY USED WITH YOUR MANPACK RADIO IS HAZARDOUS IF MISUSED OR TAMPERED WITH BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER DISCHARGE. STRICTLY OBSERVE THE FOLLOWING PRECAUTIONS TO PREVENT INJURY TO PERSONNEL OR DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT:

DO NOT DISCHARGE BATTERY AFTER USE BY PRESSING THE DISCHARGE BUTTON. DO NOT HEAT, INCINERATE, CRUSH PUNCTURE, DISASSEMBLE, OR OTHERWISE MUTILATE BATTERY. DO NOT SHORT CIRCUIT, RECHARGE, OR BYPASS ANY INTERNAL FUSE. DO NOT STORE BATTERY IN EQUIPMENT DURING PERIODS OF NON USE. TURN OFF EQUIPMENT IMMEDIATELY IF YOU FEEL BATTERY CASE BECOMING VERY HOT, HEAR BATTERY VENTING (HISSING OR BURPING), OR SMALL IRRITATING GAS (SULPHUR DIOXIDE). REMOVE BATTERY ONLY AFTER IT COOLS TO THE TOUCH; THEN RETURN TO SUPPLY FOR DISPOSAL.

1) 2) 3)

Stand RT on front panel guards - Open battery compartment Check battery life condition - Written on battery if it is not new Make a note of condition for later entry into radio 1-358

4) 5) 6) b.

Place battery into box Close and secure battery box cover Return radio to upright position

Check battery - Battery Life Condition Indicator 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) For used batteries - No action required if new Set FCTN to LD - Press BATT Note 00 in display - Press CLR Enter battery life indicator number - Press STO Battery life has been entered in RT Check Battery during operation - With FCTN at SQ ON, press BATT

c.

Install Antenna CAUTION: 1) 2) 3) DO NOT USE ANTENNA AS A HANDLE; EQUIPMENT DAMAGE MAY RESULT.

Screw whip into antenna base -Hand tighten Carefully mate antenna base with RT ANT connector - Hand tighten Position antenna as needed by bending gooseneck NOTE: KEEP ANTENNA STRAIGHT UP IF POSSIBLE. IF THE ANTENNA IS BENT TO HORIZONTAL POSITION, IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO TURN THE RADIO IN ORDER TO RECEIVE AND TRANSMIT MESSAGES.

d. e.

Install handset - Connect and secure connector to AUD/DATA connector Field Pack 1) 2) Place RT in Field pack - With antenna on the left Fold top flaps of field pack over RT and secure

3.

Self-Test for Receiver Transmitter (RT) a. Turn FCTN switch to Z-FH - Check that display shows "GOOD" NOTE: BE CAREFUL NOT TO TURN SWITCH TO THE OFF POSITION, THIS WILL CAUSE BATTERY CONDITION TO RESET AND YOU WILL HAVE TO RESET THE CONDITION CODE.

b. c.

Move COMSEC to CT - Check that alarm will clear Move FCTN to TST - Check that RT display shows "GOOD" at end 1-359

4.

Single Channel (SC) Operating Procedures a. Clear SC Frequencies 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Set MODE to SC Set CHAN to MAN, CUE, or desired channel frequency to be cleared Press FREQ Press CLR Press LOAD - Then press STO Receivers Transmitter frequencies are now clear Set FCTN to SQ ON - Normal operating position Load a frequency - Must load one or more SC frequencies Set COMSEC to PT

10) Turn FCTN switch to LD 11) Turn MODE switch to SC 12) Set CHAN to MAN, CUE or desired channel (1-6) where frequency is to be stored 13) Press FREQ NOTE: RT DISPLAY WILL SHOW "00000", OR TO THE FREQUENCY RT IS CURRENTLY TUNED.

14) Press CLR 15) Enter 5 digit SC Frequencies 16) Press STO within 7 seconds -Display will blink and show the frequency just stored 17) Set FCTN to SQ ON - Normal operating position 5. Prepare to Communicate in Single Channel (SC) a. b. c. Set FCTN to SQ ON Set CHAN to CUE, MAN, or CHAN 1-6 Communicate in SC mode when desired

1-360

REFERENCE: TM 11-5820-890-10-8, SINCGARS Ground Combat Net Radio

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TASK: CONDITIONS:

COMMUNICATE USING A RADIO (1-60) GIVEN A TACTICAL SCENARIO IN ANY COMBAT ENVIRONMENT (DAY AND NIGHT), A RADIO SET, A LIST OF CALL SIGNS, AND A RADIO STATION (ON THE SAME FREQUENCY) WITHIN RANGE. THE SEABEE MUST SEND/RECEIVE A RADIO MESSAGE AS PER THE REFERENCES.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED DURING TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided a tactical scenario, an AN/PRC-104, AN/PRC-119A radio, a battery, call signs/frequency, a tactical field message book, a black pen, a written message to transmit, and a distant station on the same frequency, within range.

Standard:Using an AN/PRC-104, AN/PRC-119A, the Seabee must establish communications, transmit written message using proper radio procedures, and receive a message using a tactical field message book. The Seabee must accomplish this task within a 15-minute period. Attachments: (A2) Phonetic Alphabet and Numeric Pronunciation (A3) Prowords and Warning Words and their Explanations

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Turn the radio on. a. b. 2. 3. Locate on/off switch and turn on. Adjust the volume.

Set the frequency. Listen to determine whether the net is clear. a. b. Ensure that no unfamiliar sounds are on the net. Avoid interfering with other transmissions.

4.

Contact distant station. a. Use correct phonetic alphabet and numeric pronunciation (Attachment A2). NOTES: When using the radio, certain words may be misunderstood because of similarity in sound to other words. Numbers are important in military messages and must be spoken clearly in telephone and radio conversations. Numeric pronunciations are exaggerated to avoid misunderstanding by the receiving party. Each digit of large numbers is pronounced separately, except in the case of even "hundreds" and "thousands." b. Use proper radio procedures by using the prowords and warning words located at the end of this 1-362

task (Attachment A3). 1) Use good voice techniques. a) b) c) Listen before transmitting. Speak in a clear, distinctive voice. Speak in natural phrases; saying one word at a time makes it difficult to understand what is being said. NOTE: Transmit 3 to 4 words at a time and allow the distant station time to copy your message. Do not key the handset for more than 3 seconds at each transmission. Prolonged transmissions enable the enemy to locate your station using direction-finding equipment. Keep your transmissions short and to the point.

CAUTION:

c.

Call a distant station. (Refer to Attachments A2 and A3) 1) 2) Your station call sign is Q7Y and the distant station call sign is F3D. Perform a radio check with the distant station. a) F3D THIS IS Q7Y, RADIO CHECK OVER. Phonetic spelling would look and sound like this: FOKS TROT TREE DELL TAH - This is KEH BECK SEV -en YANG KEY - Radio check over. Q7Y THIS IS F3D ROGER OVER. Phonetic spelling would look and sound like this: KEH BECK SEV -en YANG KEY - This is FOKS TROT TREE DELL TAH - over. F3D THIS IS Q7Y ROGER OUT. Phonetic spelling would look and sound like this: FOKS TROT TREE DELL TAH - This is KEH BECK SEV-en YANG KEY - out. NOTES: Radio checks are conducted when initially establishing communication on a radio net with net control only. There has been no traffic over the radio and this is unusual. When troubleshooting equipment to ensure proper operation. CAUTION: Avoid using excessive radio checks. Excessive radio checks can give your position away to enemy direction-finding equipment.

b)

c)

5.

Compose and transmit a message to a distant station. a. Use Tactical Field Message Book NAVMC 694 (Figure 1). 1) 2) 3) There are approximately 75 forms in each book. The front cover of the tactical field message book contains the phonetic alphabet. On the backside of the front cover are brief instructions for preparing field messages. 1-363

4) b.

The protector insert cover has a space for notes and a sample form filled out.

Terms used and their definitions. 1) Message Any thought or idea expressed briefly in plain or cryptic language, prepared in a form suitable for transmission over a radio or telephone. Drafter Originator The individual who composes a message for transmission. The commander or the command by whose authority a message is sent. An individual designated to authorize the transmission of a message for and in the name of the Originator.

2) 3) 4)

Releasing Officer

c.

Basic Message Format. Refer to figure (1).

Figure 1 1) Heading Contains all the information necessary to get the message from originator to the intended recipients (FM and TO line). a) Z O P R located at the top left corner of the message format is the precedence of a message. (1) Z FLASH is a precedence of significant emergency/urgency (enemy contact, 1-364

enemy movements, medevac, and artillery/air support. Action is to be taken as soon as possible but not to exceed 10 minutes. (2) O IMMEDIATE is a precedence with significant importance within the unit or organization (FRAG order, coordinated attacks, spot report, and SALUTE report). Action is to be taken within thirty minutes from time of receipt. (3) P PRIORITY is a precedence significant within the organization (troop movement, displacements, tactical maneuvers, position reports, ammo reports). Action is to be taken within three hours from the time of receipt. (4) R ROUTINE is a precedence that is significant to the unit in administrative matters (resupply, weather reports, and motor transport maintenance). Action should be taken within six hours from the time of receipt of the message. EXAMPLE: You have just received various messages (6 Routine, 3 Priority, and 2 Immediate). As soon as you receive the immediate message, log the message in and pass it on to your supervisor. Once you have cleared all of the immediate messages, continue to take action on the remaining priority and routine messages. DO NOT HOLD ON TO ANY INFORMATION - TAKE ACTION - FELLOW SEABEES ARE COUNTING ON YOU.

b)

DTG (COMM. USE) (Date Time Group) located at the top middle of the message format. NOTE: The Date Time Group is a six-digit number, suffixed by a time zone designator and abbreviated month and year. The Date Time Group is assigned to messages for identification purposes.

(1) DTG (COMM USE) 080855 Z NOV 90. (2) 08 are the two-digit day of the month. (3) 0855 is the current military time. (4) Z is the time zone suffix. (5) NOV is a three-letter abbreviation for the month of the year. (6) 90 are a two-digit abbreviation for the year. c) FM: located at the top right corner of the message format. 31st NCR or Q7Y (Thirty First Naval Construction Regiment). Print the abbreviations of the organization where the message originated in the (FM) space or use the unit's call sign. WARNING: Use unit designation or call sign as directed by your unit's SOP (Standard Operating Procedures).

d)

(TO) located at second line, top left of message format (Figure 1 and 2) NMCB4 or F3D (NMCB4) Print the abbreviation of the command or organization that is to take action on the message or use the call sign. 1-365

e) f)

Break (BT) is used to separate the heading of the message from the text. Classification (TOPSEC - SECRET - CONF - UNCLAS). Circle the appropriate classification of the message. (1) TOPSEC (Top Secret) - This classification is assigned to information that, if compromised, could cause exceptionally grave damage to national security. (2) SECRET - This classification is assigned to information that, if compromised could cause serious damage to our national security. (3) CONF (Confidential) - This classification is assigned to information that, if compromised, could cause damage to national security. (4) UNCLAS - The message contains no classified information, however, you must still take precautionary measures when sending an unclassified message.

2)

Text of the message. a) The text contains the information to be sent to another person or organization. Do not use abbreviations in the text. The main characteristics of a tactical message texts are: (1) Accuracy. Use clear, legible writing, and correct and precise facts. (2) Brevity. Use easy words and be brief. (3) Clarity. Be clear and to the point, prevent unnecessary follow-up. NOTE: b) Do not use brevity at the expense of clarity.

BT break. This separates the text from the ending.

3)

Ending Provides a positive termination to the message. a) RELEASING OFFICER'S SIGNATURE - The releasing officer checks the message for accuracy, brevity, and clarity. Once the releasing officer has checked the message, he signs it and forwards the message for transmission. TOR is the Time of Receipt of an incoming message. The acronym TIF is commonly used to remember what goes in the TOR blanks of the message (Time, Initials, and Frequency). In the TOR blank you would draw your box to fit TIF. Draw your TIF as shown in (Figure 2).

b)

EXAMPLE:

Figure 2 T - Time the message is received 1-366

I - Initials of the operator F - Frequency the message is received on, use the Frequency Designator/Mike Designator (example 41.50 Mhz would be M022) c) TOD - is Time of Delivery of an outgoing message over the radio or telephone. The acronym used is SIFT (Station called, Initials, Frequency, Time). Draw your SIFT as shown in (Figure 3).

EXAMPLE:

Figure 3 S - Station to which the message was sent to. I - Initials of the operator sending the message. F - Frequency on which the message was transmitted, use the frequency Designator/Mike Designator (example 41.50 Mhz would be M022). T - Time the message was sent. 6. Send a message to a distant station. NOTES: Use the message sample in Figure 2 and follow along to send a message to a distant station. Use attachments A2 (phonetic alphabet) and A3 (prowords and warning words and explanations). Remember to unkey your handset after each 2 to 3 word transmission. a. Your transmitting station call sign is Q7Y. The receiving distant station call sign is F3D. TRANSMITTING STATION "F3D this is Q7Y immediate message over". RECEIVING STATION "Q7Y this is F3D send immediate message over".

"F3D this is Q7Y immediate" "DTG 080855 Z NOV 90" Break". Q7Y when ready will reply "continue". "From Q7Y" "To F3D" 1-367

"Classification confidential break". Q7Y when ready will reply "continue". "Continue attack" "at DTG 080930 Z NOV 90." "Report when objective" "is consolidated" "break over" "F3D this is Q7Y roger out" b. To complete sending a message over a radio net, do the following: 1) Maintain a copy of the message sent and insure that the TOD is entered in the message ending. Maintain a log of the messages sent and received by Date Time Group. Q7Y this is F3D roger over"

2) 7.

Receive a message from a distant station. a. Have a distant station transmit the message to your station while you copy the message down on a Tactical Message Book. Insure that you fill out the (TIF) time initials and frequency at the end of the message. Fill out the message blank and check to ensure that all of the information is accurate and that the ending is filled out properly. Maintain a copy for your files. Pass the original and a copy to the Watch Officer.

b.

c.

REFERENCES: ACP-125, Communication Instructions Radiotelephone Procedure NTP-4, Telecommunications User Manual

1-368

ATTACHMENT (A-2) PHONETIC ALPHABET AND NUMERIC PRONUNCIATION (1-61) PHONETIC ALPHABET A= B= C= D= E= F= G= H= I = J= K= L= M= ALFA BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA ECHO FOXTROT GOLF HOTEL INDIA JULIET KILO LIMA MIKE N = NOVEMBER O = OSCAR P = PAPA C= Q = QUEBEC R = ROMEO S = SIERRA T = TANGO U = UNIFORM V = VICTOR W= WHISKEY X = X-RAY Y = YANKEE Z = ZULU PRONUNCIATION A = AL FAH B = BRAH VOH CHAR LEE P= D = DELL TAH E = ECH OH F = FOKS TROT G = GOLF H = HOH TELL I = IN DEE AH J = JEW LEE ETTW = K = KEY LOH X= L = LEE MAH Y= M = MIKE N= NO VEM BER O = OSS CAH PAH PAH Q = KEH BECK R = ROW ME OH S = SEE AIR RAH T = TANG GO U = YOU NEE FORM V = VIK TAH WISS KEY ECKS RAY YANG KEY Z = ZOO LOO

NUMERIC PRONUNCIATION 1 2 3 4 5 = = = = = WUN TOO TREE FOW-er FIFE 6 7 8 9 = = SIX = SEV-en = ATE = IN-er ZE-RO 70 84 131 500 1,468 = 7,000 16,000 = SEVEN ZERO = ATE FOW-er = WUN TREE WUN = FIFE HUN-DRED WUN FO-WER SIX ATE = SEVEN THOU-SAND = WUN SIX THOUSAND

1-369

ATTACHMENT (A-3) PROWORDS AND WARNING WORDS AND THEIR EXPLANATION (1-62) PROWORDS AND WARNING WORDS AND THEIR EXPLANATION PROWORDS ALL AFTER................................ EXPLANATION The part of the message to which I refer is all of that which follows. The part of the message to which I refer is all of that which precedes. The station called is to reply to the challenge, which follows. The transmission authentication of this message is _________________. I hereby indicate the separation of the text from other parts of the message. The group that follows is a call sign You are correct, or what you have transmitted is correct. An error has been made in this transmission. Transmission will continue with the last word correctly transmitted. An error has been made in this transmission (or message indicated). The correct version is _________. That which follows is a corrected version in answer to your request for verification.

ALL BEFORE.............................

AUTHENTICATE.......................

AUTHENTICATION IS...............

BREAK.......................................

CALL SIGN ............................... CORRECT.................................

CORRECTION.................. .....

DISREGARD THIS TRANSMISSION OUT...............

This transmission is in error. Disregard it. This proword shall not be used to cancel any message that has been completely transmitted and for which receipt or acknowledgement has been received. Stations called are not to answer this call, receipt for this message, or otherwise to transmit in connection with this transmission. When this proword is employed, the transmission shall be ended with the proword "OUT". The addressees immediately following are exempted from the collective call. Numerals or numbers follow. Precedence FLASH. Flash precedence is reserved for alerts, warnings, or other emergency 1-370

DO NOT ANSWER....................

EXEMPT....................... .........

FIGURES.................................. FLASH.......................................

actions having immediate bearing on national, command, or area security (e.g., presidential use; announcement of an alert; opening of hostilities; land, air, or sea catastrophes; intelligence reports on matters leading to enemy attack; potential or actual nuclear accident or incident; implementation of services unilateral emergency action procedures). FROM......................................... The originator of this message is indicated by the address designator immediately following. This message contains the number of groups indicated by the numeral following. The group that follows is the reply to your challenge to authenticate. Immediate precedence is reserved for vital communications that (1) have an immediate operational effect on tactical operations, (2) directly concern safety or rescue operations, (3) affect the intelligence community operational role (e.g., initial vital reports of damage due to enemy action; land, sea, or air reports that must be completed from vehicles in motion such as operational mission aircraft; intelligence reports on vital actions in progress; natural disaster or widespread damage; emergency weather reports having an immediate bearing on mission in progress; emergency use for circuit restoration; use by tactical command posts for passing immediate operational traffic). The addresses immediately following are addressed for information. The following is my response to your instructions to read back. I am repeating transmission or part indicated. I shall spell the next word phonetically. That which follows has been verified at your request and is repeated. To be used only as a reply to VERIFY.

GROUPS................................

I AUTHENTICATE......................

IMMEDIATE................................

.INFO..........................................

I READ BACK....... .......

I SAY AGAIN.............................. I SPELL...................................... I VERIFY....................................

MESSAGE.................................

A message, which requires recording, is about to follow. Transmitted immediately after the call. (This proword is not used on nets primarily 1-371

employed for conveying messages. It is intended for use when messages are passed on tactical or reporting nets.) MORE TO FOLLOW.................. Transmitting station has additional traffic for the receiving station. This is the end of my transmission to you and no answer is required. This is the end of my transmission to you and a response is necessary. Go ahead; Transmit. Priority precedence is reserved for calls that require prompt completion for national defense and security, the successful conduct of war, or to safeguard life or property, and do not require higher precedence (e.g., reports of priority land, sea, or air movement; administrative, intelligence, operational or logistic activity calls requiring priority action; calls that would have serious impact on administrative, intelligence, operational or logistic activities if handled as a ROUTINE call). Normally, PRIORITY will be the highest precedence that may be assigned to administrative matters for which speed of handling is of paramount importance. What is my signal strength and readability. In other words, how do you read (hear) me? Repeat this entire transmission back to me exactly as received. Transmit this message to all addressees (or addressees immediately following this proword). The address component is mandatory when this proword is used. I have received your last transmission satisfactorily ROGER..................................... Routine precedence is reserved for all official communications that do not require flash, immediate, or priority precedence. Repeat all of your last transmission. Followed by identification data means "Repeat ______ (portion indicated)". Cease transmissions on the net immediately. (Repeated three or more times.) Silence will be maintained until lifted. (When an authentication system is in force, t he transmission imposing silence is to be authenticated.) Silence is lifted. (When an authentication system 1-373

OUT...........................................

OVER........................................

PRIORITY.................................

RADIO CHECK..........................

READ BACK..............................

RELAY (TO)..............................

ROUTINE..................................

SAY AGAIN..................... .......

SILENCE....................................

SILENCE LIFTED......................

is in force, the transmission lifting silence is to be authenticated.) You are transmitting too fast. Slow down.

SPEAK SLOWER...................... THIS IS......................................

This transmission is from the station whose designation immediately follows. That which immediately follows is the time or datetime group of the message.

TIME..........................................

WARNING WORDS AND THEIR EXPLANATIONS 1. "BEADWINDOW" (unauthorized disclosure of Essential Elements of Friendly Information (EEFI)) procedures will be employed on all uncovered radio nets EEFI are specific items of friendly information which if revealed would degrade the security of military operations. When EEFI must be transmitted via uncovered radio nets, manual encryption will be used to protect this information. Current EEFI listed below will be posted in the immediate vicinity of all uncovered radio nets. The number assigned to the EEFI will be used to identify the type of information being disclosed on an uncovered radio nets. 2. EEFI 01 02 03 04 3. Beadwindow Code Position Capabilities Operations EW/EMCON Intentions EEFI 05 06 07 Beadwindow Code Personnel ComSec Inappropriate Transmission

The following steps constitute Beadwindow procedures. a. b. Station monitors a net member disclosing an EEFI. Station immediately makes the following transmission. (call sign of disclosing station) this is (call sign of receiving station) Beadwindow (number of EEFI disclosed) over. Disclosing station responds as follows " Roger Out" All stations on the net are responsible fore proper Beadwindow procedures.

c. d.

4.

Definition of EEFI. a. 01 FRIENDLY POSITION, MOVEMENT OR INTENTED MOVEMENT: Position, course, speed, altitude or designation of any air, sea or ground element, unit or force FRIEDLY CAPABILITIES OR LIMITATIONS: Force composition or identity, 1-374

b.

02

capabilities, limitations or significant casualties to special equipment, weapons systems, sensor units or personnel. Percentages of fuel or ammunition remaining. c. 03 FRIENDLY OPERATIONS, INTENTIONS, PROGRESS OR RESULTS: Operational or logistic intentions, assault objectives, mission participants, flying programs, mission situation reports, results of friendly or enemy operations. FRIENDLY EW/EMCON, INTENTIONS, PROGRESS OR RESULTS: Intention to employ ECM, results of friendly or enemy ENCL, objectives of ECK, results of friendly or enemy ECCK, results of ESK, present or intended EMCON policy, equipment effected by EMCON policy. FRIENDLY KEY PERSONNE: Movement or identity of friendly or enemy flag officers, distinguished visitors, unit commanders, movements of key maintenance personnel indicating equipment limitations. FRIENDLY COMSEC LOCATIONS: Linkage of codes or code words with plain language, compromise of changing frequencies or linkage with line numbers, circuits designators, linkage of changing call signs with previous call signs or units, compromise of encrypted/classified call signs, incorrect authentication procedures. INAPPROPRIATE TRANSMISSION: Information requested, transmitted or about to be transmitted which should not be passed on the subject circuit because it either requires greater security protection or is not appropriate to the purpose for which the circuit is provided. FOR NATO ASSIGNMENT AS REQUIRED RESERVED FOR CIRCUSNAVEUR RESERVED FOR CINCLANTFLT

d.

04

e.

05

f.

06

g.

07

h. i. j. l.

08-10 11-29 30-49

DEFINITION OF GINGERBREAD: Is a warning sent over the net to alert operators that hostile forces are attempting to intrude on the net by Imitative Communication Deception (ICD).

1-375

TASK: CONDITIONS:

WATERPROOF INDIVIDUAL RADIO EQUIPMENT (1-63) PROVIDED A PRC-104/119A AND PROPER MATERIAL NEEDED TO WATERPROOF THE EQUIPMENT. AS PER THE REFERENCE COMPLETE WATERPROOFING OF ALL GEAR WITHIN 20 MINUTES. UPON REMOVING THE EQUIPMENT FROM THE WATER, SHOW THAT THE EQUIPMENT DID IN FACT REMAIN WATERTIGHT.

STANDARD:

EVALUATION GUIDELINES TO BE USED FOR TRAINING: Conditions: The Seabee is provided an AN/PRC-104/119A and waterproofing and cleaning materials.

Standard:The Seabee must perform operational waterproofing of the AN/PRC-104/119A Administrative Notes: The preferred wrapping for waterproofing communications equipment is the waterproof cover for the pistol, rifle, submachinegun, and machinegun. The waterproof weapon cover is a durable plastic cover that is available through the supply system.

PERFORMANCE STEPS: 1. Inspect the radio equipment. a. b. 2. Check the equipment for dirt and corrosion. Clean the equipment if necessary.

Perform operational checks of the radio equipment. a. b. Ensure that all of your equipment is serviceable and functions properly. Correct deficiencies and discrepancies, or report them to your organizational maintenance.

3.

Waterproof the AN/PRC-104/119A. NOTE: Before applying waterproofing material to communications equipment (regardless of the type), the item must be clean and operational.

a.

Prepare the radio for waterproofing. 1) Cover sharp edges, corners, and protrusions with duct tape to prevent tearing the waterproofing cover. a) b) Cover the edges, dials, and controls with duct tape. Cover the battery box clamps with small pieces of duct tape.

c) b.

Cover any other rough or sharp edges, such as screws, handles, etc.

Prepare the cover for waterproofing the radio. 1-375

NOTE: 1)

Do not blow into the bag. This puts moisture inside the cover.

Reinforce the outside closed end of the bag with a piece of duct tape the same width as the bag or wider. Ensure that the waterproof cover is airtight. Add waterproofing strips (zipper) to the waterproof cover. a) Center a strip of duct tape 2 inches wide and 12 inches from the bottom of the waterproof cover. Cut a centered slit 2 inches from either end of the strip of duct tape. Center a 1-inch wide piece of duct tape over the slit. Turn 1/2 inch of each end of the 1-inch wide piece of duct tape over to form tabs. NOTE: You now have formed a zipper at the top of the bag that can be used for access to the face of the radio (Figure 1).

2) 3)

b) c) d)

Figure 1 e) Center a strip of duct tape 2 inches wide the same width as the bag, and place it, sticky side down, near the bottom of the waterproof cover. f) Repeat step b. (3)(b) through b. (3)(d) above to make a zipper at the bottom of the waterproof cover for access to the battery box. 1-376

c. d. e.

Place the radio in the waterproof cover. Seal the waterproof cover with duct tape. Waterproof the handset on the AN/PRC-104/119A. 1) 2) 3) Place the handset in a waterproof cover. Cut a small hole in the upper corner of the waterproof cover. Insert the handset audio connector through the hole and attach it to the radio audio connector. Seal the waterproof cover with duct tape around the handset cord by twisting and taping it counter clockwise.

4)

f.

Waterproof the tape antenna on the AN/PRC-104/119A (Figure 2).

Figure 2 1) 2) Lay 2-inch diameter of duct tape flat with the sticky side up. Ensure that the duct tape is 2 inches longer than the area to be covered to form a tab at the top and that the flex base does not have tape under it. Place the antenna in the center of the duct tape. Fold one side of the duct tape over the opposite side of the antenna leaving 3-inch of the metal exposed. Fold the other side over the same way. The tab should be 2 inches at the top of the antenna.

3) 4)

5)

NOTE: g.

Attach the waterproofed antenna to the radio. 1) Cut another small hole in the upper corner of the waterproof cover opposite the handset. 1-377

2) 3)

Insert the antenna into the hole and screw it into the antenna mount. Twist the waterproof cover clockwise and tape it in a clockwise direction just above the flex base.

REFERENCE: FM 21-76, Survival

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