Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

6 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Thermodynamic Cycle
- M-A-Mian
- Chapter 2 Exercise
- Homework 11
- Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory of Gases
- Chemical Thermodynamics IIT Part 1
- Thermo 12
- 2.07-Motion in a Straight Line-HW
- Principles Flow
- Gas Absorption lab
- Physical Chemistry i (100 Items)
- AGA 3 No 1 (API 2530 Ch 14-1985) Natural Gas Fluid Measurement
- Brandt2011_Errata.pdf
- ws_1_ans
- Sim and Exp of Rh and Sand in Fbg
- WellTestGasOilH2O
- Thermodynamics - Chapter 5
- thermo
- 2011 JC1 H2 Chemistry Promo P2
- 02-51 - Inerting a Boeing 747SP Center.pdf

You are on page 1of 7

Thermal Physics

PHYS 320

20 Sep 2012 Name:

ID:

Read all of the following information before starting the exam:

Show all work, clearly and in order, if you want to get full and partial credit. I reserve the

right to take o points if I cannot see how you arrived at your answer (even if your nal

answer is correct).

If your answer does not t, use the Scrap page at the end or request extra paper from the

proctor.

A calculator is permitted, but no wireless or communicating devices are allowed.

Box in your nal result!

Note k

B

= 1.38 10

23

J/K and m

p

= 1.67 10

27

kg and R=8.3 J/mol K, also 1 atm =

1.01 10

5

N/m

2

, h=6.6 10

34

Js.

This exam includes 7 questions. The total number of points is 34.

1. (a) (2 points) Consider 5 coins, calculate the probability of getting 2 heads.

Solution:

The total number of microstates is

tot

= 2

5

= 32; and there 10 ways of getting 2 heads,

such that:

(2heads)

tot

=

10

32

= 0.31

(b) (1 point) Evaluate = ln(4000!)

Solution:

Using Stirlings approximation ln N! N ln N N (eq. 2.16):

= ln(4000!) 4000 ln(4000) 4000 29176

2. (a) (3 points) Consider a container with two large compartments each of volume V

0

. The

compartments are connected by a small tube that has a valve, which is initally closed.

The left compartment is lled with one mole of ideal gas at temperature T

i

and pressure

P

i

. The valve is suddenly opened and the gas ows to the right compartment. Assuming

that the container is thermally isolated, nd the nal pressure p

f

and nal temperature

T

f

after the gas has expanded.

Solution:

from the ideal gas law we know:

p

i

V

0

= RT

i

so the nal state will be:

p

f

(2V

0

) = RT

f

Since the container is thermally isolated, no energy is transferred; i.e. (U = 0), such

that T

f

= T

i

from U = 3/2Nk

B

T, then

p

f

= p

i

/2

(b) (1 point) Make a plot P vs. V and indicate approximately what happens as you go from

the initial to the nal state. Draw carefully paying attention to the shape of the process

line.

Solution:

Even though the initial and nal temperature are the same, the process does not neces-

sarily need to follow an isothermal line (PV =const.), but generally deviates a bit, see

below:

3. An ideal gas undergoes the cyclic process shown in Fig. 1 below.

Figure 1: Pressure versus Volume diagram for a cyclic process with labels.

(a) (3 points) Determine the work done in steps A and B. Calculate the total work output

from completing one cycle.

Solution:

In step A, no work is done, and in step B:

W

B

=

P(V ) dV = P

2

(V

2

V

1

)

The total work is equal to the enclosed area, which is (P

2

P

1

)(V

2

V

1

). Alternatively,

you can add the work from each step (or the two steps B and D, in this case).

(b) (3 points) Which point (r,s,t,u) has the highest temperature and why? Draw the same

cyclic process in the P T diagram. Label each process line with A,B,C,D corresponding

to the same process in Fig. 1.

Solution:

point s - see ideal gas law (PV = nRT); s has the highest P and highest V , so PV is

maximized, which means that it has the highest temperature T.

(c) (2 points) Draw the same cyclic process (Fig.! 1) in the P T diagram. Label each process

line with A,B,C,D corresponding to the same process from Fig. 1.

Solution:

Assuming that points r and t have approximately the same temperature, the cycle can

be reconstructed using the ideal gas law.

4. Consider an ideal gas.

(a) (1 point) Describe briey what an adiabatic process is:

Solution:

A process where Q = 0. That is a process where no heat is added, which means that

U = W.

(b) (2 points) Describe how and point out the dierence of how you would experimentally

implement an isothermal versus an adiabatic process (use a diagram if needed to add to

your description).

Solution:

An insulated system for an adiabatic process (system is surrounded by thermal insula-

tion), a large heat bath for an isothermal process (the system is surrounded by a large

water bath that is very large compared to the system such that the temperature of the

water remains constant.

(c) (2 points) Draw a P V diagram for an ideal gas and draw an isothermal line and an

adiabatic line. Clearly label the two lines in the diagram. For clarication of your plot,

provide the equations that guided you to draw the lines.

Solution:

We derived in class, for an ideal gas: PV =const. for an isothermal process and

PV

=const. for an adiabatic process, where > 1, in fact = 5/3 for the ideal

gas, which means that the slope is steeper as shown below:

5. Consider a paramagnetic system with only 3 atoms that each have exactly one Bohr magneton

B

. Note that these are dipole moments that can either point up or down only.

(a) (2 points) Draw a schematic picture showing all dipole moments of the system in the

lowest energy state in the presence of a magnetic eld

B =< 0, 0, +B

z

>. Also draw the

magnetic eld. Calculate the total internal energy U of the system.

Solution:

The internal energy is U = 3 (

B

B) = 3

B

B.

(b) (4 points) Make a table with all possible macrostates and list for each of them the reduced

entropy S/k

B

and energy U/N

B

, as well as the dimensionless temperature k

B

T/

B

B and

specic heat C/Nk

B

.

Solution:

There are 4 macrostates for N = 3. Note that N = N

up

+ N

down

, such that U =

B

B(N

down

N

up

). Also, the temperature is related to the entropy S, so that we can say

k

B

T =

U

ln

and nally C =

U

T

. We are using the following conventions: U

n

= U/

B

B,

S

n

= S/k

B

, T

n

= k

B

T/

B

B, and C

n

= C/Nk

B

, such that:

N

up

U

n

S

n

T

n

C

n

N(1 2

Nup

N

)

N

Nup

ln S

n

/U

n

U

n

/(NT

n

)

0 3 1 0

1 1 3 ln 3 -2 / ln 3

2 -1 3 ln 3 -2 / 0

3 -3 1 0 2 / ln 3

(c) (2 points) Draw the specic heat as a function of temperature based on your calculation

(for all data points that you have) and separately plot schematically the specic heat

C(T) as a function of temperature T for a macroscopic paramagnet.

Solution:

6. (a) (2 points) Use the Sackur-Tetrode equation to estimate the entropy dierence of a mole

of argon gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and one mole of helium gas.

Figure 2: Shows a portion of the periodic table.

Solution:

The Sackur-Tetrode equation is:

S = Nk

B

ln

V

N

4mU

3Nh

2

3/2

+

5

2

Since both gases are monatomic gases, then they have the same number of degrees of

freedom. Now, the only dierence is the mass m. Therefore,

S = S

Ar

S

He

= R

ln(40)

3/2

ln(4)

3/2

(b) (1 point) Which one has more entropy, if any. Explain briey.

Solution:

One mole of argon gas has more entropy as compared to helium gas. The larger mass

gives the atom more momentum and therefore more possibilites,so that the entropy is

larger.

7. List / describe all 3 Laws of Thermodynamics:

(a) (1 point) 1st Law of TD

Solution:

Energy is always conserved:

dU = Q+W

This could also be rewritten as:

U

sys

+ U

surr

= 0

(b) (1 point) 2nd Law of TD

Solution:

Entropy is not a conserved quantity:

S

sys

+ S

surr

0

Note that S k

B

ln is simply the denition of the entropy; it does not say anything

about entropy. Entropy can decrease locally at the expense of an increase of entropy of

the surrounding.

(c) (1 point) 3rd Law of TD

Solution:

At the lowest possible temperature, the system is supposed to be in a unique state,

therefore = 1, and so S = 0. This is, however, an assumption, so it shall be stated:

S 0 as T 0

- Thermodynamic CycleUploaded bytravikiran
- M-A-MianUploaded byPritishMukherjee
- Chapter 2 ExerciseUploaded byMousa Floobert موسى
- Homework 11Uploaded byHa Vi
- Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory of GasesUploaded byTarun Gupta
- Chemical Thermodynamics IIT Part 1Uploaded byAdiChemAdi
- Thermo 12Uploaded byJess Ryan Olayon
- 2.07-Motion in a Straight Line-HWUploaded byNirmal gk
- Principles FlowUploaded byhjygsvfjwhg
- Gas Absorption labUploaded bysolehah misni
- Physical Chemistry i (100 Items)Uploaded byMark Ryan Tripole
- AGA 3 No 1 (API 2530 Ch 14-1985) Natural Gas Fluid MeasurementUploaded byMuhammad Raditya
- Brandt2011_Errata.pdfUploaded byrathan
- ws_1_ansUploaded byAdrian Reborn Lam
- Sim and Exp of Rh and Sand in FbgUploaded bydeepu_ice23
- WellTestGasOilH2OUploaded bylasheeeen
- Thermodynamics - Chapter 5Uploaded byLiyana
- thermoUploaded byprachipriya
- 2011 JC1 H2 Chemistry Promo P2Uploaded byjoshua_98548
- 02-51 - Inerting a Boeing 747SP Center.pdfUploaded byMarcus Drago
- Erosional Gas VelocityUploaded byWil Vasquez C
- A Simple Approach to 2nd LawUploaded byLucas Fagundes
- AME101-LectureNotesUploaded byShiva Krishna Bhagavatula
- Oil Field ManagerUploaded byWalter Eloy Ramirez Carranza
- LectureNotesEngineeringUploaded byJanakiraman Mohan
- Jar Physics Revision 3Uploaded byJai Deep
- Document 456.rtfUploaded byM0IN BUKHARI
- B49CE (2015-16)Uploaded byOla Daniel Ajayi
- Heat & Thermodynamics - Test.pdf-1Uploaded byVishal
- ICOVP Hussein 2013Uploaded byMohinuddin Ahmed

- Strength of Materials - 2 Marks - All 5 UnitsUploaded byMohan Prasad.M
- 2010-final-practice.pdfUploaded byeouahiau
- 71IJMPERDAPR201971Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- DP ThermodynamicsUploaded byYash Akhauri
- Laboratory Report #2 (Molar Mass of a Volatile Liquid)Uploaded byImmanuel De Los Reyes
- Sequence Impedance of ALTERNATORUploaded bykumarchaturvedula
- 2011Direct Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Macromolecules.pdfUploaded byOsama Abdulkareem
- SEISMOLOGY, Lecture 3Uploaded bySinggih Satrio Wibowo
- Work HardeningUploaded byEddie Wardie
- momentum & collision (impulse)Uploaded bybat.laugh
- Impact TestUploaded byKimberly Anne
- 14ecee Friction DampersUploaded byOscar Zúñiga Cuevas
- Rushton ImpellerUploaded bylinda
- Ultrasonic Testing of Materials at Level 2Uploaded bywalter091011
- 7.1.Prob.sheet Gas Power CyclesUploaded byAnonymous mXicTi8hB
- Catalog Reductor Armonic Cu RulmentiUploaded byAkeidir
- Crone Meyer 1952Uploaded byNassar Al-Essawi
- Assign 2 PunitUploaded byJimmyThacker
- Lecture Notes in Computational AstrophysicsUploaded bydiego_munoz_a
- Engineering Mathematics Assignment AnswersUploaded bySatha Panaha
- Magnetic FieldUploaded byasiffarooki
- EET416 Problem Set 2 SolutionUploaded byAbdallah E. Abdallah
- Earthing Trafo and NGR CalculationUploaded byvishnuvyas
- Bending and Shear StressUploaded byAtish Kumar
- ¦Ñ-÷4 D90Uploaded bytanujaayer
- final projectUploaded bygalen
- Universe Power PointUploaded bylovelydove02
- Rays and WavesUploaded byHaziq Shahard
- Air MuscleUploaded bymohit616
- Mathematical Problems in EngineeringUploaded bypatowski

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.