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Measurement of the Air Permeability of Concrete in situ: status quo

Roberto Torrent / Luis Ebensperger

Torrent / Ebensperger

ICCRRR 2012, SA

September 5th, 2012

Objectives
Give a brief overview of the test method and its evolution How it correlates with other durability measurements Application of the method to the specification, control in-situ and service life assessment of concrete structures

Torrent / Ebensperger

ICCRRR 2012, SA

September 5th, 2012

Fundamentals and evolution of the method

Torrent / Ebensperger

ICCRRR 2012, SA

September 5th, 2012

Quality of Concrete in a Real Structure


CO2 ClSO42-, Abrasion, Frost

Covercrete of Poorer Quality


Due to: Moulded specimens, made and cured under standard conditions, DO NOT represent the quality of the vital covercrete
September 5th, 2012
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Re-bars

Segregation Compaction Curing Bleeding Finishing Microcracking


ICCRRR 2012, SA

Torrent / Ebensperger

Air-Permeability Test Method: Fundamentals


Vacuum Pump Valve 1 Valve 2 Touch-screen Computer

Pe

Pi

2-Chamber Vacuum cell


2-Chamber Vacuum cell Soft rings

Pressure Regulator

(Pe=Pi)
i : Inner chamber e : External chamber

i e

Concrete

Torrent / Ebensperger

ICCRRR 2012, SA

September 5th, 2012

Evolution of the pressure in the inner chamber


Close V1

t =0 Pi~1000

t ~35 Pi~200

80 Pressure Pi (mbar) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0
0
Close V2 Close V2

Regulator Activation

kT = 9.2 10 P~20 mbar

-16

kT = 0.070 10-16 m

135 5 P=0 10 tf 60

15

(360)

20

720 25 tmax 30

time (s) square root scale


Torrent / Ebensperger ICCRRR 2012, SA September 5th, 2012
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Key Test Feature : Pe = Pi


100 mm 50 mm

2-Chamber Vacuum cell

Controlled air flow into the inner chamber


Torrent / Ebensperger ICCRRR 2012, SA

Concrete
September 5th, 2012
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Calculation of kT

kT =

Vc

Pa + Pieff (tf) ln Pa - Pieff (tf) tf - to

2 Pa

kT: coefficient of air-permeability (m2) Vc : volume of inner cell system (m3) A : cross-sectional area of inner cell (m2) : viscosity of air (= 2.0 10-5 N.s/m2) : estimated porosity of the covercrete (= 0.15) Pa : atmospheric pressure (N/m2) Pieff: effective pressure raise in the inner cell at the end of the test (N/m2) tf : time (s) at the end of the test ( 2 to 12 min) to : time (s) at the beginning of the test (= 60 s)
Torrent / Ebensperger ICCRRR 2012, SA September 5th, 2012
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Prototype, Initial Tests and Classification (1993)

Class PK1 PK2 PK3 PK4 PK5


Torrent / Ebensperger

kT Permeability -16 m) (10 < 0.01 Very Low 0.01 0.1 Low 0.1 1.0 Moderate 1.0 10 High 10 100 Very High
September 5th, 2012
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ICCRRR 2012, SA

Torrent Permeability Tester (Proceq, 1995)


1st Commercial Instrument:
Plastic cell (lighter) Automatic calculation of kT and L Storage of data in memory Download data to PC Combined with Wenner electrical

resistivity (optional accessory)

Torrent / Ebensperger

ICCRRR 2012, SA

September 5th, 2012

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Permea-TRR (Materials Advanced Services 2008)


2nd Commercial Instrument:
Maximum duration of test reduced

from 12 to 6 min
Measures Pi and Pe Fully automatic Operates above vapour pressure Graphical progress of test and early

kT estimate
Extended range for highly porous

materials (kT>100 10-16 m)


Reprogrammable software No Wenner
Torrent / Ebensperger ICCRRR 2012, SA September 5th, 2012
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Standard Test Method with Recommended Limits


Included as Swiss Standard Test (SIA 262/1-E:2003) ASTRA Recommendations propose limiting values

as function of exposure conditions (2009):

Torrent / Ebensperger

ICCRRR 2012, SA

September 5th, 2012

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Measurement Points (6 at random per Lot)


H > 150 mm

Surface Lot
kT3

kT1

kT6

D > 50 mm

kT2

D > 50 mm

kT4 H > 150 mm

kT5

Torrent / Ebensperger

ICCRRR 2012, SA

September 5th, 2012

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Conformity Criterion
Condition 1:

Not more than 1 test (out of the 6) with kT > kTs


Condition 2:

If 2 tests > kTs, 6 new points are selected at random from the same Lot Not more than 1 (out of the new 6 tests) with kT > kTs If none of the above Conditions is fulfilled, the Lot is considered as non-compliant with the specified kTs

Torrent / Ebensperger

ICCRRR 2012, SA

September 5th, 2012

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Swiss Performance Approach to Durability


DESIGN PRACTICE Specification Concrete of Production Kmax on Delivered and Site Concrete Execution: Placing Compaction Finishing Curing CONTROL Standard K Tests on cast Specimens

Covercrete Quality = K-1


K = Penetrability

kT checked on site

Torrent / Ebensperger

September 5th, 2012


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ICCRRR 2012, SA

Correlation with other durability measurements

Torrent / Ebensperger

ICCRRR 2012, SA

September 5th, 2012

Water Sorptivity vs. kT (own data)


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24-h Sorptivity (g/m/s)

20 15 10 5 0 0.001

Laboratory Tunnel Bridge

0.01

0.1

10

100

kT (10-16 m)
Torrent / Ebensperger ICCRRR 2012, SA September 5th, 2012
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ASTM C1202 Coulombs vs. kT (various authors)


100000
High (+ Very High)

Coulombs

10000
Moderate

1000
Very Low

Low

100

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

kT (10-16 m)
Torrent / Ebensperger ICCRRR 2012, SA September 5th, 2012
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Water Penetration under Pressure (EN/DIN) vs. kT


150 Max. Penetration (mm) 125 100 75 50 25 0 0.001
Very Low Low Moderate High

0.01

0.1 kT (10-16 m)

10

Torrent / Ebensperger

ICCRRR 2012, SA

September 5th, 2012

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Service Life assessment based on site measurement of kT and cover depth

Torrent / Ebensperger

ICCRRR 2012, SA

September 5th, 2012

Service Life assessment based on kT and c


Allows estimating service life from measurements conducted on the endproduct (finished structure):

Measurement of the coefficient of airpermeability kT Measurement of cover depth c Application of models for carbonation-induced corrosion based on site air-permeability (e.g. Parrott, site data) Application of models for chlorideinduced corrosion based on airpermeability kT through correlations of DCl and kT (e.g. Life-365 or EHE-08)
ICCRRR 2012, SA September 5th, 2012
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Torrent / Ebensperger

Site kT vs. Carbonation Rate (old structures)


Very Low Low Moderate High Very High Ultra High

Carbonation Rate (mm/y )

6
Underpass 30y

5 4 3 2 1 0 0.001

Bridge 60y Bridge 30y Bldg. 30 y

0.01

0.1

10
-16

100

1000

Coeff. of Air-Permeability kT (10


Torrent / Ebensperger ICCRRR 2012, SA

m)
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September 5th, 2012

Assessment of DCl based on kT measurements

c Ti = ---------------------------erf-1 (1 - Cc / Cs) . DCl


Torrent / Ebensperger

with

DCl = Do . (to / tf)n


September 5th, 2012
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ICCRRR 2012, SA

Relation of kT with South African Indices


Cl- Conductivity (mS/cm)
0.1 1 10 11 1.5

10.5

OPI
10

0.5

9.5 0.01

0 0.01

0.1

10

kT (10-16 m)

kT (10-16 m)

Opens prospects of combined approach: kT + South African Service Life Design


Data from EMPA (Switzerland)
Torrent / Ebensperger ICCRRR 2012, SA September 5th, 2012
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Recent Worldwide Applications


New Panama Canal Museum Western Art (Japan) Segments Port of Miami Tunnel (USA)

ShCC Industrial Floor (Argentina)

Wotruba Church (Austria)


Torrent / Ebensperger ICCRRR 2012, SA

Estimating Service Life with c and kT (Holland)


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