Arterial Blood Supply to the Brain The arterial blood for the brain enters the cranial cavity

by way of two pairs of large vessels: the internal carotid arteries, which branch off the common carotids, and the vertebral arteries, which arise from the subclavian arteries. The vertebral arterial system supplies the brain stem, cerebellum, occipital lobe, and parts of the thalamus, and the carotids normally supply the remainder of the forebrain. Branches of Internal Carotid Artery Route: •Cervical •Petrous •Cavernous •Supraclinoid Artery Location/path Opthalmic artery Posterior The posterior communicating Communicating arteries join the middle Artery cerebral arteries to the posterior cerebral arteries, which are part of the basilar artery system.

Part of brain it supplies Optic chiasm, parahippocampal gyrus, interpeduncular region, crus cerebri and thalamus

Symptoms of infarct

Anterior Choroidal Artery *Anterior Cerebral Artery The ACAs run medially then enter the longitudinal fissure. They curve posteriorly and run along the corpus callosum (pericallosala.) and cingulated gyrus (callosomarginala.) Linked by the Anterior Communicating Artery • The two anterior cerebral arteries usually meet over a short distance in midplane to form a short but functionally important anterior communicating artery. This vessel

Carries blood to the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles as well as to adjacent brain structures (hippocampus) The anterior cerebral artery supplies the anterior frontal lobe and the medial aspect of the hemisphere (frontal and parietal lobes, cingulated gyrus). It supplies blood to the medial cortex, including the medial aspect of the motor strip and the sensory strip. Perforating branches supply the basal ganglia.

Blockages in these arteries can affect the production of cerebrospinal fluid and can also cause memory problems In a stroke affecting the territory irrigated by the anterior cerebral artery, weakness is most pronounced in the contralateral leg. Damage to the anterior cerebral artery can cause sensory and motor impairment in the lower body. For example, a patient who has had a stroke affecting this artery may be incontinent or have unilateral paralysis from the hips on down. A blockage in this artery can affect cognition and cause motoric problems due to damage to fibers in the internal capsule or to the basal ganglia.

*Middle Cerebral Artery

forms an anastomosis between the left and right hemispheres, which is especially important when one internal carotid becomes occluded. Loops forward around the optic chiasm forming the anterior portion of the cerebral arterial circle of Willis. The MCAs run laterally through the lateral cerebral fissure of Sylvius giving off lenticulostriate aa. In the lateral cerebral fissure, the MCAs bifurcate into superior and inferior divisions The central branches of the middle cerebral are the medial and lateral striata arteries.

The middle cerebral artery supplies many deep structures and much of the lateral aspect of the cerebrum. This large artery has tree-like branches that bring blood to the entire lateral aspect of each hemisphere. This means that this artery supplies blood to the cortical areas involved in speech, swallowing and language, including the lateral motor strip, lateral sensory strip, Broca's area, Wernicke's area, Heschl's gyrus, and the angular gyrus. In addition, it provides most of the blood supply to the corpus striatum. The striata supply the basal ganglia, internal capsule, and thalamus

In a stroke affecting the territory of the middle cerebral artery, weakness and sensory loss are most severe in the contralateral face and arm, but the leg may be only mildly affected or unaffected. If a patient has a blockage in the middle cerebral artery, it is probable that s/he will have aphasia. S/he will probably also have impaired cognition and corticohyposthesia, or numbness, on the opposite side of the body. Problems with hearing and the sense of smell may also result from damage to this artery because it supplies the lateral surface of the temporal lobe. Because they are the main blood supply to the internal capsule, they are called by some the arteries of stroke. When something happens to these arteries, the bottleneck of fibers within the internal capsule can be damaged, causing many disabilities. The striata are very thin arteries and blood pressure within it high. For this reason, they are considered by many to be more vulnerable to hemorrhages than to blockages, although occlusion of one of these arteries is the major cause of classical stroke where pyramidal tract damage results in contralateral hemiplegia.

The anterior communicating artery joins the anterior cerebral arteries of each hemisphere together.

Branches of Vertebral Artery The vertebral aa. branch from the subclavian aa., pass through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae and enter the foramen magnum. Artery Location/Path Part of brain it supplies Symptoms of infarct Anterior spinal artery Formed by anastomosing branches Supplies the medial medulla off the medial aspect of the vertebral including the medullary pyraminds arteries. and the anterior 2/3 of the cervical Runs the length of the spinal cord in spinal cord the ventral median fissure. Basilar artery The vertebral arteries anastomose to Supplies thalamus, midbrain, pons form the basilar a. which runs along the ventral surface of the pons and birfurcates at the upper border of the pons into two posterior cerebral arteries Posterior Cerebral Artery Branches off the basilar artery. The Supplies mainly the occipital lobe Blockages in this artery can affect PCAs curve around the midbrain, and the choroid plexuses of the third the sense of smell, and cause cranial then branch to supply the medial and and lateral ventricles and the lower nerve damage, as well as visual inferior surfaces of the temporal and surface of the temporal lobe problems, including visual agnosia, occipital lobes. hemianopsia and alexia. Supplies the part of the brain found in Pass anterior to the oculomotor nerve the posterior fossa of the skull, and project laterally toward the including the medial area of the temporal lobes of the cerebrum. occipital lobes and the inferior aspects of the temporal lobes. They also supply the midbrain and deliver blood to the thalamus and some other subcortical structures. Supplies midbrain, posterior parts of the brain (occipital lobe), thalamus, globus pallidus The posterior inferior cerebellar not only supplies the cerebellum but takes blood to the lateral medulla. Posterior inferior cerebellar artery Branch off the lateral aspect of the vertebral arteries (inferior to the branching of the anterior spinal Supplies the inferior surface of the cerebellum and the lateral part of the rostral medulla

artery) Anterior inferior cerebellar artery Branch off the lateral aspect of the Supplies the inferior surface of the basilar artery just superior to the cerebellum and the lateral part of the anastomoses of the vertebral arteries caudal pons Pass just posterior to the abducent nerve Superior cerebellar artery Branch off the basilar artery just Supply the superior surface of the inferior to the posterior cerebral cerebellum, parts of the midbrain and arteries the lateral part of the pons Pass posterior to the oculomotor nerve Pontine artery Several small branches off the lateral Supply the pons aspect of the basilar artery Internal Auditory Artery/Labyrinthine Tiny branches off the lateral aspect of Supply the inner ear arteries the basilar artery inferior to the pontine arteries but superior to the anterior inferior cerebellar arteries The small penetrating arteries, which branch off the basilar artery, supply vital centers in the brain stem