Nervous Regulation of the Circulation, and Rapid Control of Arterial Pressure Nervous Regulation of the Circulation • Autonomic Nervous

System o Sympathetic Nervous System • Sympathetic vasomotor nerve fibers leave the spinal cord through all the thoracic spinal nerves and through the first one or two lumbar spinal nerves. They then pass immediately to a sympathetic chain. • Two routes to the circulation: 1) Through specific sympathetic nerves that innervate the vasculature of the internal viscera and heart and 2) immediately into peripheral portions of the spinal nerves distributed to the vasculature of the peripheral areas o Sympathetic Innervation of the Blood Vessels  In most tissues all the vessels except the capillaries, precapillary sphincters, and metarterioles are innervated  Innervation of small arteries/arterioles allows sympathetic stimulation to increase resistance to blood flow  decrease rate of blood flow through tissues  Innervation of the large vessels/veins makes it possible for sympathetic stimulation to decrease the volume of these vessels  regulate heart pumping. o Sympathetic Nerve Fibers to the Heart  Sympathetic stimulation markedly increases the activity of the heart, both increasing the heart rate and enhancing strength/volume of pumping o Parasympathetic Control of Heart Function, Especially Heart Rate  The parasympathetic nervous system’s most important circulatory effect is to control heart rate by way of parasympathetic nerve fibers to the heart in the vagus nerves. o Sympathetic Vasoconstrictor System and Its Control in the Central Nervous System  Vasomotor Center in the Brain and its Control of the Vasoconstrictor System • Transmits parasympathetic impulses through the vagus nerve to the heart and transmits sympathetic impulses through the spinal cord and peripheral sympathetic nerves to virtually all arteries/arterioles/veins of the body. • Important areas: vasoconstrictor area, vasodilator area, sensory area (tractus solitarius)  Continuous Partial Constriction of the Blood Vessels is Normally Caused by Sympathetic Vasoconstrictor Tone • Under normal conditions, the vasoconstrictor area of the vasomotor center transmits signals continuously to the sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve fibers over the entire body  sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone  vasomotor tone (partial state of contraction in the blood vessels)  Control of Heart Activity by the vasomotor Center • Heart rate/strength of heart contraction INCREASE when vasoconstriction occurs • Heart rate/strength of heart contraction DECREASE when vasoconstriction is inhibited  Control of the Vasomotor Center by Higher Nervous Centers  Norepinephrine—The Sympathetic Vasoconstrictor Transmitter Substance • Vasoconstrictor nerves  norepinephrine  alpha adrenergic receptors  vasoconstriction  Adrenal Medullae and their Relation to the Sympathetic Vasoconstrictor System Role of the Nervous System in Rapid Control of Arterial Pressure • RAPID INCREASES IN ARTERIAL PRESSURE (nervous control of the circulation) • Three changes to help increase arterial pressure: o Almost all arterioles of the systemic circulation are constricted  increases total peripheral resistance  increases arterial pressure o Veins are strongly constricted  displaces blood toward the heart  increases volume of blood in heart  greater pumping  increases arterial pressure o Heart is directly stimulated by the autonomic nervous system  enhances cardiac pumping • Increase in Arterial Pressure During Muscle Exercise and Other Types of Stress • Reflex Mechanisms for Maintaining Normal Arterial Pressure (NEGATIVE FEEDBACK REFLEX MECHANISMS) o The Baroreceptor Arterial Pressure Control System—Baroreceptor Reflexes  Stretch receptors: increased arterial pressure  baroreceptors stretch  signals transmitted to CNS

Physiologic Anatomy of the Baroreceptors and their Inneration Response of the Baroreceptors to Pressure  Baroreceptor feedback mechanism functions most effectively in the pressure range where it is most needed (100 mm Hg = normal operating pressure) o Circulatory Reflex Initiated by the Baroreceptors  Baroreceptor signals  tractor solitarius of medulla  signals inhibit the vasoconstrictor center and excite the vagal parasympathetic center  vasocilation and decreased heart rate/strength of contraction  arterial pressure decreased o Function of the Baroreceptors During Changes in Body Posture o Pressure “Buffer” Function of the Baroreceptor Control System o Are the Baroreceptors Important in Long-term Regulation of Arterial pressure? o Control of Arterial Pressure by the Carotid and Aortic Chemoreceptors—Effect of Oxygen Lack on Arterial Pressure  It is at the lower pressures that this reflex becomes important to help prevent still further fall in pressure. o Atrial and Pulmonary Artery Reflexes that Help Regulate Arterial Pressure and Other Circulatory Factors  Low pressure receptors in atria and pulmonary arteries play an important role in minimizing arterial pressure changes in response to changes in blood volume.  These receptors do not detect systemic arterial pressure but instead detect simultaneous increases in pressure in the low pressure areas of the circulation caused by increase in volume and they elicis reflexes parallel to the baroreceptors. o Atrial Reflexes that Activate the Kidneys—The Volume Reflex  Stretch of the atria  increase glomerular filtration (increased arteriolar resistance in the kidneys) and decrease in reabsorption of fluid (decreased section of antidiuretic hormone by hypothalamus)  reduction of blood volume toward normal o Atrial Reflex Control of Heart Rate (the Bainbridge Reflex) • Central Nervous System Ischemic Response—Control of Arterial Pressure by the Brain’s Vasomotor Center in Response to Diminished Brain Blood Flow o Blood flow to the vasomotor center becomes decreased enough to cause nutritional deficiency (cerebral ischemia)  vasoconstrictor and cardioaccelerator neurons excited  systemic arterial pressure rises o Magnitude is TREMENDOUS o Importance of the CNS Ischemic Response as a Regulator of Arterial Pressure  Acts as an emergency pressure control system that acts rapidly and powerfully to prevent further decrease in arterial pressure whenever blood flow to the brain decreases close to a lethal level o Cushing Reaction  Results from increased pressure of the CSF around the brain  CSF pressure rises  compresses whole brain (including arteries)  cuts off blood supply  CNS ischemic response  arterial pressure rises Special Features of Nervous Control of Arterial Pressure • Role of the Skeletal Nerves and Skeletal Muscles in Increasing Cardiac Output and Arterial Pressure o Abdominal Compression Reflex o Increased Cardiac Output and Arterial Pressure Caused by Skeletal Muscle Contraction During Exercise • Respiratory Waves in the Arterial Pressure o During normal respiration there is usually an increase in arterial pressure during the early part of expiration and a decrease in pressure during the remainder of the respiratory cycle • Arterial Pressure Vasomotor Waves—Oscillation of Pressure Reflex Control Systems o Oscillation of the Baroreceptor and Chemoreceptor Reflexes  A higher pressure excites the baroreceptors; this then inhibits the sympathetic nervous system and lowers the pressure a few seconds later. The decreased pressure in turn reduces the baroreceptor stimulation and allows the vasomotor center to become active once again, elevating the pressure to a high level o Oscillation of the CNS Ischemic Response o o