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Materials Science & Engineering 280

Introduction to Engineering Materials


Objective: To introduce fundamental concepts of materials science and engineering. t i l i d i i Structure. Processing/synthesis. Properties and testing/characterization of materials. Processing-structure-property-performance relation relation. Materials Selection and design. Reading: Chapter 1
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2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim, University of Illinois. 2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim, University of Illinois All rights reserved.

MSE280

Overview of todays lecture


Brief historical overview. Types of materials. Needs for materials. Properties of materials. Materials science and engineering:
Processing-Structure-Property-Performance

2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim, University of Illinois

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In the beginning

From Farside by Gary Larson


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An extremely brief historical overview


Paleolithic (40,000 to 100,000 yrs ago): Stone tools and clay pots yp Mesolithic (10,000 to 40,000 yrs ago): Extensive use of stone tools and clay, stone statues, ochre (pigment) Copper Age (5,000 to 10,000 yrs ago): Copper ornaments, earthenware, metal smelting Bronze Age (3,000 to 5,000 yrs ago): Bronze (Cu/Sn), glass, iron smelting
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historical overview continued


Iron Age (1000 3000 yrs ago): Carburized Iron, improved forging, porcelain Steel and concrete (100 1000 yrs ago) Polymers (beginning early 1900s) Silicon (60s ) The present: Age of bio- and nanomaterials? Materials can define society
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Classification of materials
Metals: Elemental metal (iron, copper etc), Steel, Alloys, Intermetallic compounds Ceramics: Structural Ceramics (high-temperature load bearing), Whitewares (e g porcelains) Glass Electrical Ceramics (capacitors (e.g. porcelains), Glass, (capacitors, Insulators, transducers, etc.), Chemically Bonded Ceramics (e.g. cement and concrete) Polymers: Plastics, Adhesives, Rubber Semiconductors: Group IV elements (Si, Ge), III-V (GaAs, InP) , II-VI (CdSe, ZnS), IV-VI (PbS, PbSe) Composites: Particulate composites, (small particles embedded in a different material), Laminate composites (golf club shafts, tennis rackets, Damascus sword blades), Fiber reinforced composites (e.g. fiberglass) Biomaterials Nanoscale materials
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Performance

Materials Engineering Designing the structure to achieve specific properties of materials.

Structure

Processing
Processing

Properties
Materials Science Investigating the relationship between structure and properties of materials.

Structure Properties Performance


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2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim, University of Illinois

MSE280

Needs for materials (i.e. final performance)


Microelectronics: ICs, packaging, photoresists... Infrastructure: Concrete, metal beams Environmental control: biodegradable polymers, ion exchange Communication/Information: fiber optics, LEDs Energy: solar cells, batteries Automotive: chassis, engine parts Defense: night vision, light weight/high strength composites for aircrafts aircrafts Biotechnology: medical implants, biocompatible polymers, biosensors Sporting goods: bicycle frames, golf clubs and more (no engineering without materials).
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Needs for future materials: an example

http://www.intel.com/technology/ mooreslaw/index.htm

Pentium 4 Processor has 42,000,000 transistors! 42 000 000 DRAM half-pitch of 35 nm will be needed by 2014. Nanoscale materials and molecular electronics? To achieve performance needs, an understanding of materials properties is necessary!
2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim, University of Illinois

http://www.cit.gu.edu. au/~s55086/qucomp/ gifs/intro.moore2.gif

MSE280

Properties of materials
Stimulus Mechanical Electrical El t i l Magnetic Thermal Optical Deterioration (Chemical) Applied load Electric fi ld El t i field Magnetic field Heat Light Chemicals Response (e.g.) Deformation Electrical El t i l conduction d ti Magnetization Heat conduction Reflection, absorption Oxidation, corrosion

( g piezoelectric materials). ) and combinations (e.g. p

To obtain desired properties, the material must have the appropriate structure.
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Structure
Types of atoms. Arrangement of atoms/molecules. e.g. crystal structure, polymer chain length, crosslinking Structure at different length scales: Defects and impurities. Grain size. Structural feature Dimension (m) Etc -10
atomic bonding missing/extra atoms crystals (ordered atoms) second phase particles crystal texturing ~ 10 10 -10 10 -9 -10-1 10 -8 -10-4 > 10-6
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Structure will depend on processing conditions.


2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim, University of Illinois

MSE280

Structure/Processing Dependent Properties of Materials: Examples

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Mechanical
Strength versus Structure of Brass and Changes in microstructure g

Figs. 21 c-d and 22 Callister


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Electrical
Resistivity of Copper
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5
(10 -8 Ohm-m)

Resistivity,

4 3 2 1 0

Ni at % Ni 2.16 at% Cu + .12 1 Cu + med r Ni defo at % 1.12 Cu + u e C P u r

Cu

+ 3.

i t%N 32 a

Adapted from Fig. 18.8, Callister 6e. (Fig. 18.8 adapted from: J.O. Linde, Ann Physik 5, 219 (1932); and C.A. Wert and R.M. Thomson, Physics of Solids, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Company, New York, 1970.)

-200

-100

T (C)

Adding impurity atoms to Cu increases resistivity. Deforming Cu increases resistivity.


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Thermal
Space Shuttle Tiles:
--Silica fiber insulation offers low heat conduction.
Fig. 19.0, Callister 6e. (Courtesy of Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc.)

Thermal Conductivity of Copper: --It decreases when you add zinc!


400 Therm Conductivity mal (W/m-K) 3 00 2 00 1 00 0 0 10 20 30 40 Composition (wt%Zinc)

Adapted from Fig. 19.4W, Callister 6e. (Courtesy of Lockheed Aerospace Ceramics Systems, Sunnyvale, CA)

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100 m

Adapted from Fig. 19.4, Callister 6e. (Fig. 19.4 is adapted from Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker, (Managing Editor), American Society for Metals, 1979, p. 315.)

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Magnetic
Magnetic Storage: --Recording medium is magnetized by recording head head. Magnetic Permeability vs. Composition: --Adding 3 atomic % Si makes Fe a better recording medium!

Mag gnetization

Fe+3%Si Fe

Magnetic Field

Fig. 20.18, Callister 6e. (Fig. 20.18 is from J.U. Lemke, MRS Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 3, p. 31, 1990.)

Adapted from C.R. Barrett, W.D. Nix, and A.S. Tetelman, The Principles of Engineering Materials, Fig. 1-7(a), p. 9, 1973. Electronically reproduced by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

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Optical
Transmittance:
--Aluminum oxide may be transparent, translucent, or opaque depending on the material structure.
single crystal polycrystal: low porosity polycrystal: high porosity

Adapted from Fig. 1.2, Callister 6e. (Specimen preparation, P.A. Lessing; photo by J. Telford.)

Which one is single crystal? 2007, 2008 Moonsub Shim, University of Illinois

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Deterioration
e.g., Stress, corrosive environments, embrittlement, incorrect structures from improper p p alloying or heat treatments, Stress & Saltwater... --causes cracks! Heat treatment: slows crack speed in salt water!
crack speed (m/ /s)
10-8 as-is held t h ld at 160C for 1hr before testing
Alloy 7178 tested in saturated aqueous NaCl solution at 23C

10-10

increasing load

Adapted from Fig. 11.20(b), R.W. Hertzberg, "Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials" (4th ed.)

Adapted from Fig. 17.0, Callister 6e.

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Goals
Survey structure and properties of various materials. Understand the relationship between processing, structure, properties, and performance Apply the knowledge gained to choose the right material for the right job.

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