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Serb Forces "Deliberately Targeted" Civilian Crowds Witness Mladic trial hears testimony from police investigator who

o examined scenes of att acks during Sarajevo siege. By Rachel Irwin - International Justice - ICTY TRI Issue 766, 23 Nov 12 A Bosnian police officer who investigated shelling and sniping incidents in wart ime Sarajevo testified this week about the widespread use of machine guns during the siege, and said Serb forces targeted places where civilians gathered. Prosecution witness Nedzib Dozo, testifying in the Hague trial of wartime Bosnia n Serb army commander Ratko Mladic, described the machine gun, nicknamed the Sowe r of Death, as an automatic weapon of immense firing power. Were there multiple locations in Sarajevo where civilians were fired upon with th is weapon? prosecuting lawyer Adam Weber asked him. Of course, Dozo replied. There is not a single part of the city of Sarajevo that wa s not fired at from this weapon. Prosecutors allege that Mladic, commander of the Bosnian Serb army from 1992 to 1996, planned and oversaw the 44-month siege of Sarajevo that ravaged the city a nd left nearly 12,000 people dead. Mladics army is accused of deliberately snipin g at and shelling the citys civilian population in order to spread terror among the m. The indictment which lists 11 counts in total alleges that Mladic was responsibl e for crimes of genocide, persecution, extermination, murder and forcible transf er which "contributed to achieving the objective of the permanent removal of Bos nian Muslims and Bosnian Croats from Bosnian Serb-claimed territory". Mladic was arrested in Serbia in May 2011 after 16 years on the run. Witness Dozo said the Bosnian Serb army deliberately targeted locations where lar ge number of citizens would gather, and cited examples where civilians were hit w hile standing in line for bread or water, and also specific instances where chil dren were hit while out sledging or playing sports. He also discussed the suicide of a police officer, cited in a December 1992 repo rt that was presented during proceedings. Yes, the commander was our colleague who had lost his entire family a few days be fore that. The shell fired from these Chetnik [Serb] positions killed his wife a nd two children, Dozo said. The prosecutor asked the witness whether he could estimate the number of shells that fell on Sarajevos old town, known as Stari Grad, between 1992 and 1995. I cannot give you even an approximate number, Dozo said. I can only say that thousa nds upon thousands fell on the Stari Grad area. During the cross-examination, Mladics defence lawyer Branko Lukic challenged the witnesss knowledge, pointing out that he did not have the same skills as ballisti cs experts at the scene of sniping or shelling incidents. Dozo confirmed this was true, adding, They were experts in their own fields and [ the] only ones competent. It was the domain of the ballistics expert [to] tell us

what sort of shell or bullet was involved. The lawyer then asked Dozo if he had ever seen the weapon known as the Sower of D eath. Only in photos, the witness said. Lukic continued, Is that something special that only Serbs had, or is it a machin e gun? The witness confirmed that the weapon was a machine gun, of a type he believed w as manufactured in the former Yugoslavia. Lukic asked whether Bosnian government troops were also equipped with this parti cular firearm. Maybe afterwards in the war, if they happened to seize one, Dozo said. The lawyer then asked a series of questions relating to the witnesss job as a pol ice investigator looking into shelling and shooting incidents. He asked him whether he ever saw the Bosnian government army firing guns, tanks o r mortars from inside Sarajevo. No, I didnt see that, Dozo replied. Did you know where artillery pieces were positioned in the town of Sarajevo? Lukic asked. I dont know, the witness answered. He also said he was unaware of locations around the city where the Bosnian government army positioned artillery. The lawyer asked whether he ever took into account weapons fired by Bosnian govern ment troops, to which the witness replied, No, I never took into account such a p ossibility. Was Dozo aware that the United Nations Protection Force reported about incidents when the [Bosnian government army] fired at [its] own population? Lukic asked. I never heard that officially perhaps in chit-chat, the witness said. Lukic asked Dozo how many of the investigations in which he took part involved d ead Serb civilians. I cant remember, the witness said. We didnt keep a record based on whether the person was a Serb or a Muslim. The Mladic trial will resume on December 3. Rachel Irwin is IWPRs Senior Reporter in The Hague.