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ITIL Foundation Certification
IT Organisation Design – Practice Development Manager

Sun Services education consulting
paolo.rossetti@sun.com Sun Dial: 52346 Mobile: +39 335 6968 980
Version 1.1 Last edited: 3 Oct 2003 Validity: Sept.2004

Objectives
Upon completion of this training, you should be able to:
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A) understand, explain and answer questions about:
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1 The importance of IT Service Management and the IT Infrastructure 2 The Service Management processes and the interfaces between them 3 ITIL processes and the relations between these processes 4 Basic concepts of ITIL

B) prepare to pass the Foundation Certificate in IT Service Management – EXIN©
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ITIL Foundation Certification Modules

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Slide 3

1 The importance of IT Service Management

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GOAL: to be able to
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Indicate the importance of a methodical and systematic approach to IT Service
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For users and customers of IT Service For Suppliers of IT Service

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Slide 5

The context
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IT Market Trends
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Increasing cost of IT services (delivery & maintenance) Increasing requirements for quality and value for money from IT services Increasing complexity of IT infrastructure Increasing frequency of IT changes Increasing dependency on IT services

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The problem faced
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Organisations are increasingly dependent upon IT to satisfy their corporate aims and meet their business needs. Growing dependency leads to growing needs for quality IT services - quality that is matched to business needs and user requirements as they emerge

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Slide 7

IT Service Management

People, competencies, communication and organization Processes, procedures and metrics

Tools

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How should the IT Management be structured?
... are there any reference standard, best practices?

Does existing standard consider my market sector? How are those standard considered by regulatory departments in my Country?

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Need for a foundation
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Basic terminology, glossary, key concepts and consideration are the foundation to improve processes

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IT Service Management Problems
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Lack of corporate recognition & understanding of the difference between “IT Service Management” and “IT Systems Management” Tendency to over-commit in attempting to meet customer needs Poor recognition of critical services Lack of resources & skills Limited education available in service management Achieving a balance between costs & quality

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The IT Infrastructure Library
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Developed in the late 1980's The IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) has become the worldwide de facto standard in Service Management. Starting as a guide for UK government ITIL framework is known and used worldwide – not a commercial venture BS15000 and ISO

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ITIL aims
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To facilitate Quality Management of IT Services To improve efficiency, increase effectiveness and reduce risk To provide codes of practice in support of Total Quality ISO9000-compliant

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ITIL – How does it work
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Provides guidance on strategic, tactical and operational management of IT infrastructure Provides a systematic, process-based approach, supported by procedures Suggests implementation strategies Acts as a training aid Complies with requirements for ISO9001 quality standards

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ITIL – Who is involved?
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British Government - CCTA Independent examining bodies - EXIN and ISEB International Trade Association: itSMF Suppliers of Training Courses - accredited Suppliers of Services and Consultancy

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Slide 15

History of ITIL
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1989: initiated by CCTA (Central Computer &
Telecommunications Agency)
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SSADM CRAMM PRINCE 2

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1991: itSMF – Trade association 1992: ISEB/EXIN examination institutes 1996: Launched in North America
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The jigsaw metaphora

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Recap: ITIL Principles
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ITIL is all about which processes need to be realized within the organization ... for management and operation of the IT infrastructure... ...to promote optimal service provision to the customer of the services... ...at justifiable costs.

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Should I care about IT Service Management? Why to adopt ITIL?
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Improved support to the business in delivering better IT Services to customers tailored to their needs Guiding principles to design Services based on customer's requirements IT = business enabler, rather then a support function

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Slide 19

Difference between “System” vs. "Service" management?
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System Management = focus on Technical issues Service Management = focus on Service Quality Customer oriented approach

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How could ITIL be applicable to my peculiar environment?
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Provide an economical service: reliable, consistent, highest quality ITIL processes are intended to be implemented so that they underpin, but do not dictate, the business processes of an organisation Service Management is a generic concept ITIL is scalable Non burocratich For central or distributed IT environment, internally managed or outsourced

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IMPORTANCE of a methodological and systematic approach
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Business dependency on IT increases Reduced costs to the organisation More professional staff Benchmark each other within the IT Service Management area Quality approach Getting people to speak that common language Relevant to anyone working in IT

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Slide 23

What is an “IT Service”?
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Any clue?

An IT Service is a described set of facilities, IT and non-IT, sustained by the IT service provider that fulfills one or more needs of the customer, that supports the customer’s business objectives and that is perceived by the customer as a coherent whole.

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Service
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Service: “An essentially intangible set of benefits, created by activities, that are sold by one party to another” Main characteristics:
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Intangibility Heterogeneity Simultaneous production and consumption Perishability

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Product <-----> Service

Relatively pure good

Service-intensive good

Hybrid

Good-intensive service

Relatively pure Service

Packaged food Shrink-wrap software

Private automobile transportation Custom software development

Fast food Adaptive maintenance

Airline transportation Corrective maintenance Page 13

Babysitting

Software operation
Slide 26

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IT Service Definition Template example
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ID: Name of Service: Description: Purpose (in scope): Excluded: (out of scope) Dependency: (interfaces) Responsability:

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Supervision of the task: Start of task: Duration of task: Clients: Internal effort required: External effort required: Financial resources:

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This is just an example,
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Process led approach - ITIL

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For every process ITIL states
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Goals and objectives Task and workflow Input Output

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Process could span different organisational units

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Management commitment
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Management commitment is about motivating and leading by example Genuine management commitment is absolutely essential

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EXAMPLE: Business case for ISO 9001
Many companies require their suppliers to become registered to ISO9001 and because of this, registered companies find that their market opportunities have increased. In addition, a company's compliance with ISO9001 ensures that it has a sound Quality Assurance system. Registered companies have had dramatic reductions in Customer complaints, significant reductions in operating costs and increased demand for their products and services. ISO9000 registration is rapidly becoming a should for any company that does own business in Europe. Many industrial companies require registration by their suppliers. There is a growing trend toward universal acceptance of ISO9000 as an international standard.
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MODULE 2

IT Service Management Processes and Interfaces

2 The Service Management processes and relative interfaces

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GOAL to be able to:
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Mention the benefits of the description of the Service Management Processes for an organisation Distinguish between ITIL processes and organisational units Indicate which elements are needed for the description of the ITIL Processes

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What do you mean with Process?
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A process can be defined as

A connected series of actions, activities, changes etc, performed by agents with the intent of satisfying a purpose or achieving a goal The process of planning and regulating, with the objective of performing a process in an effective and efficient way

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Process control can similarly be defined as

Roles TASK

Roles TASK

Roles TASK

Rules
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Rules
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Rules
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What are the benefits of a process oriented approach?
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Workflows mapped and activities explicited A process model enables understanding and helps to articulate the distinctive features of a process Processes, once defined, should be under control Once under control, processes can be repeated and become manageable Degrees of control over processes can be defined, and then metrics can be built in, to manage the control process At Sun: Sun Sigma DMAIC

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Every process has a correspondig function?
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Process owner Different funtions could be involved A process is not a function!

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Elements to describe a process
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Input Output Process Activities and sub-processes Process Enablers
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Resources Roles

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Process Control
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Process owner Process goal Quality parameter and Key performance indicators

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Elements to describe a process
Owner Goals

Process Control

Q/KPIs

Input

Process

Output

Process Enablers
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Resources

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Example life cycle of an Incident:
The following sequence shows the relationship between the processes involved in managing an incident

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Strategical Customer
Commercial Policy Personnel& Organization Architecture Finance

Development

Tactical (Service Delivery)

IT Service Continuity Security Management Service Planning

Account Management

Availability Mgt

Service Build & Test

Service Design

Service Level Management

Financial Mgt

Capacity Mgt

RfC

Change Management

User Operational (Service Support)
Service Desk

Incident Management

Problem Management

RfC

I N F O R M A T I O N

Supplier

Configuration Management Release Management

1 - A User calls the Service Desk to report response difficulties with the on-line service.

Production

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Strategical Customer
Commercial Policy Personnel& Organization Architecture Finance

Development

Tactical (Service Delivery)

IT Service Continuity Security Management Service Planning

Account Management

Availability Mgt

Service Build & Test

Service Design

Service Level Management

Financial Mgt

Capacity Mgt

2 - The Incident Management process deals with RfC Incident.

Change Management

User Operational (Service Support)
Service Desk

Incident Management

Problem Management

RfC

I N F O R M A T I O N

Supplier

Configuration Management Release Management

Production

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Strategical Customer
Commercial Policy Personnel& Organization Architecture Finance

Development

Tactical (Service Delivery)

IT Service Continuity Security Management Service Planning

Account Management

Availability Mgt

Service Build & Test

Service Design

Service Level Management

RfC

3 - The Problem Management Financial Mgt process investigates underlying cause and calls in Capacity Management to assist in this process. Service Level Management alerted that the SLA. has Change been breached.

Capacity Mgt

Management

User Operational (Service Support)
Service Desk

Incident Management

Problem Management

RfC

I N F O R M A T I O N

Supplier

Configuration Management Release Management

Production

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Strategical Customer
Commercial Policy Personnel& Organization Architecture Finance

Development

Tactical (Service Delivery)

IT Service Continuity Security Management Service Planning

Account Management

Availability Mgt

Service Build & Test

Service Design

Service Level Management

Financial Mgt

4 - The Change Management Capacity Mgt process raises and coordinates a Request For Change (RFC)
I N F O R M A T I O N

Supplier

RfC

Change Management

User Operational (Service Support)
Service Desk

Incident Management

Problem Management

RfC

Configuration Management Release Management

Production

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Strategical Customer
Commercial Policy Personnel& Organization Architecture Finance

Development

Tactical (Service Delivery)

IT Service Continuity Security Management Service Planning

Account Management

5 - The IT Financial Management process assists with the business case cost justification for the Availability Mgt hardware upgrade.

Service Build & Test

Service Design

Service Level Management

Financial Mgt

Capacity Mgt

RfC

Change Management

User Operational (Service Support)
Service Desk

Incident Management

Problem Management

RfC

I N F O R M A T I O N

Supplier

Configuration Management Release Management

Production

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Customer
Commercial Policy

6 - The IT Service Continuity process Strategical gets involved in the Change Management process toArchitecture ensure Personnel& Organization recovery is possible onto current backup configuration.
Development Security Management

Finance

Tactical (Service Delivery)

IT Service Continuity Service Planning

Account Management

Availability Mgt

Service Build & Test

Service Design

Service Level Management

Financial Mgt

Capacity Mgt

RfC

Change Management

User Operational (Service Support)
Service Desk

Incident Management

Problem Management

RfC

I N F O R M A T I O N

Supplier

Configuration Management Release Management

Production

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Strategical Customer
Commercial Policy Personnel& Organization Architecture Finance

Development

Tactical (Service Delivery)

IT Service Continuity Security Management Service Planning

Account Management

Availability Mgt

Service Build & Test

Service Design

Service Level Management

Financial Mgt

Capacity Mgt

User Operational (Service Support)
Service Desk

5 - The IT Financial Management process 7 - The Release Management process assistsRfC the business with controls the implementation of the Change by case cost justification for the rolling out hardware upgrade. and replacement hardware software. Release Management updates Incident Configuration ManagementProblem details of with Management RfC new Releases and Management versions.

Change Management

I N F O R M A T I O N

Supplier

Configuration Management Release Management

Production

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Strategical Customer
Commercial Policy Personnel& Organization Architecture Finance 8 - The Availability Management process is involved in considering the hardware upgrade to ensure that it can Development IT meet the required availability and Service Continuity reliability levels. Service Security Management Planning Availability Mgt Service Design

Tactical (Service Delivery)

Account Management

Service Build & Test

Service Level Management

Financial Mgt

Capacity Mgt

RfC

Change Management

User Operational (Service Support)
Service Desk

Incident Management

Problem Management

RfC

I N F O R M A T I O N

Supplier

Configuration Management Release Management

Production

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Strategical Customer
Commercial Policy Personnel& Organization Architecture Finance

Development

Tactical (Service Delivery)

IT Service Continuity Security Management Service Planning

Account Management

Availability Mgt

Service Build & Test

Service Design

Service Level Management

Financial Mgt

Capacity Mgt

RfC

User Operational (Service Support)
Service Desk

Incident Management

9 - The Configuration Change Management Management process ensures the CMDB Problem information is updated RfC Management throughout the process.

I N F O R M A T I O N

Supplier

Configuration Management Release Management

Production

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Strategical Customer
Commercial Policy Personnel& Organization Architecture 10 - The Customer Relationship Management process liaises with Customer throughout the process to ensure he/she is kept abreast of Development progress. Security Management Service Planning Finance

Tactical (Service Delivery)

IT Service Continuity

Account Management

Availability Mgt

Service Build & Test

Service Design

Service Level Management

Financial Mgt

Capacity Mgt

RfC

Change Management

User Operational (Service Support)
Service Desk

Incident Management

Problem Management

RfC

I N F O R M A T I O N

Supplier

Configuration Management Release Management

Production

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Slide 51

Service Management Processes and interfaces
• • • • • • • • • • •

Configuration Management Change Management Release Management Incident Management Problem Management Service Desk Service Level Management Capacity Management Financial Management for IT Services Availability Management IT Service Continuity Mgt

• • • • •

Customer Relationship Management ICT Infrastructure Management Application Management Security Management Project Management

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Service Delivery processes

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Configuration Management
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Integral part of all other Service Management processes Current, accurate and comprehensive information about all components in the infrastructure (CI) Change Management can be integrated with Configuration Management CMDB = core to Incident, Problem, Release Mgmt SLM relates SLA to CI Financial Mgmt for IT uses info for charging IT Service Continuity and Availability Managemen need info to perform risk analysis and component failure impact analysis

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Change Management
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Depends on CMDB Very close relationship between Configuration, Release and Change Management Changes Document in SLAs to ensure that Users know how to request Changes, projected target times and impact Details of Changes need to be made known to the Service Desk CAB made up of representatives from all areas within IT and representatives from business units.

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Release Management
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As a result of changes Rely on CMDB

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Incident Management
Primary goal of the Incident Management process is to restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimise the adverse impact on business operations
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Relationship with other processes
– – – –

Relationship with problem management Raise an RFC Incident tracked linked to CMDB Priorities and escalations defined by Service Level Management

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Problem Management
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Goal of Problem Management is to minimise the adverse impact of Incidents and Problems on the business that are caused by errors within the IT Infrastructure, and to prevent recurrence of Incidents related to these errors Relationship with other processes
– –

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Accurate incident info Availability management to investigate causes and remedial

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Slide 59

Service Desk
?

Adopt proactive and structured working practices e.g. more time is needed to plan, train, review, investigate, and work closer with Customers and Users

A central point of contact with Customers and Users to meet Customer and Business Objectives
? ?

Function (the only one in ITIL) Relationship with other processes
– – –

?

Incident management Change interface with users (RFC, Communication) Service Desk is in the direct firing line of any impact on the SLAs and as such needs rapid information flows
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Service Level Management
?

Relationship with other processes

Assessing the impact of Changes upon service quality and SLAs, both when Changes are proposed and after they have been implemented Is the hinge for Service Support and Service Delivery Relies on the existence and effective and efficient working of other processes

– –

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Slide 61

Capacity Management
?

Relationship with other processes
– – – – –

Directly related to the business requirements Involved in Incident resolution and Problem identification Raise Requests for Change (RFCs) Involved in evaluating all Changes, establish the effect on capacity and performance Both when Changes proposed and after implemented

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Financial Management for IT Services
?

Relationship with other processes

Accounting for the costs of providing IT service and for any aspects of recovering these costs from the Customers (charging) Good interfaces with Capacity Management, Configuration Management (asset data) and Service Level Management to identify the true costs of service With Customer Relationship Manager and the IT Directorate during negotiations of IT department budgets & individual Customer's IT spend

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Slide 63

Availability Management
?

Relationship with other processes

Design, implementation, measurement and management of IT services to ensure the stated business requirements for availability are consistently met Incident Management and Problem Management provide a key input to ensure the appropriate corrective actions are being progressed Availability Management supports the Service Level Management process in providing measurements and reporting to support service reviews

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IT Service Continuity Management
?

Relationship with other processes

Managing an organisation's ability to continue to provide a predetermined and agreed level of IT Services to support the minimum business requirements following an interruption to the business Balance of risk reduction measures such as resilient systems and recovery options including back-up facilities Configuration Management data is required Subject to Change Management procedures Service Desk for communication with User

– – – –

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Slide 65

Customer Relationship Management
?

Relationship with other processes
– –

Customer Relationship Managers (CRMs) need to interface with all the other ITIL processes Facilitates the interaction between the Customer and IT departments during the annual SLA/financial negotiations, and is involved in resolving Customer discontent with the service being provided

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ICT Infrastructure Management
?

Relationship with other processes
– –

Technical support Operation execution of the production systems

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Slide 67

Application Management
?

Relationship with other processes
– –

Major processes required to manage applications throughout their lifetime Release Management

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Security Management
?

Relationship with other processes
– –

Interfaces where security issues are involved. Related to the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of data; security of hw and sw components, documentation and procedures

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Slide 69

Project Management
?

Relationship with other processes

When implementing new processes in an organisation there are benefits to running the activity as a project

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MODULE 3

ITIL PROCESSES Building blocks

ITIL processes building blocks

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GOAL to be able to:
?

Distinguish the objectives, activities and results of the various ITIL processes Give examples for each of the connections in the representation of the relationships between the processes

?

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THE SERVICE DESK
?

Why do we need a Service Desk? The support problem Call Centre, Help Desk or Service Desk? Business and operational benefits Customer interaction Infrastructure Incident model

?

?

?

?

?

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Why do we need a Service Desk?
?

Competition, request for Quality

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Slide 77

The support problem
? ? ?

Request: improve service and reduce costs Reactive mode Evidence in our analysis with Customers:
“No structured customer support mechanism in place” “Low customer confidence/perception” “An outgrown customer support system” “Support resource undermanaged” “Continually fire-fighting - the same problems being resolved repeatedly rather than eliminated - continually interrupt-driven” “An overdependency on key staff” “a lack of focus” “uncoordinated and unrecorded change takes place” “an inability to cope with changes in the business” ... ... ... etc. Etc.

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Support problem – solution
?

Adopt proactive and structured working practices

e.g. more time is needed to plan, train, review, investigate, and work closer with Customers and Users

?

A central point of contact with Customers and Users to meet Customer and Business Objectives

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Slide 79

Several names...
?

Call Centre

Professionally handling large call volumes of telephone-based transactions for commodity telesales services Manage, coordinate and resolve Incidents as quickly as possible and to ensure that no request is lost, forgotten or ignored

?

Help Desk

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Service Desk
?

Extends the range of services and offers a more globalfocused approach

handles Incidents, Problems and questions, but also provides an interface for other activities such as customer Change requests, maintenance contracts, software licenses, Service Level Management, Configuration Management, Availability Management, Financial Management for IT Services, and IT Service Continuity Management.

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Slide 81

Service Desks
?

Represent the service provider to the Customer and to the User (internal or external) Operate on the principle that customer satisfaction and perception is critical Depend on blending people, processes and technology to deliver a business service.

?

?

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How can a Service Desk help my organisation?
?

A vital day-to-day contact point between Customers, Users, IT services and third-party support organisations
– – – – – –

Strategic function to identify and lower the cost of ownership Supports the integration and management of Change Reduces costs by the efficient use of resource and technology Supports the optimisation of investments and the management of the businesses Support services helps to ensure long term Customer retention and satisfaction Assists in the identification of business opportunities

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Slide 83

Strategic function
?

Service Desk is the only window on the level of service and professionalism offered by the whole organisation Provision of management information, including information regarding:
– – – – –

?

Staff resource usage Service deficiencies Service performance and target achievement Customer training needs Associated costs
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Business and operational benefits
?

Improved customer service, perception and satisfaction Increased accessibility through a single point of contact, communication, and information Better-quality and speedier turnaround of customer requests Improved teamwork and communication Enhanced focus and a proactive approach to service provision Reduced negative business impact Better managed infrastructure and control Improved usage of it support resources and increased productivity of business personnel More meaningful management information for decision support
Sun Proprietary: Internal Use Only Slide 85

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

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Customer Interaction

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Infrastructure Incident model

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Slide 87

Result of the Infrastructure Incident Model
?

Customer impact and downtime are minimised repetitive manual tasks are performed automatically management information is automatically collected for analysis Incidents, once registered, will be under the control of escalation management the Service Desk attains a proactive position service availability and utilisation is extended Operational and resource costs are reduced

?

?

?

?

?

?

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Local
? ?

Common processes across all locations and, where possible, common procedures Localised skills known and available to other Service Desks Ensure compatibility of hardware, software and network infrastructure Same escalation processes, impact, severity, priority and status codes across all locations Normalising top-level request classifications to allow for common reporting on major service components Using common management reporting metrics Common shared database Putting in place the ability to pass or escalate requests between Service Desks, preferably automatically
Slide 89

?

?

?

?

?

?

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Centralized
?

Reduced operational costs Consolidated management overview Improved usage of available resources.

?

?

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Virtual

?

All persons accessing the Virtual Service Desk should use common processes, procedures and terminology A common, agreed-on language should be used for data entry Customers and Users interact with a single point of contact. Consider global telephone numbers, local numbers that route to the Virtual Desk and Automatic Call Distribution (ACD) technology Support tools in place should allow for 'workload partitioning' and authorised views. Network performance should be 'fit for purpose'
Slide 91

?

?

?

?

?

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Service Desk functions
?

Receive calls, first-line Customer liaison Record and track Incidents, requests and complaints Keep Customers informed on request status and progress Initial assessment of requests, attempting to resolve them or refer them to someone who can, based on agreed service levels Monitor and escalation procedures relative to the appropriate SLA Managing the request life-cycle, including closure and verification

?

?

Communicate planned and shortterm changes of service levels to Customers Coordinate second-line and thirdparty support groups Provide management information and recommendations for service improvement Identify Problems Highlight Customer training and education needs Close Incidents and confirmation with the Customer Contribute to Problem identification Page 46
Slide 92

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

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GOAL Configuration Management
?

Provide a logical model of the IT infrastructure by identifying, controlling,maintaining and verifying the versions of all Configuration Items

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SCOPE Configuration Management
?

What is Configuration Management?
– –

Central management of infrastructure components Management information on infrastructure Complexity of the infrastructure Dependency of the business on IT services Experience alone is insufficient

?

Why Configuration Management?
– – –

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BASIC TERMS Configuration Management
?

Configuration Item

Component of an infrastructure - or an item, such as a Request for Change, associated with an infrastructure - that is (or has to be) under the control of Configuration Management

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CI Hardware example

MAINFRAME

NETWORK

FILESERVER

Relationship MODEM HUB
is connected to is a copy of is part of ...

Scope
MODEM PC

ATTRIBUTS PC PC PC
owner, status, location, version, serial#, ...

PC Keyboard
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Video

CPU

CI Level
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BASIC TERMS Configuration Management
?

Configuration Baseline
– –

A Configuration baseline is the configuration of a product or system established at a specific point in time Used to assemble all relevant components in readiness for a Change or Release, and to provide the basis for a configuration audit and regression A database that contains all relevant details of each CI and details of the important relationships between Cis spreadsheet, local database or paper-based

?

Configuration Management Data Base CMDB
– –

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ACTIVITIES Configuration Management
?

Identification Control Status accounting Verification

?

?

?

I Can See Vampires
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Slide 99

ACTIVITIES Configuration Management
?

Configuration identification

The selection, identification and labeling of the configuration structures and CIs, including their respective 'owner' and the relationships between them Deciding the level at which control is to be exercised, with top-level CIs broken down into components which are themselves CI etc.

?

Defining the Base level (CI level)

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BASIC TERMS Configuration Management
?

CI RELATIONSHIP
– – – – – – –

… is parent/child of ... … is a version of … … is connected to … … applies to …(e.g. documentation) … is used for …(CI’s related to services) … is a variant of ... ...any other relationships that are meaningful and useful to the organisation can be used

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Slide 101

BASIC TERMS Configuration Management
?

CI ATTRIBUTES
– – – – – –

– – – – – –

Supplier Change record identification Incident/problem record identification CI History Status ... any other considered useful by your organization

Unique identifier Name Version number Model / type identification Place / location Department responsible

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ACTIVITIES Configuration Management
?

Configuration Control
– – –

Authorisation Planning Defining the Base level (CI level) Keeping CMDB up-to-date and baselining Management reporting Configuration Audits Review for efficiency and effectiveness
Sun Proprietary: Internal Use Only Slide 103

?

Status accounting

?

Verification
– – –

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ACTIVITIES Configuration Management

IDENTIFY & register Define the scope CMDB Define the CI Level Verify

Status Control

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BENEFIT Configuration Management
?

Contributes to the economic and effective delivery of IT services by
– – – – – – – – – –

Providing accurate information on CIs and their documentation Controlling valuable CIs Facilitating adherence to legal obligations Helping with financial and expenditure planning Making software Changes visible Contributing to contingency planning Supporting and improving Release Management Improving security by controlling the versions of CIs in use Enabling the organisation to reduce the use of unauthorised software Providing Problem Management with data on trends
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GOAL Incident Management
?

Restore normal service operations as quickly as possible

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Slide 107

SCOPE Incident Management

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BASIC TERMS Incident Management
?

Customer

Recipient of a service; usually the Customer management has responsibility for the cost of the service, either directly through charging or indirectly in terms of demonstrable business needs The person who uses the services on a day-to-day basis

?

User

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Slide 109

BASIC TERMS Incident Management
?

Incident

Any event that is not part of the standard operation of a service and that causes, or may cause, an interruption to, or a reduction in, the quality of that service Unknown underlying cause of one or more Incidents

?

Problem

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BASIC TERMS Incident Management
?

Functional and hierarchical escalation

'Escalation' is the mechanism that assists timely resolution of an Incident. It can take place during every activity in the resolution process Functional escalation takes place because of lack of knowledge or expertise (1st to 2nd level) Hierarchical after a certain critical time interval, when it is likely that a timely resolution will fail

– –

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Slide 111

BASIC TERMS Incident Management
?

Resolution
– –

Synonymous of “Work-around” After 'resolution' of the cause of the Incident and restoration of the agreed service, the Incident is closed for Incident management

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BASIC TERMS Incident Management
?

Service Request

Every Incident and question (Change requests should also be considered) reported by the Customer, its history and the solution given should be registered, whether it took one minute or one month to fix

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Slide 113

BASIC TERMS Incident Management
?

Incident status / workflow position

status of an Incident reflects its current position in its life-cycle
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

new accepted scheduled assigned/dispatched to specialist work in progress (WIP) on hold resolved closed

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BENEFIT Incident Management
?

For the business:
– – –

reduced business impact of Incidents by timely resolution, increasing effectiveness the proactive identification of beneficial system enhancements and amendments the availability of business-focused management information related to the SLA

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Slide 115

BENEFIT Incident Management
?

For the IT organisation in particular:
– – – – – –

improved monitoring, allowing performance against SLAs to be accurately measured improved management information on aspects of service quality better staff utilisation, leading to greater efficiency elimination of lost or incorrect Incidents and service requests more accurate CMDB information (giving an ongoing audit while registering Incidents) improved User and Customer satisfaction

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ACTIVITIES Incident Management

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Slide 117

BASIC TERMS Incident Management

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Priority definition
?

Impact Urgency Time (target resolution time) SLA Politics consideration Importance for the Support structure

?

?

?

?

?

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GOAL Problem Management
?

Prevent and minimise the adverse effect on the business of errors in the IT infrastructure Get to the root cause of Incidents and then initiate actions to improve or correct the situation

?

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Slide 121

SCOPE Problem Management
?

Reactive
– – – – – –

Problem Identification Root cause Investigation RFC to solve errors Monitoring of Known Error Inform Service Desk staff about work-around to known errors Assist in every major incident

?

Proactive
– –

Identify trends and potential sources of problem RFC to prevent problems

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Scope of P.M.

Incident details CI details Work-around

Problem control Error control Preemptive actions Trend analysis Major problem analysis Info for management

Known Errors (KE) RFC Problem record Solution to incident Management info

INPUT

Activities

OUTPUT

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Slide 123

BASIC TERMS Problem Management
?

Problem

The unknown underlying cause of one or more Incidents A Problem that is successfully diagnosed and for which a Workaround is known A Request For Change to any component of an IT Infrastructure or to any aspect of IT services

?

Known Error

?

RFC

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Incident vs Problem
?

Incident Management

Service Restore as soon as possible

?

Problem Management

Identify root cause, resolution and prevention

– –

Problem Control
?

Transform problem in Known Error (find a workaround) Proactive Problem resolution through RFC

Error Control
?

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ACTIVITIES Problem Management

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Problem Detection
Kepner and Tregoe
?

Five phases for Problem analysis
1) Defining the Problem 2) Describing the Problem with regard to identity, location, time and size 3) Establishing possible causes 4) Testing the most probable cause 5) Verifying the true cause

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Problem Control
? ?

Problem Identification and registration Classification and resource allocation to solve the problem Investigation and diagnosis

?

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Error Control
? ? ? ? ?

Error Identification and registration Assessment Solution (RFC) Closure Problem Monitoring and evolution of error solution

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Proactive sub-processes
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Trend analysis Proactive actions Inform RFC

?

?

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BASIC TERMS Trend Analysis
?

Trends, such as the post-Change occurrence of particular Problem types Incipient faults of a particular type Recurring Problems of a particular type or with an individual item Need for more Customer training or better documentation

?

?

?

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Major Problem reviews
?

On completion of the resolution of every major Problem,
– – – –

what was done right what was done wrong what could be done better next time how to prevent the Problem from happening again

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BENEFIT Problem Management
?

Improved IT service quality Incident volume reduction Permanent solutions Improved organisational learning Better first-time fix rate at the Service Desk

?

?

?

?

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GOAL Change Management
?

Ensure standardised methods and procedures are used for efficient prompt and authorised handling of all changes in the IT infrastructure

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SCOPE Change Management

PROBLEM

Change management

CHANGE
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BASIC TERMS Change Management
?

Change

A Change is an action which bring one or more CI of the IT infrastructure in a different status a Request for change (RFC) is the input to Change Management process

?

RFC

?

Change Authority (CAB) Forward Schedule of Changes (FSC) Post Implementation Review (PIR)

?

?

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ACTIVITIES Change Management
Problem Management Process
Error Control

Configuration CMDB Management Process

Assessment & Planning Accettazione & Classificazione

Request for Change

Autorizzazione dei change

Controllo & Coordinazione

Valutazione

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Change Management
Identification Incident Operation

Problem

Information Technology Service

Infrastructure

Requests for Change

Implementation Change

Requests for Change from Customer
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1 - Change Management

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2 – Change Management

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Emergency Change Procedure

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Recap
PROCESS RALATIONSHIP RECAP I Customer Service Desk
Open Incident Record

Incident Control

Y Fix Available N Apply Fix Fixed? N

Y Close Incident Record

Log Read Data CMDB

Incident or Request R

Problem management

PROBLEM CONTROL Y Problem management
Open problem record

Log Data

Update CMDB

Perform Problem dectection

Known Error

Raise RFC

Fixed?

Close Problem Record

Change management

Change Managem ent

Accept?

Prioritize

Categor ize

Impact Assessment

Approval?

Build / Test

Approval?

Schedule Close and apply Review RFC change

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BENEFIT Change Management
?

Better alignment to business requirements Increased visibility and communication of Changes Improved risk assessment Reduced adverse impact of Changes on the quality of services and SLAs Better assessment of the cost of proposed Changes Fewer Changes that have to be backed-out Improved Problem and Availability Management through the use of valuable management information Increased productivity of Users and key personnel Greater ability to absorb a large volume of Changes Enhanced business perception of IT Page 72
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?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

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GOAL Release Management
?

Ensure that all technical and non-technical aspects of a release are dealt with in a co-ordinated approach Focus of Release Management is the protection of the live environment and its services through the use of formal procedures and checks
– –

?

plan and oversee the successful rollout of software and related hardware design and implement efficient procedures for the distribution and installation of traceable, secure and authorized Changes

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BASIC TERMS Release Management
?

Release = collection of authorised Changes to an IT Services.
– –

Defined by the RFCs that it implements Unique identifier

?

Release unit = portion of the IT infrastructure that is released together

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BASIC TERMS Release Management
?

Definitive Software Library (DSL): secure compound to store definitive authorised versions of all software CIs with master copies of all controlled software (internal and purchased) and documentation (after test) Definitive Hardware Store (DHS): secure storage of definitive hardware spares

?

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BASIC TERM Release Management

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BASIC TERMS Release Management
?

Example of Release:
– – –

Major software Releases and hardware upgrades Minor software Releases and hardware upgrades Emergency software and hardware fixes

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BASIC TERMS Release Management
?

Release Policy:
– – –

Release numbering Frequency Level in the IT infrastructure (Release Unit)

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BASIC TERMS Release Management
?

Type of Release Unit:
– –

Full Release = all components of the Release unit are built, tested, distributed and implemented together Delta (partial) Release = includes only those CIs within the Release unit that have actually changed or are new since the last full or delta Release Package Release = group of individual Releases (full units, delta Releases or both) Urgent (Fast) releases = corrections to a small number of known Problems

– –

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Release Management: Processes relationship
request for change

Change Management
Impact analysis Authorization

Release management

DSL

Release Policies incident control

request for change

problem control

error control

Problem Management Configuration management CMDB
Incident incident control

Operational IT -services

Service Desk

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ACTIVITIES Release Management
?

Usually a part of Configuration Management and / or Change Management Responsible for:
– – – –

?

DSL (Definitive Software Library) Physical storage of software Distribution of software Implementation of software items

?

Ensures that only the correct software with the necessary authorisation is implemented Production of Management Information
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?

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ACTIVITIES Release Management
?

Release planning Designing, building and configuring a Release Release acceptance Rollout planning Communication, preparation and training Distribution and installation

?

?

?

?

?

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BENEFIT Release Management
?

When combined with effective Configuration Management, Change Management and operational testing
– – – – – – – – – –

Consistency, error reduction stable test and live environments (traceable) Better use of User resources and better expectation setting ability to build and control the software used at remote sites from a central location savings in support costs easier detection of wrong versions and unauthorised copies of software reduced risk of unnoticed introduction of viruses or other malicious software reduced time to Release and fewer delays fewer Releases to be rolled out to Customers smoother transitions of Releases from the development activities (projects) to the Customer's business environment

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GOAL Service Level Management
?

Maintain and improve IT service quality through a constant cycle of agreeing, monitoring, reporting and reviewing IT service achievements Essential process. You can manage only what you measure. SLAs are the targets against which the performance are measured

?

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SCOPE Service Level Management
?

SLAs should be established for all IT Services being provided Underpinning contracts and Operational Level Agreements (OLAs) should also be in place with those suppliers (external and internal) upon who the delivery of service is dependent

?

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ACTIVITIES Service Level Management
?

Creating and maintaining Service Catalogue Defining, Negotiating and Agreeing service levels Monitoring and reviewing required levels of service against actual Creating and maintaining OLA’s with internal suppliers Creating and maintaining Underpinning Contracts with suppliers

?

?

?

?

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BASIC TERMS Service Level Management
?

SLA

written agreement between an IT Service provider and the IT Customer(s), defining the key service targets and responsibilities of both parties

?

Emphasis must be on agreement not to promote a culture of blame Communication

?

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BASIC TERMS Service Level Management
Customer

Service Level Agreement/Contract(SLA)

IT service Service Level Management

Operational Level Agreements (OLA)

Underpinning Contracts (UC)

INTERNAL supplier of services and maintenance

EXTERNAL supplier of services and maintenance

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ACTIVITIES Service Level Management

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BASIC TERMS Service Level Management
?

Service Improvement Program (SIP)

A formal project undertaken within an organisation to identify and introduce measurable improvements within a specified work area or work process

?

Service Achievement

The actual service levels delivered by the IT organisation to a customer within a defined life-span

?

Operational Level Agreement (OLA)

An internal agreement covering the delivery of services which support the IT organisation in their delivery of services

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STRUCTURE OF SLA’s 1
Per Customer / Per Service

Customer A

Customer B

Customer C

Customer D

Service 1

Service 2

Service 3

Service 4

Service Level Agreements
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STRUCTURE OF SLA’s 2
Per Service
Customer A Customer B Customer C Customer D

Service 1

Service 2

Service 3

Service 4

Service Level Agreements

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STRUCTURE OF SLA’s 3

Per Customer (Group)
Customer A Customer B Customer C Customer D

Service 1

Service 2

Service 3

Service 4

Service Level Agreements
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SERVICE CATALOGUE
Example usage
Clause 1 Clause 2 Clause 3 Clause 4 Clause 5 Clause 6 Clause 7 Clause 8 Clause 9 Clause 10
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Customer A
Service Level Agreements
Slide 168

Customer B

Customer C

Customer D

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SLA CONTENT

Examples:
?

?

Level support Performance Charging Contingency Growth

Title page Description of Service Service Hours Service Availability

?

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SLA CONTENT 2
?

Functionality Change Process Constraints Printing & Distribution Roles & Responsibilities Reporting

?

Training Amendment Record Review Process Supplements Glossary of Terms

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

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BENEFIT Service Level Management
?

Helps to understand and promote business awareness Attract management co-operation Underpinning of corporate strategy Management & control of services Aids in budgetary control Managing IT and customer expectations

?

?

?

?

?

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BENEFIT Service Level Management
?

Measurable level of service against targets Customer weighs service against charges Potential cost reduction in long term Agreed conflict resolution route Less unpredictable demands Improved customer relations

?

?

?

?

?

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GOAL Financial Management for IT Services
?

Provide cost effective stewardship of IT assets and resources used in providing IT Services FM for IT Services:

?

To be able to account fully for the spend on IT Services and to attribute these costs to the services delivered to the organisation's Customers To assist management decisions on IT investment by providing detailed business cases for Changes to IT Services

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SCOPE Financial Management for IT Services
?

Three main sub-processes
– – –

Budgeting: predicting and controlling the spending IT Accounting: ability to identify costs by Customer, by service, by activity Charging: to bill Customers for the services supplied to them

?

Usually in the Corporate Financial Department

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ACTIVITIES Financial Management for IT Services
?

Budgeting

The activities ensuring that the correct finance is available for the provision of IT Services and that during the budget period they are not over-spent Estimating the cost of budget items (Cost categories) Estimating the cost of workload dependent budget items Agree overall expenditures (periodic) Take actions to manage budget exceptions or changed costs (operational)

?

Activites:
– – – –

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ACTIVITIES Financial Management for IT Services
?

IT Accounting System

Same principles for every business process in the company to
? ? ? ? ?

?

track actual costs against budget support the development of a sound investment strategy provide cost targets for performance and Service Delivery facilitate prioritisation of resource usage make day-to-day decisions with full understanding of the cost implications and hence the minimum of Risk support the introduction, if required, of Charging for IT Service

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BASIC Terms
?

IT Service organisation could be structured as
– – –

Accounting Centre - simply Costing inputs with maybe some element of Budgeting Recovery Centre - costing outputs (services) and simply apportioning those costs. Profit Centre – sufficient autonomy to operate as a separate business entity but with business objectives set by the organisation

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IT Accounting Cost Model
?

framework in which all known costs can be recorded and allocated to specific Customers, activities or other Category Cost Types are:
– – – – – –

?

hardware costs software costs people costs accommodation costs external Service costs (buied from external service supplier, eg. connectivity) Transfer costs (from one part of the organization to another)
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Cost Elements
?

Cost type and cost elements
Hardware Central processing units, LANS, disk storage, peripherals, wide area network, PCs, portables, local servers Operating systems, scheduling tools, applications, databases, personal productivity tools, monitoring tools, analysis packages Payroll costs, benefit cars, re-location costs, expenses, overtime, consultancy

Software

People

Accommodation

Offices, storage, secure areas, utilities

External Service

Security services, Disaster Recovery services, Outsourcing services, HR overhead

Transfer

Internal charges from other cost centres within the organisation

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BASIC TERMS Cost Elements
?

Classification

CAPITAL expenditure: is assumed to increase the total value of the company although in practice the value of Capital expenditure decreases over time (depreciates)

e.g. computer equipment; building; plant software packages

OPERATIONAL expediter (also known as Current or Revenue expenditure) does not increase the value of the company

e.g. staff costs; maintenance of computer; hardware and software consultancy services; rental fees for equipment; software license fees; accommodation costs; administration expenditures; electricity, water, gas, rates; disaster recovery; consumables

Depreciation is the measure of the wearing out, consumption or other reduction in the useful economic life of a fixed asset, whether from use, passage of time, or obsolescence through technological or market changes
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IT Accounting Cost Model
?

Costs-by-Customer: costs identified and attributed to the Customers who 'cause' them (cost center)

Direct costs are those clearly attributable to a single Customer, (Manufacturing systems used only by the Manufacturing division) Indirect costs (sometimes called overheads) are those incurred on behalf of all, or a number of, Customers (network or the technical support department) Unabsorbed Overheads: Any Indirect Costs, which cannot be apportioned to a set of Customers Fixed costs: do not vary even when resource usage varies Variable Costs: vary with some factor, such as usage or time
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– – –

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IT Accounting Cost Model: Cost-by-Customer

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IT Accounting Cost Model: Cost-by-Service

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ACTIVITIES Financial Management for IT Services
?

IT Accounting System activities
– –

Establish standard Unit costs for each IT resource (periodic) Monitor expenditure by cost-center (operational)

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ACTIVITIES Financial Management for IT Services
?

Why charging?
? ? ? ?

Improve customer cost consciousness Influence customer behaviour Encourage better use of certain resources Recover costs in a fair and equitable manner

?

Charging Activities
– – –

Establish pricing policy (periodic) Publish price list (periodic) Compile and issue bills (Operational – montly)

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BASIC TERMS Charging
?

Price
– – – – – –

the determination of a pricing objective understanding the true (not perceived) demand for the service accurate determination of Direct and ··Indirect costs the level of control of the internal market understanding the services available externally if Customers have a choice legal, regulatory and tax issues.

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BASIC TERMS Recap
?

Costing

Aimed at the identification of costs incurred in the provision of services to meet the business requirements now and in the future Aimed at recovering the costs of service provision in line with organisation policy

?

Charging

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BASIC TERMS Financial Management for IT Services
?

Allocated cost

A cost that can be directly identified with a business unit A cost that is shared by a number of business units (an indirect cost). This cost must be shared out between these units on an equitable basis

?

Apportioned cost

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BENEFIT Financial Management for IT Services
?

Cost / Profit awareness Improved financial planning Return on investment Support of realistic company forecasts

?

?

?

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DECISIONS
?

Organisational Policy: overhead / break even / profit centre Charging mechanism to support policy Are customers tied or free to choose Cost calculation What needs to be monitored / reported

?

?

?

?

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GOAL Capacity Management
?

Ensure that capacity and performance aspects of the business requirements are provided timely and cost effectively
– – – – –

Monitoring of performance and throughput Tuning Understanding the demands and producing forecasts Influencing the demand for resource in conjunction with Financial Management Production of a Capacity Plan

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SCOPE Capacity Management
?

Focal point and overall responsibility for all IT performance and Capacity issues For both the operational and the development environment:
– – – – –

?

all hardware - from PCs, through file servers, up to mainframes and super-computers all networking equipment (LANs, WANs, bridges, routers etc.) all peripherals (bulk storage devices, printers etc.) all software - operating system and network software, in-house developments and purchased packages human resources, but only where a lack of human resources could result in a delay in end-to-end response time
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Capacity Management

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Capacity Management sub-processes
?

Business Capacity Management

future business requirements for IT Services (REQUIREMENTS) management of the performance of the live, operational IT Services used by the Customers (DELIVERY of Service) management of the individual components of the IT Infrastructure (TECHNOLOGY) The major difference between the sub-processes is in the data that is being monitored and collected, and the perspective from which it is analysed

?

Service Capacity Management

?

Resource Capacity Management

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ACTIVITIES Capacity Management
?

On an on-going basis:
– – –

Iterative activities Demand Management Storage of data in the CDB Modeling Application Sizing Production of the Capacity Plan

?

Ad hoc:
– –

?

Regularly:

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ACTIVITIES Capacity Management
?

Iterative Activities

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ACTIVITIES Capacity Management

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Capacity Management
?

Capacity management database (CDB):

repository that that holds a number of different types of data
?

Business

(eg. # accounts, # products supported, # calls, location of branches...) (eg. transaction response times,..) (eg. maximum recommended level of utilisation on a CPU, ... ) ( eg. cost of new hardware and software component upgrades ) (CPU utilisation, Memory utilisation , # of processes, # of transactions, response times...)
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?

Service

?

Technical

?

Financial

?

Utilisation data

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BENEFIT Capacity Management
?

Increased efficiency and cost savings Reduced risk More confident forecasts Value to applications lifecycle

?

?

?

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GOAL Availability Management
?

Optimise the capability of the IT infrastructure and supporting organisation to deliver a cost effective and sustained level of availability to satisfy business objectives
– – – – – –

ensure IT Services designed to deliver levels of Availability required by the business Reporting levels of Availability, reliability and maintainability Optimise the Availability Achieve reduction in the frequency and duration of Incidents that impact IT Availability Shortfalls in IT Availability recognised and corrective actions are identified and progressed create and maintain Availability Plan
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SCOPE Availability Management
?

Applied to
– – – –

all new IT Service and for existing services where SLRs or SLAs have been established Can be applied to those IT Services deemed to be business critical regardless of whether formal SLAs exist Suppliers (internal and external) that form the IT support organisation before creation of a formal SLA All aspects of the IT Infrastructure and supporting organisation which may impact Availability, including training, skills, policy, process effectiveness, procedures and tools

?

Not responsible for Business Continuity Management and resumption of business processing after a major disaster (

ITSCM; work with

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BASIC Terms

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Guiding Principles
?

Guiding Principle #1 - 'Availability is at the core of business and User satisfaction' Guiding Principle #2 - 'Recognising that when things go wrong, it is still possible to achieve business and User satisfaction' Guiding Principle #3 - 'Improving Availability can only begin after understanding how the IT Services support the business'

?

?

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BASIC TERMS Availability Management
?

Availability

Availability is the ability of an IT Service or component to perform its required function at a stated instant or over a stated period of time Availability depends on the:
? ? ? ?

?

Availability of components resilience to failure quality of maintenance and support quality, pattern and extent of deployment of operational process and procedures security, integrity and Availability of data

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BASIC TERMS Availability Management
?

Reliability
– –

freedom from operational failure determined by the:
? ?

Reliability of each component level of resilience designed and built into the IT Infrastructure

?

Maintainability

ability of an IT Infrastructure component to be retained in, or restored to, an operational state

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BASIC TERMS Availability Management
?

Serviceability
– –

contractual arrangements made with Third Party IT Service providers in itself cannot be measured as a specific Metric.
?

Measure: availability, reliability and maintainability

?

Security

Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability (CIA) Business critical elements of the Business process supported by an IT Service

?

Vital Business Function

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BASIC TERMS

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Activities during TTR (downtime)
?

Detection elapsed time Diagnosis - Response time Repair action(s) Recovery and restoration

?

?

?

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Process Availability Management

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ACTIVITIES Availability Management
?

Collection of information to determine requirement Monitor against SLA Periodic reports Analyse trends Verify availability plan Review & update availability plan Impact assessment following changes Review for efficiency and effectiveness

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

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Cost of Un-Availability
?

Tangible costs
– – – – – –

?

Intangible costs
– – –

lost User productivity lost IT staff productivity lost revenue overtime payments wasted goods and material imposed fines or penalties

loss of Customer goodwill (Customer dissatisfaction) loss of Customers loss of business opportunity (to sell, gain new Customers etc.) damage to business reputation loss of confidence in IT Service provider damage to staff morale.
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– – –

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BENEFIT Availability Management
– – – –

Single point of accountability for Availability IT Services designed for IT Availability related to business Levels of IT Availability provided are cost justified, agreed, measured and monitored to fully support SLM Shortfalls in the provision of the required levels of Availability are recognised and appropriate corrective actions identified and implemented Business and User perspective Frequency and duration of IT Service failures is reduced Mindset moves from error correction to service enhancement; from reactive to proactive attitude IT support organisation is seen to 'add value' to the business.

– – – –

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Security considerations
?

Availability of DATA imply Security

Confidentiality - Integrity – Availability (CIA):
?

? ?

?

? ?

Products and services only available to authorised personnel Products and services recoverable within secure parameters Physical and Logical access to computer, software and network equipment restricted to authorised personnel only Operating System and Systems Management command authority should be commensurate with role and responsibility Data available to authorised personnel at agreed times (SLA) OLAs and Underpinning contracts reflect the adherence to security controls
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Measuring User Availability
?

User view of Availability is influenced by three factors: – – –

Frequency of downtime Duration of downtime Scope of impact

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Availability calculation
?

AST = Agreed service time DT = Actual downtime during agreed service time
AVAILABILITY: (AST – DT) / AST * 100 = % Service or Component Availability

?

?

Un-Availability = 1 – Availability

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Total infrastructure Availability
?

Serial Configuration

Product of all the individual component Availability percentages

?

Parallel Configuration
– –

Product of the UnAvailability Availability = 1 - ((1-0.98)*(1-0.98)) = 0.9996 Host Availability = 99.96%.

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GOAL IT Service Continuity Management
?

Ensuring that the required IT technical and service facilities (including computer systems, networks, applications, telecommunications, technical support and Service Desk) can be recovered within the time scales required by Business Continuity Management IT Service Continuity Management incorporates both a business element (Business Continuity Planning) and a technology element (IT Service Continuity Management Planning).

?

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Core Sub-processes
Business Impace or (Risk) analysis

Manage Contingency Plan

Test Contingency Plan

Contingency
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Risk Management

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SCOPE IT Service Continuity Management
?

Focuses on the IT Services required to support the critical business processes. Depend on the company's organisation, culture and strategic direction. Core sub-processes are:
– – –

?

Business Impact analysis (Risk Analysis) Contingency Planning Risk Management

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Key ingredients of IT Service Continuity Management
?

Availability is accomplished by:
– – –

introducing Risk reduction measures such as resilient systems, and recovery options including back-up facilities visible senior management commitment and support by the whole organisation Ongoing maintenance of the recovery capability
?

? ? ?

a rigorous Configuration Management, Change Management and review process education and awareness for the whole organisation utilising the latest technology and software supporting tools specific training for personnel involved in the process regular testing.
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BASIC TERMS IT Service Continuity Management
?

THREATS

Identification and assessment of the likelihood of unwanted, deliberate or accidental events impacting on the IT infrastructure Extent to which the IT Infrastructure could be susceptible to threats

?

VULNERABILITY

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BENEFIT IT Service Continuity Management
?

Potential lower insurance premiums Regulatory requirements Business relationship Positive marketing of contingency capabilities Organisational credibility Competitive advantage

?

?

?

?

?

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ACTIVITIES IT Service Continuity Management
?

Business Continuity Management (BCM) is concerned with managing risks to ensure that at all times an organisation can continue operating to, at least, a pre-determined minimum level. The BCM process:
– –

?

Reducing the risk to an acceptable level planning for the recovery of business processes should a risk materialise and a disruption to the business occur

?

ITSCM must be a part of the overall BCM process and is dependent upon information derived through BCM

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Business Continuity Management (BCM) Process Model

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BCM / ITSCM process steps

?

Policy setting Specify terms of reference and scope Allocate Resources Define the project organisation and control structure Agree project and quality plans
Sun Proprietary: Internal Use Only Slide 229

?

?

?

?

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BCM / ITSCM process steps

?

Business Impact Analysis Risk Assessment Business Continuity Strategy

?

?

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ACTIVITIES IT Service Continuity Management
?

Risk assessment
– –

ANALYSIS MANAGEMENT

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ACTIVITIES Risk Analysis
?

Identify risks Assess threat and vulnerability levels Assess the levels of risk

?

?

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ACTIVITIES Risk Management
?

Reduction of risk of threats Reduction of vulnerability Detection of occurrence Recovery from occurrence Identify counter measures

?

?

?

?

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ACTIVITIES Business Continuity Strategy
?

Risk Reduction Measures Recovery Options
– – –

?

Do nothing Manual Work-arounds Reciprocal arrangements
? ? ?

Gradual Recovery (Recovery ok even after 72 h) Intermediate Recovery (24 / 72 h) Immediate Recovery (less than 24h)

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BCM / ITSCM process steps

?

Organisation and Implementation Planning Implement
– – –

?

Arrangements Recovery plan Risk reduction measures

?

Development Procedure Testing
Sun Proprietary: Internal Use Only Slide 235

?

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Activities Implementation
Terms of Reference Analyse IT services Critical applications •Planning options
• •

CRAMM results •SLA’s •Security officer
• •

Create the Contingency Plan

Contractors Test the plan

Accept the plan

• •

Negotiate service contracts Distribute the plan Train staff

• •

Awareness campaign Update SLA’s

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BCM / ITSCM process steps

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BCM / ITSCM process steps

On-going Review of the Plan
• • •

In line with Change Management After each test or every 6 months After review of SLA’s Following review of contracts (CP contractors) As part of overall review of Contingency Planning Before expiry date of the plan After organisational / structural changes

On-going Testing of the Plan
?

• • • •

Dry test Practical test Home base Recovery site

?

?

?

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ITIL: Processes Recap
?

Configuration Management Incident Management Problem Management Change Management Release Management

?

Availability Management Capacity Management Finance Management Business Continuity Management Service Level Management

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

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MODULE 4

Core concepts and terminology RECAP
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Core concept & terminology recap

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General - IT Service Management
?

Audit Balanced Scorecard Business Relationship Management Key Performance Indicator Key Success Factor Maturity level

?

Procedure Process Process Control Process Improvement Plan Customer, Client, User

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

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Basic term – Recap
?

Balanced Scorecard

An aid to organisational performance management. It helps to focus, not only on the financial targets but also on the internal processes, Customers and learning and growth issues To determine the success of a process KPI can be measured The degree to which SM activities and processes have become standard business practice within an organisation

?

Key Performance Indicator

?

Maturity level

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Basic term – Recap
?

Process

A connected series of actions, activities, changes etc., performed by agents with the intent of satisfying a purpose or achieving a goal The process of planning and regulating, with the objective of performing a the process in an effective and efficient way The output produced by a process has to conform to operational norms that are derived from business objectives If the activities are carried out with a minimum effort, the process can also be considered efficient Page
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?

Process Control

?

Effective

?

Efficient

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Incident Management
?

Incident Life Cycle First, Second and Third Line Support Functional and Hierarchical Escalation Resolution Service Request Work-around Workflow Position

?

?

?

?

?

?

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Problem Management
?

Incident vs Problem vs Known Error Known Error Record (KER) Proactive Problem Management

?

?

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Change Management
?

Change Authority Change Model Forward Schedule of Changes (FSC) Post Implementation Review (PIR)

?

?

?

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Configuration Management
?

CI Asset Management Configuration Management Plan Configuration Control Life-cycle

?

?

?

?

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Release Management
?

Definitive Hardware Store (DHS) Full, Delta, Package Release

?

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Service Level Management
?

Service Improvement Program (SIP) Service Achievement Operational Level Agreement (OLA) Service Level Requirements

?

?

?

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Availability Management
?

Continuous Operation Security Level Continuous Availability Technical Observation Point Observation Point Systems Outage Analysis Projected Service Availability Service Maintenance Objectives Single Point of Failure Integrity Confidentiality

?

?

?

?

?

?

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Capacity Management
?

Business Capacity Management Service Capacity Management Resource Capacity Management

?

?

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IT Service Continuity Management
?

Business Impact Analysis Gradual Recovery Immediate Recovery Impact scenario Intermediate Recovery

?

?

?

?

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Financial Management for IT Services
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Allocated Cost Accounting Budgeting Pricing Differential charging

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Charging business customers different rates for the same work, typically to dampen demand or to generate revenue for spare capacity. This can also be used to encourage off-peak or night time running.

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Author: Paolo Rossetti - paolo.rossetti@Sun.com Last edited: 9/25/03 - Version 1.0

And the function Service Desk
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Call Expert User/ Super User Service Profit Chain Virtual Service Desk

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Slide 255

EXERCISES
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Given the IPW model:

Show the major interfaces of capacity Management and the activities performed by Capacity Management on a request of new SRL Show the role of configuration management through the relationship with the rest of the SM processes

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Author: Paolo Rossetti - paolo.rossetti@Sun.com Last edited: 9/25/03 - Version 1.0

EXERCISES 2
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Exam Simulations Core concepts review

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