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THE CHIROPRACTIC
DEFINITION OF SUBLUXATION
Article 26:

A subluxation is the
condition of a vertebra
that has lost its proper
juxtaposition with the
one above or the one
below, or both; to an
extent less than a
luxation; which impinges
nerves and interferes
with the transmission of
mental impulses.
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Subluxation is Spoken Here


McCoy Press: Health Research, News, Commentary & Resources

Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research


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Journal of Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research


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#1:

#2:

Articular

This produces

distortion places a
mechanical stress on the
periarticular soft tissues.
This takes the form of
altered stresses carried
by the connective tissue
matrix.

an inflammatory soup
that spreads from the
involved connective
tissue matrix to the local
neurovascular tissues.

#3:

#4:

Neuronal

inflammation produces
end-organ changes
attributable to 1)
neurogenic
inflammation of the
sensory-effector
system; and 2)
sympathetic lymph node
denervation.

Inflammatory

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mediators escape the


connective tissue matrix
and pass into the
vascular compartment to
produce global
neuroendocrine
alterations and systemic
physiological changes.

5 Emergent Phenomena of Subluxation Inflammation


EP 1:
Mechanical Distortion
Matrix & Cellular Components

EP 3:
Action Potential Facilitation
Inflammogens have been shown to
lower the threshold of action potential.

EP 2:

EP 4:
EP 1:
Mechanical Distortion
AA
Matrix & Cellular
Components
PGE2
Biochemical
Transduction

Immune Infiltration

Immune infiltration magnifies and


concentrates the "inflammatory soup"
which exacerbates the affects.

LTB4
TXA2

EP 5:
Cytokine Production

Subluxation results in a piezoelectric effect


which waves across the entire mass of
interconnected connective tissues.

Cytokine infiltrate is known to provoke


gene expression and profound tissue
alterations.

Emergence of Mechanical Distortion to


Connective Tissue Matrix Components

#1:Connective tissue distortion


alters the mechanical load borne
by the fibrous matrix with loss of
normal tension integrity.

#2:Fluid dynamic changes as


a result of pressure gradient
changes alter nutrient flow and
waste removal throughout the
distorted connective tissue.

#1:Connective tissue distortion


alters the mechanical load borne
by the fibrous matrix with loss of
normal tension integrity.

#3:Altered dipole distances

between matrix fiber-salt


complexes triggers a piezoelectric
effect which moves throughout the
entire connective tissue system.

#4:These and other matrix

alterations often activate matrix


remodeling mechanisms such as
the Matrix Metalloproteinase
system.

Defining Cellular Components

Fibrobloasts
Macrophages
Mast Cells

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Gartner and Hiatt. Color Atlas of


Histology 5th ed. pp. 51-56

Connective Tissue:
Noncellular Components
Fibrous Matrix

Collagen Fibers

Amorphous Ground
Substance

Elastin Fibers

Glycosaminoglycans

Reticular Fibers

Proteoglycans

Glycoproteins:
Fibronectin

Extracellular Fluid

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Gartner and Hiatt. Color Atlas of


Histology 5th ed. pp. 51-56

Proteoglycan Aggregate
Many of the proteoglycan
molecules are linked to
hyaluronic acid, forming
massive molecules,
molecules such as
aggrecans aggregate, of
enormous electrochemical
domains that attract
osmotically active cations
(e.g., Na+), forming hydrated
molecules that provide a gellike consistency.

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Gartner and Hiatt. Color Atlas of


Histology 5th ed. pp. 51-56

Emergence of Mechanical Distortion to


Connective Tissue Matrix Components

#1:Connective tissue distortion


alters the mechanical load borne
by the fibrous matrix with loss of
normal tension integrity.

#2:Fluid dynamic changes as


a result of pressure gradient
changes alter nutrient flow and
waste removal throughout the
distorted connective tissue.

#2: Fluid dynamic changes, as

a result of pressure gradient


Changes, alter nutrient flow and
waste removal throughout the
distorted connective tissue.
#3:Altered dipole distances

between matrix fiber-salt


complexes triggers a piezoelectric
effect which moves throughout the
entire connective tissue system.

#4:These and other matrix

alterations often activate matrix


remodeling mechanisms such as
the Matrix Metalloproteinase
system.

Connective Tissue Filtration


Distorted extracellular
matrix tissues
experience an alteration
in fluid dynamics.
The connective tissue
can trap toxins, cellular
metabolites and
inflammatory byproducts.
Gartner and Hiatt. Color Atlas of
Histology 5th ed. pp. 51-56
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Emergence of Mechanical Distortion to


Connective Tissue Matrix Components

#1:Connective tissue distortion


alters the mechanical load borne
by the fibrous matrix with loss of
normal tension integrity.

#2:Fluid dynamic changes as


a result of pressure gradient
changes alter nutrient flow and
waste removal throughout the
distorted connective tissue.

#3: Altered dipole distances

Between matrix fiber-salt


complexes trigger a piezoelectric
effect which moves throughout the
Entire connective tissue system.
#3:Altered dipole distances

between matrix fiber-salt


complexes triggers a piezoelectric
effect which moves throughout the
entire connective tissue system.

#4:These and other matrix

alterations often activate matrix


remodeling mechanisms such as
the Matrix Metalloproteinase
system.

Piezoelectric Effect
The nature of the
piezoelectric effect is closely
related to the occurrence of
electric dipole moments in
solids.
Of decisive importance for the
piezoelectric effect is the
change of polarization when
applying a mechanical stress.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piezoelectricity
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Piezoelectricity of Collagen
Collagen exhibits the polar uniaxial
orientation of molecular dipoles in
its structure.
Potentials
thought
to occur
Theseare
same
piezoelectric
effects
when a number of collagen
are
seen
with
the
molecules are stressed in the same
aggregate
wayproteoglycan
displacing significant
numbers as well.
of the charge carriers from the
inside to the surface of the
specimen.
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piezoelectricity

Liquid Crystal Matrix


Connective tissue fibers are
arranged in highly regular
arrays.
arrays
These arrays of connective tissue
fibers are associated with
enormous electrochemical
domains.
domains
The name for a highly regular
array of charge bearing
molecules is a crystal regardless
if it is solid or liquid.
Church. The Genie in Your Genes. p. 146.
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Matrix as Semiconductor
The crystalline structure
resulting from collagen
molecules, GAGs and an
assortment of ions produces an
organic or biological
semiconductor.
semiconductor
A semiconductor is a material
that has an electrical
conductivity between that of a
conductor and an insulator.
insulator
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiconductor
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Semiconductor Physiology
The semiconductor nature of biological tissues
mirror those of other semiconductor materials.
These include:

To conduct and store energy

To conduct and filter information

To amplify and attenuate signals

In a sense, the connective tissue matrix is an


information processor.
processor

It connects the extracellular matrix to the nuclear


matrix electrostatically as well as mechanically.
mechanically
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Semiconductor Pathophysiology
A damaged or otherwise debris filled or
intoxicated matrix will alter normal semiconductor
physiology.
Electrochemical signal bias is introduced that
has the potential to disrupt cellular, subcellular
and genomic components.
The results include a variety of neuro-endocrineimmune effects.

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Emergence of Mechanical Distortion to


Connective Tissue Matrix Components

#1:Connective tissue distortion


alters the mechanical load borne
by the fibrous matrix with loss of
normal tension integrity.

#2:Fluid dynamic changes as


a result of pressure gradient
changes alter nutrient flow and
waste removal throughout the
distorted connective tissue.

#4: These and other matrix

alterations often activate matrix


remodeling mechanisms such as
the Matrix Metalloproteinase
System.
#3:Altered dipole distances

between matrix fiber-salt


complexes triggers a piezoelectric
effect which moves throughout the
entire connective tissue system.

#4:These and other matrix

alterations often activate matrix


remodeling mechanisms such as
the Matrix Metalloproteinase
system.

Damage to ECM Molecules


Valence interplay
and damage from
attempts at
enzymatic
cleaning can alter
the normal
anatomical and
physiological
properties of the
ECM.
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Fibroblast Response
Fibroblasts respond to
damage or inflammation
in the ECM with the
release of Matrix
Metalloproteinases.
These are secreted in
an inactive form.
They are activated by
a variety of ROS.
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Matrix Metalloproteinases
MMP come in a wide
variety of isoforms and
are designed to
breakdown damaged
and aging matrix
proteins.
This process has a high
mineral co-factor
demand such as zinc.
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Macrophage Response
Macrophages respond
to inflammatory
changes with the
release of Reactive
Oxygen Species such
as:

Superoxides

Singlet oxygens

Peroxides
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Reactive Oxygen Species


ROS are various caustic
agents that have a
Remember, ROS
activate
the
broad, non-specific
matrix metalloproteinases
destructive effect.
effect

released by the
fibroblasts
This process has a high
which weakens
mineralthe
co-factor
demand
such as zinc,
connective
tissues

copper, magnesium and


manganese.

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Types of
Antioxidant Protection
Intracellular

Endogenous

versus

versus

Extracellular

Exogenous

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Extracellular Free
Radical Protection
Uric acid
Melatonin
Ceruloplasmin
Spare Parts
Iron Sequestration

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Uric Acid as Antioxidant


Uric acid (UA) is an oxypurine produced from
xanthine by the enzyme xanthine oxidase, and is
an intermediate product of purine metabolism.
Clinical

and Experimental Nephrology 9 (3): 195205.

When compared to other antioxidants, UA has


the highest concentration of any in the blood and
provides about half of the total antioxidant
capacity of human serum.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 14 (6): 61531.

Self W T , Stadtman T C PNAS 2000;97:7208-7213


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Could Something
More Intelligent be at Work?
The higher serum uric acid concentration
seemed associated with elevated total serum
antioxidant capacity among individuals with
atherosclerosis.
This finding is consistent with experimental
evidence suggesting that hyperuricemia may be
a compensatory mechanism to counteract
oxidative damage related to atherosclerosis and
aging in humans.
Atherosclerosis. 2000 Jan;148(1):131-9

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Melatonin as Antioxidant
Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and, unlike
conventional antioxidants such as vitamins C and
E and glutathione, it is both produced in the
human body and is acquired in the diet (fruits,
vegetables, cereals and herbs etc., contain
melatonin).
Journal of Pineal Research 42 (1): 2842.

Melatonin easily crosses cell membranes and


the blood-brain barrier.

Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 44 (4): 175

200.

Unlike other antioxidants, melatonin does not


undergo redox cycling.
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Dr. Bonci, Please!

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5 Emergent Phenomena of Subluxation Inflammation


EP 1:
Mechanical Distortion
Matrix & Cellular Components

EP 3:
Action Potential Facilitation
Inflammogens have been shown to
lower the threshold of action potential.

EP 2:

EP 2:
Biochemical
AA
Transduction
PGE2
Biochemical
Transduction

EP 4:
Immune Infiltration
Immune infiltration magnifies and
concentrates the "inflammatory soup"
which exacerbates the affects.

LTB4
TXA2

EP 5:
Cytokine Production

Subluxation results in a piezoelectric effect


which waves across the entire mass of
interconnected connective tissues.

Cytokine infiltrate is known to provoke


gene expression and profound tissue
alterations.

Emergence of Mechanical Distortion to


Cell Membrane Components

#1:Cell membrane distortion activates


the Ca2+ enzyme PLA2 which liberates
Arachidonic Acid (AA) from the
phospholipid bilayer.

#3:Cyclooygenase

(COX) transforms AA into


prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

Oxygenases Generate ROS with


#4:
5-Lipoxygenase
the Activation of(5-LO) transforms AA into
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4).
Matrix Metalloproteinases
#5:Thromboxane

Synthase (TBXA)
transforms AA into TXA2.

#2:The proinflammatory AA is then transformed

into a variety of (series 2) inflammatorywww.drbonci.com


eicosanoids.

Emergence of Mechanical Distortion to


Cell Membrane Components

#1:Cell membrane distortion activates

#3:Cyclooygenase
(COX) transforms AA into
Nutritional Intervention:
prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

the Ca2+ enzyme PLA2 which liberates


Arachidonic Acid (AA) from the
phospholipid bilayer.

#1: PLA2 inhibited by Quercetin


#4: 5-Lipoxygenase
(5-LO) transforms AA into
#3: COX inhibited by Turmeric/Ginger
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4).
#4: 5-LO inhibited by Turmeric/Ginger
#5:Thromboxane
#5: TBXA inhibited by Boswellia
Synthase (TBXA)
transforms AA into TXA2.

#2:The proinflammatory AA is then transformed

into a variety of (series 2) inflammatorywww.drbonci.com


eicosanoids.

Emergence of Mechanical Distortion to


Tissue Mast Cell Components

#1: Cellular damage and distortion of

tissue resident mast cells results in the


release of stored vesicle compounds and
other intracellular electrolytes.

#3:Histamine acts as a
powerful vasodilator.

#4: Heparin acts as a


powerful anticoagulant.

#5:Proteinases act to
restructure matrix
components to facilitate
removal and repair of
damaged structures

#2:Potassium [K+] moves to the extracellular

compartments where it serves as a powerful algogen.


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#6:Cytokine release to
augment the immune cell
populations.

5 Emergent Phenomena of Subluxation Inflammation


EP 1:
Mechanical Distortion
Matrix & Cellular Components

EP 3:
Action Potential Facilitation
Inflammogens have been shown to
lower the threshold of action potential.

EP 2:
Biochemical
Transduction

EP 4:

EP 3:
Action Potential
Facilitation
AA

Immune Infiltration

Immune infiltration magnifies and


concentrates the "inflammatory soup"
which exacerbates the affects.

PGE2
LTB4
TXA2

EP 5:
Cytokine Production

Subluxation results in a piezoelectric effect


which waves across the entire mass of
interconnected connective tissues.

Cytokine infiltrate is known to provoke


gene expression and profound tissue
alterations.

Emergence of Action Potential Facilitation


Series-2 Eicosanoids effect the following
transformation of neuronal fibers:
Organizes/Concentrates Sodium Channels
Demyelination of Axonal Fibers
Enhances the Release of Substance-P

Cytokines such as Interleukin-1


enhances the production of Series-2
Eicosanoids as well as Tachykinin
production such as Substance-P.
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Demyelination
In this experiment,
demyelination, including
breakdown of myelin sheath,
intracellular vacuolization (IC
edema), and decreased
extracellular space, was
found in the PLA2-exposed
nerve root 3 days after
injection of PLA2.
Chen C, et al. Effects of phospholipase A2 on lumbar nerve root structure and
function. Spine 1997; 2(10): 1057-1064.

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Sodium Channel
Restructuring
It was reported that
demyelination is associated
with a reorganization of the
macromolecular structure of
the axonal membrane and a
redistribution of sodium
ion channels along the
demyelinated axolemma.
Chen C, et al. Effects of phospholipase A2 on lumbar nerve root structure and
function. Spine 1997; 2(10): 1057-1064.
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Immunochemicals
Sensitize Nociceptors
[T]he present
experiments have
demonstrated, for the
first time, that
prostaglandins
indeed act directly to
sensitize
nociceptors.
Pitchford S., Levine JD. Prostaglandins sensitize
nociceptors in cell culture. Neuroscience letters 1991;
132:105-108.

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5 Emergent Phenomena of Subluxation Inflammation


EP 1:
Mechanical Distortion
Matrix & Cellular Components

EP 3:
Action Potential Facilitation
Inflammogens have been shown to
lower the threshold of action potential.

EP 2:
Biochemical
Transduction

EP 4:
Immune
Infiltration
AA

EP 4:

Immune Infiltration

Immune infiltration magnifies and


concentrates the "inflammatory soup"
which exacerbates the affects.

PGE2
LTB4
TXA2

EP 5:
Cytokine Production

Subluxation results in a piezoelectric effect


which waves across the entire mass of
interconnected connective tissues.

Cytokine infiltrate is known to provoke


gene expression and profound tissue
alterations.

Emergent Immune Infiltration of Connective Tissue

SP

The main cellular infiltrates


SP binds to NK-1 receptors on the
#1withNeurtophils-Acute
tissue mast cell
the release
of histamine.#2 Macrophages-Acute
Histamine provokes
#3 Lymphocytes-Chronic
vasodilation.

Redness, edema and extravasation www.drbonci.com


of immune cells emerges from the vasodilation.

Granulocyte Infiltration is
Mast Cell Dependent
The effects of
substance-P on tissue
swelling, vascular
permeability, and
granulocyte infiltration
were virtually entirely
mast cell dependent.
J Clin Invest. 1989 October; 84(4): 12761286.

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5 Emergent Phenomena of Subluxation Inflammation


EP 1:
Mechanical Distortion
Matrix & Cellular Components

EP 3:
Action Potential Facilitation
Inflammogens have been shown to
lower the threshold of action potential.

EP 2:
Biochemical
Transduction

EP 5:
Cytokine
Production
AA

EP 4:

Immune Infiltration

Immune infiltration magnifies and


concentrates the "inflammatory soup"
which exacerbates the affects.

PGE2
LTB4
TXA2

EP 5:
Cytokine Production

Subluxation results in a piezoelectric effect


which waves across the entire mass of
interconnected connective tissues.

Cytokine infiltrate is known to provoke


gene expression and profound tissue
alterations.

Cytokine Production and


Emergent Connective Tissue Changes
Macrophages

SP

IL-1
IL-6
TNF-a

Inflammatory
Soup
MMP
ROS
Chemotatic Factors

Lymphocytes

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AA
LTB4
TXA2

Neutrophils

Mechanisms of End-Organ Transformation


Sensory Innervation to
Capsular Connective Tissues

Tissue Injury
Toxic Oxygen Metabolites
Proteases
Neurtophil Chemotactic Factors
CoagulationFactors
Arachidonic Acid Metabolites
Nitric Oxide

Fibrosis
Growth Factors (PDGF, FGF, TGF-B)
Fibrogenic Cytokines
Angiogenesis Factors (FGF)
"Remodeling" Collagenases

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http://www.robbinspathology.com/

Sickness Behaviors and the


Chiropractic Adjustment
Cytokines
released from
SI Joint with
Chiropractic
Adjustment
provokes the 3
classic sick
behaviors

Pyrexia
Anorexia
Somnolence

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Sickness Behaviors
Proinflammatory
cytokines acting
in the brain cause
sickness
behaviors.
Brain Behav Immun. 2003 Feb;17 Suppl 1:S1128.

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Dr. Bonci, Please!

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Emergence of the Inflammatory-Facilitating Lesion


2
s--2 dss
iees oiid
erri nno
SSe ossaa
icco
EEi

Sensory-Effector Response:
Antidromic release of tachykinins through
nociceptor afferents drives Neurogenic
Inflammation and en-organ transformation
and dis-ease.

CCyy
ttook
kiin
nee
ss

Motor Response:

Lowered threshold on somatic and


autonomic motor nerves facilitates
somatic muscle spasms, sympathetic and
parasympathetic efferent responses, endorgan changes and dis-ease.

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Autonomic innervation and


regulation of the immune
system (1987-2007).
Brain Behav Immun. 2007 Aug;21(6):736-45.

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Lymph Node Innervation


Dense varicose plexuses enter the nodes with
the vasculature in the hilar region and continued
with the vasculature into the medullary region.
Fine, delicate varicosities and small vascular
plexuses continue into the cortical and
paracortical regions surrounding the germinal
centers; some varicosities ended among
lymphocytes.
A subcapsular plexus contributed fibers into the
cortical and paracortical regions.
Brain Res Bull. 1984 Dec;13(6):693-9.
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Noradrenergic sympathetic
innervation of the spleen: I. Nerve
fibers
associate
with
lymphocytes
Sympathetic noradrenergic
and macrophages
nerve fibers [in
specific
]
compartments
of the splenic
richly innervate
whitewhite
pulp.pulp.
the splenic

J Neurosci Res. 1987;18(1):28-36, 118-21.


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Neuroimmune Competency
These findings suggest
that noradrenergic
fibers innervate both
the vasculature and
parenchymal regions
of lymph nodes, and
may participate in the
modulation of immune
responses in these
organs.
Brain Res Bull. 1984 Dec;13(6):693-9.
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5 Emergent Phenomena of
Lymph Node Denervation

EP 1:
Action
Potential
Facilitation

EP 4: Neuronal FreeRadical Formation

EP 2:
Norepinephrine Hypercycling
EP 3: Monoamine
Oxidation

EP 2: Norepinephrine Hypercycling

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EP 5: Lymph Node
Denervation

Axon Varicosity & NE Cycling

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5 Emergent Phenomena of
Lymph Node Denervation

EP 1:
Action
Potential
Facilitation

EP 4: Neuronal FreeRadical Formation

EP 3:
Monoamine Oxidation
EP 3: Monoamine
Oxidation

EP 2: Norepinephrine Hypercycling

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EP 5: Lymph Node
Denervation

Monoamine Oxidase
Monoamine oxidases
catalyze the oxidative
deamination of
monoamines.
Oxygen is used to
remove an amine
group from a molecule,
resulting in the
corresponding aldehyde
and ammonia.

Chemical Rxns:

Epinephrine or
norepinephrine to 3,4Dihydroxymandelic
acid
Metanephrine or
normetanephrine to
vanillylmandelic acid
(VMA)

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Reactive oxygen species


production by monoamine
oxidases damage cells.
Altogether, these findings
show that, in a normal
cell environment, MAO
can be a source of
reactive oxygen species
which could have a
functional impact on cell
functions.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1999 May;359(5):428-31.
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5 Emergent Phenomena of
Lymph Node Denervation

EP 1:
Action
Potential
Facilitation

EP 4: Neuronal FreeRadical Formation

EP 4:
Neuronal Free
Radical Formation
EP 3: Monoamine
Oxidation

EP 2: Norepinephrine Hypercycling

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EP 5: Lymph Node
Denervation

Superoxide Dismutase
SODs are enzymes that
catalyze the breakdown
of the superoxide anion
into oxygen and
hydrogen peroxide.
Free

Radic Biol Med. 2002 Aug 1;33(3):337-49. CRC Crit Rev


Biochem. 1987;22(2):111-80.

SOD enzymes are


present in almost all
aerobic cells and in
extracellular fluids.

Mol Aspects

Med. 2005 Aug-Oct;26(4-5):340-52.


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Superoxide Dismutase
Superoxide dismutase enzymes contain metal ion
cofactors that can be copper, zinc, manganese
or iron.
In humans, the copper/zinc SOD is present in the
cytosol, while manganese SOD is present in the
mitochondrion.
CRC Crit Rev Biochem. 1987;22(2):111-80.

There also exists a third form of SOD in


extracellular fluids, which contains copper and
zinc in its active sites.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005 Dec;37(12):2466-71.

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Catalase
Catalases are enzymes
that catalyse the
conversion of hydrogen
peroxide to water and
oxygen, using either an
iron or manganese
cofactor.
Cell Mol Life Sci 61 (2): 192208. Prog
Biophys Mol Biol 72 (1): 1966.

This protein is localized


to peroxisomes in most
eukaryotic cells.

Free Radic Biol Med

13 (5): 55780.
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Glutathione Peroxidase
Glutathione peroxidase
is an enzyme containing
four seleniumcofactors that
catalyzes the
breakdown of hydrogen
peroxide and organic
hydroperoxides.

Free Radic Biol Med

27 (910): 95165.

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5 Emergent Phenomena of
Lymph Node Denervation

EP 1:
Action
Potential
Facilitation

EP 4: Neuronal FreeRadical Formation

EP 5:
Lymph Node Denervation
EP 3: Monoamine
Oxidation

EP 2: Norepinephrine Hypercycling

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EP 5: Lymph Node
Denervation

Consequences of NE/ROS
The toxic effects of NE on the
sympathetic nerve terminals are
mediated via the formation of NEderived oxygen free radicals.
Preservation of the neuronal NE
reuptake mechanism is
functionally important
Circulation. 2000 Jul 4;102(1):96-103.

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Lymph Node Denervation: Immune Consequences


APCs
Antigen Presenting Cells such as
macrophages and Langerhan's cells
become accentuated. This can lead to
magnified antigen harvesting.

MAO
Generated
ROS

T-Cells
T-Lymphocyte activity becomes
depressed. This may lead to disorders
such as atopic dermatitis as well as
fungal and viral infections. Natural Killer
activity and other cell mediated immune
function is impaired.

Lymph Node
Denervation

B-Cells
B-Lymphocyte activity is accentuated.
There is an enhanced release of learned
antibody response which includes
autoantibodies.
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Peripheral Lymph
Tissue Innervation
Taken together these results demonstrate that
the peripheral sympathetic nervous system
influences the migration and accumulation in
vivo of both naive and memory/effector
lymphocytes in mucosal lymphoid tissues.
Gonzalez-Ariki S. The role of sympathetic innervation of the gut in regulating mucosal immune responses. Brain Behav
Immun. 1998 Mar;12(1):53-63.

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Loss of Noradrenergic Stimuli


These results
demonstrate that
depletion of NA
[noradrenergic]
innervation alters cellular
proliferation and
lymphocyte migration in
primary and secondary
lymphoid organs.
Madden KS. Sympathetic nervous system modulation of the immune
system. II. Induction of lymphocyte proliferation and migration in vivo
by chemical sympathectomy. J Neuroimmunol. 1994 Jan;49(1-2):6775.
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Lymph Node Denervation


Thus, sympathetic
denervation appears to
impair T cell activity in
vivo and in vitro.
Overall, these results
indicate the SNS plays
a role in generation of
cell-mediated immunity.
Madden KS. Sympathetic neural modulation of the immune
system. I. Depression of T cell immunity in vivo and vitro
following chemical sympathectomy. Brain Behav Immun. 1989
Mar;3(1):72-89.

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Chiropractic Physiology
In considering physiology from a
Chiropractic standpoint, there
is much that may be said; more
than is given in any other text
book on physiology. This [is]
because Chiropractic deals with
life that has not been dealt with
by scientists of the past or any
other scientific teaching of the
present.
HARRY E. VEDDER, D. C., Ph. C. A TEXT BOOK ON CHIROPRACTIC PHYSIOLOGY
FIFTH EDITION COPYRIGHT, 1922
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Believe nothing. No matter where you


read it, or who said it, even if I have
said it, unless it agrees with your own
reason and your own common sense.

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Siddhartha Gautama
The Buddha

74

THE THREE PHASES OF


CHIROPRACTIC STUDY

Art. 19:

1. Study of the Immaterial.


2. Study of the Material.
3. Study of Art.
Stephenson RW. Chiropractic Text Book. Freshman Text. 1927.

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Study of Art
The study of Art is
learning how to do the
things that every
chiropractor must do,
scientifically and skillfully;
such as, analysis,
palpation and adjusting.
All of these require skill
as well as mental work.
Stephenson RW. Chiropractic Text Book Freshman Text. 1927.

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The Chiropractic Adjustment: The Best Prevention


Primary Prevention:
Concerned with preventing the development of disease in a susceptible
or potentially susceptible population. Adjusting subluxations prevents the
development of dis-ease.
Secondary Prevention:
Involves early diagnosis and prompt therapy to shorten the
duration of illness, its severity and limit its sequelae. Detecting
and adjusting subluxations removes a potent risk factor for disease.
Tertiary Prevention:
Is important in limiting the degree of disability and
promoting rehabilitation in chronic and irreversible disease. Adjusting subluxations help to prevent progressive
disabilities.

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Risk Factor:
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a
variable associated with an
increased risk of disease or
infection. Risk factors or
determinants are correlational
and not necessarily causal,
because correlation does not
imply causation.

Subluxation: A Modifiable Dis-Ease Risk Factor


Risk Factor Defined:

Factors in the environment, or chemical , psychological, or physiological,


that are thought to predispose an individual to the development of a
disease. Since subluxation predisposes an individual to dis-ease, then it
can be thought of as a risk factor for dis-ease.

Neurogenic Inflammation: Causes infiltration that drives endorgan transformation through macrophage activation.

Sympathetic-Lymph Node Denervation: Causes immune


dysregulation with systems wide influences.

Removing the subluxation through chiropractic adjustments reduces the potential for dis-ease. This occurs
when inflammatory fluids produced by mechanical distortion are "flushed" out of the intervertebral foramen
thus reducing neurogenic inflammation and removing the forces driving lymph node denervation. Therefore,
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adjusting subluxation and normalizing
function reduces the potential for dis-ease.