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Artificial Intelligence PAPER PRESENTATON



A.S.PRASAD 3rd B.Tech,




Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence(AI)

Artificial Intelligence

This paper is the introduction to Artificial intelligence (AI). Artificial intelligence is exhibited by artificial entity, a system is generally assumed to be a computer. AI systems are now in routine use in economics, medicine, engineering and the military, as well as being built into many common home computer software applications, traditional strategy games like computer chess and other video games. We tried to explain the brief ideas of AI and its application to various fields. It cleared the concept of computational and conventional categories. It includes various advanced systems such as Neural Network, Fuzzy Systems and Evolutionary computation. AI is used in typical problems such as Pattern recognition, Natural language processing and more. This system is working throughout the world as an artificial brain. Intelligence involves mechanisms, and AI research has discovered how to make computers carry out some of them and not others. If doing a task requires only mechanisms that are well understood today, computer programs can give very impressive performances on these tasks. Such programs should be considered ``somewhat intelligent''. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence. We can learn something about how to make machines solve problems by observing other people or just by observing our own methods. On the other hand, most work in AI involves studying the problems the world presents to intelligence rather than studying people or animals. AI researchers are free to use methods that are not observed in people or that involve much more computing than people can do. We discussed conditions for considering a machine to be intelligent. We argued that if the machine could successfully pretend to be human to a knowledgeable observer then you certainly should consider it intelligent.

Artificial Intelligence

INTRODUCTI ON :Artificial intelligence (AI) :Artificial intelligence (AI) is defined intelligence exhibited artificial by an entity. as



requiring intelligent behavior. Examples include planning scheduling, diagnostic consumer questions, handwriting, speech, and facial recognition. a on Although As such, it has become scientific providing AI use in discipline, focused solutions to real life problems. routine medicine, engineering and the military, as well as being many home software applications, traditional strategy built into common computer systems are now in economics, control, and the and

ability to answer

Such a system is generally assumed to be a computer.

AI has a strong science connotation, forms science, with a fiction it vital dealing intelligent

branch of computer

behaviour, learning and adaptation in machines. Research in AI is concerned with machines producing to

Artificial Intelligence games like perform difficult

computer chess and other video games.

intellectual tasks. 1950 - 1960:-

History :The intellectual concept intelligent machines, mythology. Intelligent artifacts appear in literature then, with mechanical devices behaviour actually with demonstrating some degree of intelligence. After modern computers became available following War-II, to programs it World has create that 5 since real may be found in Greek roots of of AI, and the

The working programs

first AI were

written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark I machine of the University of Manchester (UK): a draughts-playing program written by Christopher Strachey and a chess-playing program written by Dietrich Prinz. 1960 1970 :During the 1960s and 1970s Marvin Minsky and Seymour publish Perceptrons, demonstrating limits neural of nets simple and Papert

become possible

Artificial Intelligence Alain Prolog language. Shortliffe demonstrated power of the ruleColmerauer the computer Ted algorithm, John marked achievements Werbos first in


described by Paul 1974. The 1990s major in

many areas of AI and demonstrations of various applications. Most notably Deep Blue, a chess-playing beat computer,

based systems for knowledge representation and inference medical in diagnosis

and therapy in what is sometimes called the first expert Hans system.

Garry Kasparov in a famous six-game match in 1997.

Moravec developed the first computercontrolled to vehicle autonomously

Categories AI :-


negotiate cluttered obstacle courses. 1980s ONWARDS :In 1980s, networks the propagation 6 the neural became back

AI divides roughly into two schools of thought: Convention al AI. Computatio nal

widely used with

Artificial Intelligence Intelligence (CI). conclusion. An expert system can

Conventional AI :Convention al AI mostly methods learning, by and

process large amounts of known information and provide conclusions based them. Case based reasoning

involves machine formalism

now classified as characterized


statistical analysis. This is also known as and symbolic Good AI,

Bayesian networks Behavior based AI: a modular method of building AI systems by hand.

logical AI, neat AI Old Fashioned Artificial Intelligence (GOFAI).

Methods include:

Expert systems: apply reasoning capabilities to reach a 7

Computational Intelligence (CI) :-

Artificial Intelligence Computatio nal Intelligence iterative or (e.g. tuning in involves learning parameter e.g. connectionist systems). Learning is based on empirical data and is associated with non-symbolic computing. AI,

reasoning under uncertainty, has in and consumer product control systems. Evolutionar y computatio n: applies biologically inspired concepts such mutation as been modern widely used industrial


scruffy AI and soft

Methods include:

Neural networks: systems with strong pattern recognition capabilities. very

populations, and survival of the fittest to generate increasingly better solutions to the problem. These

Fuzzy systems: techniques for

Artificial Intelligence methods most notably divide into evolutionar y algorithms (e.g. genetic algorithms) and swarm intelligence (e.g. ant algorithms).
o o

Spee ch reco gniti on Face reco gniti on

Natural language processing, Translation and Chatter bots

Typical problems which methods applied :

Non-linear control and Robotics

to AI are

Computer vision, Virtual reality and Image processing

Pattern recognition Optical character recognition

Game theory and Strategic planning

Handwritin g recognition

Artificial Intelligence

Other fields in which methods AI are

Knowledge Representat ion.

implemented :

Automation . Cybernetics . Hybrid intelligent system.

American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) :Founded in 1979, the American Association Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) is a nonprofit scientific society devoted to advancing scientific understanding the and of mechanisms intelligent in AAAI the for

Intelligent agent. Intelligent control. Automated reasoning. Data mining. Behaviorbased robotics.

Cognitive robotics. Developme ntal robotics.

underlying thought behaviour and their embodiment machines.

Evolutionar y robotics. Chatbot. 10

Artificial Intelligence also increase artificial intelligence, improve teaching training provide for planners of practitioners, the and AI and aims to public of Game


Playing :You can few dollars. play can master hundred There is buy machines that level chess for a

guidance research and

some AI in them, but they play well against mainly brute computation-looking at hundreds of thousands of positions. people through force

funders concerning the importance and potential of current AI and directions. developments future



Recogniti on :-


Artificial Intelligence In 1990s, the computer a words computer enough. sentences Just getting sequence into is is of a not not

speech recognition reached a practical level for limited Thus its purposes. replaced flight


United Airlines has keyboard tree for information by a system using speech recognition of flight numbers and city names. It is quite convenient. On the other hand, while it is possible to instruct some using computers

enough either. The computer has to be provided with an understanding of the domain the text is about, and this is presently only for possible very

limited domains. Compute

r Vision :The is world of the composed but

speech, most users have gone back to the keyboard and the mouse as still more convenient. Understa

three-dimensional objects, inputs to the human eye and computers TV two Some solely computer in cameras are dimensional. useful two vision

nding Natural Language :-

programs can work dimensions, but full


Artificial Intelligence requires partial works depends on whether intellectual mechanisms required for the task are within the present state of AI. One of the first expert systems was MYCIN in 1974, which diagnosed bacterial infections of the blood and suggested treatments. It did better than medical students Expert provided limitations observed. or its were practicing doctors, the

three-dimensional information that is not just a set of two-dimensional views. At present there limited are ways only of

representing threedimensional information directly, and they are not as good as what humans evidently use.

Systems : A ``knowledge engineer'' interviews experts in a certain domain and tries to embody their knowledge in a program computer for

Heuristic Classificatio n:One of the most feasible kinds of expert system given the present knowledge of AI is

carrying out some task. How well this 13

Artificial Intelligence to put some human to a

information in one of a fixed set of categories information. using An several sources of example is advising whether to accept a proposed card Information credit purchase. is

knowledgeable observer then you certainly consider intelligent. routine as use should it AI in

systems are now in various field such economics, medicine, engineering and the military, as well as being many home software applications, traditional strategy games etc. AI exciting rewarding discipline. branch computer AI is of science the of is an and built into common computer

available about the owner of the credit card, his record of payment and also about the item he is buying and about the establishment it (e.g., from which he is buying about whether there have been previous credit card frauds at this establishment).

Conclusion :We conclude that if the machine successfully pretend to be could

that is concerned with automation intelligent


Artificial Intelligence behavior. revised definition of AI is - AI is the study of mechanisms underlying intelligent behavior the through construction that to enact The that it work as an artificial an power. human brain which have unbelievable thinking artificial

and evaluation of artifacts attempt

those mechanisms. So it is concluded


Artificial Intelligence

Programs with Common Sense :John McCarthy, In Mechanization of Thought Processes, Proceedings of the Symposium of the National Physics Laboratory, 1959.

Artificial Intelligence, Logic and Formalizing Common Sense :Richmond Thomason, editor, Philosophical Logic and Artificial Intelligence. Klver Academic, 1989.

Concepts of Logical AI :Tom Mitchell. Machine Learning. McGraw-Hill, 1997.

Logic and artificial intelligence :Richmond Thomason. In Edward N. Zalta, editor, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Fall 2003. 03/entries/logic-ai/.

LINKS : rgingtech/