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# Gear

Gears
Spur gear:
Transmit power between two parallel shafts.
Helical gear:
Permits larger load transmission, smoother operation,
and quieter transmission.
Worm and worm gear:
Power is transmitted between nonparallel shafts, typically
The two shaft are perpendicular to each other.
Bevel gear:
power is transmitted between two shafts that intersect
Spur Gear
Pitch circle: the circle on a gear that corresponds to the contact
surface of a friction wheel.
Addendum circle: the circle circumscribing the gear.
Root (dedendum) circle:
the circle drawn through the bottom of the gear teeth
Clearance circle: the largest circle centered at the gear center that is not
penetrated by the teeth of the mating gear.
clearance
Whole depth
Working depth
Circular pitch
Circular pitch
N
d
p
t
=
Diametral pitch
d
N
P =
t = Pp
Module:
N
d
m=
m p t =
Number of teeth of the gear divided by diameter of pitch circle
Circular pitch: sum of the tooth width and the tooth space.
Backlash: difference between tooth space and tooth thinkness.
(measured on the pitch circle)
If there is no backlash, that is tooth space and tooth thinkness are equal
, then any manufacture inaccuracy will cause jam
On the other hand, if backlash too much, cause shock loads and noise.
Fundamental law of Gear
Maintain constant angular speed ratio:
The shape (profile) of the teeth
of a gear must be such that the
common normal at the point of
contact between two teeth
always passes through a fixed
point on the line of centers of
the gears. The fixed point is
called pitch point.
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
N
N
r
r
n
n
r
v
= = = =
e
e
To Produce conjugate action, most gears are cut using involute curve to
obtain conjugate action.
Base circle
Normal to the involute curve always tangent to base circle.
The distance between AiBi is the radius of curvature of the involute
at that instant.
Involute Angle
Two involute gears meshing
2
) (
2 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
N N m
P
N N d d
c
+
=
+
=
+
=
Line of action
Pressure line
Pressure Angle
Standard pressure angles:
o o
o
25 , 20 ,
2
1
14
2
2
1
1
cos
r
r
r
r
b b
= = |
or | cos r r
b
=
Contact Length
Contact Length
Angles of action
arc of action:
Arc measured on the pitch
circle corresponds to angle
of action.
Angles of approach:
Angle turned through by gear
from the pitch point to the
point of final contact.
Angles of recess:
Angle turned through by gear
while the contact between the
Teeth goes from the pitch point
to the point of final contact.
Contact ratio
Action angle divided by the pitch angle

| o

u +
= = ratio contact
A contact ratio of unity means that one pair of teeth
are in contact at all times.
A contact ratio less than one means that there would be
intervals during which no teeth would be in contact.
A pair of gears contact ratio should be >= 1.2.
Internal Gears
Directions of rotation same
Surface contact between
the gears is increased
Center distance between
the gears is less,
more compact arrangement
Have a greater number of
teeth in contact,
smoother and quieter operation
More manufacture problems
Interference (external gear)
Dedendum circle lies inside
the base circle, portion between
the base circle and the dedendum
circle will not be an involute.
Fundamental law of gearing will be
Broken.
Interference occurs whenever the
addendum circle of a gear intersects
the line of action beyond the
interference point.
To reduce interference:
1) Reduce the addendum circle diameter
2) Slightly increase the distance between two gear centers.
Standard Gears
Mating gear should have:
Same pressure angle
Same module or diametral pitch
Circular pitch
N
d
p
t
=
Diametral pitch
d
N
P =
Module:
N
d
m=
m p t =