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The chapter describes the research topic, background of the study, research problem, research objectives, research methodology, and importance of the study, limitations and chapter outlines.
1.1 Research topic Training and development Training and Development is a vital function of Human Resource Management. Training and Development act as the core factor which deals with maintaining and improving efficiency and effectiveness of the human resources at work in the organization. It is concerned with enhancing individual employee job performances as well as collective / group performances. Thus it will assist ultimately to improve organizational performances. Therefore it is clear that Training and Development plays a crucial role in the organization.
1.2 background of the study This section will display important of the study and background of the study. Definition: ―Training and Development is a formal process of changing employee behavior and motivation in the way that will enhance employee job performance and then organizational overall performance. ― Thus T&D improves employee‘s capabilities in a way that will make him perform well in current job. The skills, abilities and attitudes obtained from T&D make a better demand for the employee in the job market. In organizational environment there are service oriented organizations such as banks, hospitals, educational institutes and production oriented organizations such as garment factories, motor vehicle companies… etc.
Usually both kinds of these organizations are using same methods to give sufficient training for their employees. And also most organizations are using common procedures in the training process. This may sometimes become a success while sometimes does not appear as a really efficient way to give a proper training to the employees in the organization. In this research, I have considered about clearly identifying the difference between the service oriented training methods and production oriented training methods. These two training methods differentiate from each other by the specific characteristics that are unique to each of these training methods. My research issue is arising within this environment. So in this project I‘m expecting to find out the most suitable training methods based on the nature of the organization (service oriented or production oriented). And also I‘m going to find out that is there any other modifications that should be used in traditional training process in selected organizations. 1.3 Research problem The specific problem addressed in this study is to identify the most suitable training and development methods for production oriented and service oriented organizations. The employee training and development programs and necessary to improve employee‘s morale as well as encourage the workers to perform their jobs in a proper way. So with that purpose organizations should choose most suitable training and development methods considering about their nature of functions. Some training methods may not suitable for service oriented organizations and some methods may not suitable for production oriented organizations. The research design is used for this study was the descriptive survey research design, to determinate proper training for both production and servile oriented organizations.
1.4 Objectives of the study In this project I expect to achieve these objectives through a pre designed methodology. These objectives are aimed at finding a reasonable solution for the research issue. Identifying the training methods using currently in service oriented organizations and production oriented organizations. Identifying the relationship between training methods and performance improvement of the employees in the organization.
Identifying the necessary modifications for the training process and finding out most suitable training methods for service oriented and production oriented organizations. Directing employees to follow pre identified training methods in the purpose of enhancing employee productivity.
To achieve these objectives there should be a pre planned methodology. In this sector I‘m going to describe that methodology which consist the following steps.
• • • •
Selecting Organizations Selection of samples Data collection Analyzing and presenting data
1.5.1 Selecting an organization – organizations are selected on both production oriented and service oriented basis. A brief description about the organizations which have been selected for this research appears below:
Production Oriented organization – Dong Young Company This is a rice mill manufacturing company located in Kurunegala area. This is a small scale organization. Mother company of this firm is located in South Korea. Importing Single Phase rise mills, assembling them and distributing and selling them island wide are the major operations of this company. Currently more than 30 employees are working in this company. Service oriented organization – Sampath Bank PLC This is one of the most reputed commercial banks in private sector of Sri Lanka. There are more than 200 branches in island wide and more than 2000 work force. But for this project I have selected a sample of more than 25 people from 4 branches in area 7 located in western province due to the difficulties in collecting data in a large sample.
1.5.2 Selection of samples Dong Young Company – Total population = all the permanent employees working in Dong Young company (more than 30) Sample size people) Sampath bank PLC Total population = all the permanent employees working in Sampath bank (more than 2000) Sample size = Number of people who given the questioner (at least 20 people from Minuwangoda, Gampaha ,Ja ela , Mirigama branches ) = Number of people who given the questioner (at least 20
These samples will include all the operational level staff including staff assistant, executive officers, branch managers, assistant managers, labors, technicians in both organizations. 1.5.3 Data collection
The relevant data for the purpose of study were collected through the both primary and secondary sources.
22.214.171.124 Primary data: The research was used following methods for collecting the data. In
this research primary data were collected through the questionnaire. To collect the relevant data questionnaire was designed as follows. Questionnaires are the most common data collection method for any research. In this research, survey questionnaires have been formulated by consisting 18 questions and it has been categorized in to tow sections as follows Seven questions for personal characteristics Eleven questions for employee training and development related data.
Section One- Personal Profile The personal characteristics of employees are requested in the first section of the questionnaire and it is included five question items, they are 1. Age 2. Gender 3. Civil Status 4. Education Level 5. Designation In this section, it was given the range of answers and respondents were requested to mark the relevant cage that was extremely matched with their personal characteristics. Responses from the questionnaire were analyzed to form of the study’s sample Section two in this section question designedwith the pupose of gatherin data related to training methods of both organizations.
126.96.36.199 Secondary data
Following sources use for research as secondary data. 1. Using Bank of Ceylon annual report, central bank report and other magazines 2. News papers 3. Using internet 4. Using various books that related to the topic
1.5.4 Data presentation and analysis
Presenting of data- following methods use for presenting the data.
Figures- Figure is one of data present method in this research. It was used this method to present the collected analyzed data, because this method is very simple and easy to understand
Tables- Table is other method for presentation of analyzed data. It also easy to understand and very simple method in this research. There columns, under relevant data column, number of employees and percentage columns.
Chart- Chart is most popular method for presenting the data. In this study it was used bar charts & Pie charts to present the data illustrated by relevant table.
1.6 Importance of the study As Schuler& Youngblood, 1996 the need of training and development is determined by the employee‘s performance deficiency and it is computed as follows. T & D need = Standard Performance – Actual Performance So from this definition we can understand that the T & D has a very strong relationship with the performance of the employees. With the achieving above mentioned objectives I believe this kind of befits can get to the organization. Most important thing is can have a clear idea about what different kind of training methods is suitable for service oriented organizations and production oriented organizations. So both kind of organizations can direct their employees to get training more effectively If any kind of modification needs is discovered in training process using currently on this organizations, they can change the process and move in to a better training method.
So the both kind of organizations can give most suitable training to their employees to the point and enhance their job related knowledge. By giving a good training employees can have following benefits. Increase the quality of products Increase the productivity Reducing unnecessary wastage Improve employee‘s moral & motivation. Create a better demand on employees in the job market by having proper T & D Increase efficiency and effectiveness Employees can have more self confidence and reduce the degree of supervision Increase salaries, promotion opportunities, rewards and job security.
When all of the above mentioned matters are considered T & D is advantageous for the organization as well as individual employees.
1.7 Limitations The research exercise will be conduct in a limited duration. Hence a detailed study could not be made The sample of selected employees is limited only to kurunegala and western province. The finding conclusions are based on the knowledge and experience of the respondents, sometimes may subject bias. Primary data is collected only through a questioner. The production oriented organization is a small scale organization when considering with the service oriented organization.
CHAPTER 2 Literature review
The chapter describes the review of the literature, concerned the concept of training and development with relevant theories, definitions, concept and models.
2.1 Human Resource Management Introduction to HRM Every organization irrespective of its nature and size has four resources namely men, material, and machinery. Of this men I. e., people are the most vital resources and they only make all the differences in an organization. In this connection L.F. Urwick says that ―Business houses are made? Broken in the long –run note by the markets or capital, patents, or equipments, but by men‖. Peter F. ducker says that, ―man, of all the resources available to name can grow and develop‖. This gives geneses to the concept of HRM, the sub –system. HR is the central sub-system of an organization. As the central sub- system, it controls the functions of each sub –system and the whole organization.
Concept Human resource management is concerned with the human beings in an organization. It reflects a now philosophy, a new outlook, approach and strategy, which views an organization‘s manpower as its resources and assets. Human resource management is a managerial function which facilitates the effective utilization of people (manpower) in achieving the organizational and individual goals. Simply, HRM is a management function that helps the managers to recruit, select, train and develop the organizational members for the purpose of achieving the stated organizational goals.
Definition HRM is defined as follows, ―The part of management which is concerned with the people at work and with their relationship within an enterprise. It aims to bring together and develop into and effective organization of the men and women who make up an enterprise and having regard for the well-being of the individuals and of working groups, to enable them to make their best contribution to its success‖ -National institute of personnel management, India.
―Human resource management is a series of decisions that affect the relationship between employees and employers; it affects many constituencies and is intended to influence the effectiveness of employees and employers‖. -Milkovich l boudreau.
So finally we can say HRM is the efficient and effective utilization of human resources to achieve goals of an organization. There is a series of functions to be followed order to accomplish the goals and the objectives of the HRM. This series of functions includes:
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Human resource planning Recruitment, selection, and placement Orientation, training and development Job analysis and design Role analysis and role development Career planning and communication Performance appraisal Human relation Safety and health Wage and salary administration Compensation and reward Grievance handling Quality of work life and employee welfare Organizational change and development Industrial relation
From this series of functions training and development takes most important place and it is defined as the HRM function that formally and systematically provides new learning to increase employee‘s capabilities so as to increase their current job performance and future job performance as well. Training and Development is a vital function of Human Resource Management. Training and Development act as the core factor which deals with maintaining and improving efficiency and effectiveness of the human resources at work in the organization. It is concerned with enhancing individual employee job performances as well as collective / group performances. Thus it will assist ultimately to improve organizational performances. Therefore it is clear that Training and Development plays a crucial role in the organization.
2.2 Training and development Definition Training and development is a formal process of changing employee behavior and motivation in the way that will enhance employee job performance and then ornisatonal overall performance. Employee Training is distinct from management or Executive Development. While the former refers, training is given to employees in areas of operations, techniques and allied areas, while the latter refers to developing an employee in areas of important techniques of the Management Administration, Organization and allied areas. Training means to continuously nurture the employees or workers towards better performance in a systematic way. This can be either at the work spot or at the workshops. This is mainly to improve the technical skills of the employees or workers. Development means bringing out the actual potentialities and thus willing to high motivation and commitment standards towards work. This will be generally with regard to improvement in the behavioral skills. Training and development will increase employee job related abilities through the following three primary ways. By imparting job related knowledge. By creating job related skills. By generating positive attitudes for proper organizational functioning.
In the HRM literature clear distinctions about knowledge and skills are hardly available. But following definitions can found bout above terms and they will help to get an idea about these three factors.
Know means ‗to learn or to have information about something‖ and knowledge means ‗what is known‖. English business dictionary (1986)
―Skills is the ability to do something because of training‖ Dictionary of personal management, 1988
So knowledge is for having information and understanding that information. Skills are for doing and applying the obtained knowledge. And also the terms education and training are highly interrelated. But there are some differences among these terms. We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training - Refers to the process of imparting specific skills
Development - refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow Education - is theoretical learning in classroom
Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee for example who undergoes training is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent decision regarding their work and their relationship with their clients. Hence, organization must consider elements of both planning their training programmes. education and training while
Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead it provides general knowledge and attitudes will be helpful for employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmental programs, are generally voluntary.
2.3 Purpose of the training and development The fundamental aim of the training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding value to its key recourse – people- employees. In here it is defined like this, ―Training helps the organization, the individual, and the human relations of the work group. ― Werther and Davis , 1989 –
As this definition training means investing in the people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. And that investment pays dividend to employee, organization and other employees.
Importance of Training and Development • Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. • Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources‘ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.
• Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the
job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees • Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal
• Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work,team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees.
• Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.
• Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.
• Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.
• Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal.
• Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.
• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.
• Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.
• Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.
• Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.
• Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display. 2.3 Climate for Training With all these things organization must have a climate or suitable environment for deliver a successful training programme.so to create a necessary environment, fulfill the following requirements may helpful. • • • • • • Incentives that encourage employees to participate. Managers who make it easy for employees to attend T& D programs. Employees who encourage each other. Rewards for the use of new competencies. No hidden punishments for participating. Rewards for managers who are effective trainers
With this kind of proper environment, an organization can develop and implement an effective training and development program. There are short term and long term effects for both employees and organization. 2.4 Effects of training and development 2.4.1 Short-term effects • • • • Reactions to T & D activity Learning Changes in behavior & attitudes Performans on a task
2.4.2 Long-Term effects – For the organization • • • • • • Improved productivity Lower cost Improved customer services Pool of competent global leaders Improved retention rates Applicant pool increases
2.4.3 Long-term effects – For the Employees. • • • • • Greater self confidence Increased job satisfaction Career advancement Employability Ability to resist unethical influence
2.5 Principles of the training
The principles, which have been evolved, can be followed as guidelines to trainees. Clear objectives about the Training Program are: • • • • • • • • • Training policy for designing and implementing the training programme. Acquisition of knowledge and new skills through motivation. Reinforcement to trainees by means of awards and punishments. Organized material should be properly prepared and provided to the trainees. Learning periods has to be fixed as it takes time to learn. Preparing he instructor who is both good at subject and job. Feedback regarding the performance of the trainees in the jobs. Practicing the skills taught by the trainee. Appropriate techniques related to the needs and objectives of the organization.
2.6 Roles and responsibilities in Training and Development
In the subject of training and development, there are many roles in an organization hierarchy contributes up to various limits. And also they have deferent responsibilities relevant to T & D
2.6.1 Line managers • • • • • • Cooperate with HR professionals in identifying the implications of business plans for T & D Work with the employees to determine their individual training and development needs. Participate on the delivery of T & D programs. Support employees participation in T & d opportunities and reinforce the transfer of newly learned behaviors to the job. Do much of the on-the-job socialization and training. Participate in efforts to assess the effectiveness of T & D activities.
2.6.2 HR Professionals • • • • • • Identify training and development needs in cooperation with the line managers. Assist employees in identifying their individual T & D needs Communication with employees regarding training and development
opportunities and the consequences of participating in them. Develop and administer T & D activities. Train the line managers and employees in how to socialize; train and develop employees. Evaluate the effectiveness of the training.
2.6.3 Employees • • • • Seek to understand the objectives of training and development opportunities and accept responsibility for lifelong learning. Identify own T & D needs with HR Professionals and line managers. Consider employment opportunities that will contribute to your own personal development opportunities. Assist with the socialization, training, and development of co-workers.
2.7 Systematic training and Training process
A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. There is a formal order of doing the training. If isn‘t, the trainee will have to learn everything in his own, he will take long period to perform as organizations expectations. But if he has a opportunity to get a well designed training , it will be easy to learn how to perform well in the organization. So through a systematic training process trainee will learn appropriate methods of doing the duties resulting in achieving organizations‘ goals. In here the steps of systematic training process is listed
1. Identify training needs 2. Prioritize training needs 3. Establish training objectives 4. Determine training evaluation criteria 5. Make other related training decisions 6. Implementation 7. Evaluation the success of training
Identifying training needs.
Training activities must be related to the specific needs of the organization and the individual employees. A Training Program should be launched only after the training needs are assessed clearly and specifically. The effectiveness of a Training Program can be judged only with the help of training needs identified in advance. In order to identify the training needs, a gap between the existing and required levels of knowledge, skills, performance and aptitudes should be specific. The problem areas that can be resolved through training should also be identified. Without training need identifying any kind of training effort may not be done. In training process tow major errors are possible. One is training for a wrong training need. In this cause because of the wrong identification of training needs of the employees of the organization, a real training program may implement but for a worthless training need. Second major error is training owing to wrong performance diagnosis. There must be genuine need of training. Generally training need is arise when there is a gap between expected job performance level and actual job performance level. But we cannot say the gap is created only because of the need of training, but there will many factors influence that job performance level.
When considering about identifying training needs there are three types of analysis, organization analysis, and job needs analysis, person needs analysis.
Organizational needs analysis Organizational needs analysis refers to identifying training needs in the organizational level. It can define like this, ―organizational needs analysis tries to answer the question of where the training emphasis should be placed in the organization and what factors may affect the training‖
-Bernardin and Russell-
In the organizational level there are three factors affecting to decide organizational needs. They are Human recourse analysis, climate indexes and efficiency indexes. Human recourse analysis conceder translating strategic plans, demand for products, customer requirements etc. The climate indexes are acting as indicators of the quality of the working life of the organization. They includes employee turnover, absenteeism , grievances , productivity etc. efficiency indexes are measures or indicators of the current efficiency of work groups and the organization. They includes cost of labour, wastage, gap between input and output, late delivers etc. Job needs analysis The specific content of present or anticipated jobs is examined through job analysis. For existing jobs, information on the tasks to be performed (contained in job descriptions), the skills necessary to perform those tasks (drawn from job qualifications), and the minimum acceptable standards (obtained from performance appraisals) are gathered. This information can then be used to ensure that training programs are job specific and useful. The process of collecting information for use in developing training programs is often referred to as job needs analysis. In this situation, the analysis method used should include questions specifically designed to assess the competencies needed to perform the job.
Job needs analysis can be defined as below ‖ Job needs analysis tries to answer the question of what would be taught in training so that the trainee can perform the job satisfactory. ― - Bernardin and RussellBy finding answers for these three questions below mentioned, may give a clear idea of job need analysis. What are the tasks, duties and responsibilities of the job? What types of abilities, qualifications and experience are needed to perform the job? What are the minimum acceptable performance standards? So deretmined training needs by job analysis can be used to train employees.
Person need analysis
After information about the job has been collected, the analysis shifts to the person. A person needs analysis identifies gaps between a person's current capabilities and those identified as necessary or desirable. Person needs analysis can be either broad or narrow in scope. The broader approach compares actual performance with the minimum acceptable standards of performance. The narrower approach compares an evaluation of employee proficiency on each required skill dimension with the proficiency level required for each skill. The first method is based on the actual, current job performance of an employee; therefore, it can be used to determine training needs for the current job. The second method, on the other hand, can be used to identify development needs for future jobs. Person need analysis can be defined as below, ―Person need analysis tries to answer the question of who needs the training in the firm and specific types of training needs.‖
- Bernardin and Russell-
Prioritize training needs
Identifying training needs is possible but identifying or prioritize training needs is difficult. And also meeting all kind of training needs with training programs is difficult due to many reasons. Main reasons are limited recourses especially financial recourses and limited time. Any kind of organization cannot spend too much for training as investment than their day to day functions. And also if there available financial support, finding enough time is also difficult. Here are some factors influence prioritizing training needs, 1. Time to be spent 2. Budget essential for training 3. Desires of top management 4. Possibility of measuring the results of the training 5. Trade union influence 6. Competencies and interests of the trainers Considering these factors the need of special process or technique to prioritize training needs is arise. So there is a special technique can be used to prioritize training needs. It is called Nominal Group Technique. Nominal Group Technique Nominal Group Technique (NGT) is designed to encourage every member of a group to contribute, and prevents the more vocal group members from dominating the discussion. Simply we can say, NGT method is group method that drawing out ideas from people on a specific topic. NGT facilitates discussion, stimulates creative contributions, increases group productivity, uncovers divergent viewpoints, and leaves group members feeling satisfied that they have contributed and that their voices have been heard. NGT is especially effective when difficult decisions must be made with input from every person, and when discussion has become heated and/or when group members are attempting to
influence other members of the group. NGT requires a facilitator. A step-by-step process to implement NGT follows. If the group is small (15 or fewer members), the steps can be accomplished working as a whole. If the group is large (more than 15 or so), you may find it easier to organize members into groups of six or eight and let these small groups work together. In step 3, for example, each table would take a turn contributing an idea. So it can be used in second step in systematic training process like prioritizing training methods.
From the viewpoint of Human Recourse Management NGT can defined as technique that uses a group of seven to fifteen people who are competent for the purpose do identifying training needs of the organization.
Nominal Group Technique process
1. Generating Ideas: The moderator presents the question or problem to the group in written form and reads the question to the group. The moderator directs everyone to write ideas in brief phrases or statements and to work silently and independently. Each person silently generates ideas and writes them down. 2. Recording Ideas: Group members engage in a round-robin feedback session to concisely record each idea (without debate at this point). The moderator writes an idea from a group member on a flip chart that is visible to the entire group, and proceeds to ask for another idea from the next group member, and so on. There is no need to repeat ideas; however, if group members believe that an idea provides a different emphasis or variation, feel free to include it. Proceed until all members‘ ideas have been documented. 3. Discussing Ideas: Each recorded idea is then discussed to determine clarity and importance. For each idea, the moderator asks, ―Are there any questions or comments group members would like to make about the item?‖ This step provides an opportunity for members to express their understanding of the logic and the relative importance of the item. The creator of the idea need not feel obliged to clarify or explain the item; any member of the group can play that role.
4. Voting on Ideas: Individuals vote privately to prioritize the ideas. The votes are tallied to identify the ideas that are rated highest by the group as a whole. The moderator establishes what criteria are used to prioritize the ideas. To start, each group member selects the five most important items from the group list and writes one idea on each index card. Next, each member ranks the five ideas selected, with the most
important receiving a rank of 5, and the least important receiving a rank of 1. After members rank their responses in order of priority, the moderator creates a tally sheet on the flip chart with numbers down the left-hand side of the chart, which correspond to the ideas from the round-robin. The moderator collects all the cards from the participants and asks one group member to read the idea number and number of points allocated to each one, while the moderator records and then adds the scores on the tally sheet. The ideas that are the most highly rated by the group are the most favored group actions or ideas in response to the question posed by the moderator.
Advantages of NGT Generates a greater number of ideas than traditional group discussions. Balances the influence of individuals by limiting the power of opinion makers (particularly Advantageous for use with teenagers, where peer leaders may have an exaggerated effect over group decisions, or in meetings of collaborative, where established leaders tend to dominate the discussion). Diminishes competition and pressure to conform, based on status within the group. Encourages participants to confront issues through constructive problem solving. Allows the group to prioritize ideas democratically. Typically provides a greater sense of closure than can be obtained through group discussion.
Disadvantages of NGT
Is regimented and lends itself only to a single-purpose, single-topic meeting. Minimizes discussion, and thus does not allow for the full development of ideas, and therefore can be a less stimulating group process than other techniques.
According to the ranking of training needs, organization or the authorities can select most important training needs for their organization and deliver the rest steps of systematic training process.
2.7.3 Establish Training Objectives. ―Objectives can be defined as ‗criterion behavior‘, i.e. the standards or changes of behavior on the job to be achieved if training is to be regarded as successful. This should be definition of what the trainee will be able to do when he or she goes back to work on completing the course: in other words, terminal behavior. Transfer of training is what counts: behavior on the job is what matters.‖
-Armstrong (1992 p. 433)-
Objectives are established based on training needs, in other words after completing training program there should no lack of training or performance in relevant field. Establishing objectives in time related is very important. And also success of the program can be measured by checking whether pre established objectives are completed or not. There are several proposes of establishing training objectives.
1. When a trainer deciding contents of the training program the objectives are very much helpful. 2. Objectives are essential for formulate criteria and standards in order to measure success of the training program 3. By noticing objectives of training program , participants will know what‘s going to be happen
4. Establishing training objectives related to organizational goals may helpful to achieve them
Determine Training evaluation Criteria
Training evaluation refers to the process of collecting the outcomes needed to determine if training is effective. Training evaluation criteria provides the data needed to demonstrate that training does provide benefits to the company.
There are two types of evaluating training program,
Formative evaluation – evaluation conducted to improve the training process
Helps to ensure that: o the training program is well organized and runs smoothly o trainees learn and are satisfied with the program
Provides information about how to make the program better
Summative evaluation – evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of participating in the training program
May also measure the return on investment (ROI) that the company receives from the training program
Why Should A Training Program Be Evaluated? To identify the program‘s strengths and weaknesses
To assess whether content, organization, and administration of the program contribute to learning and the use of training content on the job To identify which trainees benefited most or least from the program To gather data to assist in marketing training programs To determine the financial benefits and costs of the programs To compare the costs and benefits of training versus non-training investments To compare the costs and benefits of different training programs to choose
2.7.5 Make other related decisions 188.8.131.52 Training contents Training contents refers to all the things trainees going to learn in training program. Training contents are decided after the analyzing of training needs and training objectives. In training contents there are 3 parts regarding any kind of training objective or training need. They are Knowledge, Attitude and Skills. E.g.: Training objective - After the training program accidents and health issues in the organization should minimize by 15%. Training contents – The participants should gather knowledge about what are the accidents and health issues, how to prevent them, how to identify them before arise, what are the steps to be followed if an occupational accident happen and basic first aid knowledge. Attitudes – attitudes refers to believing positively, feeling positively and tending to behave positively about the knowledge gathered by the training program. Skills – Skills are ability to do things that learned by the training program, in this cause skills related to first aid and preventing occupational accidents is important.
184.108.40.206 Trainers When we choosing trainers to the training program there are some factors should be consider about them. Their educational background, their knowledge about relevant subject, previous experience in training and skills in delivering a effective training program. Managers, supervisors or peers (senior) can utilize in-house training programs. Because they are already know about organization and its culture. Training specialists or consultants or university professors, tutors can be utilized to in-house but off the job training. And also when we selecting lecturers should careful that they are able to train educated people and non educated employees like drivers, technicians at the same time. Because when the university lecturer delivers the training program , non educated people may not affected by the program because the their education level not sufficient for understand the important thing in the training program. 220.127.116.11 Training methods The most suitable training method should select considering training objectives and training contents. Not only the objectives and contents, but also should consider about training budget, availability of trainers, number of trainees availability of time and other relevant factors. Sometimes more than one method have to be used when consider about these kind of factors. 18.104.22.168Training budget This refers to hoe much can spend to this kind of training program. Normally organizations are allocating funds for their training and development activities from their annual budget. Allowances to the trainers, expenses to meals and refreshments, rental and travelling fees, expenses on training materials are some expenditures that taking place in a training program. If the training program effective for the employees and their knowledge, attitudes and skills are developed as expected ROI will be high. 22.214.171.124 Training time In a proper training program specific time table or time schedule must prepared. When preparing a time table training programmers should consider about availability of
trainers, holidays, availability of trainees. If the training program is held in outside the organization, organizers should care about availability of lecture hall and other facilities. In time table it is necessary to mention about starting time, ending time, intervals, and how many days training will continue. And also organizers are responsible for continue training program as time table. When the program is running as the time table it will motivate participants at the same time trainers also will satisfy with the program and will give maximum output for trainees. 126.96.36.199 Training place Training place refers to where the training to be conducted. There are three kinds of places to held training program. When conducting on-the-job training the training place will be office room or site, other employees also working. And when a training program conducting in the organization premises but not in the working site or office room , can be identified as second method. Third one is off-the-site. That means the training program will be conduct in a lecture hall, university or conference hall. Some organizations have their own lecture halls for training programs. 188.8.131.52 Meals and refreshments This is a most important factor that influences a success of a training program. Sometimes organizers may ask from participants supply meals for themselves. In addition a some payment can be done to get meals. But commonly organization is provides meals and refreshments to the participants. If financial ability is not sufficient to provide meals for everyone, organizers can provide meals for trainers.. 2.7.6 Implementation In this step the pre planned training program will implement. All kind of dictions taken in above steps will be taken in to action under this step. When a training program implementing it should supervise by organizers whether the program is running as the schedule. Before implementation of the training program trainees should evaluate. It will be making easy to evaluate trainees and measuring what kind of knowledge gathered by trainees after the training program.
2.7.7 Evaluate the success of training Training evaluation defined as, ―Any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effects of a training program, and to assess the value of the training in the light of that information.‘ Evaluation leads to control, which means deciding whether or not the training was worthwhile (preferably in cost/benefit terms) and what improvements are required to make it even more costeffective.‖
- Hamblin (1974)-
Evaluation is an integral feature of learning activities. In its crudest form, it is the Comparison of objectives (criterion behavior) with outcomes (terminal behavior) to answer the question of how far the event has achieved its purpose. The setting of objectives and the establishment of methods of measuring results are, or should be, an essential part of the planning stage of any learning and development program.
Levels of evaluation 1st level - Reaction
At this level, evaluation measures how those who participated in the training have reacted to it. In a sense, it is a measure of immediate customer satisfaction. •
Determine what you want to find out.
• • •
Design a form that will quantify reactions. Encourage written comments and suggestions. Get 100 present immediate responses.
2nd Level - Evaluating learning
This level obtains information on the extent to which learning objectives have been attained. It will aim to find how much knowledge was acquired, what skills were developed or improved, and the extent to which attitudes have changed in the desired direction. So far as possible, the evaluation of learning should involve the use of tests before and after the program – paper and pencil, oral or performance tests. 3rd Level - Evaluating behavior
This level evaluates the extent to which behavior has changed as required when people attending the program have returned to their jobs. The question to be answered is the extent to which knowledge, skills and attitudes have been transferred from the classroom to the workplace. Ideally, the evaluation should take place both before and after the training. Time should be allowed for the change in behavior to take place. The evaluation needs to assess the extent to which specific learning objectives relating to changes in behavior and the application of knowledge and skills have been achieved. 4th Level - Evaluating results
This is the ultimate level of evaluation and provides the basis for assessing the benefits of the training against its costs. The objective is to determine the added value of learning and development programs – how they contribute to raising organizational performance significantly above its previous level. The evaluation has to be based on ‗before and after‘ measures and has to determine the extent to which the fundamental objectives of the training have been achieved in areas such as increasing sales, raising productivity, reducing accidents or increasing customer satisfaction.
2.8 Issues on Training and Development When an organization tries to deliver a training program there are many kind of issues that influence the training program. Trainers and organizers are often forced to deal with a wide variety of important issues that arise from inside of the organization and outside of the organization. External environmental pressures influence training practices: • • • • • Legal issues related to training practices Cross-cultural preparation Diversity training School-to-work programs Hardcore-unemployed training programs
Internal environment pressures which influence training practices • • The need to train managerial talent Training and development opportunities for all employees (regardless of their personal characteristics) • Use of the company‘s compensation system to motivate employees to learn
In here some of issues are described briefly. Legal issues related to training practices
There are some legal issues that can be arising during the training sessions. These legal issues can be due to external and internal influences.
• • • • • • • • •
Employee injury during a training activity Employees or others injured outside the training session Breach of confidentiality or defamation Reproducing and using copyrighted material in training classes without permission Excluding women, minorities, and older Americans from training programs Not ensuring equal treatment while in training Requiring employees to attend training programs they find offensive Revealing discriminatory information during a training session Not accommodating trainees with disabilities
To successfully conduct business in the global market place, employees must understand the business practices and the cultural norms of different countries. So organization may had to sent their employees to foreign countries and let them gather knowledge about global market place and new trends in market. Cross-cultural preparation involves
educating employees and their families who are to be sent to a foreign country.
Diversity training refers to training designed to change employee attitudes about diversity and/or developing skills needed to work with a diverse work force. When talking about attitude, this will focus on increasing employees‘ awareness of differences in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, physical characteristics, and personal characteristics that influence behavior toward others. The assumption is that by increasing their awareness of stereotypes and beliefs, employees will be able to avoid negative stereotypes. At the same time in behavioral changing it will focus on changing the organizational policies and individual behaviors that inhibit employees‘ personal growth and productivity. One
approach is to identify incidents that discourage employees from working up to their potential. Another approach is to teach managers and employees basic rules of behavior in the workplace. Here are some important characteristics related to Successful Diversity Efforts • Top management provides resources, personally intervenes, and publicly advocates diversity. • • • The program is structured. Capitalizing on a diverse work force is defined as a business objective. Capitalizing on a diverse work force is seen necessary to generate revenue and profits. • • • • • The program is evaluated Manager involvement is mandatory. The program is seen as a culture change, not a one-shot program. Managers and demographic groups are not blamed for problems. Behaviors and skills needed to successfully interact with others are taught.
Combine classroom experiences with work experiences to prepare high school students for employment. This is a common activity in most of high schools and universities in today. These training opportunities will a huge advantage to students. Training and development opportunities for all employees
In an organization, all employees have a right to participate relevant training and development programs. So if only selected employees only gets chance to participate training programs rest of other employees will take actions against training programs because the selected employees only gets high demand for their skills and knowledge than other workers.
2.9 Training methods
In practical usage there are many training methods available for organizations for the purpose of the training their employees. In this section some of training methods are briefly described. Mainly training methods can classified as on-the-job training and off – the-job training. In below there is a brief description on commonly using training methods.
On the job training
This is most popular job training method and it is also known as Job Instruction Training (JIT). Under this method, the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform the job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker instructor. On-the-job training has advantage of giving firsthand knowledge and experience under actual working conditions. While the trainee learns how to perform the job, he is also a regulars worker rendering the serve for which his paid. The problem of transfer of the trainee is also minimized as the person learns on the job. The emphasis is placed on rendering the services in the effective manner rather than learning. This method is using commonly both service sector companies and production oriented companies because of following advantages • • • • Most simple and low cost method Allowed to the trainee to be active Allow trainee to repeat Allow trainee to participate
This trainee involves the movement of trainee form one job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different job assignments. Though this method of trainings common in training managers for general management position, trainees can also be rotated from hob to ob in workshop jobs. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees of other jobs and respect them. 2.9.3 Coaching
The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor functions as a coach in training the individual. The supervisor provides the feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers his some suggestions for improvement. Often the trainee shares some of the duties and responsibilities of the coach and relieves his of his burden. A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to ex press his own ideas.
Under the committee assignment, group of trainees are given an asked to solve an organizational problem. The trainee solves the problem jointly. It develops teamwork.
Is a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes, in the reader, the need to decide what is going on, what the situation really is or what the problems are, and what can and should be done. Taken from the actual experiences of organizations, these cases represent to describe, as accurately as possible, real problems that managers have faced. Trainee studies the cases to determine problems, analyses causes, develop alternativesolutions, select the best one, and implement it. Case study can provide stimulatingdiscussions among participants as well as excellent opportunities for
individuals to defend their analytical and judgment abilities. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data.
Utilizes equipment which closely resembles the actual ones used on the job. However, training takes place away from the work environment. A special area or a room is set aside from the main production area and is equipped with furnishings similar to those found in the actual production area. The trainee is thenpermittedto learn under simulated conditions, without disrupting ongoing ope rations. A primaryadvantage of vestibule training it relieves the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. The emphasis is on learning skills required by the job. Of course, the cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an obvious disadvantage. The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to 'create an environment' similar to real situations the manager incurs, but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable. This method using mostly to train pilots in aircraft industry. in pilot training airlines use flight simulations for safety, learning efficiency, and cost savings, including savings on maintenance, pilot cost, fuel and cost of not having a aircraft in regular service. And also this method is using to train astronomers. It is huge advantage for trainers because there is no place to give training to astronomers in the world other then vestibule training. And also there are some disadvantages of this method, i) It is difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decisionmaking none the job and (ii) individuals often act differently in real-lifesituations than they do in acting out a simulated exercise.
Generally focuses on emotional (mainly human relations) issues rather than actual ones. The essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation, as in case study, and then have the trainee assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. For example, a male worker may assume the role of a female supervisor, and the supervisor may assume the role of a male worker. Then, both may be given a typical work situation and asked to responds they expect others to do. The consequences are a better understanding among individuals. Role playing helps promote interpersonal relation. Attitude change is another result of role playing. Case study and role playing are used in MDP s. 2.9.8 Apprentice training
Training is given to people who are new to the jobs which are craft jobs such as plumber, machinist, carpenter, printer, electrician and tool and die maker. This training is for new employees. It is designed to give employees an understanding of the rules and procedures they must follow in carrying this job in future. This type of training has high levels of participation, practice, relevance and transferability. Most suitable method for production oriented organizations. 2.9.9 Sensitivity training
Sensitivity training uses small numbers of trainees, usually fewer than12 in a Group. They meet with a passive trainer and gain insight into their own and others' behavior. Meeting have no agenda, are held away from workplaces, and questions deal with the 'here and now' of the group process. Discussions focus on 'why participants behave as they do, how they perceive one another, and the feelings and emotions generated in the interaction process. Specific results soughtincludeincreased ability to empathize with other, improved listening skills, greater openness,increased tolerance of individual difference and increased conflict-resolution skills. The drawback of this method is that once the training is over, the participants are themselves again and they resort to their old habits. The objectives of sensitivity training are to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behavior and how others perceive them-greater sensitivity to the behavior of others, and increased understanding of group‘s process.
2.9.10 Programmed instruction This is a method where training is offered without theintervention of a trainer. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks, either in a book of thought a teaching machine. After reading each block of material, the learner must answer
question about it. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. Thus, programmed instruction (PI) involves: 1.Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner 2.Allowing the person to respond3.Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers4.If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the next block. If not, he or she repeats the same. The main advantage of PI is that it is self-paced-trainees can progress through the program meet their own speed. Strong motivation is provided to the learner to repeat learning. Material is also structured and self-contained, offering much scope for practice. The disadvantages are not to be ignored. The scope for learning is less, compared to other methods of training. Cost of preparing books, manuals and machinery is considerably high. 2.9.11 Skill builders A skill builder is an assignment or an exercise that aims at allowing the trainee to develop a certain skill or certain skills rather than his/ her knowledge. The learner is given the skill builder and is required to do it. Later trainer will gives a right feedback. 2.9.12 In-basket method The trainee is given a special box that includes a number of business papers such as memoranda, reports, letters, emails and telephone messages that would typically come across manager‘s desk, and it required to act on the information contained in these business papers. This training most suitable for managers and it more practical training that has realism, high participation, high relevance, high transference and built-in motivation. 2.9.13 Lecture method Lecture method is most frequently used method for training and development. Lectures are verbal presentations that deliver subject knowledge to participants by expert on relevant subject. To increase effectiveness of the method lectures can use presentations, hand outs and other extras. This method can use to a large number of participants in a one time. It is one of huge advantage of this method. And also cost per trainee is very low. This method can use both service oriented and production oriented organizations.
2.9.14 Conference It is a method obtaining the clerical, professional and supervisory personnel. This method involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine a those facts, ideas and data, test assumptions and draw concussions, all of which contribute to the improvement of job performance.
It is possible to classify the above discussed methods in training and development according to these bases. 1. On-the-job method An on-the-job method gives training to the trainee while he/ she is performing the duties of the job 2. Off-the-job method Under the method of training, the trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements, he and place his entire concentration on learning the job rather than speeding in performing it.
On-the-job training Job instruction training method Job rotation Vestibule training Coaching
Off-the-job training Skill builder Role playing Sensitivity training In-basket training Lecture method
Training and development methods also can classify according to the type of job Service oriented jobs On the job training Lecture method Skill builders Vestibule training Apprentice training Production oriented jobs Lecture method On the job training Off the job training In-basket training Sensitivity training Role plying
2.10 Using technology in training programs and E Learning In today technology is growing very fast than ever, it is changing day by day and to take a competitive advantage organizations should update frequently. Technology is having a major impact on the delivery of training programs. So to deliver an effective and success training program trainers and persons who organize a training program may use new technology. In this new technology, this term includes • • • • • Multimedia Distance learning Expert systems Electronic support systems Training software applications
Because of this new technology there are some advantages for both trainers and trainees. They are listed below in briefly.
Employees can gain control over when and where they receive training. Employees can access knowledge and expert systems on an as-needed basis.
Employees can choose the type of media (print, sound, video) they want to use in a training program • Course enrollment, testing, and training records can be handled electronically, reducing the paperwork and time needed for administrative activities. • • • • Employees‘ accomplishments in training in progress can be monitored Reduce the costs associated with delivering training Increase the effectiveness of the learning environment Help training contribute to business goals
Multimedia training Multimedia training combines audiovisual training methods with computer-based training. These programs integrate text, graphics, animation, audio, and video. Because this training is computer-based, the trainee can interact with the content. Can be delivered using the Internet or intranets. This method is recognized as very important and effective method to deliver any kind of training program. With multimedia facilities trainers can give a large area of subject by visuals and audios to the trainees. And also it makes some diversification of learning culture and makes some extra interesting on learning process. In here table No displays advantages and disadvantages of multimedia training.
Advantages • • • • • • • • • •
Disadvantages • • • • •
Self-paced Interactive Consistency of content Consistency of delivery Unlimited geographic accessibility Immediate feedback Built-in guidance system Appeals to multiple senses Can test and certify mastery Privacy
Expensive to develop Ineffective for certain training content Trainee anxiety with using technology Difficult to quickly update Lack of agreement on effectiveness
E learning E-learning or online learning refers to instruction and delivery of training by computer online through the Internet or the Web. This is most popular learning method in today. Because any one in any corner of the world can access internet and search relevant subjects and study. There is also webinars, chat rooms and discussions to participate and gather knowledge. Most of these services are can get free of charge. It is a huge advantage for all kind of learners. E-learning method can include: Task-based support Simulation-based training Distance learning Learning portals
Characteristics of e-learning: • • • Involves electronic networks that enable information and instruction to be delivered, shared, and updated instantly. Delivered to the trainee using computers with Internet technology. Focuses on learning solutions that go beyond traditional training.
Advantages of E learning • • • It supports company‘s business strategy and objectives. Can gather knowledge from any place in the world. The audience can include employees and managers as well as vendors, customers, and clients. • • Training can be delivered to geographically dispersed employees. Training can be delivered faster and to more employees in a shorter period of time. • • • • Updating is easy. Paperwork related to training management can be eliminated. It can link learners to other content, experts, and peers. Can give training to very large amount of trainees at one time and it will be cost less than traditional training methods.
Chapter 3 Introduction to Organization
3.0introduction In this section profiles of selected organizations will display.
3.1 Dong Young Company (PVT) LTD Dong Young Company is a Korean company which has branches in world wide. It was origin on 70‘s and grows up slowly to this position in the market. In this company mainly focused on producing agricultural machinery and equipments. In early 70‘s in Korea three was a high demand in agriculture sectorwith the influence of communist political views. So because of this high demand late Mr. Dong Young started to produce agricultural machineries and equipments to the market. But most there were number of companies in the market which supplies same products to farmers in same price. So it was hard to retain in the market by producing machineries for farmers. It was needed that to find new inventions or products or upgrades of the current machineries. In the middle of 80‘s decade the communist influence was decreased and country was exposed heavily to the open economy. So there was rapid growth in every sector including agriculture, industrial, motor vehicles, electronics and other service sectors. So with this development of the economy the demand for agriculture machinery and equipments also increased. In this era company noticed there was a demand but not fulfilled in post agricultural / harvesting activities among farmers. Mostly in rural areas farmers used tractors and other machineries in the field but after harvesting they used to take their paddy to rice mills and turn their paddy to rice. This was done by large scale rise mills and the cost that spend to this process is high to small level farmers who cultivating for their domestic purposes.
After identifying this demand they invented and introduced rice mills and polishing machines to the market focusing small scale farmers. The main feature of these machines is, these machines can be operated by single phase (110-220V) main current. It was huge advantage for the farmers who cultivated paddy for domestic purposes. So this product made a revolution in post agriculture machineries and equipment supply industry. Most farmers used this not only their own usage but also as a self employment. So they started small scale rice mills and facilitate other farmers to rise from their paddy at a low cost. After few years other competitors also introduced same kind of machines but Dong Young Company still take the lead. Because of this product‘s unique features made huge competitive advantage in the market. Because of this success the company decided to reach other international market. Dong Young Company mainly focused Asian countries such like India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan Bangladesh and other south Asian countries that agriculture sector taking strong place in economy. At the same time they focused on small scale farmers in rural areas who can utilize these machines well. As a result of this decision in 2002 Dong Yong Company opened a research institute in Sri Lanka. This was located atThimbirigasyaya, Colombo. At the same year Don Young Company opened their head office and industrial plant at Kurunrgala. In this plant they started producing various kin of agricultural machinery and other equipments. Early 2000‘s the company was engaged to sell their products in dawn south and Kurunegala, Anuradhapuara areas. They are unable to sell their products in north and eastern areas due to the terrorist war. Mainly Dong Young Company introduced their products focusing farmers who live in rural areas .the machines are not for large scale agricultural activities. At the beginning they had introduced single phase rice mills and polishing machines. So most farmers interested on this machine for domestic usage and also as a self employment. Because of this huge demand Dong Yong Company was busy with opening new branch at Ambalanthota end of year 2003. After finalizing terrorist war in north areas in 2008 there was a development in all sectors specially including agriculture. So Dong Young Company opened a branch at Ampara.
In below table will show what kind of growth achieved by the Dong Young Company. The chart is displaying no of machines sold per year and service workshops arranged by the company per year.
500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 No of machines sold No of service workshops
Because of this rapid growth Dong Yong company also increased their sales agents from 8 to 24 in island wide.
Products of dong Yong Company
Basically Dong Young Company producing many kind of agricultural machinery and equipments to the Sri Lankan market but they mainly focusing on Rice mills ( Rubber) Currently Dong young company introducing four types of rice mills. There are some unique fetures in these products. Easy handling and functioning
Can be operated by domestic current supply – single phaseThree rubber mills functioning at one time. Can be operated without current supply by using a tractor. Minimum cost in electricity. High mobility
Dong Young Company producing not only rise mills. They also producing, Fertilizer distributing systems for large scale agricultural fields Tractor equipments Harvesting machines
Training and development in Dong Young Company In Dong Yong company more than 55 people working as permanent staff. This includes technicians, supervisors and factory managers. They directly involved in producing machines and repairing. And also company having sales force including more than 75 sales representations and agents. Most of them are outsourced and not directly responsible for the Dong young Company. To the permanent staff (this includes all kin of technicians, welders, fitters, supervisors, plant managers another staff) Dong Young Company offers various kind of training a\programs.
3.2 Sampath bank In 1987 Sampath Bank was incorporate with an initial share capital of Rs.175 Mn. Sampath Bank becomes a truly broad based company with over 18000 share holders island-wide participating in the I.P.O. First Sampath team consisted of 60 members all of whom where executives.
The atmosphere and the ambience of its branch offices were unique as air-conditioning, piped music, interior décor and A.T.M network was made available at all branches irrespective of its location. The Banking hours were extended.
Sampath Bank was the first company operating in Sri Lanka who undertook the sponsorship of nature and environment protection programs on a vast scale. Several sports events, sports men and sports women were also sponsored by the Bank. Bank won several prestigious awards in consecutive years for its outstanding performance from The Banker, Asia Money and Banking Digest. A.T.M network was followed by Phone Banking, Debit Card, Internet Banking and Vishwa the Virtual Banking channel. Sampath‘s pioneering spirit and the team work continuous to provide the customer superior value and the share holder high returns, in the same manner its major value innovations the face of the local Banking industry at the inception.
Vision of Sampath Bank
"The Growing Force in Sri Lankan Financial Services"
Values of the Sampath bank
Create a learning culture that promotes individual and organizational development as well as promoting innovation and value for customers. Treat all internal and external customers the way we would like to be treated. Encourage and promote teamwork in all aspects of behavior. Open to feedback and demonstrate an eagerness for personal development. Monitor and demonstrate an impressive commitment to results. Uncompromising ethical and professional standards of behavior
Milestones of SAMPATH BANK 1987
The bank was originally incorporated as Investment and Credit Bank Limited. Whilst Mr. N U Jayewardene became the Chairman of the Bank, Mr. Janaka De Silva was appointed the General Manager. The registered office was at No 55, D R Wijewardena Mawatha, Colombo 10, Sri Lanka. The Bank was ceremonially opened for business, supported by High Technology, on 15th May 1987 following the soft opening on 25th March 1987.
Bank became popularly known by the name, Sampath and accordingly the name of the Bank was changed. By the end of the 1st year, the Bank employed 94 staff members comprising all executives. Following are some of the products/innovations that were introduced to the Industry by the Bank. o A cheque guarantee card. o A saving account with checking facilities. o Extended banking hours till 3.00 p.m. for the first time in the country
ATM (SET) facility was introduced. o The first Bank in Sri Lanka to operate a multi-point network of automated teller machines.
MasterCard was introduced to Sri Lanka (under license from MasterCard International Incorporated in USA). The new concept of Personal Banking Unit (PBU) was introduced and units were opened in the busy areas of the capital. o Chatham Street o Bambalapitiya Uni-Banking System was introduced to the country for the fist time in Sri Lanka. First standalone ATM was installed at Liberty Plaza shopping complex.
Taking full advantage of the IT capabilities, TELEBANKING facility was introduced.
The bank's Head Quarters moved to the new building in the financial district of Colombo. The new product RANDIRIYA pawn brokering scheme was launched.
The bank was honored with the award BEST COMMERCIAL BANK OF THE YEAR 1998 by Asiamoney for the third year in succession. The bank ventured into re-engineering of its IT induced banking technology, a massive revamping project designed to strengthening its product development and diversification capabilities.
The bank also invested in a new state of the art ATM switch. That too assisted in the continued efforts of improving products and services offered by the bank.
The Banker bestows the Bank of the year 2000 award on Sampath Bank. This is the first occasion that The Banker owned and managed by the Financial Times Group of London presents an award to a Sri Lankan bank. . A special fixed deposit account for senior citizens was introduced "Sampath Sanhinda" in April. Sampath Thilina gift vouchers were introduced in May. Sampath Bank launched an Internet banking facility "Sampathnet" in July.
2001 • Achieving an excellent performance is one thing. Maintaining it is another. Bank have completed another eventful year and step into year 2002 with many hopes and aspirations. Looking back, we could certainly rejoice over our achievements in the year 2001. Increases in productivity and customer care are the two main challenges that we had to meet in the last twelve months.
2002 • Top award for Human Resource Management Services Sector – Large Companies was awarded to Sampath Bank at the National HRM Award 2002. • Sampath Bank launched the first Visa Platinum Credit Cards in Sri – Lanka, which is considered as one of the most prestigious Credit Cards in the world. • Sampath Bank was appointed as the settlement bank for US Dollar cheque clearing system in Sri – Lanka.
2003 • Ten new branches were opened during the year, which is the highest number of branches opened during a calendar year in the history of the bank. • As the first step towards expanding in the South East Asian Region, the Bank invested in Vanik Bangladesh Limited, which is introducing a leasing and credit card company in Bangladesh. • The Bank became the first in Sri Lanka to introduce "One day clearing" for all cheques drawn on any Sampath Bank branch, collected by any Commercial Bank in the island & presented through Sri Lanka Automated Clearing House (SLACH).
2004 • The first ever Cheque Imaging & Truncating (CIT) site in Sri Lanka was launched by Sampath Bank on 25th of October. • Was awarded awarded A+(sri) National rating by Fitch Rating (Lanka) Limited. • The Bank won two prestigious awards i.e first runner up in overall category and the award for best HR practice in the service sector large category at the National HRM Awards 2004.
2005 • Sampath Leasing & Factoring Ltd., a fully owned subsidiary of Sampath Bank Limited engaged in the business of Leasing of Equipment and Factoring of Trade Receivables commenced its operations on 12th May 2005. Sampath Bank was placed Second Runner-up in Banking Sector for business excellence at ‗National Business Excellence Awards 2005‘ organized by The National Chamber of Commerce of Sri Lanka
2006 • Two fully owned subsidiaries were opened namely, Sampath Trade Services (Hong Kong) Ltd., and Sampath Information Technology Solutions Ltd. •
Credit rating was enhanced to AA- (lka) by Fitch Rating (Lanka) Ltd.
2007 • ATM network reached 150 machines across the island. • Created another first in South Asia with the launch of VISA Mini Debit Card.
• Eight Branches and one personal banking centre were opened during the year, bringing the total number of branches to 114. • Placed among ‗The Ten Best Corporate Citizens‘ in Sri Lanka for the 4th consecutive year at the Best Corporate Citizens Awards organised by The Ceylon Chamber of Commerce. Sampath Bank was awarded: - Overall Second Runner-up - Best Category Award: Community Relations - First Runner-up Special Projects: Empowerment and - Entrepreneurship - Ten Best Corporate Citizens Award 2008 • Awarded the ‗Brand Leadership Award‘ at the Asia Brand Congress, Mumbai, India.
2009 • Became the third largest private sector Bank in Sri Lanka in terms of total assets. Silver Award for the Overall Competition for National Business Excellence * First • Runner-Up Award in the Extra Large Category * Winner of the Banking Sector of Sri Lanka Award Sampath Bank reached a greater height by clinching the global accolade ‗Bank of the Year – 2009‘ by the highly acclaimed international magazine ‗The Banker‘ of Financial Times - London. Placed among ‗The Ten Best Corporate Citizens‘ in Sri Lanka for the 5th consecutive year at the Best Corporate Citizens Awards organised by The Ceylon Chamber of Commerce. Sampath Bank was awarded;
• Corporate Social Responsibility Award for 2009 (Best Corporate Citizen 2009)
Training and development in Sampath bank Training and development takes important palace in Sampath bank functions related to employees. In today Sampath ban has e learning system in intranet. So gathering knowledge for employees of the Sampath bank is became easy than the past. But still they delivering training programs related to banking functions.
3.3 Training and Development methods in Service oriented organizations and Production oriented organizations.
When considering about an organization‘s functions mainly we can divide in to tow categories. They are, Service oriented organizations Production oriented organizations There are some differs on Human Recourse functions related to these organizations. Before launching into the salient aspects, it is pertinent to note that the human resources are more critical to the success of the organizations in the service oriented organizations as compared to their importance in the production oriented organizations. The primary reason for this is that human resources are considered as an asset and a source of competitive advantage in the service oriented organizations whereas they are yet another factor of production in the production oriented organizations. The HRM function in the production oriented organization is often concerned with payroll, administrative work and mediating between the management and the workers. Mostly, the production oriented organizations lean on the HRM function in times of labor unrest and strikes. On the other hand, the HRM function is pivotal to the success of the service oriented organizations as they are seen as enabling and empowering the employees in the services sector. The point
here is that in the service sector companies, the HRM function plays a more important role as the chief sources of competitive advantage in these two kind of organizations are the human resources. In the services oriented organizations like the financial and technology companies, the brand value is measured according to the level of intellectual capital which is a derivative of the contribution of the human resources in the company. Further, the services oriented organizations runs on human resources whereas the production oriented organizations uses machines and equipment as the key aspect of production. This means that the HRM function in the services oriented organizations has to ensure that the human resources are enabled and fulfilled to actualize their potential. Especially with the prevalence of the RBV or the Resource Based View of the firm that treats human resources as being central to the functioning of companies, the services sector employs different methods and procedures to fulfill this aspect. On the other hand, the production oriented organizations are still in the process of orienting their strategies towards the RBV and in many cases, they might not be able to do so since the mode of operation is fundamentally different from that of the services sector Finally, the production oriented organizations have classification of employees into blue collar and white collar roles which creates a barrier to the way in which they are treated and they in turn demand their rights. On the other hand, the services oriented organizations has only white collar roles which mean that labor arbitration and mediating between organized unions and the management is virtually non-existent. This is an important and crucial distinction which often determines the differing perceptions of the HRM function in these sectors
3.3.1 Service oriented organizations Service oriented organizations refer to organizations which supplies various kind of services not more than physical products. These kinds of organizations deal with human beings/ customers.
e.g. Telephone operating companies Banks Audit firms Distributors IT service providers The most difficult thing is doing business with human beings because the expectations of people who wish to get a service is differ from one to another from same organization. People who working at service oriented organizations should develop skills in customer caring and handling. This subject called CRM (customer relationship management).
CRM is a business strategy directed to understand, anticipate and respond to the needs of an enterprise's current and potential customers in order to grow the relationship value.
Important steps in CRM 1. Selecting the correct customers from the portfolio. 2. Building relationship with identified important customers 3. Respond before request 4. Maintaining customer base 5. Training employees to the deliver proper CRM
This refers to identifying important customers to the organization from the whole customer portfolio. In this term important customers can be described like this,
1. Customers who have high life time value (people who dealing with organization for a long time period and generate maximum profits to the organization.) 2. Customers who deals with organization for a short time period and not making long time profits but making new sales ideas. 3. Customers who buying maximum services or products in low cost.
Building relationship with identified important customers In this cause employees or the organization should able to build a close relationship with the customer. We can use customer data and history to do this task. From the customers buying history can recognize what kind of products or the services he expects from the organization. And also customer complaints and suggestions are also taking important place when maintaining good customer relationship. Analyzing all the data about customer we can get an idea about what are his or her favorites, what are rejects and other interests of the customer.
Respond before request In the subject of CRM it is very important that the respod before customer‘s request. If the organization maintains a proper customer data base they can analyze and identify what are the needs of the customer before his or her request and present the service or product. This will pleased customer more than satisfies him. So it helps to retain customer with the organization and develop customer loyalty.
Maintaining customer base This is most important this in CRM considering long term basis. Identifying and building customer relationship is may easy but maintaining the customer base is too difficult. Always competitors in the market are waiting to grab important customers to their
organization by supplying same services at low cost. To avoid this situation developing customer loyalty is most important. By respond before request, maintaining proper customer data base, trying to pleased customer than satisfy him are important factors in maintaining customer base.
Training employees to the deliver proper CRM In an organization it is worthless if the employees fail to deliver a proper customer service if they maintain a good customer base. So employees must train well to maintain customer relationships well. So when we consider about service oriented organizations, employees who working those organizations should well trained and gather skills about above mentioned areas. For these kinds of organizations it is not much important about production related knowledge or technical related skills. When planning a training program for these organizations it is important to focus about developing skills on customer relations and maintaining customer base.
3.3.2 Production Oriented Organizations
Organization whose primary function is production. A production-oriented organization can either perform the production itself or contract for the production.for example auto mobile company is a production oriented company.
Product Orientation Business with a product orientation emphasizes on the product itself rather than on the consumers' need. The typical mentality is that a good product will sell itself. For a product-oriented firm, the focus is first on the production of goods or services, then look for people who will buy them. Such strategy is very limiting. It often runs into trouble when the producer‘s rates and values of his products are not same as that of the market. The production-oriented era of marketing management dominated the first half of the 20th century. During this time, companies were focused upon production efficiency, with little regard to differences in customer needs or preferences..
The Production Oriented Era of marketing management is exemplied by Henry Ford's famous comment, "Customers can have any color they want so long as it's black." Although the production-orientation approach is no longer dominant, there are still successful production-oriented companies today. Can you think of good examples? What types of products do these companies sell? How would you characterize their business environment? A small business can decide whether to become product-oriented or market-oriented. A product-oriented business focuses its efforts on products as its strength. A marketoriented business uses market statistics to determine what customers want to buy and then focuses on that data. Both method have advantages and disadvantages. Small businesses tend to use the product-oriented business model because of its focus on quality and design. Quality One advantage of a product-oriented business model is that it allows the business to focus on product quality. With the product-oriented method, the small business is not worried about what the customer wants to buy or what the market says will sell in a certain economy. Instead, the sole focus is on creating a perfect product. The small business can focus all its money and efforts on the design of the product so it works to specifics.
Technological Investment Another advantage to the product-oriented business model is that allows for a technology to be developed that can then be used for a wider range of products. An example of a product-oriented business was Sony's creation of the Walkman. This device was created as a product to be sold and not based on what customers wanted at that time. The product proved successful and the technology was then used by Sony to create additional music listening devices. Economies of Scale A third advantage is that economies of scale can develop more easily for this business method. Economies of scale involve factors that can reduce the cost of producing an item as the number of items produced increases. With product-oriented businesses, the focus is on a certain product. Since the focus is specifically directed, this enables the company to create this product efficiently and in mass quantities. More quantities can be made at a lower price, which will increase the number produced. Outsourcing A final advantage is that a product-oriented business is easier to adapt for outsourcing its product. A small business can focus solely on creating one product and making it the best product possible. Once the design is created, this design can be sent to another factory for production. This can also save on costs. The small company may be able to find another company that can produce the product on a mass level at a lower price.
Product orientation. When a business is product orientated, it will base its products or services on what it perceives as its internal organizational strengths. Firms with a product orientated approach to selling, try to sell whatever they can make, without trying to find out if it's what the customers want. Sony grew hugely successful using this policy, and became famous for this approach. The clearest example was the Walkman, launched in the late 70‘s, marketing professionals said it would not sell because it had no recording facility— a generation of teenagers proved them wrong. A more up to date example is Apple, the iPhone being the latest in a long line of product led launches
Market orientated- market led When a business is market led, the business's activities will be dictated by the market, it will at all times attempt to meet the needs of the market with little if any reference to internal strengths of the business. An organization with a market orientation thinks that its most important asset is its customers. The firm believes that, as long as it is able to identify potential customers, find out what they want, and then produce that for them, it will remain successful This market orientation does have advantages. These advantages include: • • • • • • The business should be flexible to changes in demand patterns The business, through market research, will have a strong understanding of the needs of the customer New products should have a greater chance of success
But there can be disadvantages to being market led. These disadvantages include: High cost of market research to understand the market Constant internal change as needs of the market are met
Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Presentation 4.0 Introduction This chapter describes the analysis of the collected data through the questionnaire and evaluated those data through the various statistical tools and techniques. Further tables, pie charts, and bar charts were used to present the analyzed data. 4.1 Analysis of Variable 4.1.1 Personal information analysis The following tables and graphs were illustrated the profile of the respondents by age, gender, civil status, level of education and working experience. In this part data collected by both organizations are displayed in same chart. 4.1.1: 1 Employee by age Age is an important factor in classifying respondents. In this research the sample were divided in to five groups by using the age of both samples of Sampath bank employees and Don Young company employees. The following table no(04.01) illustrates the range of age group of respondents in the sample and the data was presented by using bar chart in order to clearly illustrate those data. Age Category Bellow 25 25 to 35 35 to 45 45 to 55 Above 55 Total
Respondents 6 9 8 15 4 40
Percentage (%) 10 25 19 37 40 100
0 Bellow 25 25 to 35 35 to 45 45 to 55 Above 55 Total
4.1.1:2 Employee by gender group Gender is an important factor in classifying respondents. In this research the sample of employees were divided in to two groups by using the sex of the both samples of Sampath bank and Dong Young Company. The following table No (04.02) illustrates the gender group of respondents in the sample and the data was presented by using pie chart to clearly illustrate those data. Gender Male Female Total Respondents 30 10 40 Percentage (%) 80 20 100
Employee by gender group
4.1.1:3 Employees by Civil Status Civil status is an important factor in classifying respondents. The following table no (04.03) illustrates the civil status of respondents in the sample and the data was presented by using pie chart to clearly illustrate those data.
Civil Status Single Married Total Table No-04.03
Respondents 28 12 40
Percentage (%) 70 30 100
Figure No-04.03 4.1.1:4 Employees by Educational Background Educational background is an important factor in classifying respondents. The following table no (04.04) illustrates the educational background of the respondents in the sample and the data was presented by using bar chart to clearly illustrate those data. Table No04.04 Educational Qualifications Below G.C.E(O/L) Passed G.C.E(O/L) Passed G.C.E(A/L) Degree Postgraduate Degree Other Respondents 1 3 24 6 2 4 Percentage (%) 3 7 60 15 5 10
120 100 80 60 40 20 0
Percentage (%) Column1 Column2
Figure No-04.04 4.1.2 Training and development analysis In this section data and analysis will display separately both Sampath Bank and Dong Young Company. so it would be more understandable.
184.108.40.206 Is Training and Development given adequate importance in your organization?
To a great 6 extent
To reasonable extent
To a small 2 extent
Not at all total 20 100 20 100
Table no 220.127.116.11
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 To a great extent To a reasonable extent To a small extent Percentage SB Percentage DYC Column1
Figure no 18.104.22.168 It was found through the response of a major number of employees that in both organizations, Training was given a reasonable importance in the organization followed by many to a great extent and some to a small extent
22.214.171.124 Do you think the Training Programs are relevant to your work environment?
To a great 8 extent
To reasonable extent
To a small 2 extent
Not at all total 20 100 20 100
Table no 126.96.36.199 Figure NO 188.8.131.52
60 50 40 30 Percentage SB 20 10 0 To a great extent To a reasonable extent To a small extent Not at all Percentage
It was found from the response that major number of respondents felt that the Training Programs were relevant to the work environment to a reasonable extent followed by some to a great extent and very little respondents to a small extent and some even felt that the Training Programs were not at all relevant to the work environment In both organizations.
184.108.40.206 Have you experienced any improvement in your self-confidence levels after attending the Training Programs? S NO Opinion Respondents SB 1 To a great 12 extent 2 To reasonable extent 3 To a small 3 extent 4 Not at all total Table no 220.127.116.11
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 To a great To a To a small Not at all extent reasonable extent extent Percentage Percentage2
100 figure no 18.104.22.168
It was found from the response that major number of respondents experienced improvement in their self-confidence levels to a reasonable extent followed by many to a
great extent and some to a small extent. It was even found that a little number of respondents did not find any improvement in their self-confidence levels in both organizations.
22.214.171.124 Are training needs regularly assessed at your company? S NO Opinion Respondents SB 1 To a great 6 extent 2 To reasonable extent 3 To a small 4 extent 4 Not at all total 1 20 5 100 2 20 10 100 20 2 20 a 9 45 11 25 30 Percentage Respondents DYC 7 35 Percentage
Table no 126.96.36.199
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 To a great extent To a reasonable extent To a small extent Not at all Sampath Bank DYC
Figure no 188.8.131.52 It was found from the response that major number of respondents experienced training needs regularly assessed to a reasonable extent followed by many to a great extent and some to a small extent. It was even found that a little number of respondents did not find any improvement in their self-confidence levels in both organizations. And also there are some responds saying that the training needs are not assessing not at all in both organizations.
184.108.40.206 Is employees permitted time-off from work to attend training?
1 2 3
35 30 35
3 2 9
15 10 45
Yes with pay 6 Yes without 7 pay
No after working hours
No, only in 2 special causes
Total Table no 220.127.116.11
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 no Yes , with training director
Sampath bank DYC
Yes, Yes conducted conducted by by outsiders supervisors
Figure no 18.104.22.168 In this table explain that the dong young company gives less attention on giving training with payments. It will dissatisfy the employees. And also in Sampath bank, they are giving training with payments and without pauments. 22.214.171.124 Is in-house training provided for employees? S NO Opinion Respondents Percentage SB Respondents Percentage DYC
no Yes , with
0 training 6
director 3 Yes, conducted by 9 20 11 55
supervisors 4 Yes conducted by outsiders total Table no 126.96.36.199 5 25 2 10
60 50 40 30 Sampath Bank 20 10 0 no Yes , with training director Yes, conducted Yes conducted by supervisors by outsiders DYC
Figure no 188.8.131.52 In this figure both employees in organizations are saying that they having in house training. and most of them delivered by training director in Sampath bank and by supervisors in DYC .
184.108.40.206 What is the minimum hour per year in which employees must participate in training? S NO Opinion Respondents SB 1 No minimum 2 Up hours 3 4 5 9 to 24 25 to 40 40 above Total 20 100 20 100 2 15 and 2 10 75 10 9 3 3 45 15 15 to8 1 5 2 10 0 0 Percentage Respondents DYC 3 15 Percentage
Table no 220.127.116.11
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 No minimum Up to8 hours 9 to 24 25 to 40 40 and above Percentage Percentage2 Column1
Figure no 18.104.22.168 In this figure shows that the time giving to employee to training is mostly 25-40 hours in both organizations.
22.214.171.124 What methods of training using in your organization? S NO Opinion Respondents SB 1 On the job 4 training 2 Lecture method 3 4 Skill builder Vestibule training 2 0 10 0 3 3 15 15 3 15 3 15 20 Percentage Respondents DYC 6 30 Percentage
Off the job 3 training
training 8 Sensitivity training 9 Total Table no 126.96.36.199 Role plying 3 20 15 100 20 100 3 15
35 30 25 20 15 sampath Bank 10 5 0 DYC
Figure no 188.8.131.52 This is most important figures in the research. In Sampath bank they have given priority to role plying, sensitivity training, and off the job training more than DYG. And also Sampath bank has given same level priority to lecture method and on the job training
when comparing with DYC. In other hand DYC has given priority to vestibule and apprentice training methods.
184.108.40.206 Are there any changes occurred in the pattern of Training Programs conducted to you in past five years?
To a great 11 extent
To reasonable extent
To a small 3 extent
Not at all total
Table no 220.127.116.11
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 To a great extent To a reasonable extent To a small extent Not at all Percentage Percentage2 Column1
Figure no 18.104.22.168 It was found from a major number of respondents that changes occurred in the pattern of Training Programs conducted in past 5 years to a great extent followed by some to a small extent and some to a reasonable extent. There are less number of respondents who said that there were no changes in the Training Programs from long time. Some employees did not respond, as their service in the organization is only a few months. This si also important figure that displays how much attention given to the update the contents and method of training and development in both organizations.
Chapter 5 Conclusions Findings
1. Training programs provided by both Sampath bank and DYC almost good. 2. Organization should focus on the benefits that are aimed towards self improvement since of the employees satisfied. 3. There are 15% and 20% in Sampath bank and DYC employees are not satisfied with changing pattern of the training programs. Authorities of both organizations should give attention more than now. 4. Organization should provides training programs on the basis of employee performance 5. Most effective training for both kinds of organizations is on the job training method. 6. In organization employee almost depend on HR department for Training programs.
1. Along with training programs organization should provide some other motivational programs 2. Implement training institutions at near the organizations 3. Evaluate cost of training and its result of training.
4. Frame the training programs chart and proper care should be taken while conducting the training. 5. A proper performance appraisal system should be adopted. 6. in my opinion if the above suggestions are followed total training program. 7. Feedback must be collected from the entire trainer 8. Organization should provide immediate supervisor solving employee’s problem
1. Age Bellow 25
2. Gender Male
3. Civil Status Single Married
4. Education Bellow G.C.E (O/L) Passed G.C.E (O/L)
Passed G.C.E (A/L)
Junior Exe. Officer
Senior Exe. Officer
Technician Other …………………….
6. How many years have you been worked in banking industry?
7. Briefly describe your work responsibilities/ assign duties? ....................................................................................................................
Training and development
1. Is Training and Development given adequate importance in your organization? a) To a great extent
b) To a reasonable extent c) To a small extent d) Not at all
2. Have you experienced any improvement in your self-confidence levels after attending the Training Programmes? a) To a great extent b) To a reasonable extent c) To a small extent d) Not at all
3. Do you think the Training Programmes are relevant to your work environment? a) To a great extent b) To a reasonable extent c) To a small extent d) Not at all
4. Are training needs regularly assessed at your company?
a) Yes, by Human Resources b) Yes, by outside consultants c) Yes, by department heads d) No
5. Is employees permitted time-off from work to attend training? a) No b) Yes, with pay
c) Yes, without pay d) No, only after work hours e) No, only in special cases
6. Is in-house training provided for employees? a) No b) Yes, with training director c) Yes, conducted by supervisors and human resources department d) Yes, conducted by outside professionals
7. What is the minimum hour per year in which employees must participate in training? a) No minimum b) Up to 8 hours c) 9 to 24 hours d) 25 to 40 hours e) Over 40 hours 8. What methods of training using in your organization?
a) b) c) d) e)
On the job training Lecture method Skill builders Vestibule training Apprentice training
f) g) h) i) j)
Off the job training In-basket training Sensitivity training Role plying Other methods……………………………………………………… ………………………………………………..
9. Are there any changes occurred in the pattern of Training Programmes conducted to you in past five years? a) To a great extent b) To a reasonable extent c) To a small extent d) Not at all e) 10. How is the feedback collected? a) Questionnaire b) Interviews c) Tests 11. Is your feedback considered for further Training Programmes organized? a) Yes b) No c) Not aware
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