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Competency-based performance is a current concept in business and government. One comprehensive definition of "competency" is: "A cluster of related knowledge, skills, and attitudes that affects a major part of one’s job (a role or responsibility), that correlates with performance on the job, that can be measured against well-accepted standards, and that can be improved via training and development." (Training magazine: July, 1996) An "essential" competency is critical for an employee to perform effectively at his or her level in an NPS Career Field. A "universal" competency is one that is required of all NPS employees regardless of Career Field. An example of a universal competency would be "comprehension of the NPS’ Mission." Competencies are gained through a multitude of ways—life experience; formal education; apprenticeship; on-the-job experience; self-help programs; and, yes, training and development programs. All of these together contribute to job competence in an employee. Ultimately, supervisors and employees working together and assessing consistency of job performance (behaviors) over time determine overall "employee competence."
Definition of competency:
Competencies are the characteristics of a manager that lead to the demonstration of skills and abilities, which result in effective performance within an occupational area; competency also embodies the capacity to transfer skills and abilities from one area to another. - Hogg B Competencies are underlying characteristic of an individual-Knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, concepts, traits and motives that have casual relationship with effective and superior performance in a job situation. - A.M. Sarma
Characteristics Of Competency Based Training:
It is individualised – learning is student centred and the role of the
trainer changes to that of consultant and facilitator • It is flexible, not time-based – learners progress through units/elements at their own pace
• An instructor with fixed course schedule sets the pace.• Outcome-based – emphasis is put on the product and not the process. There are no set entry qualifications or age limits • It is practically oriented and theory is taught mainly as underpinning knowledge • Training is fragmented – work is broken down into learnable units/elements of competence • There is accreditation of prior learning – credits are cumulative Competency framework design ( Copy it from the slide I hv mailed u ) A Comparison Competency Based Training • Training is individualized. . • Specific training objectives are not always provided. it reflects the expectations of performance in the workplace. • The individual trainee dictates pace of training. • It encourages specialisation – Students can concentrate on the skills they are confident of mastering. • The trainee knows what standards he/she will be trained to before starting training. Employment-led – standards are set by the concerned industrial sector • No entry restrictions – anyone can apply for a programme as long as they have the ability to follow instructions. Traditional Classroom Training • Training is often done in a group.
There should be no more than six or seven people involved in completing the Task Analysis. The amount of individualized training is limited. skills and procedures that the trainee will be required to learn. as training is directed to the individual. This allows for continuous feedback.• The training program focuses strictly on the trainee’s needs in relation to the job. Trainees get all the help they need to master all skills. so the trainee does not know what he/she will be evaluated on. Developing Competency Based Training Programs Task Analysis Task Analysis is the process used to determine the knowledge. • Trainees are “marked” and judged as either passing or failing. Traditional training is not always applicable to the job you are learning. An accurate and complete task analysis (job profile) is the key to effective training. Key people in completing a Task Analysis are the people doing the job (subject matter experts) and an experienced facilitator. • There is no “pass or fail”. wasted money and poor . • Evaluation of training matches the standards. • Training is directed at the group. Training happens at the job site and is directly related to the job to be performed. Too many slow down the process. • Traditional classroom based training usually includes a lot of “nice to know” information that can sometimes make learning the important things more difficult. and tasks may be missed when working with one or two people. The trainee knows how he or she will be evaluated before starting training. Weaknesses in the task analysis can result in wasted time. • There is more quality training. • There are often no standards.
worker performance. Objectives are measurable and observable. e. • Tasks are independent of each other. to accurately describe measurable performance. focus on the performance objectives and include only information that is “need-to-know” and leave out extra information. When developing training materials. Validation is simply a review by experienced personnel. When defining a task consider using short statements. . • Tasks have beginning and ending points. Develop and validate Performance Objectives Performance objectives provide the framework for developing the training materials. Issue Safe Work Permits. • Tasks usually can be observed. starting with a verb. Objectives are important as they: • Provide the learner with a target for performance. • The task or its results can always be measured.. Once developed. Perform Monthly Maintenance. • Help learner identify the scope of the job. Performance Objectives should be validated to ensure that they are technically correct and that there is no missing information.g. Programs that fail usually have erroneous tasks and performance standards. The performance objectives should provide specific information about what trainees will be able to do as a result of training. • Help the learner identify how they will be evaluated.
and without it training is not complete. Cognitive or knowledge skills may be evaluated with a self-test and a final written test. Testing and Evaluation Evaluation or testing is a fundamental part of any training program. Testing and evaluation are required to determine if the trainees have achieved the performance objectives. the only way to determine if the . such as operating machinery and equipment. Training information should be organized and presented in a manner that helps the trainees remember important facts. Assemble Training Materials and Resources From the performance objectives look for existing materials that may be used for training purposes. When little or no information exists consider developing the information from scratch. Types of materials that may be used include: • Text • Graphics • Examples • Checklists • Tables Validate Draft Training Materials Validation ensures that the resulting materials meet the performance objectives and are technically correct with no missing information. For many skills. procedures practice and feedback. Skills or procedures are evaluated by having the trainee perform the skill on their own by following the written procedure. The primary focus of all competency based programs should be the mastery of skills. All materials should have an overview or introductory section. and an evaluation.
and should become a continual process. As much of the learning is designed to take place on the job. The tracking system must be able to accommodate refresher training. • Point out the errors to the learner. This standard is normally met because: • The trainee is made aware of the standard before training starts. which includes practice time and coaching. feedback is important to the learner. Frequent observations of training performance and encouragement are important. the learner is expected to achieve 100% on his/her evaluation. the tracking system must be able to link procedural revisions to employee training records to alert the employee when refresher training is required. Competency Based Training Model (copy it from the pdf file I hv mailed) . During the design phase consider how training and certification will be tracked. simple and effective learning system. is provided. • A logical. If a learner is unsuccessful in meeting the performance evaluation: • Determine what was missed or wrong. • Evaluation is conducted when both the learner and the trainer are ready. In a competency based training program.trainee can actually perform the task is observation. For companies that use standard operating procedures that are regularly revised. • Arrange for re-testing when additional training or practice has taken place.
knowledge. goal-oriented and productive Establishes a framework for constructive performance assessments by management at scheduled intervals Improves communication between employees and management Improves quality of products and services Increases internal employee mobility and cross-training. leading to greater engagement and motivation Increases the potential for job satisfaction Offers a reference resource for day-to-day job requirements Provides a mechanism for the recognition of employees’ abilities Provides clear direction for learning new job skills Sets clear expectations for employees. and organization. safety and other procedures relating to each task throughcompetency-based interviews Reduces cost overruns caused by poor performance or miscommunication of job expectations Standardizes performance across the organization Targets specific training needs Advantages of Competency-Based Training for Employees: Enables employees to be more proactive beyond their individual roles by learning additional skills that are valued by the organization Ensures that individual professional development and training milestones are recorded and acknowledged by the organization Gives employees insight into the overall strategy of their team. enabling them to make better decisions and work more effectively . providing the organization with a greater ability to scale and flex as needed Outlines employee development and promotional paths within the organization's succession plan Records the employee’s acquisition of the skills.Advantages of Competency-Based Training Advantages of Competency-Based Training for Employers: Ensures that corporate training and professional development activities are cost-effective. department.
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