ETABS
Integrated ThreeDimensional Static and Dynamic Analysis and Design of Building Systems
COPYRIGHT
The computer program ETABS and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:
Computers and Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Tel: (510) 8452177 Fax: (510) 8454096 Email: info@csiberkeley.com Web: www.csiberkeley.com
Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 19782000. The CSI Logo is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. ETABS is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.
DISCLAIMER
CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF ETABS. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM, HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM. THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER I Introduction 1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Recommended Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
CHAPTER II
Design Algorithms
Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Design and Check Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Identifying Beams and Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Design of Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Design of Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Design of Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 P, Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Element Unsupported Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Special Considerations for Seismic Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Choice of Input Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
23
23 26 27 27 29 29 29
51
54 55 56 56 58 58 58 60 61 62 63 64 66 66 66 67 73 74 75 76 76 77 78 78
ii
Table of Contents
Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
81
Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Strength Reduction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Check Column Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Determine Factored Moments and Forces. . . . . . . . . . . 87 Determine Moment Magnification Factors . . . . . . . . . . 87 Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Determine Section Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . 94 Beam Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . 98 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Determine Shear Force and Moment. . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement. . . . . . . . . . 108
111
111 114 114 115 116 117 117 119 120 121 121 122 122 127
129
Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Design Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
iii
153
156 156 157 157 159 159 160 162 163 163 164 165 167 170 170 171 171 178 178 179 180
185
185 186 187 190
References Index
193 195
iv
Chapter I
Introduction
Overview
ETABS features powerful and completely integrated modules for design of both steel and reinforced concrete structures (CSI 1999, 2000). The program provides the user with options to create, modify, analyze and design structural models, all from within the same user interface. The program provides an interactive environment in which the user can study the stress conditions, make appropriate changes, such as revising member properties, and reexamine the results without the need to rerun the analysis. A single mouse click on an element brings up detailed design information. Members can be grouped together for design purposes. The output in both graphical and tabulated formats can be readily printed. The program is structured to support a wide variety of the latest national and international building design codes for the automated design and check of concrete and steel frame members. The program currently supports the following concrete frame design codes: U.S. ACI (ACI 1999), U.S. UBC (UBC 1997), Canadian (CSA 1994), Overview
ETABS Concrete Design Manual British (BSI 1989), European (CEN 1992), and New Zealand (NZS 310195). The design is based upon a set of userspecified loading combinations. However, the program provides a set of default load combinations for each design code supported in ETABS. If the default load combinations are acceptable, no definition of additional load combinations are required. In the design of the columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal and shear reinforcement. However the user may specify the longitudinal steel, in which case a column capacity ratio is reported. The column capacity ratio gives an indication of the stress condition with respect to the capacity of the column. Every beam member is designed for flexure and shear at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. The presentation of the output is clear and concise. The information is in a form that allows the engineer to take appropriate remedial measures in the event of member overstress. Backup design information produced by the program is also provided for convenient verification of the results. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used to define the model geometry and to specify design parameters.
Organization
This manual is organized in the following way: Chapter II outlines various aspects of the concrete design procedures of the ETABS program. This chapter describes the common terminology of concrete design as implemented in ETABS. Each of six subsequent chapters gives a detailed description of a specific code of practice as interpreted by and implemented in ETABS. Each chapter describes the design loading combination, column and beam design procedures, and other special consideration required by the code. In addition Chapter IV describes the joint design according to the UBC code. Chapter III gives a detailed description of the ACI code (ACI 1999) as implemented in ETABS.
Organization
Chapter I Introduction Chapter IV gives a detailed description of the UBC concrete code (UBC 1997) as implemented in ETABS. Chapter V gives a detailed description of the Canadian code (CSA 1994) as implemented in ETABS. Chapter VI gives a detailed description of the British code (BSI 1989) as implemented in ETABS. Chapter VII gives a detailed description of the Eurocode 2 (CEN 1992) as implemented in ETABS. Chapter VIII gives a detailed description of the New Zealand code (NZS 1997) as implemented in ETABS. Chapter IX outlines various aspects of the tabular and graphical output from ETABS related to concrete design.
Recommended Reading
It is recommended that the user read Chapter II Design Algorithms and one of six subsequent chapters corresponding to the code of interest to the user. Finally the user should read Design Output in Chapter IX for understanding and interpreting ETABS output related to concrete design. If the users interest is in the UBC concrete design code, it is recommended that the user should also read the chapter related to ACI code.
Recommended Reading
C h a p t e r II
Design Algorithms
This chapter outlines various aspects of the concrete design and designcheck procedures that are used by the ETABS program. The concrete design and check may be performed in ETABS according to one of the following design codes: The 1995 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, ACI 31899 (ACI 1999). International Conference of Building Officials 1997 Uniform Building Code: Volume 2: Structural Engineering Design Provisions, Chapter 19 Concrete, UBC 1997 (ICBO 1997). The 1994 Canadian Standards Association Design of Concrete Structures for Buildings, CSAA23.394 (CSA 1994). The 1989 British Standards Institution Structural Use of Concrete, BS 811085 R1989 (BSI 1989). The 1992 European Committee for Standardization, Design of Concrete Structures, EUROCODE 2 (CEN 1992). The 1995 Standards New Zealand Concrete Structures Standard, NZS 310195 (NZS 1995). Details of the algorithms associated with each of these codes as implemented in ETABS are described in the subsequent chapters. However, this chapter provides a background which is common to all the design codes.
ETABS Concrete Design Manual For referring to pertinent sections of the corresponding code, a unique prefix is assigned for each code. References to the ACI 31899 code has the prefix of ACI References to the UBC 1997 code has the prefix of UBC References to the Canadian code carry the prefix of CSA References to the British code carry the prefix of BS References to the Eurocode 2 carry the prefix of EC2 References to the New Zealand code carry the prefix of NZS In writing this manual it has been assumed that the user has an engineering background in the general area of structural reinforced concrete design and familiarity with at least one of the above mentioned design codes.
Chapter II Design Algorithms the code recommendations and are documented for each code in the corresponding chapters. For other loading conditions involving time history, pattern live loads, separate consideration of roof live load, snow load, etc., the user must define design loading combinations either in lieu of or in addition to the default design loading combinations. The default load combinations assume all static load cases declared as dead load to be additive. Similarly, all cases declared as live load are assumed additive. However, each static load case declared as wind or earthquake, or response spectrum cases, is assumed to be non additive with each other and produces multiple lateral load combinations. Also wind and static earthquake cases produce separate loading combinations with the sense (positive or negative) reversed. If these conditions are not correct, the user must provide the appropriate design combinations. The default load combinations are included in design if the user requests them to be included or if no other user defined combination is available for concrete design. If any default combination is included in design, then all default combinations will automatically be updated by the program any time the user changes to a different design code or if static or response spectrum load cases are modified. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an elementbyelement basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. The user is cautioned that if time history results are not requested to be recovered in the analysis for some or all the frame members, then the effects of these loads will be assumed to be zero in any combination that includes them.
ETABS Concrete Design Manual When using 1997 UBC design codes, requirements for joint design at the beam to column connections are evaluated at the topmost station of each column. The program also performs a joint shear analysis at the same station to determine if special considerations are required in any of the joint panel zones. The ratio of the beam flexural capacities with respect to the column flexural capacities considering axial force effect associated with the weak beamstrong column aspect of any beam/column intersection are reported.
Design of Beams
In the design of concrete beams, in general, ETABS calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears, load combination factors, and other criteria which are described in detail in the code specific chapters. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a userdefined number of stations along the beam span. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular section of a particular beam, the steps involve the determination of the maximum factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel. The beam section is de+ signed for the maximum positive M u and maximum negative M u factored moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations. Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or a Tbeam. For the design of flexural reinforcement, the beam is first designed as a singly reinforced beam. If the beam section is not adequate, then the required compression reinforcement is calculated.
Chapter II Design Algorithms In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set of loading combinations at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the steps involve the determination of the factored shear force, the determination of the shear force that can be resisted by concrete, and the determination of the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. Special considerations for seismic design are incorporated in ETABS for ACI, UBC, Canadian, and New Zealand codes.
Design of Columns
In the design of the columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal steel, or if the longitudinal steel is specified, the column stress condition is reported in terms of a column capacity ratio, which is a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial forcebiaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. A typical interaction surface is shown in Figure II2. Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each end of the column. This step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1.0. Design the column shear reinforcement. The generation of the interaction surface is based on the assumed strain and stress distributions and some other simplifying assumptions. These stress and strain distributions and the assumptions vary from code to code. A typical assumed strain distribution is described in Figure II1. Here maximum compression strain is limited to e c . For most of the design codes, this assumed distribution remains valid. However, the value of e c varies from code to code. For example, e c = 0.003 for ACI, UBC and New Zealand codes, and e c = 0.0035 for Canadian, British and European codes. The details of the generation of interaction surfaces differ from code to code. These are described in the chapters specific to the code.
Design of Columns
0
c
Reinforcement Bars
DIRECTION 1
0
c
DIRECTION
DIRECTION
A typical interaction surface is shown in Figure II2. The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the threedimensional interaction failure surface. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column as described in Figure II1. The area associated with each rebar is placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column. The interaction algorithm provides corrections to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcing in the compression zone.
10
Design of Columns
Pmax
Curve #1 Curve #2 M bx
1 3 2
Pbx Pby
Curve #NRCV
M by
Mx
My
P0
Axial tension
The effects of code specified strength reduction factors and maximum limit on the axial capacity are incorporated in the interaction surfaces. The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design, and allows for rectangular, square or circular, doubly symmetric column sections. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations as shown in Figure II2.
Design of Columns
11
C L P My Mx o
MX
MY
Axial Tension
The capacity check is based on whether the design load points lie inside the interaction volume in a force space, as shown in Figure II3. If the point lies inside the volume, the column capacity is adequate, and vice versa. The point in the interaction volume (P, M x , and M y ) which is represented by point L is placed in the interaction space as shown in Figure II3. If the point lies within the interaction volume, the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the interaction volume, the column is overstressed. As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calculated. This ratio is achieved by plotting the point L, defined by P, Mx and My, and determining the location of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio OL OC .
12
Design of Columns
If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. In other words, if the axial force and biaxial moment set for which the column is being checked is amplified by dividing it by the reported capacity ratio, the point defined by the resulting axial force and biaxial moment set will lie on the failure (or interaction volume) surface. Design of Columns
13
ETABS Concrete Design Manual The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that for beams, except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear capacity needs to be considered. For certain special seismic cases, the design of column for shear is based on the capacityshear. The capacityshear force in a particular direction is calculated from the moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column. For each load combination, the factored axial load is calculated, using the ETABS analysis load cases and the corresponding load combination factors. Then, the moment capacity of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force is calculated, using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction as shown in Figure II4.
Design of Joints
To ensure that the beamcolumn joint of special moment resisting frames possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis of the beamcolumn panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength. Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The material properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint. The joint analysis is done in the major and the minor directions of the column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:
h Determine the panel zone design shear force, V u
Determine the effective area of the joint Check panel zone shear stress The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above mentioned steps. Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force For a particular column direction, major or minor, the free body stress condition of a typical beamcolumn intersection is shown in Figure II5. The force V uh is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated. The L R forces that act on the joint are Pu , V u , M u and M u . The forces Pu and V u are axial force and shear force, respectively, from the column framing into the top of the L R joint. The moments M u and M u are obtained from the beams framing into the
14
Design of Joints
Chapter II Design Algorithms joint. The joint shear forceV uh is calculated by resolving the moments into C and T forces.
The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment using basic principles of ultimate strength theory. Noting that TL = C L and TR = C R , V uh = TL + TR  V u
Design of Joints
15
ETABS Concrete Design Manual The moments and the C and T forces from beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor directions of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated, thereby contributing force components to the analysis. In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames, the evaluation of the design shear force is based upon the moment capacities (with reinforcing steel overstrength factor, , and no factors) of the beams framing into the joint, (ACI 21.5.1.1, UBC 1921.5.1.1). The C and T force are based upon these moment capacities. The column shear forceV u is calculated from the beam moment capacities as follows: Vu =
L R Mu + Mu H
See Figure II6. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure II6 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns. The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure II5 are investigated and the design is based upon the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases. Determine the Effective Area of Joint The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectangular in plan view. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major and minor dimensions of the column below the joint, except if the beam framing into the joint is very narrow. The effective width of the joint area to be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of the column. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the column below. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor directions is calculated separately (ACI R21.5.3). It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically, the above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate the acceptability of the particular joint. Check Panel Zone Shear Stress The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear forceV uh by the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear strengths (ACI 21.5.3, UBC 1921.5.3) :
16
Design of Joints
= 15 j 12 j
f c , for joints confined on all four sides, f c , for joints confined on three faces or on two opposite faces, f c , for all other joints, (ACI 9.3.2.3, UBC 1909.3.2.3, 1909.3.4.1)
where j = 0.85 .
For joint design, the program reports the joint shear, the joint shear stress, the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio.
POINT OF INFLECTION
Vu
COLUMN ABOVE
TL
Vuh
CR
CL
TR
Mu
Design of Joints
17
Me
5
6
Mg
The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor, , and including factors. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure II5 and the maximum summation obtained is used. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint. For each load combination the axial force, Pu , in each of the columns is calculated from the ETABS analysis load conditions and the corresponding load combination factors. For each load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction diagram, see Figure II4. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio. The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special MomentResisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations.
PD Effects
The ETABS design algorithms require that the analysis results include the PD effects. The PD effects are considered differently for braced or nonsway and unbraced or sway components of moments in frames. For the braced moments in frames, the effect of PD is limited to individual member stability. For unbraced components, lateral drift effects should be considered in addition to individual member stability effect. In ETABS, it is assumed that braced or nonsway moments are contributed from the dead or live loads. Whereas, unbraced or sway moments are contributed from all other types of loads.
18
Chapter II Design Algorithms For the individual member stability effects, the moments are magnified with moment magnification factors as in the ACI, UBC, Canadian, and New Zealand codes or with additional moments as in the British and European codes. For lateral drift effects, ETABS assumes that the PD analysis is performed and that the amplification is already included in the results. The moments and forces obtained from PD analysis are further amplified for individual column stability effect if required by the governing code as in the ACI, UBC, Canadian, and New Zealand codes. The users of ETABS should be aware that the default analysis option in ETABS for PD effect is turned OFF. The default number of iterations for PD analysis is 1. The user should turn the PD analysis ON and set the maximum number of iterations for the analysis. For further reference, the user is referred to ETABS Users Manual Volume 2 (CSI 1999). The user is also cautioned that ETABS currently considers PD effects due to axial loads in frame members only. Forces in other types of elements do not contribute to this effect. If significant forces are present in other types of elements, for example, large axial loads in shear walls modeled as shell elements, then the additional forces computed for PD will be inaccurate.
19
l33
xis tA en m Ele J D EN
EN
l22
Therefore, the unsupported length of a column may actually be evaluated as being greater than the corresponding element length. If the beam frames into only one direction of the column, the beam is assumed to give lateral support only in that direction. The user has options to specify the unsupported lengths of the elements on an elementbyelement basis.
20
Chapter II Design Algorithms frame. The New Zealand code also requires that the concrete frame must be designed as either an Ordinary, Elastically responding, frames with Limited ductility, or Ductile moment resisting frame.
Unlike the ACI, UBC, Canadian, and New Zealand codes, the current implementation of the British code and the Eurocode 2 in ETABS does not account for any special requirements for seismic design.
21
C h a p t e r III
23
Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sqin Gross area of concrete, sqin Area of tension reinforcement, sqin Area of compression reinforcement, sqin Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sqin Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sqin Area of shear reinforcement, sqin Depth of compression block, in Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in Width of member, in Effective width of flange (TBeam section), in Width of web (TBeam section), in Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate moment magnification factor Depth to neutral axis, in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in Thickness of slab (TBeam section), in Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29,000,000 psi (ACI 8.5.2) Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi f y 80,000 psi (ACI 9.4) Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, psi Dimension of column, in Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section, in4
24
k L M1 M2 Mc M ns Ms Mu M ux M uy Pb Pc Pmax P0 Pu r Vc VE VD +L Vu Vp
a b1 bd ds d ns ec es j
Effective length factor Clear unsupported length, in Smaller factored end moment in a column, lbin Larger factored end moment in a column, lbin Factored moment to be used in design, lbin Nonsway component of factored end moment, lbin Sway component of factored end moment, lbin Factored moment at section, lbin Factored moment at section about Xaxis, lbin Factored moment at section about Yaxis, lbin Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, lb Critical buckling strength of column, lb Maximum axial load strength allowed, lb Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, lb Factored axial load at section, lb Radius of gyration of column section, in Shear resisted by concrete, lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads, lb Shear force from span loading, lb Factored shear force at a section, lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, lb Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor
25
ETABS Concrete Design Manual structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the stress check may need only one load combination, namely 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (ACI 9.2.1). However, in addition to the dead and live loads, if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads, and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible, then the following load combinations have to be considered (ACI 9.2). 1.4 DL 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL 0.9 DL 1.3 WL 0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL 0.9 DL 1.3 * 1.1 EL 0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL
1.7
1.7
These are also the default design load combinations in ETABS whenever the ACI 31899 code is used. The user is warned that the above load combinations involving seismic loads consider servicelevel seismic forces. Different load factors may apply with strengthlevel seismic forces (ACI R9.2.3). Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on an elementbyelement basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.
= 0.90 for flexure, = 0.90 for axial tension, = 0.90 for axial tension and flexure,
= 0.75
(ACI 9.3.2.1) (ACI 9.3.2.2) (ACI 9.3.2.2) (ACI 9.3.2.2) (ACI 9.3.2.2) (ACI 9.3.2.3)
for axial compression, and axial compression and flexure (spirally reinforced column), for axial compression, and axial compression and flexure (tied column), and
= 0.70
26
Column Design
The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II2. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ACI 10.9.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting frames (ACI 21.4.3.1). Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. Design the column shear reinforcement. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the abovementioned steps.
Column Design
27
ETABS Concrete Design Manual The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, e s E s , and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f y (ACI 10.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder. See Figure III1.
0.85 f'c
c
= 0.003 s1
1 Cs C 2 Cs a= 1c
d'
c
s2
s3 s4
Ts3 Ts4
The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of 0.85 f c (ACI 10.2.7.1). See Figure III1. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. The effects of the strength reduction factor, j , are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to jPn(max) , where
j j j j
Pn(max) = 0.85 j [0.85 f c ( Ag  Ast ) + f y Ast ] spiral column, (ACI 10.3.5.1) Pn(max) = 0.80 j [ 0.85 f c ( Ag  Ast ) + f y Ast ] tied column, = 0.70 for tied columns, and = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns. (ACI 10.3.5.2) (ACI 9.3.2.2) (ACI 9.3.2.2)
28
Column Design
Chapter III Design for ACI 31899 The value of j used in the interaction diagram varies from j (compression) to j (flexure) based on the axial load. For low values of axial load, j is increased linearly from j (compression) to j (flexure) as the jPn decreases from the smaller of jPb or 0.1 f c Ag to zero, where jPb is the axial force at the balanced condition. The j factor used in calculating jPn and jPb is the j (compression). In cases involving axial tension, j is always j (flexure) which is 0.9 by default (ACI 9.3.2.2).
Column Design
29
ETABS Concrete Design Manual The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway ( M s ) and the nonsway (M ns ) components. The nonsway components which are identified by ns subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load. The sway components are identified by the s subscripts. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads, and are related to the cause of side sway. For individual columns or columnmembers in a floor, the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M
=
M ns
+ds M s
(ACI 10.13.3)
The factor d s is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway. The moment magnification factors for sway moments, d s , is taken as 1 because the component moments M s and M ns are obtained from a second order elastic (PD) analysis (ACI R10.10, 10.10.1, R10.13, 10.13.4.1). The program assumes that a PD analysis has been performed in ETABS and, therefore, moment magnification factor d s for moments causing sidesway is taken as unity (ACI 10.10.2). For the PD analysis the load should correspond to a load combination of 1.4 dead load + 1.7 live load (ACI 10.13.6). See also White and Hajjar (1991). The user should use reduction factors for the moment of inertias in ETABS as specified in ACI 10.11. The moment of intertia reduction for sustained lateral load involves a factor b d (ACI 10.11). This b d for sway frame in secondorder analysis is different from the one that is defined later for nonsway moment magnification (ACI 10.0, R10.12.3, R10.13.4.1). The default moment of inertia factor in ETABS is 1. The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (ACI 10.12.3, 10.13.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor, d ns , as follows: Mc
= d ns M
, where
(ACI 10.12.3)
M c is the factored moment to be used in design. The nonsway moment magnification factor, d ns , associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10.12.3)
d ns
Cm Pu 10.75 Pc
1.0 ,
where
(ACI 10.12.3)
C m = 0.6 + 0.4
Ma Mb
0.4 ,
(ACI 10.12.3.1)
30
Column Design
Chapter III Design for ACI 31899 M a and M b are the moments at the ends of the column, and M b is numerically larger than M a . M a M b is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. The above expression of C m is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present on the span, or the length is overwritten, C m = 1. C m can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis. Pc = EI , where ( kl u ) 2
p
2
(ACI 10.12.3)
k is conservatively taken as 1, however ETABS allows the user to override this value (ACI 10.12.1), l u is the unsupported length of the column for the direction of bending considered. The two unsupported lengths are l 22 and l 33 corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element, respectively. See Figure II7. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions. EI is associated with a particular column direction: EI = 0.4 E c I g 1 + bd , where (ACI 10.12.3)
bd =
maximum factored axial sustained (dead) load .(ACI 10.0,R10.12.3) maximum factored axial total load
The magnification factor, d ns , must be a positive number and greater than one. Therefore Pu must be less than 0.75Pc . If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0.75Pc , a failure condition is declared. The above calculations are done for major and minor directions separately. That means that d s , d ns , C m , k, l u , EI, and Pc assume different values for major and minor directions of bending. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the user can explicitly specify values of d s and d ns .
Column Design
31
ETABS Concrete Design Manual Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu , M ux ,and M uy . The point (Pu , M ux , M uy ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure II3. If the point lies within the interaction volume, the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the interaction volume, the column is overstressed. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. OL See Figure II3. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio . OC If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling Pu , M ux ,and M uy set and associated load combination number. If the reinforcing area is not defined, ETABS computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity.
32
Column Design
Chapter III Design for ACI 31899 For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the shear design of the columns is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored moments. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the abovementioned steps.
+ V D+ L
(ACI 21.4.5.1)
where,V p is the capacityshear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 , where V P1 = V P2 = M I + M J+ , and L M I+ + M J, where L = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0),
M I+ , M I
Column Design
33
ETABS Concrete Design Manual M J+ , M J= Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0), and Clear span of column.
For Special moment resisting frames a is taken as 1.25 (ACI 10.0, R21.4.5.1). V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distribution of gravity loads. For most of the columns, it is zero. For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the capacityshear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (j = 1.0) moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames, except that a is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a, R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21.10.3.b).
Pu 2000 Ag
Acv , where
(ACI 11.3.1.2)
f c Vc
100 psi,
and
1+
3.5 f c
Acv .
(ACI 11.3.2.2)
The term Pu Ag must have psi units. Acv is the effective shear area which is shown shaded in Figure III2. For circular columns Acv is taken to be equal to the gross area of the section (ACI 11.3.3, R11.3.3).
34
Column Design
Figure III2 Shear Stress Area, Acv If the column is subjected to axial tension, Pu is negative, V c = 2 f c 1 +
Pu 500 Ag
Acv
(ACI 11.3.2.3)
For Special moment resisting concrete frame design, V c is set to zero if the factored axial compressive force, Pu , including the earthquake effect is small ( Pu < f c Ag / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake, V E , is
Column Design
35
ETABS Concrete Design Manual more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the member V u (V E 0.5 V u ) (ACI 21.4.5.2).
Av =
8 f c Acv
(ACI 11.5.6.9)
Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here j , the strength reduction factor, is 0.85 (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all the calculated Av values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label. The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.
Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, ETABS calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check/design stations along the beam span. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
36
Beam Design
Chapter III Design for ACI 31899 Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement
Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular or a Tbeam.
Beam Design
37
ETABS Concrete Design Manual The design procedure used by ETABS, for both rectangular and flanged sections (L and Tbeams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.1f c Ag (ACI 10.3.3), hence all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M u , (i.e. designing top or bottom steel) the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure III3), where, a
=
d2
2 Mu 0.85 f c
j
(ACI 10.2.7.1)
= 0.003 b
0.85f'c
A's
Cs
d'
a=
1c
Ts
Tc
Figure III3 Design of Rectangular Beam Section where, the value of j is 0.90 (ACI 9.3.2.1) in the above and the following equations. Also b1 and c b are calculated as follows:
b1
= 0.85  0.05
f c
4000 , 1000

0.65 b1
0.85,
(ACI 10.2.7.3)
38
Beam Design
cb
+fy
87 000 d. 87 000 + f y
0.75 b1 c b .
a 2
This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M u is positive, or at the top if M u is negative. If a > a max , compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C
= 0.85
f c ba max , and
(ACI 10.2.7.1)
a max 2
Mu
M uc .
M us , where f s ( d  d ) j
= 0.003 E s
c  d
(ACI 10.2.4)
The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is As1
=
M uc a f y d  max 2
, and
j
Beam Design
39
ETABS Concrete Design Manual the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As 2
=
M us . f y ( d  d ) j
Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, As = As1 + As 2 , and total compression reinforcement is As . As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top if M u is positive, and vice versa if M u is negative. Design for TBeam In designing for a factored negative moment, M u , (i.e. designing top steel), the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no TBeam data is to be used. See Figure III4. If M u > 0 , the depth of the compression block is given by a
=
d2
2Mu . 0.85 f c j b f
0.75 b1 c b .
bf ds = 0.003
d' As'
c d
fs'
Cs
Cf
Cw
Ts
Tw
Tf
40
Beam Design
Chapter III Design for ACI 31899 If a d s , the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a max . If a > d s , calculation for As is done in two parts. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange, C f , and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web, C w , as shown in Figure III4. C f is given by Cf
= 0.85 f c ( b f  b w
)d s .
Cf fy
ds 2
Again, the value for j is j (flexure) which is 0.90 by default. Therefore, the balance of the moment, M u to be carried by the web is given by M uw = M u

M uf .
The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b w and d, for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1
=
d2
2 M uw . 0.85 f c j b w
If a1 As 2
=
a1 2
, and
As
= As1 + As 2
Beam Design
41
ETABS Concrete Design Manual If a1 > a max , compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C
= 0.85 f c ba max
(ACI 10.2.7.1)
a max 2
, and
M uw
M uc .
M us , where f s ( d  d ) j
= 0.003 E s
c  d
(ACI 10.2.4)
M uc a f y d  max 2
, and
j
M us . f y ( d  d ) j
The total tensile reinforcement, As = As1 + As 2 + As 3 , and total compression reinforcement is As . As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top. Minimum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits:
42
Beam Design
As As
max
f c fy
b w d and
200 b w d or fy
(ACI 10.5.1)
( 43 )
As (required ).
(ACI 10.5.3)
Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table III2): The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both at the top and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As (min) (ACI 21.3.2.1). As(min)
max
f c fy
b w d and
200 b w d or fy
(ACI 10.5.1)
As(min)
4 As (required ) . 3
(ACI 10.5.3)
0.025 b w d .
(ACI 21.3.2.1)
At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity (i.e. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative moment capacity (i.e. associated with the top steel) at that end (ACI 21.3.2.2). Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21.3.2.2). For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (ACI 21.10.4.1). Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21.10.4.1).
Beam Design
43
+ V D+ L
(ACI 21.3.4.1)
where,V p is the capacityshear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 , where
44
Beam Design
Chapter III Design for ACI 31899 M I + M J+ , and L M I+ + M J, where L = Moment capacity at end I, with top steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0), Moment capacity at end J, with bottom steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0), Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0),
V P1 = V P2 = M I
M J+
M I+
M J
For Special moment resisting frames a is taken as 1.25 (ACI 21.0, R21.3.4.1). V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distribution of gravity loads. For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacityshear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal (j = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames, except that a is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a, R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21.10.3.b). The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame, is also the same as that for columns, which is described earlier on page 34. See also Table III2 for details.
Beam Design
45
For Special moment resisting frame concrete design,V c is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force including the earthquake effect Pu is less than f c Ag / 20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V E is more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member V u (i.e. V E 0.5 V u ) (ACI 21.3.4.2).
(V u /j  V c ) s . f ys d
( V u /j  V c)
8 f c bd ,
(ACI 11.5.6.9)
Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here, j , the strength reduction factor for shear which is 0.85 by default (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all the calculated Av values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based purely upon shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.
Design of Joints
To ensure that the beamcolumn joint of special moment resisting frames possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis of the beamcolumn panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.
46
Design of Joints
Chapter III Design for ACI 31899 Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The material properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint. The joint analysis is done in the major and the minor directions of the column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps: Determine the panel zone design shear force, V uh Determine the effective area of the joint Check panel zone shear stress The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above mentioned steps.
Design of Joints
47
Vu =
See Figure II6. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure II6 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns. The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure II5 are investigated and the design is based upon the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases.
f c , for joints confined on all four sides, f c , for joints confined on three faces or on two opposite faces, f c , for all other joints, (ACI 9.3.2.3)
For joint design, the program reports the joint shear, the joint shear stress, the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio.
48
Design of Joints
Me
5
6
Mg
(ACI 21.4.2.2)
The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor, , and including factors. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure II5 and the maximum summation obtained is used. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint. For each load combination the axial force, Pu , in each of the columns is calculated from the ETABS analysis load conditions and the corresponding load combination factors. For each load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction diagram, see Figure II4. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio. The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special MomentResisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. If this ratio is greater than 5/6, a warning message is printed in the output file.
49
NLDa Combinations
NLDa Combinations
NLDa Combinations
NLDa Combinations 1% < < 8% Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column Capacity = 1.0 and = 1.0
NLDa Combinations = 1.0 1% < < 6% NLDa Combinations and Column shear capacity = 1.0 and = 1.25 NLDa Combinations r 0.025 3 fc 200 ,r r fy fy 1 M uEND 2 1 max M u+ , M u4 1 max M u , M u4
Column Shears
NLD Combinations
NLDa Combinations
NLDa Combinations
+ M uEND
No Requirement
+ M uSPAN
M uSPAN
+ M uEND
{ {
} }
END
+ M uSPAN
END
END
uSPAN
END
NLDa Combinations
Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Beam Capacity Shear (VP ) with = 1.0 and = 1.0 plus VD+L No Requirement
NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (VP ) with = 1.25 and = 1.0 plus VD+L Vc = 0 Checked for shear
No Requirement
No Requirement
No Requirement
50
C h a p t e r IV
51
Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sqin Gross area of concrete, sqin Area of tension reinforcement, sqin Area of compression reinforcement, sqin Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sqin Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sqin Area of shear reinforcement, sqin Depth of compression block, in Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in Width of member, in Effective width of flange (TBeam section), in Width of web (TBeam section), in Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate moment magnification factor Depth to neutral axis, in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in Thickness of slab (TBeam section), in Diameter of hoop, in Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29,000,000 psi (UBC 1908.5.2) Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi f y 80,000 psi (UBC 1909.4) Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, psi Dimension of column, in Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section, in4 Table IV1 List of Symbols Used in the UBC code
52
k L M1 M2 Mc M ns Ms Mu M ux M uy Pb Pc Pmax P0 Pu r Vc VE VD +L Vu Vp
a b1 bd ds d ns ec es j
Effective length factor Clear unsupported length, in Smaller factored end moment in a column, lbin Larger factored end moment in a column, lbin Factored moment to be used in design, lbin Nonsway component of factored end moment, lbin Sway component of factored end moment, lbin Factored moment at section, lbin Factored moment at section about Xaxis, lbin Factored moment at section about Yaxis, lbin Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, lb Critical buckling strength of column, lb Maximum axial load strength allowed, lb Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, lb Factored axial load at section, lb Radius of gyration of column section, in Shear resisted by concrete, lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads, lb Shear force from span loading, lb Factored shear force at a section, lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, lb Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor
53
ETABS Concrete Design Manual When using the UBC 97 option, the following Framing Systems are recognized and designed according to the UBC design provisions (UBC 1627, 1921): Ordinary MomentResisting Frame (OMF) Intermediate MomentResisting Frame (IMRF) Special MomentResisting Frame (SMRF) The Ordinary MomentResisting Frame (OMF) is appropriate in minimal seismic risk areas, especially in Seismic Zones 0 and 1. The Intermediate MomentResisting Frame (IMRF) is appropriate in moderate seismic risk areas, specially in Seismic Zone 2. The Special MomentResisting Frame (SMRF) is appropriate in high seismic risk areas, specially in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. The UBC seismic design provisions are considered in ETABS. The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in the following sections. By default the frame type is taken in ETABS as OMRF in Seismic Zone 0 and 1, as IMRF in Seismic Zone 2, and as SMRF in Seismic Zone 3 and 4. However, the frame type can be overwritten in the Overwrites form on a member by member basis. If any member is assigned with a frame type, the change of the Seismic Zone in the Preference will not modify the frame type of the individual member for which it is assigned. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is based on InchPoundSecond units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to InchPoundSecond units unless otherwise noted.
54
Chapter IV Design for UBC 97 0.9 DL 1.3 WL 0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL 0.9 DL 1.0 EL 1.2 DL + 0.5 LL
1.7
WL)
(UBC 1909.2.2) (UBC 1909.2.2) (UBC 1909.2.3, 1612.2.1) (UBC 1909.2.3, 1612.2.1)
1.0 EL)
These are also the default design load combinations in ETABS whenever the UBC97 code is used. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on an elementbyelement basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.
= 0.90 for flexure, = 0.90 for axial tension, = 0.90 for axial tension and flexure,
= 0.75
(UBC 1909.3.2.1) (UBC 1909.3.2.2) (UBC 1909.3.2.2) (UBC 1909.3.2.2) (UBC 1909.3.2.2) (UBC 1909.3.2.3) (UBC 1909.3.2.3)
for axial compression, and axial compression and flexure (spirally reinforced column), for axial compression, and axial compression and flexure (tied column),
= 0.70
j j
= 0.85 for shear and torsion (nonseismic design), = 0.60 for shear and torsion
55
Column Design
The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II2. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (UBC 1910.9.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting frames (UBC 1921.4.3.1). Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. Design the column shear reinforcement. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the abovementioned steps.
56
Column Design
Chapter IV Design for UBC 97 The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, e s E s , and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f y (UBC 1910.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder. See Figure III1.
The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of 0.85 f c (UBC 1910.2.7.1). See Figure III1. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. The effects of the strength reduction factor, j , are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to jPn(max) , where
j j
Pn(max) = 0.85 j [0.85 f c ( Ag  Ast ) + f y Ast ] (spiral), Pn(max) = 0.80 j [ 0.85 f c ( Ag  Ast ) + f y Ast ] (tied),
Column Design
57
= 0.70 for tied columns, and = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns.
The value of j used in the interaction diagram varies from j min to 0.9 based on the axial load. For low values of axial load, j is increased linearly from j min to 0.9 as the nominal capacity jPn decreases from the smaller of jPb or 0.1 f c Ag to zero, where Pb is the axial force at the balanced condition. In cases involving axial tension, j is always 0.9 (UBC 1909.3.2.2).
58
Column Design
Chapter IV Design for UBC 97 moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different. The program assumes that a PD analysis has been performed in ETABS and, therefore, moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity (UBC 1910.10.2). For the PD analysis the load should correspond to a load combination of 0.75 (1.4 dead load + 1.7 live load)/j if wind load governs, or (1.2 dead load + 0.50 live load)/j if seismic load governs, where j is the understrength factor for stability which is taken as 0.75 (UBC 1910.12.3). See also White and Hajjar (1991). The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway ( M s ) and the nonsway (M ns ) components. The nonsway components which are identified by ns subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load. The sway components are identified by the s subscripts. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads, and are related to the cause of side sway. For individual columns or columnmembers in a floor, the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M
=
M ns
+ds M s
(UBC 1910.13.3)
The factor d s is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway. The moment magnification factors for sway moments, d s , is taken as 1 because the component moments M s and M ns are obtained from a second order elastic (PD) analysis. The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (UBC 1910.12.3, 1910.13.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor, d ns , as follows: Mc
= d ns M 2
, where
(UBC 1910.12.3)
M c is the factored moment to be used in design, and M 2 is the larger factored and amplified end moment. The nonsway moment magnification factor, d ns , associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (UBC 1910.12.3)
d ns
Cm Pu 10.75 Pc
1.0 ,
where
(UBC 1910.12.3)
Column Design
59
Pc =
(UBC 1910.12.3)
k is conservatively taken as 1, however ETABS allows the user to override this value, and EI is associated with a particular column direction given by: EI = 0.4 E c I g 1 + bd , (UBC 1910.12.3)
bd =
maximum factored axial dead load , and maximum factored axial total load Ma Mb
0.4 .
C m = 0.6 + 0.4
M a and M b are the moments at the ends of the column, and M b is numerically larger than M a . M a M b is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. The above expression of C m is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present on the span, or the length is overwritten, C m = 1. C m can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis. The magnification factor, d ns , must be a positive number and greater than one. Therefore Pu must be less than 0.75Pc . If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0.75Pc , a failure condition is declared. The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. The two unsupported lengths are l 22 and l 33 corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element, respectively. See Figure II7. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the user can explicitly specify values of d s and d ns .
60
Column Design
Chapter IV Design for UBC 97 Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu , M ux ,and M uy . The point (Pu , M ux , M uy ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure II3. If the point lies within the interaction volume, the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the interaction volume, the column is overstressed. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. OL See Figure II3. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio . OC If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling Pu , M ux ,and M uy set and associated load combination number. If the reinforcing area is not defined, ETABS computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity.
Column Design
61
ETABS Concrete Design Manual For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the shear design of the columns is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored moments. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the abovementioned steps.
+ V D+ L
(UBC 1921.4.5.1)
where,V p is the capacityshear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 , where V P1 = V P2 = M I + M J+ , and L M I+ + M J, where L = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0),
M I+ , M I
62
Column Design
Chapter IV Design for UBC 97 M J+ , M J= Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0), and Clear span of column.
For Special moment resisting frames a is taken as 1.25 (UBC 1921.0). V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distribution of gravity loads. For most of the columns, it is zero. For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the capacityshear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (j = 1.0) moment capacity and factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames, except that a is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (UBC 1921.0, 1921.8.3). The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.8.3).
Pu 2000 Ag
Acv ,
(UBC 1911.3.1.2)
where, f c Vc
100 psi,
and
1+
3.5 f c
Acv .
(UBC 1911.3.2.2)
The term
Pu must have psi units. Acv is the effective shear area which is shown Ag
shaded in Figure IV2. For circular columns Acv is not taken to be greater than 0.8 times the gross area (UBC 1911.5.6.2). Column Design
63
ETABS Concrete Design Manual If the column is subjected to axial tension, Pu is negative, V c = 2 f c 1 +
Pu 500 Ag
Acv
(UBC 1911.3.2.3)
For Special moment resisting concrete frame design, V c is set to zero if the factored axial compressive force, Pu , including the earthquake effect is small ( Pu < f c Ag / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake, V E , is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the member V u (V E 0.5 V u ) (UBC 1921.4.5.2).
Av =
8 f c Acv
(UBC 1911.5.6.8)
Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here j , the strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calculated Av values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label. The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.
64
Column Design
Column Design
65
Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, ETABS calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check/design stations along the beam span. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement
Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular or a Tbeam.
66
Beam Design
d2
2 Mu 0.85 f c
j
where, the value of j is 0.90 (UBC 1909.3.2.1) in the above and the following equations. Also b1 and c b are calculated as follows:
b1
= 0.85  0.05
= e c Es e c Es
f c
4000 , 1000

0.65 b1
0.85,
(UBC 1910.2.7.3)
cb
+fy
87 000 d. 87 000 + f y
0.75 b1 c b .
Beam Design
67
a 2
This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M u is positive, or at the top if M u is negative. If a > a max , compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.3.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C
= 0.85
f c ba max , and
(UBC 1910.2.7.1)
a max 2
68
Beam Design
Chapter IV Design for UBC 97 Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M us
=
Mu
M uc .
M us , where f s ( d  d ) j
= 0.003 E s
c  d
(UBC 1910.2.4)
The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is As1
=
M uc a f y d  max 2
, and
j
M us . f y ( d  d ) j
Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, As = As1 + As 2 , and total compression reinforcement is As . As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top if M u is positive, and vice versa if M u is negative. Design for TBeam In designing for a factored negative moment, M u , (i.e. designing top steel), the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no TBeam data is to be used. See Figure IV4. If M u > 0 , the depth of the compression block is given by a
=
d2
2Mu . 0.85 f c j b f
0.75 b1 c b .
(UBC 1910.2.7.1)
Beam Design
69
If a d s , the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a max . If a > d s , calculation for As is done in two parts. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange, C f , and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web, C w , as shown in Figure IV4. C f is given by Cf
= 0.85 f c ( b f  b w
)d s .
Cf fy
ds 2
70
Beam Design
Chapter IV Design for UBC 97 Again, the value for j is 0.90. Therefore, the balance of the moment, M u to be carried by the web is given by M uw = M u

M uf .
The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b w and d, for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1
=
d2
2 M uw . 0.85 f c j b w
If a1 As 2
=
a1 2
, and
As
= As1 + As 2
This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the Tbeam. If a1 > a max , compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.3.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C
= 0.85 f c ba max
(UBC 1910.2.7.1)
a max 2
, and
M uw
M uc .
M us , where f s ( d  d ) j
Beam Design
71
= 0.003 E s
(UBC 1910.2.4)
M uc a f y d  max 2
, and
j
M us . f y ( d  d ) j
The total tensile reinforcement, As = As1 + As 2 + As 3 , and total compression reinforcement is As . As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top. Minimum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As
max
f c fy
b w d and
200 b w d or fy
(UBC 1910.5.1)
As
4 As (required ). 3
(UBC 1910.5.3)
Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table IV2 for comprehensive listing) : The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both at the top and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As (min) (UBC 1921.3.2.1).
72
Beam Design
As(min)
max
f c fy
bw d ,
200 b w d or fy
As(min)
4 As (required ) . 3
0.025 b w d .
(UBC 1921.3.2.1)
At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity (i.e. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative moment capacity (i.e. associated with the top steel) at that end (UBC 1921.3.2.2). Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (UBC 1921.3.2.2). For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (UBC 1921.8.4.1). Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (UBC 1921.8.4.1).
Beam Design
73
ETABS Concrete Design Manual For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the shear design of the beams is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored load design. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the abovementioned steps.
+ V D+ L
(UBC 1921.3.4.1)
where,V p is the capacityshear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 , where V P1 = V P2 = M IM I + M J+ , and L M I+ + M J, where L = Moment capacity at end I, with top steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0),
74
Beam Design
Chapter IV Design for UBC 97 M J+ = Moment capacity at end J, with bottom steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0), Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0),
M I+
M J
For Special moment resisting frames a is taken as 1.25 (UBC 1921.0). V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distribution of gravity loads. For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacityshear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal (j = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames, except that a is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (UBC 1921.0, 1921.8.3). The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.8.3). The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame, is also the same as that for columns, which is described earlier on page 63. See also Table IV2 for details.
For Special moment resisting frame concrete design,V c is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force including the earthquake effect Pu is less than f c Ag / 20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V E is more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member V u (i.e. V E 0.5 V u ) (UBC 1921.3.4.2). Beam Design
75
(V u /j  V c ) s . f ys d
( V u /j  V c)
8 f c bd .
(UBC 1911.5.6.8)
Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here j , the strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calculated Av values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based purely upon shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.
Design of Joints
To ensure that the beamcolumn joint of Special Moment Resisting Frames possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis of the beamcolumn panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength. Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The material properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint. The joint analysis is done in the major and the minor directions of the column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps: Determine the panel zone design shear force, V uh Determine the effective area of the joint Check panel zone shear stress
76
Design of Joints
Chapter IV Design for UBC 97 The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above mentioned steps.
See Figure II6. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure II6 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns. The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure II5 are investigated and the design is based upon the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases.
Design of Joints
77
f c , for joints confined on all four sides, f c , for joints confined on three faces or on two opposite faces, f c , for all other joints, (UBC 1909.3.2.3, 1909.3.4.1)
= 15 j 12 j
where j = 0.85 .
For joint design, the program reports the joint shear, the joint shear stress, the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio.
Me
5
6
Mg
(UBC 1921.4.2.2)
78
Chapter IV Design for UBC 97 The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor, , and including factors. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure II5 and the maximum summation obtained is used. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint. For each load combination the axial force, Pu , in each of the columns is calculated from the ETABS analysis load conditions and the corresponding load combination factors. For each load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction diagram, see Figure II4. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio. The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special MomentResisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. If this ratio is greater than 5/6, a warning message is printed in the output file.
79
NLDa Combinations
NLDa Combinations
NLDa Combinations
NLDa Combinations 1% < < 8% Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column Capacity = 1.0 and = 1.0
NLDa Combinations = 1.0 1% < < 6% NLDa Combinations and Column shear capacity = 1.0 and = 1.25 NLDa Combinations r 0.025 3 fc 200 ,r r fy fy 1 M uEND 2 1 max M u+ , M u4 1 max M u , M u4
Column Shears
NLD Combinations
NLDa Combinations
NLDa Combinations
+ M uEND
No Requirement
+ M uSPAN
M uSPAN
+ M uEND
{ {
} }
END
+ M uSPAN
END
END
uSPAN
END
NLDa Combinations
Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Beam Capacity Shear (VP ) with = 1.0 and = 1.0 plus VD+L No Requirement
NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (VP ) with = 1.25 and = 1.0 plus VD+L Vc = 0 Checked for shear
No Requirement
No Requirement
No Requirement
80
Chapter V
81
Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sqmm Area of concrete core, sqmm Gross area of concrete, sqmm Area of tension reinforcement, sqmm Area of compression reinforcement, sqmm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sqmm Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sqmm Area of shear reinforcement, sqmm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (TBeam section), mm Width of web (TBeam section), mm Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate moment magnification factor Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, mm Thickness of slab (TBeam section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Dimension of beam or column, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, mm4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section, mm4 Effective length factor Clear unsupported length, mm Smaller factored end moment in a column, Nmm Table V1 List of Symbols Used in the Canadian code
82
b1 a1 bd db ds ec es jc js jm l
Larger factored end moment in a column, Nmm Factored moment to be used in design, Nmm Nonsway component of factored end moment, Nmm Sway component of factored end moment, Nmm Factored moment at section, Nmm Factored moment at section about Xaxis, Nmm Factored moment at section about Yaxis, Nmm Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, N Critical buckling strength of column, N Maximum axial load strength allowed, N Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, N Factored axial load at section, N Shear resisted by concrete, N Shear force from span loading, N Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Reinforcing steel overstrength factor is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension An angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses with the longitudinal axis of beam or column Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Factor for obtaining average compressive stress in concrete block Absolute value of the ratio of the maximum factored axial dead load moment to the maximum factored total load moment Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Moment magnification factor for sway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor for concrete Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Shear strength factor Table V1 List of Symbols Used in the Canadian code (continued)
83
1.50
WL)
1.00
EL)
These are also the default design load combinations in ETABS whenever the Canadian Code is used. In generating the above default loading combinations, the importance factor is taken as 1. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated, other types of loads are present, or pattern live loads are to be considered. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an elementbyelement basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.
In some special cases, a member resistance factor, j m , is used as an additional reduction factor in addition to j c and j s (CSA 8.4.1). In connection with buckling resistance, j m is taken as 0.75 (CSA 10.15.3).
84
Column Design
The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II2. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Nominal moment resisting frames (CSA 10.9.1 and CSA 10.9.2) and 1 to 6 percent for Ductile moment resisting frames (CSA 21.4.3.1). Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. Design the column shear reinforcement. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the abovementioned steps.
Column Design
85
ETABS Concrete Design Manual The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, e s E s , and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f y (CSA 8.5.3.2). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder). See Figure V1.
1 f'c
c
= 0.0035 s1
1 Cs C 2 Cs a= 1c
d'
c
s2
s3 s4
Ts3 Ts4
Figure V1 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of a 1 f c (CSA 10.1.7). See Figure V1. The depth of the stress block is b1 c, where
a 1 = 0.85  0.0015 b1 = 0.97  0.0025
f c , f c ,
a 1 0.67 b1 0.67
The limit of f c is taken to be 80 MPa for Ordinary moment resisting frames and 55 MPa for Nominal and Ductile moment resisting frames: f c f c
80 55
MPa MPa
86
Column Design
Chapter V Design for CSAA23.394 The limit of f y is taken to be 500 MPa for all frames: fy
500
MPa.
(CSA 8.5.1)
The interaction algorithm provides a correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. The effects of the strength reduction factors are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to Pr,max , where the maximum factored axial load resistance is given by Pr,max = 0.80 [ j c Pr,max = 0.85 [ j c
a1 a1
f c ( Ag  Ast ) + j s f y Ast ] (tied column), (CSA 10.10.4) f c ( Ag  Ast ) + j s f y Ast ] (spiral column). (CSA 10.10.4)
87
ETABS Concrete Design Manual the code, this amplification is significant for unbraced frames only and may be avoided for braced frames, ETABS treats all frames uniformly to amplify nonsway components of moments. These amplified moments are further amplified for individual member stability effect. According to the code, the individual member stability effect is only significant if kL 25  10 M 1 M 2 , for braced frames, and r P f c Ag
f
(CSA 10.15.2)
kL r
35 P f f c Ag
(CSA 10.16.4)
However, ETABS considers individual member stability effect for all compression column elements. Lateral Drift Effect For all frames, the moment magnification factor for lateral drift effect is applied only to the sway moment in ETABS. M
=
M ns
+ds M s
(CSA 10.16.2)
The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway ( M s ) and the nonsway ( M ns ) components. The nonsway or braced components which are identified by ns subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load. The sway components are identified by s subscripts. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads, and are related to the cause of side sway. The moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions can, in general, be different. The moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway, d sx and d sy , can be taken as 1.0 if a PD analysis is carried out (CSA 10.16.3.1). The program assumes that a PD analysis has been performed in ETABS and, therefore, moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity. For the PD analysis the load should correspond to a load combination of (1.25 DL + 1.50 LL)/j m (CSA 10.16.5), where j m is the strength reduction factor for stability and is equal to 0.75 (CSA 10.15.3). See also White and Hajjar (1991). The user is reminded of the special analysis requirements, especially those related to the value of EI used in analysis (CSA 10.14.1). ETABS analysis uses EI of gross crosssectional area in conjunction with a multiplication factor. The multiplication
88
Column Design
Chapter V Design for CSAA23.394 factors are defined in a sectionbysection basis, so that effect of axial force and cracking can be modeled in a first order analysis. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the user can explicitly specify values of d sx and d sy . Member Stability Effects All compression members are designed using the factored axial load, P f , from the analysis and a magnified factored moment, M c . The magnified moment is computed as, Mc
=db M 2
M2 ,
(CSA 10.15.3)
where M 2 is the column maximum end moment obtained from elastic analysis after considering minimum eccentricity and lateral drift effect, and M c is the maximum moment occurring either at the end or at an interior point within the span of the column. The moment magnification factor, d b , for moments not causing sidesway associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by
db =
1jm
Cm Pf
jm
1.0 , where
(CSA 10.15.3)
= 0.75 ,
p
Pc =
EI , ( kL) 2
k is conservatively taken as 1, however the user can override the value, EI is associated with a particular column direction given by EI = 0.25 E c I g , and C m = 0.6 + 0.4 Ma Mb
0.4 ,
M a and M b are the moments at the ends of the column, and M b is numerically larger than M a . M a M b is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. The above expression of C m is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present on the span, or the length is overwritten, or for any
Column Design
89
ETABS Concrete Design Manual other case, C m = 1 (CSA 10.15.3.2) . C m can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis. The premagnified factored moments are increased, if required, to obtain minimum eccentricities, such that C m M P f is at least (15 + 0.03 h ) mm about each axis separately, where h is the dimension of the column in mm unit in the corresponding direction (CSA 10.15.3). CmM
P f ( 15 + 0.03 h )
(CSA 10.15.3)
The moment magnification factor, d b , must be a positive number and greater than one. Therefore P f must be less than j m Pc . If P f is found to be greater than or equal to j m Pc , a failure condition is declared. d b is taken as 1 for tension members. The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. The two unsupported lengths are l 22 and l 33 corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element, respectively. See Figure II7. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the user can explicitly specify values of d s and d b .
90
Column Design
Chapter V Design for CSAA23.394 If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling P f , M fx , and M fy set and associated load combination number. If the reinforcing area is not defined, ETABS computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity.
91
ETABS Concrete Design Manual In the shear design of Ductile moment resisting frames (seismic design) the column is checked for capacityshear in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design capacityshear force, V p , in a particular direction is calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column (CSA 21.7.2.2). For each load combination, the factored axial load, P f , is calculated. Then, the positive and negative moment capacities, M + and M  , of the column in a parf f ticular direction under the influence of the axial force P f are calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. The design shear force, V f , is then given by Vf
=
V p + V D+ L
(CSA 21.7.2.2)
where,V p is the capacityshear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 , where V P1 = V P2 = M I + M J+ , and L M I+ + M J, where L = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1.0), Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1.0), and Clear span of column.
M I+ , M I
M J+ , M J
For Ductile moment resisting frames a is taken as 1.25 (CSA 21.1). V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distribution of gravity loads. For most of the columns, it is zero. In the design of Nominal moment resisting frames (seismic), the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the capacityshear due to the nominal (j s = j c = 1.0) moment capacities and the factored gravity load (CSA 21.9.2.3), in addition to the design checks required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the
92
Column Design
Chapter V Design for CSAA23.394 same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Ductile moment resisting frames, except that a is taken equal to 1 (CSA 21.0) rather than 1.25. The design shear strength is enforced not to be greater than the factored shear force with the seismic load doubled (CSA 21.9.2.3, 21.9.1). See also Table V2 for details.
where, b is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to resist shear. It is a function of stress condition and its average value is 0.2 usually with a range of 0.1 to 0.4 (CSA 11.4.4). It is computed from CSA Table 111 through an iterative procedure. In computing the b factor, the following two parameters are used: M
ex =
f
dv
+ 0.5 N f + 0.5 V f
cot q
E s As
=
0ex
0.002
(CSA 11.4.6)
v ratio
V f bw d v
lj c
f c
(CSA 11.4.5)
In the above equations d v , the distance between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces, is conservatively taken to be 0.9d. dv
= 0.9 d
(CSA 11.0)
Here q is an angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses. It is a function of the current stress condition and its approximate value is 34 degrees with a range of 27 degrees to 45 degrees (CSA 11.4.4). In a similar procedure to calculate the b factor, q is also computed from CSA Table 111 using the parameters e x and v ratio through an iterative procedure. The shear strength factor, l, is taken to be 1, assuming normal density concrete (CSA 11.0, 8.6.5).
Column Design
93
ETABS Concrete Design Manual For designing Ductile moment resisting concrete frames, v c is computed based on the assumption that e x = 0.002 (CSA 21.7.3.1b, 11.4.3.1 ). Otherwise the procedure for computing v c is the same as that for Ordinary and Nominal moment resisting frames.
In the above equation d v , the distance between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces, is conservatively taken to be 0.9d for rectangular sections. dv
= 0.9 d
(CSA 11.0)
For other types of sections b w d v is replaced by 0.9 times Acv , the effective shear area, which is shown in Figure V2. The average shear stress, v, is limited to a maximum limit, v max , given by v max
=
0.25 f c .
(CSA 11.4.3)
vc 2 , ) (CSA 11.2.8.1) vc 2 )
<
Av s else if Av s else if Av s
=0,
jc
j c v c + j s 0.06
f c cot q ,
0.06 f c b w f yh
, f c cot q
(CSA 11.2.8.4)
(
=
j c v c + j s 0.06
<
jc
(v
j c
js
v c ) bw , f yh cot q
94
Column Design
Acv
RECTANGULAR d' d
A cv
Acv
CIRCULAR
Figure V2 Shear Stress Area, Acv The limit of f c is taken to be 80 MPa for Ordinary moment resisting frames and 55 MPa for Nominal and Ductile moment resisting frames: f c f c
80 55
MPa MPa
MPa.
(CSA 8.5.1)
Column Design
95
ETABS Concrete Design Manual The maximum of all the calculated Av s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. For all columns and at any station, the minimum area of transverse circular hoop reinforcement is imposed as follows: Av s
0.45 1 Acore
Ag
f c h core f yh 4
(CSA 10.9.4)
In potential plastic hinge locations, as described later, of Ductile moment resisting frames, the minimum area of circular hoops and transverse stirrups is imposed as follows: Av s Av s Av s Av s
0.12
f c h core f yh 4
1 Acore
(Hoops) f c h core f yh 4
(CSA 21.4.4.2)
0.45
Ag
(Hoops)
0.09
f c h core f yh
1 Acore
(Stirrups) f c h core f yh
(CSA 21.4.4.2)
0.30
Ag
(Stirrups)
(CSA 21.4.4.2)
For the definition of the potential plastic hinge, it is assumed in the current version of the program that any beam and column segment near the joint is a potential plastic hinge. The length of the plastic hinge, Lhinge , in a column is taken as follows: Lhinge
=
max{ h , b , l 6 , 450 mm }
(CSA 21.4.4.5)
The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations. Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.
96
Column Design
Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, ETABS calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears, load combination factors and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement
Beam Design
97
MPa MPa
MPa.
(CSA 8.5.1)
The design procedure used by ETABS for both rectangular and flanged sections (Land Tbeams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible, hence all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. Design for Flexure of a Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M f , (i.e. designing top or bottom steel) the depth of the compression block is given by a, as shown in Figure V3, where, a
=
d2
2 M
a1
fc
jc
(CSA 10.1)
where the value of j c is 0.60 (CSA 8.4.2) in the above and following equations. Also a 1 , b1 , and c b are calculated as follows:
98
Beam Design
= 0.85 = 0.97
0.0015 f c 0.0025 f c
0.67 0.67
, , and
cb =
700 d. 700 + f y
(CSA 10.1.7)
If a by As
=
js
f y d
a 2
Beam Design
99
ETABS Concrete Design Manual If a > a b (CSA 10.5.2), compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by C
= j ca 1
f c ba b , and
(CSA 10.1.7)
=C d
ab . 2
fc
M (j s f s
fs
 j ca 1
f c )( d
 d )
, where
0.0035 E s
c  d
fy .
The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is As1
=
M f
yd
fc
ab 2
, and
js
M f y( d
fs
 d j s
Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, As = As1 + As 2 , and total compression reinforcement is As . As is to be placed at the bottom and As is to be placed at the top if M f is positive, and vice versa.
100
Beam Design
Chapter V Design for CSAA23.394 Design for Flexure of a TBeam (i) Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment, M f , (i.e. designing top steel), the contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored. The design procedure is therefore identical to the one used for rectangular beams except that in the corresponding equations b is replaced by b w . (ii) Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M a
f
> 0,
d2
2M
a1
f cj c b f
(CSA 10.1)
where the value of j c is 0.60 (CSA 8.4.2) in the above and following equations. See Figure V4. Also a 1 , b1 , and c b are calculated as follows:
a1 b1
= 0.85 = 0.97
0.0015 f c 0.0025 f c
0.67 0.67
, , and
cb =
700 d. 700 + f y
(CSA 10.1.7)
If a d s , the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously done for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the width of the beam is taken as b f . Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a b . If a > d s , calculation for As is done in two parts. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange, C f , and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web, C w . As shown in Figure V4, Cf
=a1
f c ( b f
 bw
)d s .
(CSA 10.1.7)
Therefore, As1 =
C fjc f yj s
Beam Design
101
ff
= Cf
ds 2
jc
= M
M ff .
The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b w and d, for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1
=
d2
2M
a1
fw
fc
jc
bw
(CSA 10.1)
bf
ds
= 0.0035
1 fc
'
1 fc
'
d' As'
c d
fs'
Cs
Cf
Cw
As bw
Ts
Tw
Tf
Beam Section
Strain Diagram
Stress Diagram
M f
fw
y d
a1 2
, and
102
Beam Design
As1
+ As 2
This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the Tbeam. If a1 > a b (CSA 10.5.2), compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force in the concrete web alone is given by C
= j c a1
f c ba b , and
(CSA 10.1.7)
the factored moment resisted by the concrete web and tensile steel is M
fc
C d
ab . 2
fw
fc
M (j s f s
fs
j c a 1
f c )( d
 d )
, where
0.0035 E s
c  d
fy .
M f
yd
fc
ab 2
, and
js
M f y (d
fs
 d ) j s
Total tensile reinforcement, As = As1 + As 2 + As 3 , and total compression reinforcement is As . As is to be placed at the bottom and As is to be placed at the top.
Beam Design
103
ETABS Concrete Design Manual Minimum and Maximum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel required for a beam section is given by the minimum of the two limits: As
0.2 f c fy
b w h, or
(CSA 10.5.1.2)
As
4 As (required ) . 3
(CSA 10.5.1.3)
In addition, the minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a Tsection with flange under tension is given by the limit: As
0.004 ( b  b w d s . )
(CSA 10.5.3.1)
An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is arbitrarily imposed as follows: As As
0.04 b d 0.04 b w d 0.04 b d 0.04 b w d
Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Ductile moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table V2 for comprehensive listing): The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top and the bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As (min) . As(min)
1.4 bw d fy
(CSA 21.3.2.1)
0.025 b w d .
(CSA 21.3.2.1)
104
Beam Design
Chapter V Design for CSAA23.394 At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity (i.e. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than of the beam negative moment capacity (i.e. associated with the top steel) at that end (CSA 21.3.2.2). Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (CSA 21.3.2.2). For Nominal moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (CSA 21.9.2.1.1). Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (CSA 21.9.2.1.1).
Beam Design
105
+ V D+ L
(CSA 21.7.2.1)
where,V p is the capacityshear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 , where V P1 = V P2 =
( (
M I + M J+ M I+ + M J
L , and L, where
M I+ = Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1.0), M J+ = Moment capacity at end J, with bottom steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1.0), M I = Moment capacity at end I, with top steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1.0), M J = Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1.0), and L = Clear span of beam.
The overstrength factor a is always taken as 1.25 for Ductile moment resisting frames (CSA 21.1).V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distribution of gravity loads.
106
Beam Design
Chapter V Design for CSAA23.394 In the design of Nominal moment resisting frames (seismic), the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacityshear due to the nominal (j s = j c = 1.0) moment capacities and the factored gravity load (CSA 21.9.2.3), in addition to the design checks required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Ductile moment resisting frames, except that a is taken equal to 1 (CSA 21.1) rather than 1.25. The design shear strength is enforced not to be greater than the factored shear force with the seismic load doubled (CSA 21.9.2.3, 21.9.1). The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from nominal moment capacities is the same as that described for a column in section Design Column Shear Reinforcement on page 92. See also Table V2 for details.
where, b is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to resist shear. It is a function of the stress condition and its average value is 0.2 usually with a range of 0.1 to 0.4 (CSA 11.4.4). It is computed from CSA Table 111 through an iterative procedure. In computing the b factor, the following two parameters are used: M
ex =
f
dv
+ 0.5 V f
cot q
E s As
=
, 0ex
0.002
(CSA 11.4.6)
v ratio
V f bw d v
lj c
f c
(CSA 11.4.5)
In the above equations d v , the distance between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces, is conservatively taken to be 0.9d. dv
= 0.9 d
(CSA 11.0)
Beam Design
107
ETABS Concrete Design Manual Here q is an angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses. It is a function of the current stress condition and its approximate value is 34 degrees with a range of 27 degrees to 45 degrees (CSA 11.4.4). In a similar procedure to calculate the b factor, q is also computed from CSA Table 111 using the parameters e x and v ratio through an iterative procedure. The shear strength factor, l, is taken to be 1, assuming normal density concrete (CSA 11.0, 8.6.5). For designing Ductile moment resisting concrete beams, v c is taken as zero, b is taken as zero, and q is taken as 45 degrees (CSA 21.7.3.1a, 11.4.3.1 ).
In the above equation d v , the distance between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces, is conservatively taken to be 0.9d. dv
= 0.9 d
(CSA 11.0)
For other types of sections b w d v is replaced by 0.9 times Acv , the effective shear area, which is shown in Figure V2. The average shear stress, v, is limited to a maximum limit, v max , given by v max
=
0.25 f c .
(CSA 11.4.3)
vc 2 , ) (CSA 11.2.8.1) vc 2 )
<
Av s else if Av s
=0,
jc
j c v c + j s 0.06
f c cot q ,
0.06 f c b w f yh
(CSA 11.2.8.4)
108
Beam Design
else if Av s
(
=
j c v c + j s 0.06
f c cot q
<
jc
(v
j c
js
v c ) bw , f yh cot q
The limit of f c is taken to be 80 MPa for Ordinary moment resisting frames and 55 MPa for Nominal and Ductile moment resisting frames: f c f c
80 55
MPa MPa
MPa.
(CSA 8.5.1)
The maximum of all the calculated Av s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported for the major directions of the beam along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. The beam shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations. Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.
Beam Design
109
Type of Check/ Design Strength of materials Column Check (interaction) Column Design (Interaction)
NLDa Combinations 1% < < 6% = 1.0 NLDa Combinations and Probable Capacity Shear (V p ) = 1.0 and = 1.25 Strength based on ex = 0.002 Minimum hoop reinforcement Special reinforcement in hinge NLDa Combinations
Modified NLDa Combinations or Nominal Capacity Shear (V p ) = 1.0 and = 1.0 Minimum hoop reinforcement
r 0.04 r 0.2 fc fy
NLDa Combinations
r 0.04 r 0.2 fc fy
+ M uEND + M uSPAN
NLDa Combinations
r 0.025 r 0.2 fc fy , r 14 fy .
+ M uEND
No Requirement
M uSPAN
{ {
} }
END
+ M uSPAN
END
M uSPAN
{ {
} }
END
END
NLDa Combinations
Modified NLDa Combinations or Nominal Capacity Shear (V p ) with = 1.0 and = 1.0 plus VD+L
NLDa Combinations and Probable Capacity Shear (V p ) with = 1.25 and = 1.0 plus VD+L Strength based on b = 0 , q = 45o
Table V2 Comparison of Ordinary, Ductile, and Nominal Moment Resisting Frame Design
110
Beam Design
C h a p t e r VI
111
Area of section for shear resistance, mm2 Area of tension reinforcement, mm2 Area of compression reinforcement, mm2 Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, mm2 Total crosssectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm2 Depth of compression block, mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Shorter section dimension, mm Shorter effective depth of biaxially bent column, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Compression force, N Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200000 MPa (BS 2.4.2.3) Minimum or nominal eccentricity, mm Characteristic cube strength at 28 days, MPa Compressive stress in a beam compression steel, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of link reinforcement, MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Mu Maximum for a singly reinforced concrete section taken as 0.156 bd 2 f cu by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10% Shear strength enhancement factor Concrete shear strength factor, [ f cu 25 ] Effective height of a column, mm Table VI1 List of Symbols Used in the BS code
1/ 3
k1 k2 le
112
l0 M M1 , M 2 M add Mi Mx ,M y N sv T V v vc vc v x ,v y x x bal z
b bb g f gm ec es es
Clear height between end restraints, mm Design moment at a section, MPa Smaller and larger end moments in a slender column, Nmm Maximum additional moment column, Nmm Initial moment at the point of maximum additional moment, Nmm Applied moments about the major and minor axes of a column, Nmm Ultimate axial load, N Spacing of links, mm Tension force, N Shear force at ultimate design load, N Shear stress, MPa Design ultimate shear stress resistance of a concrete beam, MPa Design concrete shear stress corrected for axial forces, MPa Design ultimate shear stress of a concrete section, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Effective length factor Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Concrete strain Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel
113
ETABS Concrete Design Manual jected to wind (WL) and/or earthquake (EL) loads, and considering that those loads are subject to reversals, the following load combinations for ultimate limit state might have to be considered (BS 2.4.3): 1.4 DL 1.4 DL + 1.6 LL 1.0 DL 1.4 WL 1.4 DL 1.4 WL 1.2 DL + 1.2 LL 1.2 WL 1.0 DL 1.4 EL 1.4 DL 1.4 EL 1.2 DL + 1.2 LL (BS 2.4.3)
(BS 2.4.3)
1.2
EL
These are the default load combinations. In addition to the above load combinations, the code requires that all buildings should be capable of resisting a notional design ultimate horizontal load applied at each floor or roof level. The notional load should be equal to 0.015 times the dead load (BS 3.1.4.2). It is recommended that the user define additional load cases for considering the notional load in ETABS. Live load reduction factors, as allowed by some design codes, can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on a memberbymember basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.
Design Strength
The design strength for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial factor of safety, g m . The values of g m used in the program are listed below (BS 2.4.4.1).
1.15, g m = 1.50, 1.25,
for reinforcement, for concrete in flexure and axial load, and for shear strength without shear reinforcement. (BS 2.4.4.1)
Column Design
The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.
114
Design Strength
Chapter VI Design for BS 811085 R1989 The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II2. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement from 0.4 to 6 percent (BS 3.12.5.3 and BS 3.12.6.2). Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. Design the column shear reinforcement. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the abovementioned steps.
Column Design
115
0.67 fcu/
c
= 0.0035 s1
1 Cs C
d'
x
s2
a = 0.9 x
2 Cs
s3 s4
3 Ts 4 Ts
The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of 0.67 f cu g m = 0.45 f cu (BS 3.4.4.1). See Figure VI1. The interaction algorithm provides corrections to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone.
116
Column Design
Chapter VI Design for BS 811085 R1989 The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the abovementioned steps.
where, a u is the deflection at the ultimate limit state which is obtained from au =
be b e Kh
and
le b
2
1 = 2000
In the above equations, l e is the effective length in the plane under consideration. It is obtained from le = b l0 , (BS 3.8.1.6.1)
where b is the effective length factor, and l 0 the unsupported length corresponding to instability in the major or minor direction of the element, l x or l y in Figure II7. In calculating the value of the effective length, the b factor is conservatively taken as 1. However, ETABS allows the user to override this default value. b is the dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered, Column Design
117
ETABS Concrete Design Manual h is also the dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered, and K is the correction factor to the deflection to take care of the influence of the axial force and K is conservatively taken as 1. ETABS then calculates the total design moments by combining the factored moments obtained from analysis and the additional moments. If M 1 and M 2 ( M 2 > M 1 ) are the initial end moments in a column member in a particular plane, then the maximum design moment for the column is taken as the greatest of the following: M2 M 1 + M add M i + M add / 2 N e min where, M i is the initial moment in a column due to design ultimate loads at the point of maximum additional moment and is given by Mi
= 0.4
M 1 + 0.6 M 2
0.4 M 2 .
(BS 3.8.3.2)
M 1 and M 2 are the smaller and the larger end moments respectively. Both moments are assumed to be positive if the column is in single curvature. If the column is in double curvature, M 1 is assumed to be negative. e min is the minimum eccentricity which is taken as 0.05 times the overall dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered but not more than 20 mm (BS 3.8.2.4). e min
=
h 20
20 mm
(BS 3.8.2.4)
Unbraced Column In the case of the unbraced column, it is assumed that the ETABS analysis includes PD effects so that the analysis results include the effects of the additional moments. Therefore, no additional computation is required. That means moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity. However, it is recommended that for PD analysis a factor be used to obtain a P equivalent to 1.2 DL + 1.2 LL (White and Hajjar 1991).
118
Column Design
Chapter VI Design for BS 811085 R1989 Also, the minimum eccentricity requirements are satisfied so the design moment should at least be Mu
N e min ,
(BS 3.8.3.2)
where, e min is the minimum eccentricity which is described in the previous section. In biaxial bending the algorithm ensures that the eccentricity exceeds the minimum about both the axes simultaneously.
Column Design
119
V , Acv Acv
= bd
, where
0.8 f cu , and
2
5 N/mm
If v exceeds either 0.8 f cu or 5 N/mm2, the section area should be increased. Calculate the design concrete shear stress from (BS 3.8.4.6) v c = v c + 0.75 N Vd , with Ac M
1
(BS 3.4.5.12)
1
vc =
0.79 k1 k 2 100 As bd gm
400 4 , d
(BS 3.4.5.4)
where,
k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression and taken conservatively as 1, (BS 3.4.5.8) k2
gm = =
f cu 25
1.25 , 100 As bd 1, 1, 3,
0.15 400 d Vd M
120
Column Design
40 N/mm2, and
(BS 3.4.5.4)
Asv sv
0.4 b , 0.87 f yv
(BS 3.4.5.3)
( v  v c ) b , 0.87 f yv
(BS 3.4.5.3)
Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, ETABS calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, and shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement
121
122
Beam Design
Chapter VI Design for BS 811085 R1989 Calculate the ultimate moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. M single = K f cu bd 2 , where K = 0.156 .
b
(BS 3.4.4.4)
= 0.0035
0.67fcu/
A's
fs'
Cs
d'
a=0.9x
Ts
As (i) BEAM SECTION
Tc
s
(ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM
If M As =
M single the area of tension reinforcement, As , is obtained from (BS 3.4.4.4) K 0.9
M , where (0.87 f y ) z
z = d 0.5 + 0.25 M . f cu bd 2
0.95d , and
K=
This is the top steel if the section is under negative moment and the bottom steel if the section is under positive moment.
Beam Design
123
As =
M single
f s ( d  d )
where d is the depth of the compression steel from the concrete compression face, and f s= 0.87 f y f s 700 1
if 2d d
d d
fy 1 , 1 2 800
if
fy d 1 . > 1d 2 800
This is the bottom steel if the section is under negative moment. From equilibrium, the area of tension reinforcement is calculated as As = M single (0.87 f y ) z
M single
f y ( d  d ) K 0.9
, where
(BS 3.4.4.4)
0.776 887 d .
(i) Flanged beam under negative moment The contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored. The design procedure is therefore identical to the one used for rectangular beams except that in the corresponding equations b is replaced by b w . See Figure VI3. (ii) Flanged beam under positive moment With the flange in compression, the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. Based on this assumption, the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width b f . If the stress block extends beyond the flange width, then the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. See Figure VI3.
124
Beam Design
Chapter VI Design for BS 811085 R1989 Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange, the normalized moment is computed as K= M . f cu b f d 2
K 0.9
0.95d ,
the depth of compression block is given by a = 0.9 x . If a h f , the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the width of the compression flange, b f , is taken as the width of the beam, b, for analysis. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether K > K . If a > h f , calculation for As is done in two parts. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange, C f , and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web, C w , as shown in Figure VI3. In this case, the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by M f = 0.45 f cu ( b f

bw ) h f ( d
0.5 h f ) ,
M f , and
Beam Design
125
= 0.0035
bf
hf
0.67 fcu/
0.67 fcu/
d' As'
x d
fs'
Cs
Cf
Cw
Ts
Tw
Tf
If K w 0.156, the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. The area of steel is calculated as the sum of two parts, one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. As = M 0.87 f y ( d
f
0.5 h f )

Mw , where 0.87 f y z
z = d 0.5 + 0.25
Kw 0.9
0.95d .
If K w > K , compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by M uw = K f cu b w d 2 . The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude M w  M uw . The compression reinforcement is computed as
126
Beam Design
where, d is the depth of the compression steel from the concrete compression face, and f s
=
0.87 f y ,
if 2d , if d
d d
fy 1 , and 1 2 800
f s= 700 1
fy d 1 . > 1d 2 800
The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium As = Mf M uw M  M uw 1 + + w . d  d 0.87 f y d  0.5 h f 0.777 d
V , Acv Acv
= bd
, where
0.8 f cu , and
2
5 N/mm
400 4 , d
(BS 3.4.5.4)
where,
k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression, and is conservatively taken as 1, (BS 3.4.5.8) Beam Design
127
k2
f cu 25
1,
and
gm =
1.25 .
100 As bd 1 , and
3,
Asv sv
0.4 b , 0.87 f yv
(BS 3.4.5.3)
(v  v c ) b , 0.87 f yv
(BS 3.4.5.3)
128
Beam Design
C h a p t e r VII
129
Gross crosssectional area of a frame member, mm2 Area of section for shear resistance, mm2 Area of tension reinforcement in a beam, mm2 Area of total longitudinal reinforcement in a column, mm2 Area of compression reinforcement, mm2 Total crosssectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm2 Depth of compression block, mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200000 MPa (EC2 4.2.2.3.2) Eccentricity of axial load in a column, mm Minimum or nominal eccentricity, mm Total eccentricity for a braced column, mm Design concrete compressive strength = f ck g c , MPa Characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days, MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = f cwk g c , MPa Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design, MPa Design tensile yield strength of reinforcing steel = f yk g s , MPa Characteristic tensile yield strength of reinforcement, MPa Stress in a beam compression steel, MPa Design tensile strength of shear reinforcing steel = f ywk g s , MPa Characteristic tensile strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Effective height of a column, mm Clear height between end restraints, mm Design moment at a section, Nmm Table VII1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2
130
M1 , M 2 Mx ,M y M Rd M Sd m N sv V Rd 1 V Rd 2 V Sd V x ,V y V wd
a b
Smaller and larger end moments in a slender column, Nmm Applied moments about the major and minor axes of a column, Nmm Design moment of resistance of a section Nmm Moment at a section obtained from analysis, Nmm Normalized design moment, M bd 2 af cd Ultimate axial load, N Spacing of links, mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone, N Design limiting shear resistance of a crosssection, N Shear force at ultimate design load, N Shear force at ultimate design load in two directions, N Shear force from reinforcement, N Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading Effective length factor, Enhancement factor of shear resistance for concentrated load Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for concrete strength, 1.5 by default Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for steel strength, 1.15 by default Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing, Out of plumbness factor Tension reinforcement ratio, As bd Effective average compressive stress in concrete column, MPa Normalized tensile steel ratio, As f yd af cd bd Normalized compression steel ratio, As f yd af cd bd Normalized limiting tensile steel ratio
g f gc gm gs d ec es e s n
r s cp w w wlim
Table VII1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2 (continued) Design Load Combinations
131
ETABS Concrete Design Manual However, in addition to the dead load and live load, if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) forces, and considering that wind and earthquake forces are subject to reversals, the following load combinations might have to be considered (EC2 2.3.3): 1.35 DL 1.35 DL + 1.50 LL 1.35 DL 1.50 WL 1.00 DL 1.50 WL 1.35 DL + 1.35 LL 1.35 WL 1.00 DL 1.00 EL 1.00 DL + 1.5*0.3 LL
1.0
(EC2 2.3.3)
EL
These are the default load combinations. These default loading combinations are produced for persistent and transient design situations (EC2 2.2.1.2) by combining load due to dead, live, wind, and earthquake loads according to the simplified formula (EC2 2.3.3.1) for ultimate limit states. In addition to the above load combinations, the code requires that all buildings should be capable of resisting a notional design ultimate horizontal load applied at each floor or roof level (EC2 2.5.1.3). It is recommended that the user define additional load cases for considering the notional load in ETABS. Live load reduction factors, as allowed by some design codes, can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on a memberbymember basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.
Design Strength
The design strength for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the materials by a corresponding partial factor of safety as shown below. f cd f cwd f yd f ywd
=
f ck
gc
, ,
= =
f cwk f yk f ywk
gc gs
,
gs
132
Design Strength
= Partial safety factor for steel = 1.15, and = Partial safety factor for concrete = 1.5.
Column Design
The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete sections types of the model (EC2 4.3.1.2). A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II2. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement. The minimum reinforcement is taken to be N Sd 0.15 As , min = max f yd 0.003A c (EC2 5.4.1.2.1)
and the maximum reinforcement is taken to be 8 percent (EC2 5.4.1.2.1). Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. Design the column shear reinforcing. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the abovementioned steps.
Column Design
133
ETABS Concrete Design Manual nates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure II1. The formulation is based consistently upon the basic principles of ultimate strength design and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular, square, or circular column section. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, e c , at the ex3 tremity of the section to 0.0035 and at a depth of d from the most compressed face 7 to 0.0020 (EC2 4.3.1.2). See Figure VII1.
The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, e s E s , and is limited to the design yield strength the steel, f yd (EC2 4.2.3.3.3). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder). The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of af ck g c , where f ck is the characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete and a is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression. a is generally assumed to be 0.80 (EC2 4.2.1.3). See Figure VII1. The interaction algo
134
Column Design
Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 rithm provides corrections to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone.
e0
=
+ ea + e2
, where M2 N
0.4
e0
0.4
M1 N
+ 0.6
M 2 , (EC2 4.3.5.6.2)
Column Design
135
ea
n
(EC2 4.3.5.4)
is taken as 1/100, however the user can override this value (EC2 2.5.1.3),
(EC2 4.3.5.3.5)
where b is the effective length factor depending on the end conditions and resistance against sidesway, b is conservatively taken as 1 for braced frames, and l col is the unsupported length corresponding to instability in the major or minor direction of the element, l x and l y in Figure II7. e2
=
2 k1 k 2 l 0 f yd
4.5 E s d
0
, for
l 15,
(EC2 4.3.5.6.3)
k1
l  0.75,
20 1
l = bl 0
rG ,
N ud N ud
N sd  N bal

1 , k 2 is taken as 1.0.
N Sd e min , where
(EC2 4.3.5.5.3)
M Rd = Design moment resistance of the section, = The axial force obtained from analysis, and e min is the minimum eccentricity which is taken as 0.05 times the overall dimension of the column in the plane of bending and is given by e min
=h
20 .
(EC2 4.3.5.5.3)
Finally the design moments are computed from the maximum of the three, M Rd
=
factored
).
(EC2 4.3.5.6)
136
Column Design
Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 In biaxial bending, the program calculates the design moments at any station about two axes. Unbraced Column In the case of the unbraced column, it is assumed that the ETABS analysis includes PD effects so that the analysis results include the effects of the additional moments. Therefore, any additional computation is not required. That means the moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity. However, it is recommended that a factor be used to obtain a axial force P equivalent to 1.35 DL + 1.35 LL for PD analysis (White and Hajjar 1991). In addition, the minimum eccentricity requirement needs to be satisfied so that the design moment should at least be M Rd
N e min ,
(EC2 4.3.5.5.3)
where, e min is the minimum eccentricity which is described in the previous section. In biaxial bending the algorithm ensures that the eccentricity exceeds the minimum about both the axes simultaneously.
Column Design
137
ETABS Concrete Design Manual If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling N , M x ,and M y set and associated load combination number. If the reinforcing area is not defined, ETABS computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity.
V2
or V 3
Calculate the design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement. V Rd 1
= b t Rd k
(EC2 4.3.2.3(1))
138
Column Design
= enhancement factor for shear resistance for members with concentrated loads located near the face of the support. (EC2 4.3.2.1(9)) b is taken as 1. 0.25 f ctk 0.05
gc =
t Rd =
, basic design shear strength of concrete, (EC2 4.3.2.3) (EC2 3.1.2.3) (EC2 3.1.2.3)
f ctk 0. 05 f ctm k
= =
0.7 f ctm ,
2 3
0.3 f cwk
strength magnification factor for curtailment of longitudinal reinforcement and depth of the section, and is considered to be 1, tension reinforcement ratio = As1 Acv
0.02 ,
r1 =
As1 = area of tension reinforcement, taken as half of total longitudinal reinforcement, As 2, in a column,
s cp
(EC2 4.3.2.3)
N Sd , (EC2 4.3.2.3) Ac
N Sd = the design value of the applied axial force in section. N Sd is taken as positive for compression and negative for tension, and (EC2 4.3.2.3) Ac = the total gross area of concrete crosssection, (EC2 4.3.2.3)
Acv = the total area of concrete crosssection, it is taken as Acv which is shown in Figure VII2. For a rectangular section Acv equals b w d . Calculate the maximum design shear force that can be carried without crushing of the notional concrete compressive struts, V Rd 2 , red . V Rd 2 , red 0
=
1.67 V Rd 2 1
s cp , eff f cd
, where
V Rd 2 , red V Rd 2 =
V Rd 2
Column Design
139
Acv
RECTANGULAR d' d
A cv
Acv
CIRCULAR
n = 0.7 
(EC2 4.3.2.3)
s cp , eff =
f yd As 2
Ac
140
Column Design
Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 N Sd = the design axial force, it is taken positive for compression and negative for tension, (EC2 4.3.2.2(4)) f yd = the design yield stress of compression steel, (EC2 4.3.2.2(4)) f yd
400 MPa,
(EC2 4.3.2.2(4))
As 2 is the area of reinforcement in the compression zone. As 2 is taken as half of total longitudinal reinforcement, As 2, in a column, and (EC2 4.3.2.2(4)) Ac is the gross total area of concrete crosssection.
The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed following the Standard method as follows (EC2 4.3.2.4.3): If V Sd
V Rd 1
, b w , where
( V Sd
 V Rd 1
Acv
0.9 f ywd
(EC2 4.3.2.4.3) f ywd is the design yield strength of the shear reinforcement. else if V Sd
V Rd 2. red
a failure condition is declared. (EC2 4.3.2.2(4)) The maximum of all the calculated Asw s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.
Column Design
141
ETABS Concrete Design Manual For all columns and at any station, the minimum area of shear reinforcement is imposed as follows: Asw s
r w bw
(EC2 5.4.2.2(5))
In the above equation r w is the shear reinforcement ratio. It is taken based on the concrete compression strength for shear use f cs which is the same as f cwk and the shear rebar yield strength f ys which is the same as f ywk . r w is determined from the following table (EC2 Table 5.5).
Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, ETABS calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement
142
Beam Design
Beam Design
143
ETABS Concrete Design Manual Design as a Rectangular Beam For rectangular beams, the normalized moment, m, and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforced beam, mlim , are obtained first. The reinforcing steel area is determined based on whether m is greater than, less than, or equal to mlim . Calculate the normalized design moment, m. m=
a
M bd
2
af cd
, where
is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression. a is generally assumed to be 0.80 for assumed rectangular stress block (EC2 4.2.1.3). See also page 134 for a . The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of af cd , where f cd is the design concrete strength and f is equal to ck . See Figure VII3.
gc
Calculate the normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam, mlim . mlim
=
x where the limiting value of the ratio, , of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate d limit state after redistribution to the effective depth, is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution, d, as follows:
d
x d lim x d lim
d  0.44
1.25
d  0.56
, if
f ck f ck
35 ,
(EC2 2.5.3.4.1)
1.25
, if
> 35 ,
(EC2 2.5.3.4.1)
is assumed to be 1.
144
Beam Design
A's
fs'
d' x
Cs
a=0.8x
Ts
As (i) BEAM SECTION
Tc
s
(ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM
If m mlim , a singly reinforced beam will suffice. Calculate the normalized steel ratio,
w =1 
1  2m .
bd
f yd
This is the top steel if the section is under negative moment and the bottom steel if the section is under positive moment. If m > mlim , the beam will not suffice as a singly reinforced beam. Both top and bottom steel are required. Calculate the normalized steel ratios w,
wlim = wlim ,
and w .
0.807
x , d lim
Beam Design
145
w =
w = wlim + w
, and
As =
af bd cd w f yd
where 2d d fy
gs
f s
E s e c , max 1
Design as a TBeam (i) Flanged beam under negative moment The contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored if the flange is in the tension side. See Figure VII4. The design procedure is therefore identical to the one used for rectangular beams. However, the width of the web, b w , is taken as the width of the beam. (ii) Flanged beam under positive moment With the flange in compression, the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. Based on this assumption, the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width b f . If the stress block extends beyond the flange, additional calculation is required. See Figure VII4. Calculate the normalized design moment, m. m=
a
M , where b f d 2 af cd
is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression. a is generally assumed to be 0.80 for assumed rectangular stress block, (EC2 4.2.1.3). See
146
Beam Design
Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 also page 134 for a . The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of af cd .
= 0.0035 fck/ fck/
c
bf
hf
d' As'
x d
fs'
Cs
a = 0.8x
Cf
Cw
Ts
Tw
Tf
x , of the neutral axis depth at the d lim ultimate limit state after redistribution to the effective depth, which is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution, d, as follows:
d
x d lim x d lim
d  0.44
1.25
d  0.56
, if
f ck f ck
35 ,
(EC2 2.5.3.4.1)
1.25
, if
> 35 ,
(EC2 2.5.3.4.1)
is assumed to be 1.
1  2m .
Beam Design
147
0.807
x hf d d
, the neutral axis lies within the flange. Calculate the area of
f yd
If
>
hf d
)h f af cd
f yd
As 2 f yd d
hf 2
Calculate steel area required for rectangular section of width b r to resist moment, M 1 = M  M 2 , as follows: m1
=
M1 b w d 2 af cd
, and
mlim
If m1
w1 = 1 
As1 = w1
bw d
f yd
148
Beam Design
wlim =
w1 = wlim + w
As =
af cd bd f s
As1 = f s
af b d cd w w1 f yd
where fy
gs
E s e c , max 1
2d d
As1
+ As 2
149
ETABS Concrete Design Manual Obtain the design value of the applied shear force V Sd from the ETABS analysis results. V Sd
=
V2
Calculate the design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement. V Rd 1
b = b t Rd k
(1.2 + 40 r 1 ) + 0.15 s cp ]
= enhancement factor for shear resistance for members with concentrated loads located near the face of the support. (EC2 4.3.2.1(9)) b is taken as 1. 0.25 f ctk 0.05
gc =
t Rd =
, basic design shear strength of concrete, (EC2 4.3.2.3) (EC2 3.1.2.3) (EC2 3.1.2.3)
f ctk 0. 05 f ctm k
= =
0.7 f ctm ,
2 3
0.3 f cwk
strength magnification factor for curtailment of longitudinal reinforcement and depth of the section, and is considered to be 1, tension reinforcement ratio = As1 bw d
0.02 ,
r1 =
N Sd , (EC2 4.3.2.3) Ac
N Sd = the design value of the applied axial force in section, N Sd is taken as positive for compression and negative for tension, and (EC2 4.3.2.3) Ac = the total gross area of concrete crosssection, (EC2 4.3.2.3)
Calculate the maximum design shear force that can be carried without crushing of the notional concrete compressive struts, V Rd 2 , red . V Rd 2 , red
=
1.67 V Rd 2 1
s cp , eff f cd
, where
(EC2 4.3.2.2(4))
150
Beam Design
V Rd 2
n = 0.7 
s cp , eff =
f yd As 2
Ac
N Sd = the design axial force. It is taken positive for compression and negative for tension, (EC2 4.3.2.2(4)) f yd = the design yield stress of compression steel, f yd
400 MPa,
As 2 is the area of the compression reinforcement, and Ac is the gross total area of concrete crosssection.
The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed following the Standard method as follows (EC2 4.3.2.4.3): If V Sd Asw s
V Rd 1 =0,
, (EC2 4.3.2.4.3)
< V Rd 2. red
( V Sd
 V Rd 1
Acv
0.9 f ywd
, (EC2 4.3.2.2(4))
The maximum of all the calculated Asw s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported for the major directions of the beam along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.
Beam Design
151
ETABS Concrete Design Manual For all beams and at any station, the minimum area of shear reinforcement is imposed as follows: Asw s
r w bw
(EC2 5.4.2.2(5))
In the above equation r w is the shear reinforcement ratio. It is taken based on the concrete compression strength for shear use f cs which is the same as f cwk and the shear rebar yield strength f ys which is the same as f ywk . r w is determined from Table VII2 according to the EC2 Table 5.5.
152
Beam Design
C h a p t e r VIII
153
Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sqmm Gross area of concrete, sqmm Area of tension reinforcement, sqmm Area of compression reinforcement, sqmm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sqmm Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sqmm Area of shear reinforcement, sqmm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Maximum depth of compression block, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (TBeam section), mm Width of web (TBeam section), mm Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate moment magnification factor Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, mm Thickness of slab (TBeam section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa (NZS 3.8.3.3) Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Dimension of beam or column, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, mm4 Effective length factor Clear unsupported length, mm Table VIII1 List of Symbols Used in the New Zealand code
154
M1 M2 Mc M ns Ms M* M* x M* y Nb Nc N max N0 N* vb vc Vc VD +L Vp V* Vs
a a1 b1 bd db ds ec es jb
Smaller factored end moment in a column, Nmm Larger factored end moment in a column, Nmm Factored moment to be used in design, Nmm Nonsway component of factored end moment, Nmm Sway component of factored end moment, Nmm Factored moment at section, Nmm Factored moment at section about Xaxis, Nmm Factored moment at section about Yaxis, Nmm Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, N Critical buckling strength of column, N Maximum axial load strength allowed, N Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, N Factored axial load at section, N Basic shear stress resisted by concrete, MPa Shear stress resisted by concrete, MPa Shear force resisted by concrete, N Shear force from span loading, N Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Average stress factor in equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of the ratio of the maximum factored axial dead load moment to the maximum factored total load moment Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Moment magnification factor for sway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor for bending Table VIII1 List of Symbols Used in the New Zealand code (continued)
155
EL
These are also the default design load combinations in ETABS whenever the NZS 310195 code is used. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated, other types of loads are present, or pattern live loads are to be considered. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an elementbyelement basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.
= 0.85 for bending and = 0.85 for compression and = 0.75 for shear.
156
Column Design
The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II2. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement ratios 0.008 to 0.08 for Ordinary moment resisting frames (NZS 8.4.6.1) and 0.008 to 18 f y for Seismic (Ductile, Limited, and Elastic) moment resisting frames (NZS 8.5.4.2). Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. Design the column shear reinforcement. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the abovementioned steps.
Column Design
157
1 f'c
c
= 0.003 s1
1 Cs C 2 Cs a= 1c
d'
c
s2
s3 s4
Ts3 Ts4
The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain, e s , and the steel modulus of elasticity, E s , and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f y (NZS 8.3.1.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder). See Figure VIII1. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of a 1 f c (NZS 8.3.1.7) and a depth of the stress block of b1 c, where
a 1 = 0.85  0.004 ( b1 = 0.85  0.008 (
f c f c
 55),  30),
0.75 a 1 0.65 b1
0.85, 0.85,
and and
In designing the column longitudinal reinforcement, the following limits are imposed on the steel tensile strength and the concrete compressive strength:
158
Column Design
70 MPa
The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. The effects of the strength reduction factor, j , are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to N max , where the maximum factored axial load resistance is given by: N max = 0.85 j c [a 1 f c ( Ag N max = 0.70 j c [a 1 f c ( Ag
 Ast  Ast
Column Design
159
ETABS Concrete Design Manual Moment Magnification Factors to allow for Lateral Drift Effect and Member Stability Effect.
M ns
+ds M s
The moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway in the major and minor directions, d sx and d sy , can be different. The moment magnification factors, d sx and d sy , can be taken as 1.0 if a PD analysis is carried out. The program assumes that the ETABS analysis models PD effects, therefore, taken as 1.0. It is suggested that the PD analysis be done at the factored load level (White and Hajjar 1991). The necessary factors for a PD analysis for the NZS 310195 code should be (1.0 DL + 0.4 LL)/j c with the loading standard NZS 4203, where j c is the strength reduction factor for compression and is equal to 0.85. The user is reminded of the special analysis requirements, especially those related to the value of EI used in analysis (NZS 8.4.11.5). In ETABS, the EI values are computed based on gross crosssection areas. The user has the option to reduce the EI values for analysis purposes using a scale factor on a sectionbysection basis. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the user can explicitly specify values of d sx and d sy . Member Stability Effects All compression members are designed using the factored axial load, N * , obtained from the analysis and a magnified factored moment, M c . The magnified moment is computed as,
d sx
and d sy are
160
Column Design
(NZS 8.4.11.5)
where M 2 is the column maximum end moment obtained from elastic analysis after considering minimum eccentricity and lateral drift effect, and M c is the maximum moment associated with the major or minor direction of the column occurring either at the end or at an interior point within the span of the column. The moment magnification factor, d b , for moments not causing sidesway is given by
db
= 1
Cm N* j c Nc
p
1.0 , where
(NZS 8.4.11.5)
Nc =
EI , ( kL) 2
k is conservatively taken as 1, however the user can override the value, EI is associated with a particular column direction given by EI = 0.40 E c I g 1 + bd , and (NZS 8.4.11.5)
bd
Maximum factored axial dead load , Maximum factored total axial load Ma Mb
0.4 ,
(NZS 8.1)
C m = 0.6 + 0.4
(NZS 8.4.11.5)
M a and M b are the moments at the ends of the column, and M b is numerically larger than M a . M a M b is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. The above expression of C m is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present on the span, or the length is overwritten, or for any other case, C m = 1 (NZS 8.4.11.5). C m can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis. The magnification factor, d b , must be a positive number and greater than one. Therefore N * must be less than j c N c . If N * is found to be greater than or equal to j c N c , a failure condition is declared. The above calculations use the unsupported lengths of the column. The two unsupported lengths are l 22 and l 33 corresponding to instability in the minor and major di
Column Design
161
ETABS Concrete Design Manual rections of the element, respectively. See Figure II7. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions.
= Rm
(NZS A7.2)
R m = the moment reduction factor which is taken as a function of axial force and the dynamic magnification factor, w, for Ductile moment resisting frames (NZS Table A3). It is taken as 1 for frames with Limited ductility. The user can overwrite this,
j0
= an overstrength factor, and is taken as 1.25 j b (NZS A4.1.6), and the user can overwrite this,
= the dynamic magnification factor. It is taken as 1, and the user can overwrite this, and
h b = the overall dimension of the beam at the beamcolumn joint. However, in the current implementation, the reduction of design moment due to the design shear force is taken as zero, which is based on a conservative assumption that h b is equal to zero. The user can use rigid endoffsets in columns in ETABS to design the column for reduced moments, as columns are designed beyond the rigid endoffsets. In the current implementation of ETABS, the three parameters R m , j 0 , and w can be overwritten.
162
Column Design
Column Design
163
ETABS Concrete Design Manual Determine the factored forces acting on the section, N * and V * . Note that N * is needed for the calculation of v c . Determine the shear stress, v c , that can be resisted by concrete alone. Determine the reinforcing steel required to carry the balance. For Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility, the shear design of the columns is based on the overstrength moment capacities of the column (NZS 4.4, 17.3.7.1). The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the abovementioned steps.
V p + V D+ L
whereV p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated overstrength ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 , where V P1 = M I + M J+ , and L
164
Column Design
V P2 = where
M I+ , M I
Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0), Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0), and
M J+ , M J
For Seismic moment resisting frames, a , is taken as 1.25 for both Ductile moment resisting frames and frames with Limited ductility (NZS A4.1.6). j is taken as 1 (NZS 4.4.3.3). V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distribution of gravity loads. For most of the columns, it is zero. See also Table VIII2 for more details. For Ductile moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the column is also checked for additional factored loads, in addition to the checks required for capacity design and factored loads. The factored shear force is based on the specified load combinations which are regular load combinations except the earthquake load factor is taken to be 1.7 (NZS 4.4.5.8).
Ast bw d
f c
(NZS 9.3.2.1)
where, f c
70 , and
0.08 f c
vb
Column Design
165
ETABS Concrete Design Manual For other types of sections b w d is replaced by Acv , the effective shear area, which is shown in Figure VIII2. For Ordinary and Elastically responding moment resisting frames, the concrete shear capacity for columns is taken as follows:
1 +12 1 +3
N* f c Ag vb N f
vb
N * < 0, N* N*
= 0, > 0.
vc =
(NZS 9.3.2.1)
c Ag
vb
if under compression,
N * is negative for tension. In any case, v c is not taken less than zero. For Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames, the shear strength of a column section is taken as zero if the axial force is tensile or compression is very small. This is given as v c = 0 if N *
0.10 f c Ag .
(NZS 9.4.2.2)
If the axial compression is higher than the above limit, the concrete shear capacity for columns is taken as follows: vc
=
4v b
N* Ag f c
 0.1
if N *
>
0.10 f c Ag .
(NZS 9.4.2.2)
In any case, v c is not taken less than zero. For Seismic moment resisting frames with Limited ductility, the concrete shear capacity for columns is taken as follows (NZS 17.3.7.3 and NZS 17.3.7.4):
0.5 + 6
N* f c Ag
*
vb
N * < 0, N* N*
= 0, (NZS > 0.
vc =
17.3.7.4)
if under compression,
N * is negative for tension. In any case, v c is not taken less than zero (NZS 17.3.7.4).
166
Column Design
For other types of sections b w d is replaced by Acv , the effective shear area which is shown in Figure VIII2. The average shear stress, v * , is limited to a maximum limit, v max , which is given for Ordinary frames and Elastically responding seismic frames as, v max
= min
{ {
js
(NZS 9.3.1.8)
and for Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility as, v max
= min
js
(NZS 9.4.4.2)
The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed as follows: If v * Av s else if Av s else if Av s
js
vc 2 , ) (NZS 9.3.4.1) vc 2 )
<
=0,
js
v*
js
vc
+ 0.35
, (NZS 9.3.4.3)
0.35b w , f yt
f yt
500
MPa , , MPa ,
js
vc
+ 0.35 <
v*
j s v max
(v*
j svc js
) bw
f yt ,
, f yt
500
(NZS 9.3.6.3)
else if v *
> v max
(NZS 9.3.1.8)
Column Design
167
ETABS Concrete Design Manual In calculating the design shear reinforcement, a limit is imposed on the f yt as f yt
500 Mpa.
The maximum of all the calculated Av s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. In designing the column shear reinforcement, the following limits are imposed on the concrete compressive strength: f c f c
100
70 MPa
For all columns and at any station, the minimum area of transverse stirrup and circular hoop reinforcement is imposed as follows: Av s Av s
1  r m t
3.3
Ag f c Ac f yt Ag f c Ac f yt
N* j c f c Ag N* j c f c Ag
 0.0065  0.0084
(NZS 8.4.7.2)
1  r m t
2.4
(NZS 8.4.7.1)
In potential plastic hinge locations, as described later, of Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility, the minimum area of transverse stirrup and circular hoops is imposed as follows: Av s Av s
1.3  r m t
3.3
Ag f c Ac f yt Ag f c Ac f yt
N* j c f c Ag N* j c f c Ag
 0.0060  0.0084
(NZS 8.5.4.3)
1.3  r m t
2.4
(NZS 8.5.4.3)
In the above four equations for calculating minimum shear reinforcement, the following limits are imposed: Ag Ac
1.2
(NZS 8.4.7 and NZS 8.5.4.3) (NZS 8.4.7 and NZS 8.5.4.3) MPa (NZS 8.4.7 and NZS 8.5.4.3)
r t m 0.4
f yt
800
168
Column Design
Acv
RECTANGULAR d' d
A cv
Acv
CIRCULAR
For the definition of the potential plastic hinge, it is assumed in the current version of the program that any beam and column segment near the joint is a potential plastic hinge. The length of the plastic hinge, Lhinge , in a column depends on the level of axial compression in it and it is taken as follows:
if if if
N* 0.25 N N
* *
Lhinge = 2h 3h
( ( (
jc jc jc
f c Ag f c Ag f c Ag
(NZS 8.5.4.1)
Column Design
169
ETABS Concrete Design Manual The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations. Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.
Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, ETABS calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears, load combination factors and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement In designing the beam flexural and shear reinforcement, the following limits are imposed on the steel tensile strength and the concrete compressive strength: fy f c f c
500 100
170
Beam Design
2 M*
a1
f c
jb
(NZS 8.3.1)
Beam Design
171
ETABS Concrete Design Manual where the default value of j b is 0.85 (NZS 3.4.2.2) in the above and the following equations. Also a 1 is calculated as follows:
a1
= 0.85
0.004( f c
 55) ,
0.75
a1
0.85 .
(NZS 8.3.1.7)
= 0.85
0.008( f c
30) , 0.65
b1
0.85 , and
cb =
600 d. 600 + f y
= 0.003 b
1 f'c
Cs
A's
d'
a=
1c
As
Ts
Tc
Stress Diagram
a max (NZS 8.4.2), the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given
172
Beam Design
As
y d
a 2
This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M * is positive, or at the top if M * is negative. If a > a max (NZS 8.4.2), compression reinforcement is required (NZS 8.4.1.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by C
=a1
f c ba max , and
(NZS 8.3.1.7)
a max 2
j b
M*
* Mc .
 d ) j b
, where
0.003 E s
c  d
fy .
The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is As1
=
M* c , and a max ) jb f y (d 2
Beam Design
173
ETABS Concrete Design Manual Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, As = As1 + As 2 , and total compression reinforcement is As . As is to be placed at the bottom and As is to be placed at the top if M * is positive, and vice versa.
Design for Flexure of a TBeam (i) Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment, M * 0, (i.e. designing top steel), the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no TBeam data is to be used. (ii) Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M * a
> 0,
2 M*
a1
f c
jb
bf
(NZS 8.3.1)
If a d s (NZS 8.4.2), the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously done for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the width of the beam is taken as b f . Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a max . If a > d s (NZS 8.4.2), calculation for As is done in two parts. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange, C f , and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web, C w . As shown in , Cf
=a1
f c ( b f
 bw
)d s .
(NZS 8.3.1.7)
Cf fy ds 2
jb
174
Beam Design
M *f .
The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b w and d, for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1
=
d2
a1
2M * w . f c j b bw
(NZS 8.3.1)
If a1 a max (NZS 8.4.2), the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As 2
= jb
* Mw
y d
a1 2
, and
As
As1
+ As 2
bf
ds
d' As'
c d
fs'
Cs
a=
1c
Cf
Cw
As bw
Ts
Tw
Tf
Beam Section
Strain Diagram
Stress Diagram
Beam Design
175
ETABS Concrete Design Manual If a1 > a max (NZS 8.4.2), compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the concrete web alone is given by Cw
= a1
f c ba max , and
(NZS 8.3.1.7)
Cw d
a max 2
jb
M* w
M* . c
M* s ( f s  a 1 f c )( d 0.003 E s
 d ) j b
, where
c  d
fy .
, and
j b
f y(
* Ms d  d)
jb
Total tensile reinforcement, As = As1 + As 2 + As 3 , and total compression reinforcement is As . As is to be placed at the bottom and As is to be placed at the top. Minimum and Maximum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary and Elastic moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two limits:
176
Beam Design
As
b w d , or
(NZS 8.4.3.1)
As
4 As (required ) . 3
(NZS 8.4.3.3)
An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: As As
0.04 b d 0.04 b w d 0.04 b d 0.04 b w d
Additional Consideration for Seismic Design For Seismic moment resisting concrete Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility (not Elastically responding structures), the following additional conditions are enforced for beam design (NZS 8.5.3.2 and NZS 17.3.5.4). See Table VIII2 for comprehensive listing. The minimum tensile longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top and bottom for both Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As (min) if tensile reinforcement is required. As(min)
f c 4f y
bw d .
(NZS 8.5.3.2)
0.025 b w d and f c + 10 bw d . 6f y
At any section of a beam within a potential plastic hinge region for Ductile moment resisting frames, as defined later on page 182, the compression reinforcement area, As , shall not be less than1 2 of the tension reinforcement area, As , at the same section (NZS 8.5.3.2). At any section of a beam within a potential plastic hinge region for moment resisting frames with Limited ductility, the Beam Design
177
ETABS Concrete Design Manual compression reinforcement area shall not be less than 3 8 of the tension reinforcement area at the same section (NZS 17.3.5.4). At least1 4 of the larger of the top flexural reinforcement required at either end of the beam in a Ductile frame or in a frame with Limited ductility shall be continued throughout its length (NZS 8.5.3.2, 17.3.5.4).
V p + V D+ L
178
Beam Design
Chapter VIII Design for NZS 310195 where, V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated overstrength moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 , where V P1 = V P2 = where M I+ = Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0), M J+ = Moment capacity at end J, with bottom steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0), M I = Moment capacity at end I, with top steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0), M J = Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.0), and L = Clear span of beam. For Seismic moment resisting frames, a is taken as 1.25 for both Ductile moment resisting frames and frames with Limited ductility (NZS A4.1.6). j is taken as 1 (NZS 4.4.3.3). V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the load inspan distribution of gravity loads. M I + M J+ , and L M I+ + M J, L
As bw d
f c
(NZS 9.3.2.1)
where, f c
70 , and
(NZS 9.3.2.1)
Beam Design
179
vb
0.2 f c .
(NZS 9.3.2.1)
For Ordinary and Elastically responding moment resisting frames, the concrete shear capacity for beams is taken as follows: vc = vb. (NZS 9.3.2.1)
For Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames, the shear strength of a beam section is taken as zero since the axial force is considered to be very small or tensile. This is given as vc = 0 . (NZS 9.4.2.1)
For Seismic moment resisting frames with Limited ductility, the concrete shear capacity for the beam is taken as follows: v c = 0.5 v b . (NZS 17.3.7.3)
For other types of sections b w d is replaced by Acv , the effective shear area which is shown in Figure VIII2. The average shear stress, v * , is limited to a maximum limit, v max , which is given for Ordinary frames and Elastically responding seismic frames as, v max
= min
{ {
js
(NZS 9.3.1.8)
and for Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility as, v max
= min
js
(NZS 9.4.4.2)
vc 2 , ) (NZS 9.3.4.1)
=0,
180
Beam Design
vc 2 )
<
v*
js
vc
+ 0.35
, (NZS 9.3.4.3)
0.35b w , f yt
f yt
500
MPa
else if Av s
js
vc
+ 0.35 <
v* ,
j s v max
(v*
j svc js
) bw
f yt ,
f yt
500
else if v *
> v max
(NZS 9.3.1.8)
The maximum of all the calculated Av s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported for the beam along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. For all beams and at any station, the minimum area of transverse stirrup reinforcement is imposed as follows: Av s
1  r m t
3.3
Ag f c Ac f yt
N* j c f c Ag
 0.0065
h core
(NZS 8.4.7.2)
In potential plastic hinge locations, as described below, of Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility, the minimum area of transverse stirrup is imposed as follows: Av s
1.3  r m t
3.3
Ag f c Ac f yt
N* j c f c Ag
 0.0060
h core
(NZS 8.5.4.3)
In the above two equations for calculating the minimum shear reinforcement, the following limits are imposed: Ag Ac
1.2
Beam Design
181
(NZS 8.4.7 and NZS 8.5.4.3) MPa (NZS 8.4.7 and NZS 8.5.4.3)
f yt
800
For the definition of the potential plastic hinge, it is assumed in the current version of the program that any beam and column segment near the joint is a potential plastic hinge. The length of the plastic hinge, Lhinge , in a beam is taken as follows: Lhinge
= 2h
(NZS 8.5.3.1)
The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations. Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.
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Beam Design
Moment Resisting Frames with Limited ductility or Elastically responding (Seismic) NLDa Combinations Rm = 1 NLDa Combinations = 1.0 0.008 < < 18 fy Rm = 1 Modified NLDa Combs Column Capacity Shear (V p ) = 1.0 and = 1.25
Ductile Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) NLDa Combinations Rm is from NZS Table A3 NLDa Combinations = 1.0 0.008< < 18 fy Rm is from NZS Table A3 NLDa Combinations and Column Capacity Shear (V p ) Extra Combo with 1.7 VE j = 1.0 and = 1.25 NLDa Combinations r 0.025 f + 10 r c 6 fy
NLDa Combinations
(Elastic only)
Column Shears
NLDa Combinations
NLDa Combinations
r 0.025 f + 10 r c
6 fy
r
Beam Min. Moment Override Check
+ AsEND
+ AsEND + AsSPAN
No Requirement
+ AsSPAN
NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (V p ) with = 1.25 and = 1.0 plus VD+L vc = vb / 2
NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (V p ) with = 1.25 and = 1.0 plus VD+L vc = 0
Table VIII2 Comparison of Ordinary and Seismic Moment Resisting Frame Design
Beam Design
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C h a p t e r IX
Design Output
Overview
ETABS creates design output in three major different formats graphical display, tabular output, and member specific detailed design information. The graphical display of concrete design output includes input and output design information. Input design information includes design section labels, C m factors, live load reduction factors, and other design parameters. The output design information includes longitudinal reinforcing, shear reinforcing, and column capacity ratios. All graphical output can be printed. The tabular output can be saved in a file or printed directly. The tabular output includes most of the information which can be displayed. This is generated for added convenience to the designer. The member specific detailed design information shows the details of the calculation. It shows the design forces, design section dimensions, reinforcement, and some intermediate results for any load combinations at any design sections of a specific frame member. For a column member, it can also show the position of the current state of design forces on the column interaction diagram. In the following sections, some of the typical graphical display, tabular output, and memberspecific detailed design information are described. Some of the design inOverview
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ETABS Concrete Design Manual formation is specific to the chosen concrete design codes which are available in the program. The ACI 31899 design code is described in the latter part of this chapter. For all other codes, the design outputs are similar.
The output design information which can be displayed is Longitudinal Reinforcing, Shear Reinforcing, and Column Capacity Ratios. The graphical displays can be accessed from the Design menu. For example, the longitudinal reinforcement can be displayed by selecting the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command. This will pop up a dialog box called Display Design Results. Then the user should switch on the Design Output option button (default) and select Longitudinal Reinforcing in the dropdown box. Then clicking the OK button will show the longitudinal reinforcing in the active window. The graphics can be displayed in either 3D or 2D mode. The ETABS standard view transformations are available for all concrete design input and output displays. For switching between 3D or 2D view of graphical displays, there are several buttons
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Chapter IX Design Output on the main toolbar. Alternatively, the view can be set by choosing Set 3D View, Set Plan View, or Set Elevation View from the View menu. The graphical display in an active window can be printed in gray scaled black and white from the ETABS program. To send the graphical output directly to the printer, click on the Print Graphics button in the File menu. A screen capture of the active window can also be made by following the standard procedure provided by the Windows operating system.
Load Combination Multipliers Combination name, Combination type, Load factors, Load types, and Combination title. Material Analysis Property Data Material label, Modulus of elasticity, Poissons ratio, Coefficient of thermal expansion, Weight per unit volume, and Tabular Display of Design Input and Output
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ETABS Concrete Design Manual Mass per unit volume. Material Design Property Data Material label, Governing design code (Steel or Concrete), Concrete f c , Rebar f y , Shear rebar f y , and Light weight shear factor. Concrete Column Property Data Section label, Material label, Column dimensions (depth and width), Reinforcement pattern, Concrete cover, and Reinforcement area. Concrete Beam Property Data Section label, Material label, Beam dimensions (depth and width), Top and bottom concrete cover, and Top and bottom longitudinal reinforcement areas. Concrete Column or Beam Design Element Information (code dependent) Story level, Column line or Beam bay, Design Section ID, Design framing type, Live Load Reduction Factors, Unbraced Length Ratios for major and minor directions, and Kfactors for major and minor direction of buckling (Column only). Concrete Moment Magnification Factors (code dependent) Story level,
188
Chapter IX Design Output Beam bay or Column line, Design Section ID,
d ns factors, d s factors.
and
The output design information includes the following: Concrete Column Design Output Story level, Column line, Section ID, Station location, Total longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination, Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination, and Minor shear reinforcement and the governing load combination. Concrete Beam Design Output Story level, Beam bay, Section ID, Station location, Top longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination, Bottom reinforcement and the governing load combination, and Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination. The tabular output can be accessed by selecting the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. This will pop up a dialog box. The design information has been grouped into four categories: Preferences, Input Summary, Output Summary, and Detailed Output. The user can specify the design quantities for which the results are to be tabulated by checking the associated check boxes. By default, the output will be sent to the printer. If the user wants the output stream to be redirected to a file, he/she can check the Print to File box. This will provide a default filename. The default filename can be edited. Alternatively, a file list can be obtained by clicking the File Name button to chose a file from. If the user wants the output table to be appended to the existing text file, he/she should select the file from the file list and check the Append box. Then clicking the OK button will direct the tabular output to the requested file or to the requested printer. Tabular Display of Design Input and Output
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ETABS Concrete Design Manual For easy review of the file in which the tabular information has just been saved, the program provides an easy access to a text editor though the File > Display Input/Output Text Files command.
190
Chapter IX Design Output Shear reinforcement area per unit spacing, Av s . Additional information can be accessed for column members by clicking on the Overwrites, Details, and Interaction buttons in the dialog box. For beams additional information can be accessed by clicking on the Overwrites and Details buttons in the dialog box. Additional information that is available by clicking on the Overwrites button is as follows: Section ID, Element Framing Type, Live Load Reduction Factor, Horizontal Earthquake Factor, Design Parameters (code dependent) Unbraced Length Ratios for major and minor directions, Effective length factors, K, for major and minor directions of buckling, C m factors for major and minor directions,
d ns factors d s factors
Additional information that is available by clicking on the Details button is given below. The details of this information depend on whether the selected member is a beam or a column. If the member is a column, the information includes: Story level, Element ID, Station Location, Section ID, and Load Combination ID, Section geometric information and graphical representation, Material properties of concrete and steel rebar, Design axial force and biaxial moments, Minimum design moments, Moment magnification factors, Longitudinal reinforcing areas, Design shear forces, Shear reinforcement areas per unit spacing, Av , major s and Av,minor s , and Shear capacities of concrete and steel.
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ETABS Concrete Design Manual If the member is a beam, the information includes: Story level, Element ID, Station location, Section ID, and Load Combination ID, Section geometric information and graphical representation, Material properties of concrete and steel Reinforcement, Design moments and shear forces, Minimum design moments, Top and bottom reinforcing areas, Shear capacities of concrete and steel, and Shear reinforcement area per unit spacing, Av s . Clicking on the Interaction button displays the interaction diagram in a three dimensional space for the column section. The design axial force and the biaxial moments are plotted on the interaction diagram to show the state of stress in the column. The interaction diagram can be viewed in any orientation and the view can be manipulated from the interaction curve dialog box. The interaction diagram can be printed for hardcopy output.
192
References
ACI, 1999 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 31899) and Commentary (ACI 318R99), American Concrete Institute, P.O. Box 9094, Farmington Hills, Michigan, June 1999. BSI, 1989 BS 8110 : Part 1, Structural Use of Concrete, Part 1, Code of Practice for Design and Construction, British Standards Institution, London, UK, 1985, Issue 2, 1989. CEN, 1992 ENV 199211, Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures, Part 1, General Rules and Rules for Buildings, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 1992. CEN, 1994 ENV 19911, Eurocode 1: Basis of Design and Action on Structures Part 1, Basis of Design, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 1994. CSA, 1994 A23.394, Design of Concrete Structures, Canadian Standards Association, Rexdale, Ontario, Canada, 1994.
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ETABS Concrete Design Manual CSI, 1999 ETABS Users Manual, Vols. I and II, Computers and Structures, Inc., Berkeley, California, 1999. ICBO, 1997 1997 Uniform Building Code, Volume 2, Structural Engineering Design Provisions, International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, California, 1997. NZS, 1995 New Zealand Standard NZS 3101, Concrete Structures Standard, Part 1 The Design of Concrete Structures, Standards New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand, 1995. NZS, 1992 New Zealand Standard NZS 4203, Code of practice for General Structural Design and Design Loadings for Buildings, Standards New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand, 1992. PCA, 1996 Notes on ACI 31899, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, with Design Applications, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois, 1996. D. W. White and J. F. Hajjar, 1991 Application of SecondOrder Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice, Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Vol. 28, No. 4, 1991.
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Index
Additional moment British, 117 Balanced condition ACI, 39, 41 British, 123 BS, 126 Canadian, 99, 101 Eurocode, 145, 148 New Zealand, 172, 175 UBC, 68, 71 Beam flexural design, 2, 8 ACI, 36 British, 121 Canadian, 97 Eurocode, 142 New Zealand, 170 UBC, 66 Beam shear design, 9 ACI, 44 British, 127 Canadian, 105 Eurocode, 149 New Zealand, 178 UBC, 73 Beam/column capacity ratio ACI, 18, 49 UBC, 18, 78 Braced frames ACI, 30 British, 117 Canadian, 87 Eurocode, 135 New Zealand, 160 UBC, 59 Check station, 7 Code total moment Eurocode, 135 Column capacity ratio, 12 ACI, 29, 31 British, 116, 119 Canadian, 87, 90 Eurocode, 135, 137 New Zealand, 159, 163 UBC, 58, 60 Column flexural design, 9 ACI, 27 British, 114 Canadian, 85 Eurocode, 133 New Zealand, 157 UBC, 56
195
ETABS Concretel Design Manual Column shear design, 14 ACI, 32 British, 120 Canadian, 91 Eurocode, 138 New Zealand, 163 UBC, 61 Compression reinforcement ACI, 39, 42 British, 124, 126 Canadian, 100  101 Eurocode, 145, 148 New Zealand, 173, 176 UBC, 68, 71 Concrete shear capacity ACI, 34, 46 British, 120, 127 Canadian, 93, 107 Eurocode, 138, 150 New Zealand, 165, 179 UBC, 63, 75 Design codes, 1 See also "Supported design codes" Design load combinations, 2, 6 ACI, 23 British, 111 Canadian, 84 Eurocode, 129 New Zealand, 156 UBC, 54 Design of Tbeams ACI, 40 British, 124 Canadian, 101 Eurocode, 146 New Zealand, 174 UBC, 69 Detailed output, 191 Ductile detailing ACI, 43 Canadian, 105 New Zealand, 177 UBC, 73 Earthquake resisting frames ductile, 33, 62, 91  92, 104, 106, 153, 164  165, 177  178 elastic, 153 intermediate, 23, 43, 45, 54, 73, 75 limited, 153 nominal, 81, 105, 107 ordinary, 23 shear in intermediate frames, 34, 45, 63, 75 shear in special frames, 33, 62 special, 23, 43  44, 54, 72, 74 Element unsupported length, 19 Factored moments and forces ACI, 29, 37 British, 117, 122 Canadian, 87, 97 Eurocode, 135, 143 New Zealand, 159, 171 UBC, 58, 66 Flexural reinforcement ACI, 37 British, 121  122 Canadian, 97 Eurocode, 143 New Zealand, 170 UBC, 66 Framing Type UBC, 54 Generation of biaxial interaction surfaces, 9 ACI, 27 British, 115
196
Index Canadian, 85 Eurocode, 133 New Zealand, 157 UBC, 56 Graphical output, 186 Identification of beams, 8 Identification of columns, 8 Interaction diagram, 9 ACI, 27 British, 115 Canadian, 85 Eurocode, 133 New Zealand, 157 UBC, 56 Interactive environment, 1 Joint design ACI, 14, 46 UBC, 14, 76 Lateral drift effect, 19, 88 See also PDelta analysis Live load reduction factor, 7, 26, 55, 84, 114, 132, 156 Maximum column reinforcement ACI, 27 British, 115 Canadian, 85 Eurocode, 133 New Zealand, 157 UBC, 56 Member specific output, 190 Minimum column reinforcement ACI, 27 British, 115 Canadian, 85 Eurocode, 133 New Zealand, 157 UBC, 56 Minimum eccentricity ACI, 29 British, 118 Canadian, 87 Eurocode, 136  137 New Zealand, 159 UBC, 58 Minimum tensile reinforcement ACI, 42 Canadian, 104 New Zealand, 176 UBC, 72 Moment magnification ACI, 29 British (additional moment), 117 Canadian, 87 Eurocode (total moment), 135 New Zealand, 160 UBC, 58 Nominal moment capacity, 92 Nonsway frames ACI, 30 British, 117 Canadian, 87 Eurocode, 135 New Zealand, 160 UBC, 59 Notation ACI, 24 British, 112 Canadian, 82 Eurocode, 130 New Zealand, 154 UBC, 52 Output, 1 details, 191 graphical, 185  186 interaction diagram, 192 member specific, 185, 190
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ETABS Concretel Design Manual tabular, 185, 187 Overstrength factor, 16, 47, 77, 106 Overstrength moment capacity, 164, 178 PDelta analysis, 18 ACI, 30 British, 118 Canadian, 88 Eurocode, 137 New Zealand, 160 UBC, 59 Probable moment capacity, 33, 62, 92 Rectangular beam design ACI, 38 British, 122 Canadian, 98 Eurocode, 144 New Zealand, 171 UBC, 67 Redesign, 191 Seismic Zone UBC, 51 Shear reinforcement ACI, 36, 46 British, 120, 128 Canadian, 94, 108 Eurocode, 141, 151 New Zealand, 167, 180 UBC, 64, 76 Special considerations for seismic loads, 9, 20 ACI, 23, 33, 43  44 Canadian, 81, 92, 106 New Zealand, 153, 164, 178 UBC, 62, 72, 74 Strength reduction factors ACI, 26 British, 114 Canadian, 84 Eurocode, 132 New Zealand, 156 UBC, 55 Supported design codes, 1 ACI, 5, 23 British, 5, 111 Canadian, 5, 81 Eurocode, 5, 129 New Zealand, 5, 153 UBC, 5, 51 Sway frames ACI, 30 British, 117 Canadian, 87 Eurocode, 135 New Zealand, 160 UBC, 59 Tabular output, 187 TBeam design ACI, 40 British, 124 Canadian, 101 Eurocode, 146 New Zealand, 174 UBC, 69 Unbraced frames ACI, 30 British, 118 Canadian, 87 Eurocode, 137 New Zealand, 160 UBC, 59 Units, 2, 21 ACI, 23 British, 111 Canadian, 81 Eurocode, 129 New Zealand, 153
198
199