SPWLA 35thAnnualLeggingSymposium, 19-22,1994 June

conductivity along with porosity devices such as gammaray-neutron and acoustic logs. Density logs are This article covers the essentials of the tools aud not widely available therefore very few densities are practice of basic Russian well logs and Russian log run. analysis techniques used by the geophysical analyst. Soviet log data, when received, may not be all available. Emphasis is placed on those tools used in Russia which We find that not all logs that are run on a well are are significantly different than their counterparts in the widely available and that includes the BKZ, BK, MBK, BK3, PK, MK3 and Acoustic logs. Becauseof that, we western oil fields. will demonstratethe interpretation techniques with and without certain tools for estimation of Rt and porosity. This is surely a rapidly changing world. MAY companies are on their way to Russia or one of its This will include corrected laterals, skin-effect former republics, or is contemplating such a move. In corrected induction’s, invasion corrections, calibrating truth, it might be simpler if you were going to gamma rayneutron porosity, transforming acoustic data, gas identification and a method to provide very Antarctica. The learning curve of many disciplines will be an realistic porosity. important early part of your venture. There is a multitude of significantly different technologies to Table 1 includes a glossary of common Russian understand. Those professionals dealing with wireline measurementsand their western equivalent. Also an logs probably will have a tougher time than most. Not appendix is provided with a list of Russian surveys with only will they be evaluating logs with very uufamiliar a translation along with their units of measurment. curves and analytical techniques, but they will also have a log heading with some important information written The data that is available aud that is to be acquired in in Russian, and no idea where to get the other equally thesefields representsseveral eras of development. The important information. The penalty for not learning needto cross-calibrate and integrate these disparate sets this new technology is the loss of a mountain of of data into a coherent analysis of the reservoirs is obvious. Not so obvious is the methodology that must valuable information. be utilized to effect this integration in a timely and The well log analyst or in Russian terminology the economical fashion. geophysical analyst needs to understand scaling and calibration, curve responsesand many other facets of the logs to be able to obtain values from curves and Electrical Resistivity correct them if necessary, for use as input into the various equations, etc. The geologist must know curve One of the most important parameters obtained by responses to know how to correlate, for example, an applying geophysical methods of investigation is the existing Russian log and a newly run western style log. electrical resistivity of rocks. This information is of use Engineers doing recompletions will need to understand in defining sequences, in detailing lithology, in the well in which he is working. The geotechnician, delineating reservoirs, and in evaluating their digitizing a Russian log must be able to follow one hydrocarbon potential. curve all the way, which is no mean feat when there is no line style and the curves with which he is working Electrical logs and the BKZ (the lateral log technique) are normally applied in studing formation resistivity. are copies in black and white. However, there are a number of prevailing difficulties, and unreliable results are obtained in low resistivity sections, in large invasion zones, thin beds, and in air Introduction drilled wells or wells drilled with oil base mud. Soviet standard wells logs are hand traced and handlabeled in four colors; red, green, blue and black. All In the former Soviet Union, sonding is widely wells have many types of resistivity logs. The typical employed to study the resistivity of strata.. The essence equivalent curves are SP, 204nch normal, 7-foot lateral of the method consists in measuring apparent resistivity and inverted lateral, 14-foot lateral, 29-foot lateral, opposite the interval being studied by means of lateral induction (gradient) and normal (potential) sondes of various focused laterolog, microlaterolog, Abstract


SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

spacing. So that the resistivities of the invaded zone and uncontaminated part of the formation are determined with sufkient accuracy, and the existence of strata penetrated by the drilling mud (and the depth of penetration) discovered, it is necessary to measure the apparent resistivity of the interval concerned by means of many sondes of different length (and consequently of different radii of investigation). Lateral and Normal Devices ln practice lateral sondes are usually employed with spacing corresponding to one to thirty well-diameters. And so as to obtain equal spacing of plots on log-scale graph paper, the size of sondesis selectedin a geometric progression with the exponent of 2.0 or 2.5. The lateral sondes most often used in the wells are the following: bottom sondes - A0.4MO.lN, AlMO.lN, A2M0.4N, A4MO.5N, ASMlN; top sondes N0.5M2A, N0.5M4A, NO.lM0.5A, NO.lMlA, NlM8A. One of the sondesis also the standard sonde; and accordingly as it is a top (A2M0.5N) or bottom one (NO.5M2A), the sonding is run with top or bottom lateral sondes. The resistivity curves obtained by the bottom sondesare more symmetrical than those obtained by the top sonde. Still, the resistivity log obtained by a normal sonde in beds of large and medium thickness have symmetrical maxima. Region South Caspian NW Caucasus Caspian Depression W. Seberia East & Central North Caucasus Volga-Urals Reservoir Sand/shale Sand/shale Sand/shale Sonde B0.5A2M N0.25M2.25A M2.5A0.25B B2.5A0.25M B0.5A3M B0.5a2M M0.5A3B B0.25A2M B0.25A2M M4A0.5B B7.5A0.75M B0.5A4M B2.5A0.25M M2A0,25B B0.25A2.5M -2-

During the nmning of a sonding it is necessary to determine the resistivity of the drilling mud by means of a resistivity meter and the diameter of the well by means of calipers, and also to take measurementswith microsondes. Processingof the sonding consists (a) in distinguishing formations and calculating the actual value of their apparentresistivity; (b) in plotting curves of the dependenceof apparent resistivity on the sonding curves; (4 in comparing these curves with computed ones to determine the resistivity of the formations and whether they have been penetratedby drilling mud. Formations are delineated and their boundaries defined from the aggregateof all the apparentresistivity (AR) curves obtained with sondesof different spacing. In addition, the SP curve, caliper log, and the traces obtained from microsondesare employed. Sonding is usually run for all the layers to be studied, and especially for those presenting practical interest (productive formations). During delineation of the boundaries of a layer, its lithological boundaries must also be defined, but they should not be expected to coincide. A lithologically uniformation may be divided into several layers according to their electrical properties. For each of the layers, delineated curves of the dependenceof apparent resistivity on the dimensions of the sonde (sonding curves) are plotted. The magnitude of apparent resistivity varies for different points in the layer. The essential values (i.e. those of the greatest interest) are the mean, maximum, minimum, and optimum resistivities. The curves of the relation between AR and the spacing of the sonding for layers of infinite thickness are known as sonding curves; they are divided into theoretical or computed curves and actual ones. Theoretical sonding curves are those plotted from data computed by means of grid modelling or graph analysis. Actual sonding curves are those plotted from mean or optimum AR values calculated from logs run against layers of great thickness. When the thickness of a formation exceeds 20 meters it can in practice be equated with infinite thickness; the sonding curves then correspond to the sonding curves and are interpreted by direct comparison with theoretical curves.

Sand/shale Sand/shale Carbonates Sand/shale Carbonates Sand/shale Carbonates Sand/shale Carbonates

Ukraine Ferghana Valley

SPWJA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

In fact, formations of great thickness are seldom the true resistivity of the formation. But if the encountered, the overwhelming majority of those in a resistivities determined by the various sondesdiffer section being of average thickness or thin. Therefore from one another, that is evidence of the presenceof an sonding curves differ from lateral-sonding curves, and invaded zone. The apparent resistivities obtained with cannot be interpreted by direct comparison with sondes of small and large radii of investigation then theoretical lateral-sonding curves. have to be treated separately. Sondesof small radius of investigation are used to determine the resistivity of the To interpret these sonding curves for layers of no great invaded zone and those of large radius to determine the thickness and of a resistivity greater than that of the resistivity of the uncontaminated part of the layer. surrounding rocks, charts of theoretical curves (see Figure 1) of maximum aud extreme lateral sonding Induction Logging values are employed. The actual lateral sonding curve or sonde curve is compared with the theoretical ones to find which of the Electrical logs and the BKZ (the lateral log) are latter resembles it most closely and gives grounds for normally applied in studing formation resistivity. However, there are a number of prevailing difficulties, considering that it has the sameparameters. On that basis the true resistivity of the formation is and unreliable results are obtained in low resistivity determined, and the presence or absence of filtrate sections, in large invasion zones, thin beds, and in air invasion; in favourable conditions the depth of the drilled wells or wells drilled with oil base mud. filtrate penetration can also be measured. To overcome these difficulties, methods of electrical A technique for interpreting lateral sonding logs (BKZ) investigations were developed. In the USSR, the from graphic constructions has been worked out and development of the induction logging apparatus described in detail by Komarov, Alpin, and others commenced in 1957 (S. M. Axel’rod and M. I. (Alpin, 1938; Komarov, 1950, 1963; Itenberg, 1961; Plyusnin) . Wiltgen and Truman, 1993). There is a serial production of apparatustypes M-2 and But it has several shortcomings (its advantagesapart), PM-1 and the induction method of investigation has been introduced into these Russian logging suites. as follows: (1) the difficulty in employing measurementsobtained with sondes other than normal or lateral ones; nevertheless, in order to obtain more reliable estimates of resistivity, the laterolog method is employed, or induction logs run, to supplement the lateral sonding logs or instead of certain sondes in the lateral sonding set; (2) the unsuitability of the results for processing on a general purpose digital computer. In this connection a general-purposemethod of interpreting sonding logs is employed in addition to the graphical methods. With this general-purposemethod it is possible to determine the resistivity of formations from the apparentresistivities obtained with various sondes. The first step in the interpretation is to determine the true resistivity of the formation from the apparent resistivities, measuredwith different sondes assumingthat there is no invaded zone and that the medium is two-layered. If the results obtained in practice for all sondesare uniform, that conliis the correcmessof this assumption; and they correspondto The induction logging apparatus type PIK-1 was developed by the Azneft-Geophysical Unit. It consists of a borehole device and calibration equipment. The borehole device PlK-1 is designed for operation with a single conductor cable and the OKC-56 unit; the panel of the electrologging unit is used as the control panel. Borehole device PIK-1 has the following characteristics: (1) the resistivity recording range is 0.220.0 ohm m; (2) induction sondetype 4F0.75. The M-2 induction log apparatuswas developedjointly by the Ordjhonikid Moscow Geological Exploration Institute and the Geophysical Petroleum Exploration Department. Two models have been in serial production since 1966; one (IK-2-OKC) was prepared for operation with laboratory type OKC-56, and the other (IK-2-AKC) with any unit using a three core cable, The IK-2-AKC apparatus differs from apparatus IK-2OKC in the construction of the surface panel and the power transformer. The apparatus IK-2-OKC is used for the case of a single core cable. The IK-2-OKC borehole device has the following characteristics:



SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

(1) range of recording resistivity 0.3-40.0 ohm m; (2) induction sondetype 5F1.2 or 6Fl.

These two values are found by extrapolating between the lines with fixed values for Rt/Rw and D/d on the

The apparent conductivity ignoring skin effect for all tools is calculated from the induction log according to a The choice of the normal or lateral sonde in addition to preliminary establishedrecording scale. Following this, the induction sonde, depends on the probable depth of the apparent resistivity is found from a graph for the invaded zone; with a shallow depth (D/d = 2 to 4) introducing the correction for skin effect. This can be small radius sondes give good results; with an average used for direct calculation of apparent resistivity from depth (D/d = 4 to 8) the lateral and normal sondeswith the induction log. The scale can also be conveniently an average radius of investigation are s&able; and for marked on a transparent ruler and accordingly shifted an invaded zone of more than 8 d, sondeswith increased along the log. The entire set of charts for the 5F1.2 and depth of investigation (focus) should be used, e.g. the ABK-3, or a short induction sonde. the 6Fl sondesare published in the VNII Geophysics. While using three sondes for determining Rt besides using the universal method of interpretation, complex combined charts are also used with the curves of the type Rl/Rw = f(R2/Rw), where Rl is the apparent resistivity obtained from the sonde with an average radius of investigation; R2 is the apparent resistivity obtained from the induction sonde and Rw the resistivity of the mud. The resistivity of the invaded zone RA can be determined from the values recorded with the third sonde. Figures 2 and 3 present examples of the combined chart. The combined chart given in figure 3 is intended for combination interpretation of data of the 5F1.2 induction sonde, and of data of the 1 m spacing lateral sondewith a borehole diameter of d = 0.2 m and with ratio R*/Rw = 10. A comparison of the complex chart for a combination of induction sondes with lateral and normal sondes, shows, that in wells with increased penetration of mud f&ate it is advisable that in addition to induction sondeswith bigger radii of investigation a combination with the normal sondes should be used, since the chart shows that in the zone of increased penetration, the curves are distributed more favorably for this combination of sondes than for the combination with the lateral sonde of equivalent length. ln zones with decreasing penetration, the application of the normal sonde is limited since complicated results can be obtained while determining formation parameters from the complex charts.

The main advantage of this method lies in its favorable areal characteristics, i.e., a larger radius of investigation The chart of ligure 2 has been plotted for combination of the 6Fl induction sonde and the normal sonde with and good focusing properties. For measuring the true AM = 0.5 m when d = 0.2 m and RVRw = 5. The resistivity of the formation, the induction log with a values for the relative resistivities of the lateral and large depth of investigation is used in combination with normal sondes( Rlat/Rw and Rnor/Rw respectively) are one or two sondes of other types which have low or plotted along the horizontal axis. The continuous lines medium depths of investigation. in the graphs correspond to the constant values of the relative diameter of the invaded zone @/d = 1; 2; 4; 8) Highly accurate results are obtained for low resistivity the dotted lines represent the constant values for RtRw rocks (less than 10 ohm m). Another advantage of the (Rt/Rw = 0.25; 0.5; 1.2; 5; 10; 20; 40; 100). The left induction method is, that its measuring schemedoes not side of the chart (Rind/Rw < R*/Rw) correspondsto an require direct contact with the drilling mud. It can, increase in invasion, and the right side, to a decrease. therefore, be used in air drilled wells, in wells drilled with an oil base mud and in boreholes which are filled Interpretation with the application of the combined with oil. charts is carried out as follows: the value RVRw is Ideal conditions for induction logging are low rock evaluated from the log of the small radius sonde. From resistivity (less than 50 ohm m) and medium or low this the required graph is selected. The values RlatRw salinity drilling mud; this method is not sensitive to (or RnoriRw) and Rind/Rw corrected for borehole resistivity measurementsexceeding 200 ohm m. effect and the invaded zone are introduced into the chart. The intersection of the perpendiculars to the axis The induction log is used to solve several other of the chart from the actual values of Rlat/Rw (or problems: the position of the oil water contact in the Rnor/Rw) and Rind/Rw give a point, the coordinates of formation, and the study of conductive layers of pyritic which, in a system of continuous and dotted lines, or sulphidic ores, graphites and anthracites (Plyusnin, correspond to the required values Rt/Rw and D/d, M. I., 1977). -4-

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

Laterolog Resistivity The Laterolog method is recommendedfor all wells in which conventional sonde logging does not yield satisfactory results. That applies to wells drilled with highly saline mud (resistivities of 0.5 ohm m and less), and to those encountering carbonates and hydrochemical formations of high resistivity. In these conditions Laterolog ensuresdetailed delineation of the section and demarcation of the boundaries both of thick and thin layers, including alternations of highresistivity beds (low-porosity carbonate formations), even with highly saline mud. The results obtained with the special seven-electrode and three-electrode sondesare practically the same,but the three-electode system,being simpler in operation, is the one mainly used. The measured potential, and consequently the magnitude of the apparent resistivity, are determined mainly by the resistivity of the rock. The effect of the borehole on the results of measurementswith the laterolog method is not great, and that is its main advantage over conventional logging in high resistivities.

(natural or artificially generated) taking place in the nuclei of elements are lmown as radioactivity or radiation logging (RL). The following methods of radiation logging are now widely used in the Russian oil industry: (a) gamma-ray logging for studing the natural gamma-radiation of rocks; @I)gamma-gammalogging (density method) and neutron logging based on study of the effect of the interaction of gamma rays and neutrons respectively with rocks. Gamma-radiation possesses great penetrating power so that radioactivity logs can be run both cased and uncasedwells, which is their great advantage.

Gamma-ray logging (GL) consists in measuring the intensity of the natural gamma-radiation of the rocks along a borehole by means of a gamma-ray detector contained in a sonde. The plot of the results obtained, which characterizes the intensity of the gammaradiation encountered,is known as a gamma-ray log. To compare the quantitative estimates of the natural radioactivity of rocks the following unit are used: roentgenhour (r/h); gram-equivalent Ra per gram of rock (g-equ Ra/g). A roentgen (r) is the quantity (dose) of X or gamma-radiation that will produce 2.1*10**9 pairs of ions in one cubic centimetre of air at 0 deg. C and 760 mm Hg. For practical purposes the unit of intensity of gamma-radiation is taken as the intensity of Microresistivity Devices the dose of radiation per unit time, expressed in The MicroLog method is widely used to solve the roentgen/hours. following problems: delineation of the section into The gram-equivalent of radium per gram of rock is that permeable and non-permeable beds; correction of the concentration of radioactive elements in the rock that lithology, demarcation of the boundaries of formations gives to the same intensity of gamma-radiation as the and determination of their thickness; evaluation of the decay of one gram of radium. Since the radioactivity of resistivity of the region of the formation adjacent to the sedimentary rocks is very small, the unit used in borehole wall and of the intermediate layer (mud cake practice is the micro-microgram-equivalent of radium per gram of rock: and film). In the presence of mud cake against permeable beds, the apparent resistivity recorded with the normal microsonde is substantially greater than that measured simultaneously with a lateral microsonde posessing a considerably smaller radius of investigation. This excess in the readings is called positive separation. It can also be observed against impermeable beds of high resistivity owing to the effect of mud film trapped between the pad and the borehole wall.


Gamma-gamma loggging (GGL) consists in the irradiation of the wall of a borehole with gamma quanta and study of the effect of their interaction with the rocks An apparatusconsisting of a source of gamma-radiation and gamma-ray detector located at a certain distance from it is used for gamma-gammalogging. A screen separating the source from the detector reduces the effect of the former’s direct rays on the latter. Most often radioactive cobalt (Co 60) is used as a source of gamma-radiation. To eliminate interference from background and natural radiation a quite strong source Radioactivity Logging of radiation is used (2-10 microgram equivalent of Geophysical methods of studing the geological sections radium). The results of measurementsare expressedin of wells based on utilization of radioactive processes impulses per minute, or in arbitrary units, such as the -5-

SPWLA 35th Annual

LoggingSymposium, June 19-22,1994

reading against water (a medium of unit density). The value of the arbitrary unit (I) is determined by readings taken in a tank of water, and is equal to the difference in the readings obtained using a source of radiation, and without one. When a gamma-gamma log is run in a well, the indicator is the sonde measures scattered gammaradiation. The intensity of the latter depends on the density and chemical composition of the rocks, diameter of the borehole, the power of the radiation source, and the distance between it and the indicator. To reduce borehole effect sondesare usually fitted with a device to press it against the wall and with lead screensto shield the indicator from radiation scattered by the drilling mud. In that way the effect of the mud or borehole fhtid is reduced with consequentbetter differentiation of the

reduce the exactnessof determinations of rock density which is displayed on the log. Neutron logging is based on investigation of the effect of the interaction of a neutron beam and rock, for which a sondeis used containing a source of fast neutrons and a detectorpositioned at a given distance from it. Readings on the neutron logs are given in arbitrary units, correspondingto the readings for fresh water. Severalversions on neutron logging are used: (1) neutron-gamma logging (NGL), which consists in measmingthe gammaradiation induced by the action of the neutrons on the rock; (2) thermal neutron logging (NTL) and epithemal neutron logging (NEL), which consist respectively in measurementof the density of thermal and epithermal neutrons.

The distance from the source to the middle of the gamma-radiation or neutron-density detector is a It has been established with the normal type of gamma- characteristic parameterknown as the spacing (I,) of the gamma log that when the energy of the source sonde. emmitting gamma-quanta is comparatively high (1.31.17 MeV) the magnitude of the measuredradiation is Neutron-gammalogging (NGL) is significantly affected mainly determined by scattering; soft components(200 by elements possessingan anomalously high ability to kev or less) are absorbed before reaching the detector. capture thermal neutrons such as chlorine, boron, The intensity of the scattered radiation is thus lithium, cadmium, and cobalt Chlorine prsents the determined by the number of electrons per unit volume greastestinterest in the study of oil strata, owing to its of the rock which in turn depends on its density. This wide occurrence in sedimentary series. The absorption type of gamma-gammalogging is known, accordingly, (capture) cross section of chlorine for thermal neutrons as formation density logging (FDL). Between the is approximately 100 times that of hydrogen. In density of the rocks and the intensity of the scattered addition the capture of neutrons by chlorine nuclei is radiation there is an inverse relationship: the higher rhe accompanied by emission of large number of gamma density, the greater is the scattering and the lower is the quanta which causesan increase in radiative capture and recorded gamma radiation. Thus minima on the density a resultant increase in the NGL reading. log correspond to dense rocks like anhydrites, while Thus the presenceof chlorine in highly saline formation maxima delineate the least denserocks such as salt. If account is taken of data characterizing the waters leads to an increase in the intensity of the measurementconditions in the borehole and efficiency gamma-radiation, and enrichment of the gammaof the recording apparatus used, density logs can be radiation spectrum with high-energy components. Consequently the NGL reading against the waterconverted into formation bulk density. The effective radius of investigation of a gamma- bearing part of a productive layer is more than that gamma log does not exceed ten or eleven centimetres, against its oil-bearing parts. This feature of the and increases with reduction in the density of the neutron-gamma log is utilized to locate the oil-water medium (drilling mud and the surrounding rocks). The contact (OWC) and to study its movement during borehole wall is usually rough and uneven so that layer exploitation of homogeneousoil sands with a constant of drilling fluid and mud cake between it and the sonde lithological composition and porosity, (provided the varies, even though the latter is pressed against it; this formation water is of high salinity). circumstance tends to raise readings on the sonde and Since oil and water contain approximately the same amount of hydrogen, oil- and water-bearing strata with -6

The spacing of a gamma-gamma sonde (the distance between the radiation source and the mid-point of the detector) is taken at 30 to 50 centimetres. To discount the effect of the borehole on the intensity of scattered gamma-radiation it is essential to have caliper-log data on its diameter.

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

a low chlorine content are characterized by approximately the sameNGL readings. Gas-bearing strata are generally marked by higher NGL readings than oil- and water-bearing ones of the same lithology and porosity since, owing to its low density, gas has a low hydrogen content. In practice, however, owing to mud invasion of strata and the limited radius of investigation of the method, NGL readings against gas-bearing formations are considerably reduced and it is difficult to differentiate them from oil- and waterbearing layers. The sonde spacing (distance from source to detector) usually used for neutron-gamma logging is 0.6 m. With that length an increase in the amount of constituent minerals containing chemically bound water results in a reduction in the NGL reading. ir;hermal (NTL) and epithermal neutron (NEL) logging consists in the study of the density of thermal and epithermal neutrons, respectively, along the borehole. On neutron thermal logs recorded with long sondes, formations of high hydrogen content are marked by low readings, as with NGL. Low porosity rocks are characterized by high NTL readings. But the NTL log is largely affected by elements having a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons; therefore it is rather sensitive to chlorine content and the results obtained are strongly dependent on the salinity of the drilling mud and formation water. On the contrary, the epithermal neutron log (NEL) does not depend on the surrounding medium’s content of elements like chlorine with a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons, NEL readings are determined mainly by the slowing-down properties of the hydrogen in the medium, so that this log is more closely related to the hydrogen content of the rocks than the NGL and N-IL.

mainly used, as porosity changes are clearly expressed on NGL in favorable conditions, The charts compiled from measurementsof formation models are used to determine porosity from NG readings. The models are built up from blocks of rock that resemble the rocks being studied in lithopetrographic composition and porosity. Curves showing the relationship between NG logs and porosity are plotted for given conditions taking into account the well design (well diameter, casing, cement collar, etc.), the thickness of the mud cake, the salinity of the drilling mud, sondespacing, type of log, etc. The curves in Figure 4 show the relationship between NG readings and porosity for carbonate rocks in an uncased well. It is clear that in the range of porosity changebetween 5 and 25 per cent the NG readings are approximately inversely proportional to the logarithm of porosity. In the remaining intervals the relationship between these two factors is far more complex, and is unsuitable for rocks with a porosity of over 25 per cent (where small changes in NG readings correspond to considerable changes in porosity). The graph was plotted for a definite type of apparatus with a sonde spacing of 60 centimeters. Results differ according to the type of apparatus and the sonde spacing used. But the method for determining the porosity is the same. With the arbitrary units and core porosity the same relationship can be developed using the arbitrary unit being inversely proportional to the logarithm of core porosity.

Pulse Neutron-neutron logging (PNNL) consists of a neutron source of periodic action and a detector of neutron density placed at a certain given distance from it. What is measuredby pulse neutron-neutron logging is the variation in density of thermal neutrons with time A small radius of investigation is quite characteristic of after stoppage of the pulse, and their density during a neutron logging. It varies between 20 to 60 cm certain interval lo**-3 to lo**-4 seconds after depending on the nature of the rocks, and falls with rise cessation of the pulse. This density falls off in hydrogen content. The NEL method has the smallest exponentially with time aud depends on the medium’s radius of investigation, since the field of distribution of content of elements with large capture cross sections, epithermal neutrons is smaller than that of thermal ones. particularly atoms of chlorine. In this connection, the The neutron-gamma log is mainly used in the average life of thermal neutrons in water-bearing strata investigation of oil and gas wells to detect reservoirs containing highly saline waters is much less than that of oil- or gas-bearingstrata. and estimate their porosity. To determine porosity from neutron log data, the different relationships between porosity and reading of Pulse neutron-neutron logging has a wider radius of the neutron-gamma, thermal-neutron and epithermal- investigation and higher sensitivity to the chlorine neutron logs are used (Fillipov, 1962). In practice, content of a formation than the other methods of neutron-gamma (NG) readings in arbitrary units are neutron logging. Its main purpose is to the determination of the oil-water contact of strata -7-


SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

intersected by cased wells. It also has special value in regions with low-salinity formation waters where the more usual methods (NL and induced activity-IA) do not give positive results owing to their lower sensitivity to the sodium chloride content of the formation. Radioactivity logging methods are widely used in conjunction with other geophysical methods of investigation to obtain precision in the lithology of formations, to detect reservoirs, and to estimate porosity. With carbonates and geochemical deposits radioactivity logging is a basic method for resolving these problems. In oil and gas wells it is often employed to determine gas/fluid and oil/water contacts (Itenberg, 1961; Filippov, 1962).

determination of total porosity of a formation from acoustic log data would appear to be the same as western methods. Photography of the Walls of Wells Photographs of the walls of a borehole, taken by a special camera, can be used to study its geological section. They have proved useful when other geophysical methods, such as the electric logging and neutron logging, ones, have failed to distinguish the characterof the rocks penetrated.

In the former USSR, borehole walls are photographed by means of a FAS-1 camera, which is contained in a cylinder 1574 mm long and 102 mm in diameter. The main assembly consists of an illumination source (two IS-20 flash units), a Jupiter-12 lens located on the axis Acoustic or Sonic Logging of the camera,and a filming mechanism with tine-film, The method of determining the elastic properties of housed in a case with an inspection windqw made of rocks penetrated by the borehole by recording the toughened glass 13 mm thick. The wall of the well is velocity of propagation of elastic waves through them is both illuminated and photographed through this known as acoustic logging. Rocks are not absolutely window. A steel spring attached to the case of the elastic, therefore the energy of an elastic wave is camera on the opposite face presses the instrument absorbed and dispersed in them. Absorption occurs against the part of the wall nearestthe window. through the mutual friction of neighboring rock Behind the observation window is a mirror positioned particles and dispersal from the heterogeneity of the at an angle of 45 degrees. The image of the lighted rock. In a laminated medium the formation of reflected portion of the well is reflected by the mirror into the and refracted waves, which leads to a dispersal of some lens. The capacity of the film cartridge is 3.5 meters (280 frames). Photographscan be taken either when the energy, is observed. apparatusis stationary or moving at a given depth (see Acoustic logging can be carried out in two ways: (a) Figure 5). velocity logging and (b) attenuation logging. Velocity logging is the main version, and is used to determine the velocity of propagation of an elastic wave through the Determination of Porosity and Oil and Gas Potential rocks penetrated by the borehole. Two main type of sonde are used - three-element and two-element. Sonde For estimating reserves,planning the development of a spacing for acoustic logging has to be selectedin such a field, and to resolve a number of exploitation problems, way that the damaged zone does not effect the data on the storage capacity and oil and gas potential of measurement of velocity in the virgin part of a productive formations are required. These are best formation (Rabinovich, 1964). In selecting the spacing obtained from well logs. between generators (receivers) it should be borne in mind that the resolving power of the sondeis improved Komarov (1963) classifies the determination of with a reduction in the length of the base spacing since reservoir properties from geophysical data into three that ensuresthe detection of thin layers; but accuracy in groups of methods-direct, empirical, and indirect. receiving signals from the close and remote receivers is thereby reduced. With the LAK-1 acoustic log a three- 1. Direct methods (for which the dependence of the element sonde R1.25V0.75V, which is equivalent to an geophysical data on reservoir properties is established acoustic sonde V1.25R0.75R, gives the optimum results by theoretical calculations substantiated by (distance between the element is expressedin meters). measurementof models or experimental investigations) include the techniques of determining oil and gas Acoustic attenuation logging is also used to check the saturations from resistivity indices, porosity from the quality of the cement behind the well casing. Also formation factor, the velocity of elastic wave -8-

SPWJA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

propagation from acoustic logging and neutron-gamma combined study of these logs. The most promising log data. These all have au adequate theoretical basis, method for evaluating porosity, however, is acoustic logging. In practice, the neutron-gamma (NG) readings and are highly promising. are also used, as porosity changesare clearly expressed 2. Empirical methods are based on establishing the on NGL in favorable conditions. relation between the geophysical parameters and the various formation characteristics by correlating core and well-log data. They are widely employed; porosity Formation Factor is determined from the SP log and permeability from Relationship between Formation Factor and Porosity is resistivity indices, etc. the constant a and index m depend on the character of 3. Indirect methods involve, initially, determination of the rock. In practice, cmves showing the relation an auxiliary parameter from a geophysical value, the between formation factor and porosity are used ( see reservoir property of interest is then approached Figure 6). From these curves it can be seen that, because of the effect of the shape of pore space, the through it. statistical association between F and PHI is not simple. The bulk density of a formation, for example, can be Various methods exist for determining the formation determined from the gamma-gamma log and then, factor, one of these is core data (this index may vary proceeding from that known relation, the porosity of the within limits 1.40 and 6.20 - average 2.00). rock is obtained. Porosity and permeability can also be determined from shaliness, which in turn is evaluated Resistivity Index from the gamma-ray and SPlogs. The relationship obtained by empirical or indirect methods is statistical and is established concretely for The resistivity index indicates how much the true separateformations or groups of similar strata in an area resistivity of a water-bearing reservoir increases with or district. It does not always contain supplementary partial saturation of its pore volume by oil and gas. An information as compared with core analyses, and it is inverse relationship exists between the resistivity index only useful therefore, when there are definite conditions I, and the coefficient of water saturation SW. (n) is the to detail the physical properties of the a formation from index of the degree of water saturation (saturation exponent) dependent on the lithological petrographic geophysical data. character of the rock and the properties of the oil and Komarov’s classification of methods of determining water (see Figure 7; this index may vary within the reservoir properties from geophysical data is limits 1.73 and 4.33 - average 2.15). provisional, since the connection between them and core data sometimes has to be established by a combination of techniques and so involves more than Example Application one of his groups. The logs presented are CKB No. 1 (Denisov and Porosity and permeability are two principal properties Diakonova, 1992). This example is an anhydrite and of reservoirs. Porosity may be determined from limestone section.. Below the anhydrite is limestone geophysical data by various methods and the values with gas until 2112 meters (GWC) with water down to obtained are widely employed, but the possibilities of 2177 meters. Looking at the deferent resistivities there determining permeability from logging data are limited. are many values one might use for determining Rt, and It is sometimesuseful, in making a qualitative estimate with that the water saturation. of changesin the filtration properties of formations, to The first log suite, Figure 8, has the following logs: determine their shalinessfrom gamma-ray and SPlogs. Let us now examine the principle methods of micro lateral, micro normal, SP, 0.45m lateral, 1.05m determining the physical properties of formations from lateral, 2.25m lateral, 4.25m lateral, 8.50m lateral and a microlaterolog. The second log suite, Figure 9, has a geophysical well data. laterolog-3, induction conductivity, gamma ray, Porosity is most often calculated from electric gamma-neutronand acoustic. (resistivity)/ SP and radioactivity (neutron and gammagamma) logs; in addition, it is customary to calculate An analysis using the BKZ method yields improved the volume of fractured and caved reservoirs from a resistivity decrimination between the gas and water. -9-



35th Annual Logging Symposium,

June 19-22,1994

The readings for the induction and laterolog in the gas and water are what would be expected for Rxo < Rt in the gas and Rxo > Rt in the water zone. Gas BKZ Induction 6Fl Laterolog 3 15 10 16 Water 5 7 10

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Alpin, L. M., 1938, Theory of Electric WellLogging, Moscow Axel’rod, S. M., 1961, The Scale of Induction Log Curves, VUZ series Neftigas, No. 3 Denisov, S.B. and T.F. Diakonova, 1993, Book of Problems, Sphere(CG1) Fillipov, E. M., 1962, App ird Nuclear Geophysics, Moscow Itenberg, S. S., 1961, Well-Site Geophysics, Moscow Komarov, S. G., 1950, Resistivity Well-Logging, Interpretation Moscow Komarov, S. G., 1963, Geophysical Methods of Investigating Wells, Moscow Komarov, S. G., Mikolaevich, E. Yu., Sokhranov, N. N., 1969, Estimating Oil Potential from Logging Data, Prikladnaya Geofizika No. 54 Plyusnin, M. I., 1977, Induction Logging, Nedra Wiltgen, N. A. and Truman, R. B., 1993, Russian Lateral (BKZ) Analysis, SPE 26433, Society of Petroleum Engineers

In the gas interval, where Rxo < Rt the laterolog is little influenced by the lower resistivity in the invaded zone and reads close_ to Rt. In fact, in this case, Rt is probably higher than indicated by either the BKZ method or the laterlog. The induction log is influenced to a greater extent than the laterolog by the lower resistivity in the invaded zone. Conversely, in the water zone, where Rxo > Rt, the laterolog is influenced to a greater extent by the invaded zone than is the induction. The BKZ method yields results that are less influenced by invasion than either the laterolog or the induction. Porosity was calculated involving sonic and neutron or both. First, transformed sonic to porosity by using the Hunt-Raymer equation and then calibrated the neutron (NG) from arbitrary units with little or no mud cake. Then calculated cross plot sonic-neutron porosity and if available calibrated with core porosity. A gas flag can be developed from the difference of sonic minus neutron porosity after achieving a threshold value. Porosity Total sonic Neutron Crossplot 23 wet 29 gas 31 wet 30 gas 27 wet 30 gas Water Saturation

6. 7. 8.

9. 10.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR 100 48 79 47 91 47 Nick A. Wiltgen is the Head of Petrophysical Studies at Qatar General Petroleum Corporation in Doha, Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. He previously was Manager of Petrophysics at ResTech Houston, and held various engineering positions with Oryx Energy Company, Amerada Hess International, Shell Offshore Inc., and Schlmberger Well Services. He received his BS in Electrical Engineering from Purdue University (1974) and is a Registered Professional Engineer. He is a member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers AIME, Society of Exploration Geophysicists and Society of Professional Well Log Analyst

Also in sand-shales the micro lateral or micro normal can be used as a shale indicator and in all areas as a permeability indicator. The results of quantitative interpretations are usually presented in a written form (not log) accompanied by tables and graphs. In some organizations the form of presenting is laid down in their regulations (standards).


SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994


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SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

GLOSSARY OF COMMON RUSSIAN MEASUREMENTS RUSSIAN NOMENCLATURE A 0,s M 0,l N M0,5AO,l B Al,OMO,lN Ml,OAO,lB A2,OM0,5N M2,OA0,5B NO,5M2,OA BO,5A2,OM A2,5M0,25M M2,5AO,ZJB A4,OM0,5N M4,OA0,5B N0,5A4,OM BO,5A4,OM A5,28M0,82N A5,7OMO,4ON M8,OA0,5B A&OMl,ON MI,OAl,OB M9,OA0,5B B2,5A0,25M N5,70M0,40A N6,OM0,5A NS,OMO,SA N2,OA0,5A BZ,OA0,5M N4,48M1,62A A0,025M0,025N Mk-1 A0,05M Mk-2 BK or BK-3 Mbk M-pamma NK K-pamma UC DT HLK LK LLK-HHK Table 1 Lateral 0.55 m, 2 ft Lateral 0.55 m, 2 ft Lateral 1.05 m, 3 ft Lateral 1.05 m, 3 ft Lateral 2.25 m, 7 ft Lateral 2.25 m, 7 ft Inverted Lateral 2.25 m, 7 ft Inverted Lateral 2.25 m, 7 ft Lateral 2.625 m, 9 ft Lateral 2.625 m, 9 ft Lateral 4.24 m, 14 ft Lateral 4.25 m, 14 ft Inverted Lateral 4.25 m, 14 ft Inverted Lateral 4.25 m, 14 ft Lateral 5.69 m, exact 18’ 8’ Lateral 5.9 m, 19 ft Lateral 8.25 m, 27 ft Lateral 8.50 m, 28 ft Lateral 8.50 m, 28 ft Lateral 9.25 m, 39 ft Normal 0.25 m, 10 in Normal 0.4 m, exact 16 in Normal 0.5 m, 20 in Normal 0.5 m, 20 in Normal 0.5 m, 20 in Normal 0.5 m, 20 in Normal 1.62 m, exact 64 in Microlateral 0.0375 m, 1 x 1 in Microlateral 0.0375 m, 1 x 1 in Micronormal 0.05 m, 2 in Micronormal 0.05 m, 2 in Laterolog-3, guard equivalent Microlaterolog equivalent Microcaliper 6FF40 Induction Conductivity Caliper SP Delta T Gamma-Neutron Gamma Ray Density



SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994









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SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium,June 19-22,1994

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SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

Relationship between neutron-gamma readings in arbitrary porosity for carbonate rocks in an uncased well



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SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994




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SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994


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SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994



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