A Network of 22nd–26th Dynasty Genealogies

Robert M. Porter
A genealogical chart is proposed which, if correct, shows a shortened period for the 22nd– 26th Dynasty.

This short note presents a chart showing a proposed assemblage of many of the known genealogies of the Third Intermediate Period. To avoid giving endless references, the reader is asked to consult Kitchen’s Third Intermediate Period in Egypt which has user-friendly charts and index so that most of the characters named can be quickly found and fitted into their own sub-genealogies. 1 The chart shown here was partly inspired by Morris Bierbrier’s 1979 chart. 2 That chart is out of date because his two Viziers Nakhtefmut, placed three generations apart, are now thought to be the same person, with Nakhtefmut’s wife as a daughter of Takelot II, not III. Also, Bierbrier postulated two extra generations in the Fourth Prophet of Amun lineage. 3 The new chart fits together fairly tightly and does not appear to leave much room for other possibilities, given the present state of our knowledge, but there are two surprising results which I will briefly outline: 1) About two generations are lost from the early 22nd Dynasty royal genealogy as given by the wellknown Pasenhor stela. Pasenhor’s genealogy is the only source for the usual royal sequence from Shoshenq I to Takelot I, and it might be inaccurate or fictitious. Jansen-Winkeln recently categorized this type of genealogy as “a long genealogy in which no mistake, contradiction or anachronism is apparent” (my emphasis; Jansen-Winkeln was not doubting Pasenhor). 4 Alternatively, Pasenhor’s sequence might be retained by making Tashepenbast a very late daughter of Shoshenq I and Neskhonspakhered a very late daughter of Iuput, plus other adjustments (e.g., see final comment on the Neseramun genealogy below). If the early 22nd Dynasty is really shorter, then presumably Shoshenq I was overlord of Takelot I, and Osorkon I and II must have also reigned partly in parallel.
The following abbreviations are used for convenient summaries of the genealogies: TIPE = Kenneth Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (Warminster, 1973; 2nd edition 1986). See especially chapter 13, plus 560–564 in the 2nd edition; LNK = Morris Bierbrier, Late New Kingdom in Egypt (Warminster, 1975). See especially chapters 4 and 5; PBTS = Günter Vittmann, Priester und Beamte im Theben der Spätzeit (Vienna, 1978). See especially chapters 2 and 3. For a recent brief summary of Dynasties 22 to 24, including some mention of the genealogies, see Karl Jansen-Winkeln, “The Chronology of the Third Intermediate Period: Dyns. 22–24,” in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss, and David Warburton, eds., Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Leiden-Boston, 2006), 234–64. Many of the genealogical texts have recently become available in transcription in Karl Jansen-Winkeln, Inscriften der Spätzeit, Teil II: Die 22.-24. Dynastie (Wiesbaden, 2007), and later genealogies will become available in subsequent volumes in this series. 2 M. Bierbrier, “Review of PBTS,” Bibliotheca Orientalis 36 (1979), 306–9. 3 Bierbrier, “Review,” 307. His “4PA Nakhtefmut” is probably the same person as 4PA Nakhtefmut B. 4 Translated from Karl Jansen-Winkeln, “Die Entwicklung der genealogischen Informationen nach dem Neuen Reich,” in Martin Fitzenreiter, ed., Genealogie – Realität und Fiktion von Identitat (London, 2005), 137–45, esp. 142.


but rarely an older female. stelae and papyri should come approximately in appropriate sequences. presumably allied or subject to them. The rest of this note consists of explanations for the chart and brief comments on some of the genealogies included. 6) Pharaohs’ names in round brackets are attested in the life-span or at the death of the named person. Because the chart positions people at approximately age 40.g. thus a line would typically represent about 7 or 8 years. a funeral statue may show a pharaoh from further down (or up) the chart. coffins. 3P 3rd Prophet of Amun.. 4P 4th Prophet of Amun. e. then they can easily relate to pharaohs who reigned one generation before or after the line on which their own name occurs. often later rather than early.146]) Djedmutesankh Djedthutefankh Karoma or variation Nakhtefmut Nam NesA NesK NesKpa Os Ps Sh Shep Tah Tak Namenkhpre Nes(er)amun Neskhons Neskhonspakhered Osorkon Psamtek Shoshenq Shepensopdet Taharqa Takelot DjMs DjT Karo Na . 4) Approximate starting points of reigns of some pharaohs. on their funeral statue. as with the line of Fourth Prophets of Amun).154 JARCE 44 (2008) 2) More difficult to avoid is the conclusion that approximately two more generations need to be removed in the mid to later part of the genealogy. 2) Most generations are set three lines below the previous generation. These do not necessarily correspond to the positions of the same pharaohs where they appear in the genealogy because pharaohs may reign early or late in their lives. The test is whether or not the chart can be shown to be incorrect and an alternative chart drawn without adding too many hypothetical extra people or unreasonably long generations. V Vizier 9) The following abbreviations of personal names have been used in some places: Ankhpa Bes DjB DjK DjMut/Mon Ankhpakhered Besenmut Djedbastefankh Djedkhonsefankh Djedmutefankh/montuefankh (variants for same person [TIPE. 8) The following abbreviations are used for job titles: 2P 2nd Prophet of Amun. are shown in the left column. Notes to The Chart 1) A generation might be assumed to be in the 20 to 25 year range for earlier born children (those most likely to succeed to their father’s office. 227. 5) If the line on which a person’s name is placed is taken to indicate their relative position at age 40 years. stylistic features of statues. This implies that Osorkon III and Takelot III reigned contemporary with Kushite pharaohs. Inevitably some generation steps will be longer and a few might be shorter. but they may die several decades later (or earlier). Psamtek is shown twice because his reign covers at least two generations. as dictated by the genealogy. but rarely much beyond that. 3) Often men marry females of a significantly younger age. n. Although not considered here. Similarly with Shoshenq V. 7) Dates in round brackets indicate that there are dated documents in which the person is named.

PORTER 155 .

Kitchen concluded that both lines of descent were correct. Pamiu iii’s linkage across to Hor xv at the lower right of the chart was recently proposed.156 JARCE 44 (2008) Brief Comments on Some of the Genealogies Most of the genealogies can be found in TIPE. 10–12. Hormaat is known to have married a Tarwa. it must be admitted that extra generations between Hor iii and Hor vi would help restore Shoshenq I to a position earlier than Takeloth I. This would be most unusual as such statues were normally dedicated by the son of the person portrayed by the statue (although Hor vi does refer to himself as “son” of Hor iii. Tabetjet married into the Besenmut family which occupies much of the lower center part of the chart. 217–40. 204–7. The coffin is now lost and. the link is only via his cousin. or wished to be. 3). one is shown in a chart in TIPE. Tabetjet. 202. and therefore likely to be partly fictitious. with caution. with short generations on one line and long ones on the other. incorrectly shows Hor v as named on this statue. However. and a two generation shorter line via Vizier Nesipaqashuty is discussed in TIPE. 1113. it would be more expected for Neskons to name her mother than to omit her mother while naming her grandmother. but note that Djedmutesankh has been accidentally married to Pamiu’s son instead of to Pamiu (the correct relationship is shown on 230). mother and her father. Hor vi dedicated a statue to Hor iii who would have been his great-great-grandfather on the longer genealogy shown in Kitchen’s chart. note that the chart in TIPE. Also. not her mother. with Tarwa as the grandmother of Neskhons. LNK and PBTS (see end n. This genealogy has two versions. and by the time of Hor vi’s descendants this association had become a long genealogy. no. I was prompted to query this genealogy because it did not fit easily into the chart. Hor vi does not give any genealogical connection between himself and Hor iii but merely names his own father. but I have made a major assumption here. 6 Actually. 1). there designated as Tarwa ii. 1914). See also PBTS. 9 5 Statue CG 42219 in Georges Legrain. 364. 109). stretching back to the end of the New Kingdom. The Neseramun genealogy appears at the right-hand side of the chart with a question mark beside the dotted portion. Bierbrier inserted two hypothetical extra generations between Nakhtefmut B and Djedkhonsefankh D (see n. Lieblein gave the genealogy as one generation longer than I have shown.” SAK 34 (2006). 8 TIPE. but in my opinion the genealogy is suspect for the following reasons. 45. This line was attested on the coffin of Neskhons which was in the Boulaq museum in the 19th century and the bare genealogy was published by Lieblein 7 without further comment. 9 Karl Jansen-Winkeln. 7 Jens Lieblein. und 26. . However. 8 Also. The Fourth Prophets of Amun genealogy is prominent towards the left side of the chart. See especially the chart on 231. above all. It is probable that a slightly earlier date would be appropriate. thus allowing some flexibility in his placement. 5 For some reason Hor vi was. In the center of the chart is the Vizier Nakhtefmut and one line of his descendents is shown via Djedkhonsefankh vii to Tarwa and Neskhons i. apparently also named Gautsoshen (n. Statues et Statuettes III (Cairo. but the chart is clearer as drawn. 6 Statues CG 42222 and 42224 dedicated by the son and grandson respectively of Hor vi. and Hormaat as the son of Tarwa and Ankhpakhered. this became a very long genealogy. associated with or related to Hor iii. a line or two higher. 215. 202. Dynastie. 1871). However. In the bottom center of the chart is shown the 4th Prophet of Amun and Mayor of Thebes Montuemhat and some of his descendants. an error by Lieblein (or even by the original scribe) can not be ruled out. this does not appear to be intended to be taken literally). In view of these factors. “Thebanische Statuen der 25. by Jansen-Winkeln. This is possible. As already mentioned. Dictionnaire de noms hiéroglyphiques en ordre généalogique et alphabétique (Leipzig.

Independent Scholar 10 11 Frédéric Payraudeau. “Two Confusing Coffins. The neighboring line through another Ankhpakhered and Iufo (possibly a brother of Hormaat) to Muthetepti. .” RdE 56 (2005). “La statue Caire CG 717.” JEA 70 (1984). 11 not A. but had to insert two hypothetical extra generations between Nakhtefmut B and Djedkhonsefankh D (see n. 84–85. Bierbrier related this line to 4P Nakhtefmut B. Morris Bierbrier. is rather stretched on my chart. as sometimes thought. 203–7. I have followed Payraudeau in giving the succession 4P Nakhtefmut A—[Djedmut]esankh—Ankhpakhered i.PORTER 157 For the descendents of 4P Nakhtefmut A. but the numerous Ankhpakhereds make this a questionable link. 3). 10 It is possible for Ankhpakhered ii to have been alive in 651 bc.