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Reference with confidence: The APA style

Reference with confidence

The APA style

As used in: Educational Studies Psychology

Reference with confidence: The APA style

Why reference? ________________________________________ 2

Examples of the APA style ________________________________ 4

APA Frequently Asked Questions ___________________________ 7

Further information ____________________________________ 8

Paraphrasing: some examples _____________________________ 9

Reference with confidence: The APA style

Why reference?
You will probably be aware that plagiarism is an important issue and you must avoid it at all costs, but do you know why referencing is so crucial to your essay writing? References to other sources are useful and beneficial to presenting your argument; dont be scared of using them. However, be selective. Dont just cram your work full of citations in a bid to impress the marker that youve read a massive amount. Your references should be relevant and provide evidence for and against your argument. For example, you can include a citation to giveasourceofinformation(e.g.tables,statistics,diagramsetc)  describeordiscussatheory,modelorpracticefromaparticularwriter  giveweightand/orcredibilitytoyourargument  provideacounter-argument providequotationsordefinitionsinyouressay  paraphraseanotherpersonswork,whichisnotcommonknowledge.  Additionally,thein-textcitationincludedinthebodyofyourtextisthereto DIRECTLYshowthereaderwheretheideaand/orquotationisfrom.Forexample, where you are indicating the source as a chapter in a book, you include the citation to the author of the chapter. Within the bibliography you would put the full citation to the book with details of the editors.

Reference with confidence: The APA style

Basic common elements in a bibliography citation:

Clarke, A. (2008). E-Learning skills. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Date of Publication

Place of Publication

Shaw, P (1982). Plagiary. American Scholar, 51 (Summer), 325-337 .

Date of Publication

Authors name

Volume number and page numbers

Name of the Journal

Title of Article

Name of Publisher

Authors name

Title of Book

Reference with confidence: The APA style

Examples of the APA style

Book (one author):
In-text: (Neville,2007)

Bibliography:  eville,C.(2007).The complete guide to referencing and avoiding N plagiarism. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Book (two or more authors):

In-text:  (Peck&Coyle,2005)

Bibliography:   eck,J.,&Coyle,M.(2005).The students guide to writing. P Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Book (three to six authors):

In-text: (  Dolowitz,Buckler,&Sweeney,2008)forthefirstmention.The subsequenttimesitiscited,thisshouldbe:(Dolowitzetal.,2008).

Bibliography:  olowitz,D.,Buckler,S.,&Sweeney,F.(2008).Researching on-line. D Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chapter in an edited book:

In-text: (White,1999)

Bibliography:  hite,E.(1999).Studentplagiarismasaninstitutionalandsocial W issue.InL.Buranen&A.Roy(Eds.),Perspectives on plagiarism and intellectual property in a postmodern world(pp.205-210).NewYork: State University of New York Press.

Reference with confidence: The APA style

Journal article
In-text: (Ashworth,Bannister,&Thorne,1997)

Bibliography:  shworth,P A .,Bannister,P .,&Thorne,P .(1997).Guiltyinwhose eyes? University students perceptions of cheating and plagiarism in academic work and assessment. Studies in Higher Education, 22(2), 187-203.

Journal article (electronic):

In-text: (Liddell&Fong,2008)

Bibliography:  iddell,J.,&Fong,V L .(2008).Honesty,integrityandplagiarism: Theroleofstudentvaluesinprevention.Plagiary, 3,1-5.Retrieved November5,2008,from perspectives.htm

Newspaper article (with author):

In-text: (Swain,2008)

Bibliography:  wain,H.(2008,September23).Theartofdoinganassessed S assignment. The Guardian: Education supplement,p.11.

Reference with confidence: The APA style

Newspaper article (with no author):

In-text: (DailyTelegraph,2008)

Bibliography:  alfofCambridgestudentsadmitcheating(2008,October31).Daily H Telegraph,p.14.

Website with author:

In-text: (Swain,2008)

Bibliography:  wain,H.(2008,October7).Theartofavoidingplagiarism.The S Guardian.RetrievedNovember5,2008,from

Website with no author:

In-text: (Acknowledgingyoursources,n.d.)

Bibliography:  rincetonUniversity(n.d.).Acknowledging your sources. Retrieved P November5,2008,from integrity/pages/acknowledge.html

Secondary referencing
In-text: Carroll(ascitedinSutherland-Smith,2008)arguedthat

Bibliography:  utherland-Smith,W S .(2008),p.23.Plagiarism, the internet and student learning: Improving academic integrity. Abingdon: Routledge.

Reference with confidence: The APA style

APA Frequently Asked Questions

How do I use quotations?
Use double quotation marks to enclose thedirecttext.Forshortquotations(of lessthan40words),useabriefphraseto introduce the quotation. For example: As Neville (2007) emphasises, you should cite all sources and present full details of these in your list of references (p. 36). Forlongerquotations(of40wordsor more)youuseablockquotation,without quotation marks, but clearly indented to indicate these words are not your own. For example: Neville(2007)commentsthat: It can sometimes be difficult, if not impossible, to avoid using some of the authors original words, particularly those that describe or label phenomena. However, you need to avoid copying out what the author said, word for word. Choose words that you feel give a true impression of the authors original ideas or action. (p. 36) For a summary or paraphrase, you must includeanin-textcitationtotheauthor and year of publication. For example: According to Neville (2007), sometimes it is unavoidable you will use a few words that the author used. If using a quotation from a secondary reference(aquotationsomeoneelsehas usedinabookorjournal),includethe page number to the secondary source, as this is where you found it.

When can I use ampersands (&)?

If you are citing two or more authors withinanin-textcitation,usethe ampersandinthebrackets,e.g.(Burns& Sinfield,2002).Ifmentioningtheauthors in the actual text of the essay, use the wordand,e.g.BurnsandSinfield(2002) argue that If citing three or more authors use the full list of names the first time, e.g. (Dolowitz,Buckler,&Sweeney,2008)and then(Dolowitzetal.,2008)foranyfurther mention.

What if I want to reference a work, in an in-text citation, that has 6 or more authors?
If a book or journal article has authors numbering six or more, use et al. within yourin-textcitationandnameallthe authors in your bibliography citation. For example: In-text:(Rayleetal.,2006) References: Rayle A., Bordes V Zapata ., A.,ArrendondoP .,RutterM.,&Howard C.(2006).Mentoringexperiences of women in graduate education: Factors that matter. Current Issues in Education, 9(6).RetrievedNovember 10,2008from volume9/number6

Reference with confidence: The APA style

What if an author I am referencing has published two or more works in one year?
Inthiscaseyoucansimplyuselower-case letters: a, b, c etc. to differentiate between different works within one given year. For example: In-text: (Carroll,2007a) References: C  arroll,J.(2007a).A handbook for deterring plagiarism in higher education. Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development: Oxford Brookes University. C  arroll,J.(2007b).Donationalstatistics about plagiarism tell you about your students? LINK newsletter on academic integrity,TheHospitality,Sportand LeisureSubjectCentre,18,3-9.

What if I want to use a number of sources in one in-text citation?

If, for example, you are pulling together a number of sources to support your argument you may want to use a number ofsourcesinonein-textcitation.For example: As is widely stated in the literature. (Carroll, 2002; Mallon, 1991; Neville, 2007) Theyshouldappearalphabetically, matching the order in which they will appear in your bibliography.

What is the APA convention for using capital letters?

You should only capitalise the first letter of the first word of a book, journal article etc and any word following a colon in thetitle.Theexceptionisthenamesof organisations.

Are in-text citations included in my word count?

Yes this does not mean you should leave out citations where they are appropriate.

Further information:
A more comprehensive guide is available onlineat: owl/resource/560/01/ APA: American Psychological Association (2003).Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington: APA.

Should I put a web address in an in-text citation?

No! If the website has an author, cite the source as you would anything else (Swain,2008).Ifthereisnoauthoror date given, give the title of the page and add the abbreviation n.d. For example: (Acknowledgingyoursources,n.d.)

Reference with confidence: The APA style

Paraphrasing: some examples

ThefollowingistakenfromThe Guardian newspaper: Is Persaud a narcissist, in other words, oramansoplaguedbyself-doubtthat he doesnt obey the rules of academia because he doesnt think he belongs in it? He claims to have been so busy he became confused. Williams,Z.(2008,June20).Persauds disorder. The Guardian,p.37. An example of incorrect paraphrasing of this passage could be as follows: It could be questioned whether Raj Persaud was either a narcissist or full of self-doubt.Coulditbehefelthedidnt belong to the world of academia, so didnt have to obey the rules? Could he really have been so busy that he got confused? This is incorrect paraphrasing because:  nlyafewphraseshavebeenchanged; O this is not sufficient as it is too close to the original.  ewriterdoesnotevengiveacitation, Th e.g.(Williams,2008),totheauthorof the article. Correct paraphrasing could be as follows: Williams(2008)arguesthatPersaud could be viewed as a man consumed by ego, or alternatively, a writer that felt he didnt belong to the academic community, so there was no need to abide by their conventions. Within the comment piece it is questioned whether overwork could be seen as a defence. This is correct paraphrasing because:  ropercitationoftheauthorandher P ideashavebeenprovidedbythein-text citation.  ewriteroftheparaphrasedpassage Th has written the argument in their own words.

Reference with confidence: The APA style

Reference with confidence: The APA style
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Clare Wiggins 2011 Learning Enhancement Team