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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), N.Mallika & Dr.

(IJARM), Volume 1 Issue 1 May 2010 pp. 42-52 M.Ramesh http://iaeme.com/ijarm.html

IJM

IAEME

JOB SATISFACTION AND CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES AMONG THE BANK EMPLOYEES IN CUDDALORE DISTRICT, INDIA

N.MALLIKA* ABSTRACT

& Dr. M.RAMESH**

Job satisfaction is the end feeling of a person after performing a task. To the extent that a persons job fulfills his dominant needs and is consistent with his expectations and values, the job will be satisfying. The feeling would be positive or negative depending up on whether need is satisfied or not. Job satisfaction is different from motivation & morale. Motivation refers to the willingness to work. Satisfaction implies a positive emotional state. Morale implies a general attitude towards work and work environment. It is a group phenomenon where as job satisfaction is an individual feeling. Job satisfaction may be considered a dimension of morale and morale could be also being a source of satisfaction. This job satisfaction is an employees general attitude towards his job. Job satisfaction is a major determinant of organizational growth. So each and every organization needs to know the employees job satisfaction level. In this study an attempt has been made to job satisfaction and contributing variables among the bank employees in Cuddalore District in India. In order to study the objective primary data have been collected with a sample size of 300 which was collected at randomly. A regressions and Correlations method is used for analyzing the employees job satisfaction level. The researcher has provided suitable measures to the organization for satisfying the workers. If the organization given a weightage to the recommendations given by the researcher, it will help to the growth of the organization. Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Contributing Variables, Regression Analysis, Correlation Analysis, Banking Sectors.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------*Lecturer, Dept., of Business Administration, Annamalai University, **Reader, Dept., of Business Administration, Annamalai University.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), N.Mallika & Dr. M.Ramesh

INTRODUCTION
Job satisfaction results from the employees perception that the job content and context actually provide what an employee values in the work situation. It can be defined as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experience. This positive emotional state is highly contributory to an employees physical and mental wellbeing. Organizationally speaking high level of job satisfaction reflects a highly favorable organizational climate resulting in attracting and retaining better workers.

Job satisfaction can also be defined as the extent of positive feelings or attitudes that individuals have towards their job. When a person says that he has high job satisfaction, it means that he really his job, feels good about it and values his job highly.

It has been established that highly satisfied workers have better physical and mental wellbeing. It is highly debatable as to which one is the cause and which one is the effect but they are correlated. On the other hand, serious job dissatisfaction results in stress and tension which is usually the cause of variety of physiological disorders.

Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction-faction) their jobs. As it is generally assessed, job satisfaction is an attitudinal variable. In the past, job satisfaction was approached by some researches from the perspective of need fulfillment that is, whether or not the job met the employees physical and psychological needs for the things provided by work, such as pay. However, this approach has been de-emphasized because today most researchers tend to focus attention on cognitive processes rather than on underlying needs. The attitudinal perspective has become the predominant one in the study of job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction can be considered as a global feeling about the job or as a related constellation of attitudes about various aspects or facets of the job. The global approach is used when the overall or bottom line attitude is of interest, for example, if one wishes to determine the effect of people liking their jobs. Most of the research we will discuss assessed global job satisfaction in relation to other variables of interest. The facet approach 43

International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), N.Mallika & Dr. M.Ramesh is used to find out which parts of the job produce satisfaction or dissatisfaction. This can be very useful for organizations that wish to identify areas of dissatisfaction that they can improve. Sometimes both approaches can be used to get a complete picture of employees job satisfaction.

A job satisfaction facet can be concerned with any aspect or part of a job. Facets frequently assessed include rewards such as pay, fringe benefits, other people such as coworkers or supervisors, the nature of the work itself and the organization itself.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Due to globalization, todays world has become a single village. And never had it been before and after people have been interacting to one another without considering their culture, value, norms, attitudes and race, as it today. These interactions are not only in trade, diplomatic, social political and communication network, but also in banking sector rather the needs and motivation as for as and all these make a todays world more competitive and challenging than never before. Never before has it been so, working performance has been drive by needs and motivation so as to satisfy employees. In order to satisfy employees there is a number of thingss or factors to consider. Therefore, this study will investigate as to what extent job satisfaction has lead to good working performance in formal organization .The study will examine the concept of job satisfaction in relation to the factors which influence employees job satisfaction in organization.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To measure the level of job satisfaction among employees in banking sectors. 2. To find out the factors contributing towards the job satisfaction of employees in Banking Sectors. 3. To find out relationship between contributing variables and job satisfaction. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. The method adopted in collecting the data selection of the sample analysis and interpretation are discussed below 44

International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), N.Mallika & Dr. M.Ramesh

RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collections and analysis of data in a manner, that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with the economy in procedure. Descriptive research design was adopted for this study to achieve the objectives of the study. This type of research design is more flexible to carry out the research. The design provides the opportunity for considering different aspects of the problem. The researcher adopted the method of experience survey to collect the data.

SAMPLING SIZE Sample size of the study that is selected from the sampling unit. Total estimated sample size 300

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

The data collection pertaining to this study involves both primary and secondary methods. The primary data was collected using questionnaire from randomly selected samples. The secondary data were collected from sources like manuals, company records, magazines and internet.

STATISTICAL TOOL USED

The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS package version 11.5. The statistical tools used are: Stepwise Regression: A technique for measuring the liner association between contributed and independent variables.

Bivariate Correlations: procedure computes Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rho, and Kendall's tau-b with their significance levels. Correlations measure how variables or rank orders are related.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), N.Mallika & Dr. M.Ramesh RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Job satisfaction is a combination of psychological, physiological and the environment conditions providing satisfaction to person with his job. Table 1 the job satisfaction perceived by the employees based on the opinion. Among the employees in the opinion, 16 percent of the employees have state that the job satisfaction is Low, 18.3 percent of the employees have stated that the job satisfaction is Medium and 65.7 percent of them state that the job satisfaction is high. At outset it is implied that majority of the employees perceive high level of job satisfaction, very few employees perceive medium and low level of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is high when there is welfare facilities, rewards and recognition etc., The some employers may expect recognition for there service when it lacks the job satisfaction perceived by them is low. Table: 1 Level of job satisfaction

Opinion Low Medium High Total Source: Primary Data

Frequency 48 55 197 300

Percent 16.0 18.3 65.7 100.0

Table 2, a stepwise regression analysis explains about contributing variables among bank employees. It is observed that the job involvement, organizational climate and organizational commitment significantly contribute towards the job satisfaction. The compute F-value for these factors is found to be significant at 1 percent level. The R2 value 0.009 indicate that highest percentage of variances on job satisfaction could be determined by these factors. The R2 value 0.009 indicate that organizational climate and organizational commitment are the most contributed variables for the job satisfaction among the bank employees.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), N.Mallika & Dr. M.Ramesh Table 2: Stepwise multiple Regression Analysis for the Job Satisfaction and contributed variables Details regarding contributed variables Job involvement Organization climate Organization commitment R R2 Adjusted R2 S.E F-Value Significant

0.617 0.655 0.662

0.381 0.430 0.439

0.379 0.426 0.439

8.52781 8.20047 8.14916

183.530 111.870 77.106

0.000 0.000 0.000

Source: Primary Data

Table 3, a stepwise regression analysis was performed keeping job satisfaction as the dimensions of job involvement, organizational climate and organizational commitment as independent variables. It is found that among the job involvement, organizational climate, organizational commitment is found to significantly influence the job satisfaction. Job involvement 0.382 highly influencing the job satisfaction and organizational commitment 0.151 least influencing the job satisfaction. Mukherjee (1969) rightly pointed out in this identified interrelating among measures of job satisfaction and job involvement with reference to a sample of 80 male semi-skilled workers of Nagpur. It confirms that the higher the job involvement, higher the job satisfaction and vice-versa.

Table 3: Job satisfaction and outcome variables Coefficients Un standardized Coefficients B (Constant) Job Involvement Organizational 0.076 0.022 47 0.213 3.443 0.001 20.673 0.391 Std. Error 4.879 0.064 0.382 Standardized Coefficients Beta 4.238 6.068 0.000 0.000 t value Signature

International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), N.Mallika & Dr. M.Ramesh Climate Organizational Commitment 0.117 0.054 0.151 2.180 0.030

Source: Primary Data

Table 4, the result shows that the job involvement is positively and significantly correlation with job satisfaction and job involvement (0.617), organizational commitment (0.567), quality of work life (0.367) , organizational climate (0.549). The R-value (0.617) from the table for job involvement and job satisfaction clearly implies that involvement of employees is highly influenced by job satisfaction. So it is inferred that job satisfaction is highly correlated with job involvement. Job involvement among employees will also be high. The dimension of job content (-0.052) is negatively and significantly correlated with job satisfaction. From the correlation table it is found that there is significant relationship between job satisfaction and job involvement, quality of work life, organizational commitment, and organizational climate except job content.

Table 4: Relationship between job satisfaction and contributing variables


Correlations

JS JS JI OC QWL Pearson Correlation 1

JI

OC

QWL

OCILM JC

.617(**) .567(**) .367(**) .549(**) -.052 .704(**) .451(**) .604(**) -.012 .636(**) .691(**) .039 .626(**) .142(*) .005 1

Pearson Correlation .617(**) 1

Pearson Correlation .567(**) .704(**) 1

Pearson Correlation .367(**) .451(**) .636(**) 1

OCILM Pearson Correlation .549(**) .604(**) .691(**) .626(**) 1 JC Pearson Correlation -.052 -.012 .039 .142(*) .005

Source: Primary Data

MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS

The study implies that the overall job satisfaction of the bank employees is medium. The contributing variables like job involvement, organizational commitment and organizational climate is found to significantly influence the job satisfaction perceived by the employees. It 48

International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), N.Mallika & Dr. M.Ramesh is also observed that organizational climate least influencing the job satisfaction perceived by the employees.

SUGGESTION Job satisfaction refers to attitude of employees. Doing any job is a part of life. So job satisfaction is part of life satisfaction. When their physical and psychological environment is conducive they will perceive high job satisfaction. Some of the ways through which the job satisfaction can be improved are. 1. Job security is very important factors for job satisfaction. So the organization providing the job security to employees automatically they increasing satisfaction level of job. 2. Relationship with co-workers and supervisors makes the employees to feel better and it help to increase productivity and responsibility of workers and it helps to increase profit of the organization. 3. It was found that level of job satisfaction on employees few of them are not satisfied with job. So the organization try to consider the respondents needs and fulfill the same. SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

The present study concentrates only on finding out the influence of contributing variables (job involvement, organizational commitment, and organizational climate) and level of job satisfaction perceived by the employees. Other than the demographic variables, there are various factors like welfare measures, quality of work life, job content, motivation, Communication, which determine the perception of the employees. A study on combining there dimensions could help job satisfaction in identifying the way to improve the job satisfaction.

LIMITATIONS

Due to time constraint, the researcher has conducted the study in one particular banking sectors. So the implications of this study cannot be generalized for the whole banking sectors.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), N.Mallika & Dr. M.Ramesh CONCLUSION The present study reveals that majority of the employees perceived only low and medium job satisfaction. So the organization must identify the factors, which lead to poor job satisfaction. And also take action towards the job satisfaction. Because poor job satisfaction may result in less productivity and it is injurious for the employees as well as for the organization. The contributing variables also significantly contribute for the low perception of job satisfaction.

This study on job satisfaction among bank employees has brought to light the extent to which the employees are satisfied with their job and their reaction towards factors related to work and work-environment. Attempt has also been made to find the perception of employees on the motivational factors. Some of the key areas where improvement was needed were inferred from this study and highlighted in the previous chapter. An objectives analysis of the situation from the organization side would certainly help in improving their situations, which in turn could result in increased job satisfaction, better efficiency and higher productivity. It is observed from the study on job satisfaction among employees in Cuddalore District, India. bank

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