THEORY is an organized system of accepted knowledge that is composed of concepts, propositions, definitions, and assumptions intended to explain a set of facts, events, or phenomena.

NURSING THEORY is a group of interrelated concepts that are developed from various studies of disciplines and related experiences. This aims to view the essence of nursing care.

FOUR MAJOR CONCEPTS 1. 2. 3. 4. Person – the recipient of nursing care like individuals, families, and communities. Environment – the external and internal aspect of life that influence the person. Health – the holistic level of wellness that the person experiences. Nursing – the intervention of the nurse rendering care in support of, or in cooperation with client.

SYSTEM is a set of interrelated parts that come together to form a whole that performs a function. Each part is a necessary or integral component required to make a complete, meaningful whole.

Component: • • INPUT – information, energy or matter that enters a system, and is transformed by it. THROUGPUT/ PROCESS – consist of the processes a system uses to convert raw materials into form that can be used, either by the system itself, or by the environment. OUTPUT – the end result or product of the system. EVALUATION – means measuring the success or failure of the output and consequently the effectiveness of the system. FEEDBACK – the process of communicating what is found in evaluation of the system.

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What is the application of the systems to nursing??  Nurses work within systems every day. Using the hospital example, nurses work within the nursing department’s system, a particular unit system, and with a team system, among others.

 At the individual patient level, the openness of human systems makes nursing intervention possible. Understanding systems helps nurses to assess relationships among all other factors that affect patients, including the influence of nurses themselves. Allisson, Mclauglin, and Walker state that a theory-based nursing systems design for a population of patients does the following:       Describes the nursing characteristics of the patient population to be served. Used these characteristics to predict the types of client problems for which nursing is needed. Identifies appropriate nursing technologies. Determines the type and number of nursing personnel needed. Organizes nursing personnel for effective performance. Defines outcomes or results based on nursing theory.

Examination of a theory-based nursing system will be evident in the following:           Mission, philosophy, and objective statements. Documentation tools or forms of data that provide a nursing database. Standards of care and practice. Staff education and development. Quality assurance outcome audits. Patient acuity systems Position descriptions and performance evaluation. Policies and procedures. Career development programs that attract and retain the best nurses by motivating and clarifying the role of the nurse. Support given by nursing administration commitment.

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