=
+
u u
=
1
2 2
0 0
) 1 (
) , ( ) , (
) (
n n
n n
j
y x y x
j Y (1)
where
n
u is the nth massnormalised mode shape of the structure,
n
is the nth natural frequency
and is the damping loss factor. A case often considered is that of a rectangular plate with simply
supported boundary conditions as this system provides a simple analytical solution. For a simply
supported rectangular plate, the mode shape can be represented as sinus functions. This and the
natural frequency for mode (p, q) are, respectively

.

\


.

\

= u
b
x q
a
x p
M
y x
pq
sin sin
2
) , ( and
(
(

.

\

+ 
.

\

=
2 2
b
q
a
p
m
B
pq
(2)
where M is the total mass of the plate, m is the mass per unit area and ) 1 ( 12 /
2 3
Et B = is the plate
bending stiffness for E is the Youngs modulus, t is the plate thickness and is the Poissons ratio.
The next section discusses the FE model used to calculate the mobility of the perforated plate.
Finite Element Model
In this paper, the analysis only considers a perforated panel with rectangular arrangement of holes.
The model is developed using PATRAN and NASTRAN software. The simulated samples of
perforated panels are determined by varying the perforation ratio with fixed diameter or number of
holes and also by varying the diameter and number of holes with fixed perforation ratio. The choice
of these parameters is summarized in Tables 1, 2, and 3. The panels having dimensions of 0.30.2
m and thickness 1 mm are assumed simply supported along all the edges. The panels are assumed to
be made of steel having Youngs modulus of 206.8 GPa and density of 7805.733 kgm
3
.
Table 1. Parameters of the perforated panel with fixed hole diameter and different number of holes
and perforation ratios.
Name Number of holes Diameter [mm] Perforation ratio [%]
P40105 40 10 5
P801010 80 10 10
P1601021 160 10 21
Table 2. Parameters of the perforated panel with fixed number of holes and different hole diameters
and perforation ratios.
Name Number of holes Diameter [mm] Perforation ratio [%]
P40105 40 10 5
P401512 40 15 12
P402021 40 20 21
Table 3. Parameters of the perforated panel with fixed perforation ratio and different numbers and
diameters of holes.
Name Number of holes Diameter [mm] Perforation ratio [%]
P202010 20 20 10
P401410 40 14 10
P801010 80 10 10
Figure 1 shows the Finite Element (FE) model of perforated panels from PATRAN software for
plate P40105 and P202010 as in Table 2 and 3. The mesh element type used in the FE model is the
basic twodimensional triangular element (Tria shape and Paver). The total number of elements is
generated automatically by the software. However, the element size must be much smaller than half
the structural wavelength corresponding to maximum frequency of analysis to give accurate results
at high frequencies. The global edge length of each element is set to be 0.005 m. An excitation force
of 1 N is applied slightly away from the centroid of the panel at coordinates (0.18, 0.12) where the
(0, 0) at the centroid. This is to generate optimum numbers of vibration modes particularly at low
frequencies. The location of the excitation force and the response are the same for each sample for
consistency of analysis. The damping coefficient is assumed to be 0.03. The vibration level of the
panel is analyzed in the frequency range of 105000 Hz with a frequency step of 2 Hz.
Figure 1: Example of the Finite Element model
of a perforate: P202010
Results and Analysis
Figure 2 shows the validation of the mobility of a solid panel from the FE model with that from the
analytical model using Eq. (2). For the latter, the calculation involves all modes for index s p 40
and s q 40 to ensure they are all generated up to 5 kHz. This comparison is also to ensure that the
FE model used is valid in terms of the meshing size, setting of boundary conditions, etc. It can be
seen that the results between the models are in good agreement up to 5 kHz.
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
Frequency [Hz]
M
o
b
i
l
i
t
y
[
d
B
r
e
1
m
/
N
s
]
Analytical
FE model
Figure 2: Comparison of the mobility of a solid
panel from FE model and from analytical
calculation.
Figure 3(a) presents the effect of the perforation ratio (different numbers of holes; fixed hole
diameter as from Table 2) on the mobility. The results are plotted in onethird octave bands for ease
of analysis. It can be seen that the mobility increases as the number of hole (perforation ratio) is
increased particularly around the offresonance peaks above 200 Hz. Below the fundamental
frequency at 80 Hz where the structural wavelength is much larger than the hole separation
distance, the vibration amplitude is controlled by the mass of the panel. Introducing the perforation
reduces some of the panel mass and therefore increases the mobility at this frequency range.
For convenience of analysis, it is of interest to see the amount of mobility level increased due to
perforation. This can be expressed with the effect of perforation in dB unit by


.

\

=
s
p
Y
Y
X
10
log 10 (3)
where Y
p
is the mobility of the perforated plate and Y
s
is for the solid plate. It can be seen in
Fig. 3(b) that the increment can be almost up to 4 dB at certain frequency range for 20%
perforation.
10
2
10
3
10
2
10
1
Frequency [Hz]
M
o
b
i
l
i
t
y
[
1
m
/
N
s
]
Solid
P40105
P801010
P1601021
(a)
10
2
10
3
4
2
0
2
4
6
Frequency [Hz]
X
[
d
B
r
e
f
1
m
/
N
s
]
P40105
P801010
P1601021
(b)
10
2
10
3
10
2
10
1
Frequency [Hz]
M
o
b
i
l
i
t
y
[
1
m
/
N
s
]
Solid
P40105
P401512
P402021
(c)
10
2
10
3
4
2
0
2
4
6
Frequency [Hz]
X
[
d
B
r
e
f
1
m
/
N
s
]
P40105
P401512
P402021
(d)
10
2
10
3
10
2
10
1
Frequency [Hz]
M
o
b
i
l
i
t
y
[
1
m
/
N
s
]
Solid
P202010
P401410
P801010
(e)
10
2
10
3
4
2
0
2
4
6
Frequency [Hz]
X
[
d
B
r
e
f
1
m
/
N
s
]
P201010
P401410
P801010
(f)
Figure 3: The mobility (left column) and the effect of perforation (right column) for perforates as in
Table 1 (a, b), Table 2 (c,d) and Table 3 (e,f).
At high frequency where the structural wavelength is much shorter than the hole separation
distance, the perforation thus affects the bending stiffness of the perforate. As discussed in [5], there
needs a correction for the reduced Youngs modulus relating to the reduction of the elasticity of a
perforated panel which reduces the natural frequency of the panel. However, as found in [5], the
latter only changes by roughly 1% (as also shown in Fig. 3(a)), but it can be seen here that this can
significantly increase the vibration amplitude.
The effect of increasing the perforation ratio i.e. by maintaining the number of holes and
increasing the hole size is plotted in Figs. 3(c) and (d) (as in Table 2). The same effect can be seen
between the resonance peaks. However, as observed for the same perforation of 21% (P1601021 in
Fig. 3(b) and P402021 in Fig. 3(d)), the hole size with less number of holes has larger effect to
increase the mobility than for smaller hole size with greater number of holes.
This phenomenon is plotted in Figs. 3(e) and (f) for 10% perforation ratio (Table 3). Contrary
with fixed perforation ratio results for 21%, maintaining the perforation ratio here is found to have
negligible effect to increase the plate mobility.
Summary
The mobility of perforated rectangular plates with varying hole geometries has been calculated by
using the Finite Element Method. It is found that the mobility increases as the perforation ratio
increases. The effect of perforation is mainly between the resonant frequencies of the plate. For
fixed perforation ratio at 10%, the hole size and number have negligible effect on the perforated
plate mobility, except for large perforation ratio (as investigated here for 21%). More data are
required to support this finding.
This paper limits the geometry and arrangement of the holes to rectangular shape. However, the
shapes and sizes as well as the arrangement of the holes in real engineering structures may vary.
Therefore, future works can focus on analyzing the effect of geometrical factor and arrangement of
holes on the mobility of the perforates. The arrangement of holes can be uniform or nonuniform
and symmetrical or nonsymmetrical. The experimental findings would be of interest to give a
thorough conclusion.
Acknowledgment
The work was funded under the Short Term Grant PJP/2010/FKM(33B)S747 from the Universiti
Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) for which the authors gratefully acknowledge.
References
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42274250.
[2] A. Putra, D.J. Thompson, Sound radiation from perforated and unbaffled plates near a
reflecting rigid surface, J. Sound Vib. 330 (2011) 54435449.
[3] A.I. Soler, W.S. Hill, Effective bending properties for stress analysis of rectangular
tubesheets, J. Eng. PowerT. ASME (1977) 365370.
[4] Forskitt, J.R. Moon, P.A. Brook, Elastic properties of plates perforated by elliptical holes,
Appl. Math. Model. 15 (1991) 182190.
[5] K.A. Burgemeister, C.H. Hansen, Calculating resonance frequencies of perforated panels,
J. Sound Vib. 196 (1996) 387399.
[6] P. Gardonio, M.J. Brennan, Moblity and Impedance Methods in Structural Dynamics, Chapter
9 in Advanced Applications in Acoustics, Noise and Vibration (Eds. F.J. Fahy and J.G.
Walker). Spon Press, 2004.