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CHAPTER 1 FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY SCIENTIFIC METHOD Observations and prior knowledge (asking questions to begin developing hypothesis) Developed

veloped hypothesis Experiment design (consider appropriate controls/variables) Collected data from testing and analysis of results Conclusion taking in consideration of results and prior knowledge; supported/refuted hypothesis Scientific method can be limited as some testing cannot be undertaken (eg. What happens after death?)

Hypothesis: Testable statement or possible explanation for a scientific question that can be shown to be true or false by experimentation or observation (asking questions that can be tested) Principle/Theory: An explanation or statement that is supported by all results gained to that point after years of thorough experimentation and testing by various scientists Objective: Free of personal bias Subjective: Influenced by personal views It is important for scientists to be objective so that the results are as accurate as possible Controlled Experiment: An experiment that tests only ONE variable at a time, by using controls Experimental Group: Identical to the control group except for one variable that is being tested Control Group: Receives no treatment, used to compare Independent/Experimental Variable: The factor that you change, what is done to the experimental group (eg. Miracle Grow fertiliser) Dependent Variable: What happens as a result of the treatment from the independent variable, what is measured (eg. Height of the plant) There are still often errors in the scientific method including: measurement errors, not eliminating other factors that may affect result, roundoff error, temperature, humidity, etc. OTHER PRINCIPLES Natural selection: The process by which more adaptable organisms are able to survive, producing more offspring and therefore passing on their genetic traits THE COMPOSITION OF ORGANISMS Inorganic compounds: Result from natural processes or human experimentation in laboratories. Eg. Water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, lactic acid, glucose, ethene, minerals, etc. Organic compounds: Contain oxygen and hydrogen and generally result from the activity of living beings. Eg. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins ORGANIC COMPOUNDS The four main organic compounds are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid. They can be converted from one form to another. For example, carbohydrates can be converted to fats for

storage (reversed for usage) and proteins can be converted into carbohydrates for energy use. Carbohydrates (C,H,O (large proportion)): Are a source of energy for living organisms Can be stored as starch in plants and glycogen in animals. Monomer (basic unit): monosaccharides (single sugar). They can join to form disaccharides (2 monosaccharides) or polysaccharides (long chains) Example is glucose

Lipids (C,H, O (small proportion), P, N): Used to store energy Stored as fats/oils Phospholipids (major component of cell membranes), steroids (group of lipids) Monomer: glycerol + 3 molecules of fatty acids. Example is linoleic acid

Proteins (C, H, O, N,P,S): Form structural components of cells, carry molecules, are hormones, enzymes, carrier molecules Stored as muscle/fat deposits Monomer: amino acids Example is haemoglobin

Nucleic Acids (C, H, O, P (Large proportion), N,S): Genetic material, determine features of organism Stored as DNA or RNA Monomer: Nucleotides, sugar and phosphate groups Example is DNA

Vitamins: Animals can synthesise some vitamins, but generally they would have to be obtained in their diet. They are important in the production of certain enzymes.