بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم
A network is a set of hardware devices connected together, either physically or logically to allow them to exchange information.
Networking is the concept of sharing resources and services. A network, therefore, is a set of interconnected systems with something to share.
Difficulties in Categorizing Network Classes
As with most other distinctions and categorizations in the world of networking, the lines between these various definitions are not very concrete. For example, wireless LANs are usually not entirely wireless, because they contained wired elements. Similarly, trying to say absolutely when a network is “local” and when it is “wide” is difficult also one person’s local-area network (LAN) may be another’s campus-area network (CAN). …..and so on. Keep in mind that networking categories and terminology may overlap, complement, or be independent.
The following are the main hardware components of a network: Nodes: Computers and network interface cards (NICs) Topology: Logical and physical Connection elements: Cabling, wiring centers, links, and so on Auxiliary components: Peripheral devices, safety devices, and tools The software components include the following: Networking systems: Network operating system (NOS) and workstation software Resources: Server software and drivers Tools: Utilities, LAN analyzers, network monitoring software, and configuration managers Applications: Network-aware software
In summary, all networks must have the following: A resource to share (resource). A pathway to transfer data (transmission medium). A set of rules governing how to communicate (protocols) Devices that use for network connection.
Networks Classification (1)
Networks Classified by Communication media:
The earliest networks operated at kilobit per
second (kbps) speeds, anywhere from fewer than ten to a few hundred kilobits per second.
Networks Classification (2)
Networks Classified by Transmission Rate:
In general, broadband networks support higher transmission rates. However, there is considerable variation in transmission rates for baseband networks, and there is considerable overlap in transmission rates. That is there are lots of baseband networks that are faster than some broadband networks, even Networks Classified by Transmission Rate though broadband networks tend to support higher rates. Very roughly, we can distinguish four generations of networks:
The next generation encompasses the
transmission speeds for the “traditional” LAN architectures: Ethernet, Token Ring, and ARC net. These have speeds in the 1 to 20 megabit per second (Mbps) range. The traditional speeds are 10 Mbps or slower; the 16 Mbps Token Ring and 20 Mbps ARCnet Plus are improvements on the original designs.
The up-and-coming generation supports
transmissions in the 100+ Mbps range. This includes FDDI (100 Mbps), ATM (up to 600+ Mbps), and fast Ethernet (100 Mbps).
The next generation of networks will support
transmissions at 1+ gigabits per second (Gbps) rates. At these speeds, the entire Oxford English Dictionary could be transmitted several times in a single second. These rates can be obtained only through multiplexing, since hardware devices (such as disk or tape drives) cannot supply data fast enough.
Networks Classification (3)
Networks Classified by Message Capacity:
Whether the network can transmit one or more messages at a time. Networks are either:
Networks Classification (4)
Networks Classified by Range The geographical or bureaucratic range over which the nodes are distributed. Networks can be categorized as
Networks Classified by Range
Abbreviation GAN Meaning Global Area Network
MAN RAN CAN LAN DAN HAN SAN NAN PAN BAN NFC
Wide Area Network
Metropolitan Area Network Regional Area Network Campus Area Network Local Area Network Departmental Area Network Home Area Network Storage Area Network Near-me Area Network Personal Area Network Body Area Network Near Field Communication
Networks Classification (5)
Networks Classified by Line Configuration: Line configuration means the way two or more communication devices attach to a link. There are four possible line configurations with directional:
Networks used for generalpurpose computing and operations are most likely to be PC-based. Networks MIS departments and Classification (6) universities are most likely to Networks Classified have networks that include by Node types: minicomputers or Nodes in a network mainframes. Backbone may be PCs, networks are networks minicomputers, mainframes, or even whose “nodes” are actually other networks. smaller networks, known as access networks.
Networks Classification (7)
Networks Classified by Node Relationships: The relationship among the nodes that make up the network. Networks categorized along these lines are known as :
Networks Classified by topology: Network topology is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer or biological network. Essentially, it is the topological structure of a network and may be depicted:
Networks Classified by topology
Physical topology refers to the placement of the network's various components, including device location and cable installation, while logical topology shows how data flows within a network, regardless of its physical design. Distances between nodes, physical interconnections, transmission rates, and/or signal types may differ between two networks, yet their topologies may be identical. The network’s logical topology (logical layout of nodes in the network) and physical topology (physical layout, including the wiring scheme by which nodes are connected). The main logical topologies are bus and ring. Physical topologies include bus, star, ring, and star-wired ring. A good example is a local area network (LAN): Any given node in the LAN has one or more physical links to other devices in the network; graphically mapping these links results in a geometric shape that can be used to describe the physical topology of the network. Conversely, mapping the data flow between the components determines the logical topology of the network
We have seen that a topology is essentially a stable geometric arrangement of computers in a network. If you want to select a Networks Classified topology for doing networking. You have attention to the following points: by topology:
The term “TOPOLOGY” refers to the way in which the end points or stations/computer
• Application S/W and protocols. • Types of data communicating devices. • Geographic scope of the network. systems, attached to • Cost. the networks, are • Reliability. interconnected. The IEEE defines We see: topology as “the Common layouts interconnection pattern of nodes on a network." Overlay network
Networks Classified by topology (Common layouts)
Point-topoint Ring or circular
Networks Classified by topology (Overlay network
An overlay network is a virtual computer network that is built on top of another network. Nodes in the overlay are connected by virtual or logical links, each of which corresponds to a path, perhaps through many physical links, in the underlying network. The topology of the overlay network may (and often does) differ from that of the underlying one. A sample overlay network: IP over SONET over Optical
Networks Classified by topology
Networks topology can also classified as shown :-
Networks Classified by Access Possibilities(9) At one extreme are shared-media networks, in which exactly one node can have access to the network medium at a given time. In contrast to this, switching networks allow multiple nodes to use the network at the same time. Switching networks accomplish this by multiplexing. Networks can be :
Networks Classified by Architecture )10(: The network architecture, which is defined by the cabling used, by the method used to access the network, and by the format of a data packet on the network. Common LAN architectures include:
Networks Classified by Transmission technology(11):
Network can be Classified by Transmission technology as shown:
Networks Classified by Switch type(12) :
A switched network is one in which temporary connections between two nodes are established when needed. Routing a transmission through such temporary connections is known as switching. Switching is used for networks on which many nodes, or parties, may be accessing the network at the same time. Three types of switched networks are in common use:
Networks Classified by function type)13(:
Network can be Classified by function type as shown:
Many devices are capable of being networked. Some of the more obvious categories (with examples) are as follows:
Networks Classified by Home networking(14):
Home networking is on the horizon. The fundamental idea is that in the future most homes will be set up for networking. Every device in the home will be capable of communicating with every other device, and all of them will be accessible over the Internet.
1. Computers (desktop PC, notebook PC, PDA, shared peripherals).
2. Entertainment (TV, DVD, VCR, camcorder, camera, stereo, MP3).
3. Telecommunications (telephone, mobile telephone, intercom, fax). 4. Appliances (microwave, refrigerator, clock, furnace, airco, lights). 5. Telemetry (utility meter, smoke/burglar alarm, thermostat, babycam).
Networks Classified by computing power distribution (15):
Network can be Classified by computing power distribution Into three category as shown :
Networks Classified by Transmission media(16):
Various physical media can be used for the actual transmission. Each one has its own niche in terms of bandwidth, delay, cost and ease of installation and maintenance. Transmission media are roughly divided into two broad categories: guided and unguided
RADIO FREQUENCY ALLOCATION
Networks Classified by the signals in the transmission medium (17):
The Transmission Medium Signals can be classified as :-
Wireless Networks Classification
EVOLUTION OF WIRELESS ACCESS
Networks Classified by Generation )1(:
The last two decades of the 20th century marked an explosion in the growth of wireless and mobile communications, fueled by the demand for cellular telephones, pagers, and messaging devices. Now, at the beginning of a new century, market growth is being fueled by the promise of multimedia applications and Internet access for wireless laptops, cellular telephones, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) . The delivery of such services depends on the ability of future networks to combine the mobile freedom of the cellular telephone networks with the bandwidth of current computer networks like the Internet .
First Generation Wireless Networks: Wireless Access Second Generation Wireless Networks: Mobile Access
Third Generation Wireless Networks: Wireless and Mobile Access to HighBandwidth Services Fourth Generation Wireless Networks: and Beyond: Universal Access in a Multinetwork Environment
Networks Classified by Types of Wireless(2):
Wireless data networks are often divided into several categories according to how the networks are viewed by the user. Such characteristics as fixed or mobile, point-to-point (PTP) or point-to-multipoint (PTM), licensed or unlicensed, and standardsbased or proprietary are used to define the network.
In reality, there are three types of networks:
Networks Classified by the place(3):
Wireless Networks can be divide into two networks according to the place of it as shown:
Networks Classified by Network Formation and Architecture(4):
Wireless networks can be divided into two broad categories based on how the network is constructed and the underlining network architecture:
Networks Classified by Communication Coverage Area(5):
Wireless networks can be classified into different types based on the distances over which data is transmitted:
Networks Classified by frequencies involved(6):
Radio Wave Microwave Infrared
Wireless networks use signals that cover a broad frequency range, from a few megahertz to a few terahertz. Depending on the frequencies involved, the network is known as : a:
Networks Classified by Access Technology(7):
Depending on the specific standard, frequency, and spectrum usage, wireless networks can be categorized based on the access technology used. These include:
Wi-Fi (802.11) Satellite
Networks Classified by Network Applications)8):
Wireless networks can also be categorized based
on the specific usage and applications they support, for example:
An internetwork maybe defined as a network of computer communication networks every authorized member of which could communicate with every authorized member (node) directly or indirectly. It may by consist of several Local, Metropolitan or Wide Area Networks interconnected via LAN, MAN or a WAN oriented communication technology, depending upon specific context of use.
Classification of internetworks
There exist three classes of internetworks for most practical and analytical purposes: -The global Public Internetwork: The Internet (International Network) -The Wholly Owned/Private Internetwork: The Intranets - The Hybrid internetworks connected through the Internet: The Extranets The generic noun internet is a short form for the word internetwork, while the proper noun Internet refers to the global internetwork of TCP/IP networks we all know and use. The term intranet refers to an internal network that uses TCP/IP technologies like the Internet does. An extranet is like an intranet that is extended to individuals or organizations outside the company. All these terms can be used ambiguously, so care must be taken in determining exactly what they mean in any given context.
The Internet networks
The Internet consists of the following groups of networks:
Backbones: Large networks that exist primarily to interconnect other networks. Also known as network access points (NAPs) or Internet Exchange Points (IXPs). Currently, the backbones consist of commercial entities. Regional networks connecting, for example, universities and colleges. Commercial networks providing access to the backbones to subscribers, and networks owned by commercial organizations for internal use that also have connections to the Internet.
Local networks, such as campus-wide university networks.
An internetwork of autonomous computer consisting of LANs and/or WANs, in which (depending upon the specific context of use) it could be possible for two or more participating entities to get an assured minimum quality of network service(s) during their exchange of one or more components of multimedia data is called a Multimedia Internetwork(MMI)
Generic Classification of Multimedia Internetworks
There do exist a variety of way to place the MMIs in a specific category or the other. One of these is to consider the type of service-solicitation as the criteria for deciding a class. Based on this, a partial list of MMI classes might look like: On-Demand Multimedia Internetworks. Interactive Multi-location Telecollaboration-based Multimedia Internetworks. Intelligent Multimedia Internetworks. Desktop Teleconferencing-oriented Multimedia Internetworks.
Linked based of Multimedia Internetworks
MMIS also can be categorized on the based link classes. Going to the basis/yardstick, the major MMI applications can be grouped into four broad classes. These include: Point-to-Point Unidirectional Multimedia Internetwork applications. Point-to-Point Bi-directional Multimedia Internetwork applications. Point-to-Multi-point Unidirectional Multimedia Internetwork applications. Point-to-Multi-point Bi-directional Multimedia Internetwork applications.
NGN (Next Generation Networks)
NGN is a Voice Over IP, by passing the regular switches to save the investment on Switches and Trunks.
NGN is Network Convergent Technology, combining Wireline (PSTN), Wireless (GSM, CDMA & 3G) and packet data network together, for integrated voice, data and multimedia services.
NGN is a Flat telephone network over Packet Data Network , instead of traditional Hierarchy structured telephone network with reduced investment.