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# Solution: a) Function 1

Strategy:

1. Let the centre of the concrete structure be the curve y. 2. then let (0, 4.5) be the maximum point of the curve y and the curve intercepts the yaxis at point (0,4.5) and passes through point (2,4) 3. Because of the parabolic shape of the structure, the function can be determined and calculated using the principle of quadratic function.

4. For any quadratic function with a given maximum and minimum point (m, k) the
general equation is y = a(x-m)2 +k

Maximum point (0, 4.5) and passes through point (2, 4) Y= a(x b) 2 +c Let b= 0 and c= 4.5 Y= a (x -0)2 +4.5 Y= ax
2

+ 4.5 . (1)

Substitute (2, 4) into (1) 4 = a (2)2 + 4.5 4a = - 1/2 a = - 1/8 Therefore, the equation of the first function is y = - 1/8

+ 4 1/2

b) Function 2

Strategy: 1. the concrete structure be the curve y. 2. then let (0, 4.5) be the maximum point of the curve y and the curve intercepts the yaxis at point (0,4.5) and passes through point (2,4) 3. Because of the parabolic shape of the structure, the function can be determined and calculated using the principle of quadratic function. Let the centre of

4. For any quadratic function with a given maximum and minimum point (m, k) the
general equation is y = a(x-m)2 +k

Maximum point (0, 0.5) and passes through point (2, 0) Y = a(x b) 2 +c Let b = 0 and c = 0.5 Y = a (x -0)2 +0.5 Y = ax2 +0.5 . (2) Substitute (2, 0) into (2) 4 = a (2)2 + 0.5 4a = - 1/2 a = - 1/8 Therefore, the equation of the quadratic function is y = - 1/8 c) Function 3

+ 1/2

Strategy: 1. Let the centre of the concrete structure be the curve y. 2. then let (0, 4.5) be the maximum point of the curve y and the curve intercepts the yaxis at point (0,4.5) and passes through point (2,4) 3. Because of the parabolic shape of the structure, the function can be determined and calculated using the principle of quadratic function.

4. For any quadratic function with a given maximum and minimum point (m, k) the
general equation is y = a(x-m)2 +k

x b) x -2)

+c

## Let b = 2 and c = 4.5 Y=a(

2

+4.5 (3)

Substitute (0, 4) into (3) 4 = a (0-2)2 + 4.5 4a = - 1/2 a = - 1/8 Therefore, the equation of the quadratic function is y = - 1/8 ( -2) 2 + 4 1/2

Further Exploration

(a) symmetrical.

You are given four different shapes of concrete structures as shown in the diagrams below. All the structures have the same thickness of 40 cm and are

(i)

Given that the cost to construct 1 cubic metre of concrete is RM840.00, determine which structure will cost the minimum to construct.

Identify the problem: To determine which structure will cost the minimum to be constructed. Solution:

a) Structure 1

From the previous part, we know that: Area of cross section= Area of painted surface = 8/3 m Volume of the structure1 = (area of cross section) x (thickness) = 8/3 x 0.4 m = 16/15 m 1m = RM840
16

= RM896

## Thus, the cost to construct structure 1 is RM896

b) Structure2

Volume of structure 2 = Area of cross section Height = [4(1) (0.5) (4)] (0.4) = (4 1) 0.4 = 3 0.4 = 1.2 m 1m = RM840 1.2 m= 1.2 x RM840 = RM1008 Thus, the cost to construct structure 2 is RM1008.

c) Structure 3

Volume of structure 3 = Area of cross section Height = [(4) (1) (1+4) (0.5)] 0.4 = (41.25) 0.4 = 1.1 m 1m = RM840 1.1 m= 1.1 x RM840 = RM924

## Thus, the cost to construct structure 3 is RM924.

d) Structure 4

Volume of structure 4 = Area of cross section Height = [(4) (1) (2+4) (0.5)] 0.4 = (41.5) 0.4 = 1 m Thus, the cost to construct structure 4 is RM840. Conclusion: Structure 1 2 3 4 Cost (RM) 896 1008 924 840

## Structure 4 will cost the minimum to be constructed.

Structure Choosing

(ii) As the president of the Arts Club, you are given the opportunity to decide on the shape of the gate to be constructed. Which shape would you choose? Explain and elaborate on your reasons for choosing the shape.

As the president of the Arts Club, I will definitely choose structure 1. This is because the cost to construct structure 1 is still affordable by the club. A rigid structure can be constructed by maximizing the structures performance by using the smallest amount of materials needed. Structure 1 does not need any additional foundation because the parabolic shape of the structure can withstand high pressure. Besides that, structure 1 is more stable compared to the other structures as the pressure exerted on it is distributed evenly to all parts of the structure. Parabolic shape of a structure enables it to withstand higher pressure. Therefore, structure 1 will last longer than the other structures and requires less frequent maintenance.

Part (b) (b) The following questions refer to the concrete structure in the diagram below. If the value of k increases with a common difference of 0.25 m;

(i) Complete Table 1 by finding the values of k and the corresponding areas of the concrete structure to be painted.

Identify the problem: To determine the values of k and the corresponding areas of the concrete structures to be painted. Solution: For all vales of k, Area to be painted = Area of rectangle area of trapezium = (4)(1) (4 + k)(0.5) = 4 k -1 =3k

## k (m) 0 0.25 0.25 + 0.25 = 0.50 0.5 + 0.25 = 0.75

Area to be painted (m2) 3 0.25 (0) = 3.0000 3 0.25 (0.25) = 2.9375 3 0.25 (0.5) = 2.8750 3 0.25 (0.75) = 2.8125

0.75 + 0.25 = 1.00 1.00 + 0.25 = 1.25 1.25 + 0.25 = 1.50 1.50 + 0.25 = 1.75 1.75 + 0.25 = 2.00

3 0.25 (1.0) = 2.7500 3 0.25 (1.25) = 2.6875 3 0.25 (1.50) = 2.6250 3 0.25 (1.75) = 2.5625 3 0.25 (2.0) = 2.5000

(c) Express the area of the concrete structure to be painted in terms of k. Find the area as k approaches the value of 4 and predict the shape of the concrete structure. The area of the concrete structure to be painted =4(1) - (k+4) /2 x (0.5) =4 - k/4 +1 = 3 0.25 k k=4 Area of the concrete structure to be painted = 3 0.25(4) = 2 m The shape of the concrete will be a rectangle with length 4m and breadth 0.5m, which may look like this:

0.5 m

4m