Biblical Hebrew

An Illustrated Introduction
Lessons, Appendices, & Glossaries
John A. Cook
Robert D. Holmstedt
Illustrated by Philip Williams
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (Draft Copy)
© 2011 by John A. Cook and Robert D. Holmstedt
All rights reserved.
For more illustrated Bible from Philip Williams, see
http://www.staircasestudio.com.
Preface
Background
As is the case with most elementary textbooks of Classical or Biblical Hebrew, this textbook
was born out of the authors’ dissatisfaction with the available grammars. Its development
began during our time at the University of Wisconsin as graduate instructors of first-year
biblical Hebrew courses, from 1996 to 2002. In our years of teaching Hebrew since graduate
school, in a variety of institutional contexts, we have continued to shape and alter the
textbook, refining its focus and distinctives. In this process we have come to realize that our
dissatisfaction is shared by other Hebrew teachers, despite the deluge of new Hebrew
textbooks in recent years, and that a market remains for a textbook with a different
approach for teaching biblical Hebrew, an approach grounded in modern methods for
teaching languages.
Distinctives
This textbook has seven (often interrelated) distinctives that justify its creation in the midst
of the mass of currently available textbooks.
1. Learning an Ancient Language and Second Language Acquisition
We have sought to incorporate more recent ideas about pedagogy into the shaping of the
grammar explanations and the exercises. The most obvious feature of the textbook
represents its unique strength: the use of illustrated episodes from Genesis to learn Hebrew.
Moreover, all the exercises based on the illustrated Readings use as much Hebrew as
possible. That is, we avoid using the model that dominates in other textbooks: the grammar-
translation model. Instead of teaching Hebrew as an object to be decoded and then re-coded
into the students’ native language (e.g., English), the goal of this textbook is to provide the
student with competency in reading, listening, and even producing Hebrew. In other words,
rather than mastering Hebrew for translation, our aim is that students achieve the ability to
comprehend biblical Hebrew texts. At the same time, we admit limits to such second-language
acquisition approaches in the teaching and learning of ancient, textual corpus-bound
languages. As such, there remains a philological realism to our pedagogy coupled with our
use of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) techniques. In particular, the exercises included in
the textbook center around self-contained narratives from the Bible, and include visual and
audio aids for vocabulary memorization and narrative comprehension. In addition, we have
provided audio-visual aids for developing oral fluency. Beyond this, there is the instructor’s
choice: he/she may maintain a text-based atmosphere, focusing on the given exercises, or
he/she may establish a “conversation”-based atmosphere, in which the given exercises are
used as a platform for extemporaneous modification (and thus greater competency in the
productive aspect of learning Hebrew).
2. Language Pedagogy and Grammar Presentation
One of the points of dissatisfaction with grammars currently on the market is that they have
tended to provide too much grammatical information for a first-year textbook. The effect is
that students are overwhelmed and instructors are faced with cutting out the unnecessary
clutter. Rather than produce a textbook that is a stand-in for an intermediate grammar, we
ii
have included a minimal amount of grammar to give students facility in reading actual
Hebrew texts, and have left to the instructor’s discretion the introduction of more advanced
descriptions. This approach, of course, also aligns with our SLA-influenced goals.
Organizationally, the most notable result of this approach is our decision to relegate
summaries of weak verb forms to an appendix along with the customary verb paradigms. In
this way we aim to give these discussions their proper place in grammar study, as
explanations of forms in the context of reading texts rather than complex morphological
explanations abstracted from the practice and skills of reading Hebrew.
3. Organization
The organization of the textbook centers around discrete grammatical issues. The lessons do
not present the grammar in the traditional sequence of phonology-morphology-syntax, but
recognize that language is learned in small chunks of information that alternate through the
various aspects of grammar (including a greater focus on syntax and semantics, areas
neglected by current introductory textbooks). The material is also organized to maximize
the use of repetition, a key to language acquisition. For example, paradigms are often
broken in to halves, so that presentation of the second half reinforces the material already
learned.
4. Text-Based Exercises
The lessening of the morphology burden in the grammar has allowed us space to
incorporate discussions of grammar that are conducive to reading and understanding
Hebrew literature. In particular, we have several lessons that introduce students to
important aspects of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic systems of biblical Hebrew,
illustrated with examples from the same texts (Genesis episodes) used for the exercises.
5. Recognition of the Diversity of Hebrew in the Bible
Our choice of a particular corpus (discrete episodes from Genesis) to draw examples from for
the discussion of Hebrew syntax, semantics, and pragmatics comes out of a recognition that
“Biblical Hebrew” is not a monolithic or uniform language. Rather, preserved in the biblical
corpus and extra-biblical ancient epigraphs and texts (e.g., Ben Sira, Qumran) is an array of
grammatical peculiarities and divergences. Rather than fall into the philological trap of
attempting to be exhaustive, we have chosen to focus our analysis and draw our examples
from a small, uniform corpus of prose literature appropriate for first-year readings.
6. Modern Linguistic Background
Our textbook incorporates more recent linguistic explanations of biblical Hebrew in a way
that is as jargon-free as possible and understandable to beginning students. The currently
available textbooks of biblical Hebrew are astonishingly “behind the times” in their
grammar descriptions and terminology. Nineteenth-century theories of the Hebrew verb
continue to be presented not because they are correct, but because they “work.” However,
we are convinced that explanations should be presented that are both accurate and
understandable. Biblical Hebrew grammar instruction has also been plagued with
idiosyncratic and archaic vocabulary. In place of outmoded Latinate terms such as status
iii
constructus, we have sought to employ terms native to language itself and/or in current use
in Hebrew linguistic studies, such as nismach.
7. Non-Confessional Orientation
The textbook is non-confessional. Religious and theological aims for studying biblical
Hebrew have shaped the concerns of many textbooks to the point that they sometimes wed
their grammar lessons to “theological” insights from the text. Such overtly confessional
approaches unnecessarily preclude other interests in studying Hebrew, such as cultural or
linguistic insights. Although we are not adverse to confessional approaches to the Bible (one
author teaches at a theological seminary), we think that a textbook written without a
confessional stance will serve a wider community of language learners and institutions.
John A. Cook Robert D. Holmstedt
Wilmore Toronto
July 2, 2011
Table of Contents
Preface ..................................................................................................................................................i
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................1
Grammar Lessons
1. The Consonants ............................................................................................................................5
2. The Vowels ..................................................................................................................................11
3. א"וְ שׁ (Sheva) ................................................................................................................................15
4. שֵׁגָ דּ (Dagesh) .............................................................................................................................17
5. Subject Pronouns – Singular .....................................................................................................18
6. Copular Clauses ..........................................................................................................................21
7. Nouns – Singular.........................................................................................................................23
8. The Article ַ ה and the Interrogative ֲ ה ....................................................................................26
9. ל of Possession – Singular.........................................................................................................27
READING #1 (“The House”)
10. Nouns – Plural and Dual ............................................................................................................30
11. Subject Pronouns – Plural .........................................................................................................33
12. שׁ. י and ןיֵ א .................................................................................................................................35
13. Conjunction ו and Prepositions ...............................................................................................37
14. תוֹלֵאְ שׁ (Questions) ...................................................................................................................42
READING #2 (Genesis 3 א)
15. The Verb – A Preview ................................................................................................................44
16. ל3 Perfect Conjugation – Singular ..........................................................................................48
17. ל of Possession – Plural .............................................................................................................52
18. Introduction to Syntax and Word Order .................................................................................54
READING #3 (Genesis 22 א)
19. ל3 Perfect Conjugation – Plural ..............................................................................................58
20. תוּכיִמְ ס (Bound Nouns) .............................................................................................................60
21. The Irreal Use of the Perfect Conjugation ...............................................................................63
22. Enclitic Pronouns – Singular .....................................................................................................66
READING #4 (Genesis 37 א)
23. ל3 Imperfect Conjugation – Singular .....................................................................................69
24. The Infinitive ..............................................................................................................................71
25. The Adverbial Infinitive ............................................................................................................75
26. Objects .........................................................................................................................................77
READING #5 (Genesis 3 ב)
27. ל3 Imperfect Conjugation – Plural ..........................................................................................80
vii
28. ל3 Imperfect Conjugation of ה"יָ ה ...........................................................................................82
29. ליִעְפִה<ו לֵעִ פּ :םי?נ"י<נִ בּx ...............................................................................................................84
30. Main and Subordinate Clauses .................................................................................................87
READING #6 (Genesis 22 ב)
31. Enclitic Pronouns – Plural .........................................................................................................92
32. Adjectives ....................................................................................................................................95
33. Demonstrative Pronouns ..........................................................................................................99
34. תֶ לֹ גְ ס Noun Pattern .................................................................................................................101
READING #7 (Genesis 37 ב)
35. Past Narrative Conjugation .....................................................................................................103
36. יִ ה< יD ו ............................................................................................................................................106
37. לֵעַ פּEתִה<ו לַעְפ?נ :םי?נ"י<נִבּ ...........................................................................................................108
38. Dynamic and Stative Verbs .....................................................................................................111
READING #8 (Genesis 3 ג)
39. Jussives and Imperatives .........................................................................................................112
40. Enclitic Pronouns with Verbs .................................................................................................116
41. Word Order and Topic & Focus ...............................................................................................119
READING #9 (Genesis 22 ג)
42. Participles .................................................................................................................................122
43. The Foreground and Background of Narrative .....................................................................125
44. The Verb – A Summary ............................................................................................................127
READING #10 (Genesis 37 ג)
45. Numerals ...................................................................................................................................128
46. Topic ..........................................................................................................................................130
READING #11 (Genesis 1)
47. Masoretic Accents ....................................................................................................................132
48. Complements and Adjuncts ....................................................................................................134
READING #12 (Genesis 47)
49. Case Relations ...........................................................................................................................136
50. Lexical Semantics .....................................................................................................................138
READING #13 (Genesis 50)
viii
Appendices and Glossaries
Appendix A: Phonology ...................................................................................................................A1
1. From “Biblical Hebrew” to “Masoretic” Hebrew Vowels ................................................A1
2. Vowel Changes from Ancient to “Tiberian” Hebrew ......................................................A2
3. Vowel Letters .......................................................................................................................A4
4. Syllables, Vowels, and Word Stress ...................................................................................A5
5. The Definite Article .............................................................................................................A6
6. Attaching the Clitic Prepositions .......................................................................................A7
Appendix B: Nominal Morphology
1a. Noun Inflection .................................................................................................................A10
1b. Adjective Inflection ..........................................................................................................A10
2. Frequent Irregular Nouns ................................................................................................A10
3. Personal Pronouns ............................................................................................................A11
4. Demonstrative Pronouns .................................................................................................A11
5a. Enclitic Pronouns with Singular Nouns .........................................................................A12
5b. Enclitic Pronouns with Plural Nouns .............................................................................A12
5c. Enclitic Pronouns with ל, ָכּ/וֹמָכּ ,ןִ מ, and the Object Marker -תֶא/תוֹא ..................A13
Appendix C: Verb Morphology......................................................................................................A14
1a. The ‘Strong’ Verb: דקפּ ‘attend to’..................................................................................A14
1b. Recognizing the Derived םי? נ" י< נִ בּ .....................................................................................A16
2. Enclitic Pronouns with Verbs .............................................................................................A19
3. Introduction to Guttural Verbs ..........................................................................................A19
3a. I-Guttural Verbs .................................................................................................................A20
3b. II-Guttural Verbs ...............................................................................................................A22
3c. III-Guttural Verbs ..............................................................................................................A24
4. Introduction to Weak Verbs ...............................................................................................A26
4a. I-א Verbs ............................................................................................................................A27
4b. III-א Verbs ..........................................................................................................................A28
4c. I-נ Verb ..............................................................................................................................A31
4d. I-ו/י Verb ...........................................................................................................................A34
4e. III-ה Verb ...........................................................................................................................A38
4f. II-ו/י Verb ...........................................................................................................................A40
4g. II-III Verb ............................................................................................................................A43
4h. Doubly-Weak Verbs ...........................................................................................................A45
Appendix D: Using a Lexicon ........................................................................................................A48
Appendix E: Terminology .............................................................................................................A55
Hebrew-English Glossary ................................................................................................................G1
English-Hebrew Glossary ..............................................................................................................G46
Introduction
Hebrew is a Semitic Language
Ancient Hebrew emerged as a distinct dialect sometime in the 2
nd
millennium
B.C.E. in the region of Canaan—the land between the Jordan River Valley and
the Mediterranean Sea (see the map at right). In fact, one of the earliest refer-
ences to Hebrew calls it “the language of Canaan” ( ֫ ןַע$נְ כּ תַ פְ שׂ; Isa 19:18).
The language is also referred to in the Bible as תי,וּה/ י “Judahite” (2 Kgs 18:26,
28, etc.), but by the Roman period it was known as “Hebrew” (Latin Hebraios, Is-
raeli Hebrew תי0ְבִ ע). However, in late antiquity, especially in Jewish literature,
it frequently was called “the holy language” ( ּ שׁ4ּ6ַה ןוֹשְׁ ל) because Scripture
was written in the language.
Any notion that Hebrew was somehow special among languages since it was the
language of Scripture was dispelled in the 18
th
c., when philological study was
able to trace Hebrew back to the Semitic language family. It was in that century
that the name Semitic was coined to refer to languages spoken in those areas of
the Near East that the Bible purports to have been settled by descendants of
Shem:
To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of
Japheth, children were born. The descendants of Shem: Elam, Asshur,
Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram. (Genesis 10:21-22)
As one of the oldest and longest-used language families, the Semitic language
family is over 5000 years old. Its history can be traced back through written
evidence to the 3rd millennium B.C.E., although it was likely much older than
that. Though many branches of the family have fallen into disuse (e.g., Akkadi-
an, Phoenician; see diagram), the language family today consists of about 70
different languages or dialects spoken by nearly 500 million speakers.
Akkadian
EAST SEMITIC
South Arabian Ethiopian
SOUTH SEMITIC
Arabic
Phoenician Hebrew
Canaanite Aramaic
CENTRAL SEMITIC
WEST SEMITIC
SEMITIC
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 2
Several features distinguish Semitic languages from non-Semitic:
• Semitic languages use common distinctive sounds in their alphabet such as the
“guttural” consonants (i.e., pharyngeal and laryngeal sounds made in the throat)
(see 2.5).
• Semitic languages originally had only three vowels—a, i, u—each of which could be
pronounced long or short.
• Semitic languages possess a large shared vocabulary: e.g., ‘father’ ab (Hebrew), abba
(Aramaic), abu (Arabic).
• The vocabulary of Semitic languages predominantly has triconsonantal roots.
Semitic words are formed from roots of three consonants. Different parts of speech
(verbs, adjectives, nouns) are derived by adding prefixes and/or suffixes and changing
the vowels which occur between the consonants. For example, the triconsonantal root
P-Q-D is associated with the following words:
paqad ‘he attended to,’
piqqed ‘he mustered,’
puqqad ‘he was mustered,’
pəquda ‘mustering,’
mipqad ‘appointed place’.
According to the family tree for Semitic (above), Hebrew is classified as a Cent-
ral West Semitic language, and more specifically a member of the Canaanite
grouping. Features distinguishing Central West from South West Semitic lan-
guages include:
• The development of the Suffix Pattern verbal conjugation
• The change of w to y when the letter begins a word
The most notable distinguishing feature of Canaanite languages is the “Canaan-
ite Shift”: sometime in the second half of the 2
nd
millennium B.C.E. long a vowels
changed to long o vowels in Canaanite languages (e.g., ‘peace’ Hebrew šalōm
versus Aramaic šəlām / Arabic salām).
The relative closeness of languages on the family tree is based on the degree of
similarity among languages. As a result, those languages most closely related to
Hebrew (e.g., other Canaanite languages like Phoenician and Moabite, and the
major West Semitic language Aramaic) often provide textual remains that shed
light on ancient Hebrew and ancient Israelite culture.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 3
Hebrew is one of the most significant Semitic languages
Hebrew may be considered one of the most historically and religiously signific-
ant of the Semitic languages, both because of the size of its textual remains by
comparison with the other Semitic languages and the enduring religious
nature of the primary text. That is, the Hebrew Bible contains the single largest
body of ancient Semitic literature and has remained a core religious text for
Judaism and Christianity for over two thousand years. Indeed, the impact of
Hebrew on Western culture can scarcely be overstated.
While knowledge of Hebrew was preserved for
centuries mainly by Jewish scholars, Hebrew in-
creasingly gained wider attention during the
Renaissance and following. Christian scholars re-
vived the use of Hebrew in the study of the Bible
in the 15
th
century and in the 16
th
century it was
used increasingly for vernacular translations of
the Bible, such as Martin Luther’s German trans-
lation (1534). This increased interest is manifest
in cultural artifacts like Rembrandt’s painting of
Moses with the ten commandments, in which the
second half of the commandments legibly appears (Exodus 20:13–17):
׃חָצ<ִתּ א? ׃ףָא/נִ תּ א? ׃ ־ ׃ תיֵבּ דֹמְחFת א? ר Hָשׁ דֵע IֲעKְב הLנֲעFת א? בֹנְגִ תּ א?
׃ ־ IֶעKְל רֶשֲׁא לֹכ/ו וֹרֹמֲח$ו וֹרוֹשׁ/ ו וֹתָמֲא$ו וֹדְּבַע/ו Iֶ עK תֶשֵׁא דֹמְחFת א? IֶעK
You shall not kill. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not steal. You shall not
testify against your neighbor as a false witness. You shall not covet your neighbor’s
house. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife or his man servant or his
maidservant or his ox or his donkey or anything of your neighbor’s.
Hebrew was especially influential on the English language through the atten-
tion to the Hebrew Bible given by the Puritans in England. From 1549 Hebrew
was a required language for an M.A. at Cambridge. The poet John Milton (1608–
1674) read and wrote Hebrew fluently, and was appointed “Secretary for For-
eign Languages” by Cromwell. The noted legal scholar John Selden (1584–1654)
studied biblical and talmudic legal writings in helping to reshape British juris-
prudence. Most importantly, the rather literal rendering of the Hebrew Bible
by the translators of the King James Bible (1611) has made numerous Hebrew
idioms and proverbial expressions commonplace in modern English.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 4
“to lick the dust” (Ps 72:9)
“to fall flat on one’s face” (Num 22:31)
“heavy heart” (Prov 25:20)
“to pour out one’s heart” (Lam 2:19)
“the land of the living” (Job 28:13)
“nothing new under the sun” (Eccl 1:9)
“sour grapes” (Ezek 18:2)
“rise and shine” (variant on “arise,
shine” in Isa 60:1)
“pride goes before a fall” (Prov 16:18)
“the skin of my teeth” (Job 19:20)
“to put words in one’s mouth” (Exod 4:15)
“like a lamb to the slaughter” (Isa 53:7)
“a drop in a bucket” (variant on “a drop from
a bucket” in Isa 40:15)
“a fly in the ointment” (from Eccl 10:1)
“to see the writing on the wall” (from Dan 5:5)
“a man after his own heart” (1 Sam 13:14)
In addition, many Hebrew words, like amen, have entered into the English lan-
guage. Others include abbot, alphabet (through Greek alpha-beta < alef-bet),
Armageddon (from har megiddo ‘mount Megiddo’), behemoth, camel, cherubim, hal-
lelujah, hosanna, jubilee (from the 50th year celebration when all slaves were to
be set free), leviathan, mammon, manna, messiah, rabbi, sabbath, sack, satan, seraph-
im, shibboleth, sodomy (after city of Sodom), and Torah. The Hebrew Bible is also
the origin of many proper names in English, such as Adam, Eve, Noah, Abraham,
Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, Jacob, Rachel, and many more. In fact, the name Michael,
which comes from Hebrew לֵאָכיִ מ, “who is like God?,” may be humanity’s old-
est continuously used name. It entered English and other European languages
from Hebrew, but before Hebrew it existed in Eblaite, a Semitic language from
around 2300 B.C.E. that is closely related to Akkadian.
The Puritan reverence for Hebrew carried over to the North American schools,
beginning with Harvard and Yale. In these early schools, which were influ-
enced very much by Cambridge and Oxford, the study of Hebrew sometimes
rivaled that of Greek and Latin, to the point that several early commencement
addresses were given in Hebrew. Moreover, the mark of Hebrew’s influence on
these schools endures in one of Harvard’s com-
mencement anthems (a metrical rendering of
Psalm 78) and Yale’s coat of arms (right). The
Hebrew motto םימותו םירוא (Urim and Thum-
mim) is accompanied by the Latin rendering lux
et veritas (“light and truth”). The Urim and
Thummim in the Hebrew Bible is a device or pro-
cess for divination associated with the priestly
breastplate (Exod 28:30). However, the Hebrew
roots are related to the Hebrew word for “light”
and “integrity.”
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 5
Ancient Hebrew: a window onto ancient Israel
Just as ancient Hebrew has influenced later culture, the language is itself the
product of an ancient culture. Studying ancient Hebrew thus provides a win-
dow into that culture inasmuch as it provides an entry into a different world-
view than our own. Understanding the ancient Israelite worldview through
ancient Hebrew helps us appreciate its contribution to our own modern world-
view and at the same time may free us to examine issues from a viewpoint dif-
ferent from our own. In turn, we may come to understand our own worldview
more deeply through comparison with that of ancient Israel as manifest in an-
cient Hebrew.
1. The Consonants
The Hebrew תיֵ בּ-ףֶלָא (alphabet) is composed of the following.
● It consists of 23 consonants read right-to-left.
← ת שׁ שׂ ר ק צ פ ע ס נ מ ל כ י ט ח ז ו ה ד ג ב א
● Five letters have alternate final forms that are used when the letter occurs
at the end of a word.
Regular form: צ פ נ מ כ
Final form: ץ ף ן ם X e.g., םימשׁ
● Six letters, תּ פּ כּ דּ גּ בּ (mnemonically referred to as the תַ פְ כּ דַגְ בּ (BeGaD
KeFaT), can appear with a “dot” in them called a ל[ שֵׁגָ דּ (dagesh qal).
Three of these letters have two pronunciations: one with the ל[ שֵׁגָ דּ, and
one without it.
בּ like b in Boy BUT ב like v in Voice
כּ like k in Keep BUT כ like ch in BaCH
פּ like p in Pie BUT פ like f in Fish
גּ AND ג like g in Give
דּ AND ד like d in Dog
תּ AND ת like t in Tide
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 6
● Notice that the Hebrew alphabet has several letters which are
pronounced the same.
א and ע [silent]
ב and ו like v in Voice
ח and כ like ch in Bach
ט and ת / תּ like t in Tide
כּ and ק like k in Keep
ס and שׂ like s in Sit
There are four consonants, each pronounced in the back of the throat, that are
often called “gutturals”: א ה ח ע. Note the following characteristics:
1) Gutturals (and ר) are not lengthened and do not allow קָ זָ ח שֵׁגָ דּ (dagesh
chazaq) (see §4).
2) Gutturals prefer a-class vowels nearby, i.e., before or after.
דֹמֲע$ י ʿ [ya- amod] ‘he will stand’
3) Gutturals ה, ח, and ע at the end of a word are sometimes preceded by an
a-class ‘helping’ vowel called a ֫ חFתַ פּ הָבוּנְגּ (patach genuvah) ‘stolen’ ֫ חF תַ פּ
(traditionally called a furtive patach).
͏ַ חוּר [ruach] ‘wind, spirit’
4) Gutturals usually have a ףֵטָ ח א] וְ שׁ (chatef sheva) (see §3).
רֶ שֲׁ א ʾ [ asher] (instead of *רֶ שְׁ א)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 7
Name (Final) Form Pronunciation Script Print
ʾálef
bet
gímel
dálet
ʾ he
vav
záyin
chet
tet
yod
kaf
lámed
mem
nun
sámech
ʿáyin
ʾ pe
tsáde
qof
resh
sin
shin
tav
֫ ףֶ לָא
תיֵ בּ
֫ לֶמיִ גּ
֫ תֶלָ דּ
אֵ ה
ו] ו
֫ ן^יַ ז
תיֵ ח
תיֵט
דוֹי
ףַ כּ
֫ דֶ מָ ל
םֵ מ
ןוּנ
֫ Xֶמָ ס
֫ ן^ יַ ע
אֵ פּ
֫ י_ָ צ
ףוֹק
שׁיK
ןיִ שׂ
ןיִ שׁ
וָ תּ
א

ב
ג גּ
ד דּ
ה
ו
ז
ח
ט
י

(ך) כ
ל
(ם) מ
(ן) נ
ס
ע

(ף) פ
(ץ) צ
ק
ר


ת תּ
glottal stop or silent
b in Boy
v in Voice
g in Give
d in Dog
h in Hat
v in Voice
z in Zip
ch in BaCH
t in Tide
y in Yellow
k in Keep
ch in BaCH
l in Letter
m in Mother
n in Noon
s in Sit
pharyngeal or silent
p in Pie
f in Fish
ts in caTS
k in Keep
r in Race
s in Sit
sh in SHin
t in Tide
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 8
בֹתְּכִ תּ .א (‘Write’)
Write out a full line of each consonant of the Hebrew alphabet (use the alphabet chart on p.
7 as a guide).
־ םוֹקָ מַּה תֶא אֵלַּמְ תּ .ב (‘Fill in the Blank’)
1. Fill in the blank with the missing consonant according to the order of the alphabet
(ignore the absence/presence of שֵׁגָ דּ), e.g., ב א ג ד .
_ _ ת ר (י
_ _ נ מ (כ
_ _ _ ח (ל
_ י ט ח ( ז
_ ק צ פ (ח
_ ו ד ג (ט
_ שׂ ק צ (ד
_ ס נ ל (ה
_ ז ה ד (ו
_ נ ל כ (א
_ שׁ ר ק (ב
_ _ _ א (ג
2. Fill in the blank with an English word which has the sound of the Hebrew letter in it (do
not use the words given in the chart above): e.g., בּ as in b oat .
י as in ______ (פ
כּ as in ______ (צ
כ as in _____ (ק
ל as in _____ (ר
ר as in _____ (ט
שׂ as in _____ (י
בּ as in _____ (כ
ב as in _____ (ל
דּ as in _____ (א
ה as in _____ (ב
ו as in ______ (ג
ס as in _____ (ד
שׁ as in _____ (ש
ת as in _____ (ת
מ as in ____ (אא
נ as in _____ (בב
פּ as in _____ (מ
פ as in ______ (נ
צ as in ______ (ס
ק as in _____ (ע
ג as in _____ (ה
ז as in ______ (ו
ח as in _____ (ז
ט as in _____ (ע
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 9
־ ־ םי5ָבְדַּה תֶא / תוֹתוֹאָה תֶא םיִא7תַתּ .ג (‘Match the letters/words’)
1. Draw lines to connect each letter with its corresponding final form:
מ צ נ פ כ
ן ף X ם ץ
2. Draw a line from the Hebrew proper name to the English equivalent.
Judah
Jacob
Levi
Israel
Philistine
Shadrach
Abraham
Adam
Moses
Pharaoh
לארשׂי
השׁמ
הדוהי
םדא
בקעי
יול
יתּשׁלפּ
הערפּ
םהרבא
ךרדשׁ
Tamar
Esau
Rachel
Hezekiah
Joseph
Canaan
Solomon
Nebuchadnezzar
Leah
Sarah
ףסוי
ןענכּ
היקזח
הרשׂ
רצאנדכובנ
רמתּ
ושׂע
לחר
המלשׁ
האל
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 10
־ םי5ָ בְדַּה תֶא אָצְמִתּ .ד (‘Find the words’)
Find the names of the letters of the alphabet in the puzzle (no left-to-right or otherwise
backwards ones).
ןישׂ
ןישׁ
ות
אפ
ידצ
ףוק
שׁיר
םמ
ןונ
ךמס
ןיע
תיט
דוי
ףכ
דמל
אה
וו
ןיז
תיח
ףלא
תיב
למיג
תלד
ל ג ט ן ט ן ג כ ט ע י ן
ו ט ק ו ף י ן מ מ ב א ע
ו ז ד ר ז א ת ל ה ב י מ
ס מ ך ר ם ו ט מ נ ו ן ת
צ ו כ ר י ג מ י שׁ ג נ ס
כ ז י ן ב שׁ א ג ם ן ת נ
ד ם ג צ ד י א ם י ה ל כ
י ו ד ד א א ד שׁ ן פ ד ג
ח ל מ ד ו שׁ ל ד מ ם ן צ
ל ע א ה צ מ ך ף ח י ת ג
ך מ פ א ל ת ו ך שׂ ב ל ט
מ ו ה ק כ ף ן ס י ה א ס
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 11
םי;וּסְפַּה (ה (‘Verses’)
1. Say aloud the names of the letters in the following verse.
־לא הנמלאו םותי רגו קושׁע דימ לוזג וליצהו הקדצו טפשׁמ ושׂע הוהי רמא הכ
־ ־ הזה םוקמב וכפשׁת לא יקנ םדו וסמחת לא ונת
‘Thus says YHWH: Act with justice and righteousness, and deliver from the hand of the
oppressor anyone who has been robbed. And do no wrong or violence to the alien,
the orphan, and the widow, or shed innocent blood in this place.’ (Jer 22:3)
2. Circle the letters which are final form.
־ ־ השׂע םיוגמ ףסאמ םע לאו תבשׁונ תוברח לע ךדי בישׁהל זב זבלו ללשׁ ללשׁל
־ ץראה רובט לע יבשׁי ןינקו הנקמ
‘. . . to seize spoil and carry off plunder; to assail the waste places that are now
inhabited, and the people who were gathered from the nations, who are acquiring
cattle and goods, who live at the center of the earth.’ (Ezek 38:12)
2. The Vowels
The Tiberian system of Hebrew vowels has the following characteristics:
● The vowels appear under, over, or following the consonant they are pro-
nounced after.
ד] י is pronounced [yad] ‘hand’
● The sign ָ represents both a-class ץֵ מb (qamets) and u-class ץֵ מb ףוּטָ ח
(qamets-chatuf ). Distinguishing which vowel it represents in a given word
depends on knowing in what type of syllable it occurs.
● Certain vowels are sometimes written as a vowel point and a consonant
(see chart below; ֫ קcוּשׁ shureq always appears with the ו vowel letter).
When ו ה, or י are used in this way they are called vowel letters. They are
not consonants in these cases.
Appendix
A.3
Appendix
A.4
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 12
● The chart below presents the Tiberian vowels by class (a-class, i-class, or u-
class). The X is simply to show the position of the vowel.
Name Form Pronunciation Class
pátach
֫ חF תַ פּ ַ X
qamets(-he)
־ (אֵ ה) ץֵ מb ָX/ה ָX
a in Father a-class
segol
לוֹגְ ס ֶ X e in Met
tsére(-yod)
־ ֫ (דוֹי )יKֵ צ ֵX/י ֵ X ey in They
chíreq(-yod)
֫ קcיִ ח ־ (דוֹי) ִ X/י ִ X ee in Seen
i-class
qamets-chatuf
־ ףוּטָח ץֵ מb ָ X
chólem(-vav)
־ ֫ (ו] ו) םֶלוֹח ֹX/וֹX
o in Go
qibbuts
ץוּבּd ֻ X
shúreq
֫ קcוּשׁ וּX
u in Rude
u-class
בֹתְּכִ תּ .א (‘Write’)
1. a) Write each of the Tiberian Hebrew vowels with each of the consonants; b) Pronounce
aloud the combination of consonant and vowel as you write them,
e.g., וּא ֻא וֹא ֹא ָא יִא ִא יֵא ֵא ֶא הָא ָא ַא.
2. Without looking at the chart above, read aloud the name of each vowel and write the
◻ correct sign under, over, or following the .
(א ֫ קcיִ ח ◻
־ ֫ דוֹי יKֵ צ (ב ◻
֫ קcוּשׁ (ג ◻
(ד ץֵ מb ◻
(ה ֫ חF תַ פּ ◻
(ו ץוּבּd ◻
(ז ֫ םֶלוֹח ◻
(ח לוֹגְ ס ◻
(ט ־ ףוּטָח ץֵ מb ◻
(י ֫ יKֵ צ ◻
־ ֫ ו]ו םֶלוֹח (כ ◻
־ ֫ דוֹי קcיִח (ל ◻
Appendix
A.1–2
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 13
־ םי5ָ בְדַּה תֶא אָצְמִתּ .ב (‘Find the words’)
Find the names of the Hebrew vowels in the puzzle (no left-to-right or otherwise backwards
ones).
־ ףוּטָח ץֵ מb
ץוּבּd
־ ֫ ו]ו םֶלוֹח
֫ יKֵ צ
־ ֫ דוֹי קcיִ ח
לוֹגְ ס
֫ חF תַ פּ
ץֵ מb
־ ֫ דוֹי יKֵ צ
֫ קcוּשׁ
֫ םֶלוֹח
֫ קcיִ ח
ד ר ל ד ל ם ח ח ד ע ז נ
ס ג ק ג ד ת שׁ ו א ע א ח
ל א א א ע מ י צ ג ד ו שׁ
ך א ס ף ד ק א מ ו צ ר י
י ק ט ג ר ח ט ף ק צ ץ צ
צ ח ך י צ ז ס ג ו ל א ץ
ל ך ח ח ו ל ם ו ו א ק ו
צ ר י י ו ד פ ץ ב נ ם ב
ק מ ץ ח ט ו ף מ ע מ ו ק
צ נ שׁ ג ח י ר ק ל ק ר מ
פ ת ח ו ח ט ף ס ס ו ל ו
ח ו ל ם ל א ז ט שׁ ר ק ח
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 14
־ םוֹקָ מַּה תֶא אֵלַּ מְתּ .ג (‘Fill in the Blank’)
1. Identify a close sounding English word for each Hebrew word, e.g., רָ כּ = car.
= ןיִל (פ ______
= א? (צ ______
= ןֵפּ (ק ______
= רוֹא (ר ______
= איִ ה (ש ______
= םֵא (ט ______
= ץוּר (אא _____
= ריִשׁ (בב _____
______ = ןיִדּ (ט
______ = ריִע (י
______ = אוּה (כ
______ = םיִשׂ (ל
= תֵ ע (מ ______
______ = םוּר (נ
______ = קf (ס
= רוֹשׁ (ע _____
= שׁוּפּ (א _____
______ = ןיֵבּ (ב
= דK (ג ______
= יִמ (ד ______
= ןֵ כּ (ה ______
______ = רוֹבּ (ו
_______ = ןֶפּ (ז
______= רוֹפּ (ח
2. Spell how these English words sound with Hebrew letters, e.g., bed = דֶ בּ.
a. shed =
b. sheet =
c. see =
d. said =
e. road =
f. ooze =
g. root =
h. soul =
i. hot =
j. near =
k. say =
l. peat =
m. key =
n. ray =
o. vote =
p. coal =
q. tar =
r. sew =
s. name =
t. cave =
u. cots =
v. red =
w. doze =
x. go =
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 15
3. א?וְ שׁ (Sheva)
The vowel system created by the Tiberian Masoretes (6th c. C.E.) required that
every consonant have some sort of vowel sign, except at the end of a word.
The א?וְ שׁ (sheva, ‘nothingness’), was used to fill in the places where a regular
vowel did not belong. At the end of a syllable, it is a silent place marker, show-
ing that the syllable is closed:
רָ בּgִ מ [mid-bar]
However, at the beginning of syllables (whether at the beginning or in the
middle of a word), the א] וְ שׁ is pronounced like the “hurried” a as in above and
transliterated with ǝ:
● at the beginning of a word: וֹמ-ְ שׁ [shə-mo]
● in the middle of a word: ͏ְ מ in וּר-ְמ-ְשׁ^ י [yish-mə-ru]
Note: If two םיִא]וְ שׁ are adjacent in a word, the first is silent and the second is vocal.
Under the guttural consonants the א] וְ שׁ is often modified so that it has a bit
more sound.
רֶ שֲׁ א instead of *רֶ שְׁ א
This type of א] וְ שׁ is called א]וְשׁ ףֵטָ ח (‘abbreviated’ א] וְ שׁ) and is a combination of
the א] וְ שׁ and one of the three basic vowel classes:
Sign Name Pronunciation Class
ֲX chatef-pátach ֫ ־ חFתַ פּ ףֵטָ ח a in Aríse a class
ֱX chatef-segól ־ לוֹגְס ףֵטָ ח e in Excúse i class
ֳX chatef-qamets ־ ץֵ מb ףֵטָ ח o in Omít u class
Appendix
A.1
Appendix
A.4
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 16
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ ’) New Words (‘
*YHWH (unpronounceable)
master, lord; Lord (of God)
God, gods
ה] וה/ י
י]נjֲ א ;ןוֹדֲא
םיִ ה?ֱא
*Note: The pronunciation of the divine name of Israel’s God, ה] וה/ י, has been lost
because early in Jewish reading tradition out of divine reverence the title י]נוֹדֲ א was
pronounced in its place (as indicated by the vowels; see Jer 22:3 below), or םיִ ה?ֱ א
when it appeared in conjunction with י]נוֹדֲ א (e.g., Ezek 17:9 above §3). Later tradition
also used םֵ שַּׁ ה ha-shem ‘the name’ in place of ה] וה/ י. Scholars think the name might
have been originally pronounced as yah-weh. The form Jehovah derives from a
misapplication of the vowels of י] נjֲ א to the consonants of the divine name הוהי.
בֹתְּכִ תּ .א
Write each א]וְשׁ ףֵטָ ח with each of the guttural consonants, pronouncing aloud the
combination of consonant and vowel as you write them, e.g., ֲא ֱא ֳא.
אEFִ תּ .ב (‘Read’)
Identify each א]וְ שׁ as silent or vocal and then practice reading the following verses until you
can do so smoothly.
־ ־ שֵׁב]י/ו סֵסוֹק/י הּ] י<ִפּ תֶא/ו קֵתּ$נ/י ָהיֶ שׁmָשׁ תֶא אוֹלֲה חָלְצִתּ ה^וֹה/י י]נjֲא רַמָא הֹכּ רֹ מֱ א
־ ־ ־ ָהיֶ שׁmָ שִּׁ מ הּoתוֹא תוֹאְשַׂמְל בm םַעְבוּ הָ לוֹדְגּ ַ עpְזִב א?/ו שָׁביִ תּ הָּחְמִצ יֵפּ<ַ ט לָ כּ
‘Say: Thus says the Lord YHWH: Will it prosper? Will he not pull up its roots, cause its
fruit to rot so that it withers; so that its fresh sprouting leaves fade? No strong arm or
mighty army will be needed to pull it from its roots.’ (Ezek 17:9)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 17
4. שֵׁגָ דּ (Dagesh)
In §1 you learned about the six consonants (ת פ כ ד ג ב) called תַ פְכּ דַגְ בּ
(BeGaD KeFaT) letters. Only these six consonants can have a dot called a שֵׁגָ דּ
לH (dagesh qal) in them.
A ל[ שֵׁגָדּ in ב, כ, and פ marks their pronunciation as a stop (i.e., [b], [k], [p],
in which the air flowing through the mouth is stopped) instead of the corres-
ponding continuant (i.e., [v], [ch], [f], in which the air flows through the mouth
continuously).
A ל[ שֵׁגָדּ appears in a תַ פְכּ דַגְ בּ letter wherever there is not a vowel (or vocal
א] וְ שׁ) preceding it:
● at the beginning of a word:
רָבָ דּ [da-var] ‘word’
● at the beginning of a syllable following a closed syllable
רָ בּgִ מ [mid-bar] ‘wilderness’
The same dot can represent another type of שֵׁגָ דּ called the קָזָח שֵׁגָ דּ (dagesh
chazaq, “strong” שֵׁגָ דּ). A קָזָח שֵׁגָ דּ can occur in any consonant (except guttur-
als and ר) and lengthens it.
שׁq-קִ בּ = שֵׁ קִּ בּ [biq-qesh] ‘he sought’
The תַ פְכּ דַגְ בּ letters can also have a קָזָח שֵׁגָ דּ. In addition to lengthening the
consonant, this שֵׁגָ דּ also makes the pronunciation of ב, כ, and פ a stop just
like the ל[ שֵׁגָ דּ.
ןֵבַּה = ןֵ בּ-בַּ ה [hab-ben] ‘the son/child’
Appendix
A.4
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 18
אEFִ תּ .א (‘Read’)
Practice reading the following verses until you can do so smoothly and then identify each
שֵׁגָ דּ as a ל[ שֵׁ גָ דּ or קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ.
־ ־ ָהוּפmְ שׂוּ שֵׁאָ בּ תאֹ זַּ ה ריִ עָ ה תֶ א וּתיִ צִּה/ו תאֹזַּה ריִעָה לַע םיִמָחְלִנַּה םיִ דְּ שַׂכַּה וּאָבוּ
־ ןַעַמְל םי0ֵ חֲ א םיִ ה?אֵל םיִכָס/נ וּכִ סִּה/ו לַעַבַּל םֶהיwתוֹגַּגּ לַ ע וּרְטּd רֶשֲׁא םיִתָּ בַּה תֵא/ ו
׃י^נֵסִעְכַ ה
‘The Chaldeans who are fighting against this city shall come, and kindle this city with
fire and burn it, along with the houses upon whose roofs they burned incense to Baal
and poured libations to other gods so as to anger me.’ (Jer 32:29)
בֹתְּכִ תּ .ב
Place a ל[ שֵׁ גָ דּ in each letter requiring it in the following verse; be able to explain why.
ה]נָמְלַא/ו םוֹת]י רֵג/ו קוֹשָׁ ע דַיִּמ לוּזָג וּליִצַּה/ו הbzְצוּ טָפְ שִׁ מ וּשֲׂע ה]וה/י רַמָא הֹ כ
׃ ־ ־ ־ הֶ זַּ ה םוֹקָמַּב וּכְ פְּ שׁ| ת לַא יd] נ םz/ ו וּסֹמְחFת לַ א וּנֹת לַ א
‘Thus says YHWH: Act with justice and righteousness, and deliver from the hand of the
oppressor anyone who has been robbed. And do no wrong or violence to the alien,
the orphan, and the widow, or shed innocent blood in this place.’ (Jer 22:3)
5. Subject Pronouns – Singular
Hebrew has a set of pronouns that are used as subjects of clauses. These cor-
respond to English I, you, he/she, we, they.
ףֵסוֹי י^נֲא ‘I (am) Joseph’ (Gen 45:3)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 19
The following chart lists the singular subject pronouns.
Plural
§11
‘he’ אוּה 3MS
‘she’ איִ ה 3FS
‘you’ הָ תַּ א 2MS
‘you’ ְתַּ א 2FS
‘I’ י^נֲא 1S
Notice that Hebrew distinguishes masculine from feminine in the third person
(he vs. she) and the second person (you [masculine] vs. you [feminine]), but not
in the first person.
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ ’) New Words (‘
peace (greeting) M
word, thing M
םוֹלָ שׁ
(םי0ָבְדּ) רָבָ דּ
yes*
no
ןֵ כּ
א?
*Note: The word ןֵ כּ, while frequent in Biblical Hebrew, usually means ‘thus, so’ and
not ‘yes’. Affirmative responses are more frequently expressed by repeating the
question in statement form. The latter meaning ‘yes’ is found in Modern Hebrew and
is included here because it is useful for constructing dialogue.
שׁיִ א .א ־ וּהֵעK לֶ א ’) (Each to his neighbor = ‘Dialogue
1. Break into groups of 2 and introduce yourselves to each other (the brackets indicate that
you must make the proper choice between the two given options):
#2 #1
.םוֹלָ שׁ (א .םוֹלָ שׁ (א

הָ תַּ א
(ב ?

ְתַּ א
י^נֲא (ב .
Appendix
B.3
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 20
י^נֲא (ג .

ןֵ כּ הָ תַּ א
י^נֲא , (ג ? .

א? ְתַּ א

ןֵ כּ
י^נֲא , (ד .

א?

הָ תַּ א
(ד ?

ְתַּ א
2. Now form new groups of 3 people and take turns introducing the other people in the
group to each other using the second- and third-person (i.e., אוּה and איִ ה).
םֵגLMתְ תּ .ב ’) (‘Translate
Translate these simple sentences (the names are from characters in the book of Genesis).
אוּה (ו קָחְצ^ י . . י^ נֲ א (א ה] וה/ י . .
י^נֲא (ז ףֵסוֹי . . איִה (ב הָ וַּ ח . .
ְתַּא (ח הmָ שׂ . . הָ תַּא (ג הzוּה/ י . .
הָ תַּ א (ט לֵאmְ שׂ^ י . . אוּה (ד םָ הmְבַא . .
י^ נֲ א (י םzָ א . . הָ תַּא (ה .ב6ֲ ע$ י .
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 21
6. Copular Clauses
As you have already seen with the example in the previous section, ףֵסוֹי י^נֲ א ‘I
(am) Joseph’ (Gen 45:3), Hebrew does not always use a copular (i.e, “linking”)
verb ‘to be’.
In fact, there are four ways to indicate the ‘to be’ copula. Below are three meth-
ods, while the fourth is presented in §12.
● Two nominal items, such as two nouns or a pronoun and noun, may be
linked by means of the verbal copula ה]יָ ה ‘to be’.
םוּרָע ה]יָה שָׁחָנַּה ‘the snake was crafty’ (Gen 3:1)
● In addition to the verb ה]יָ ה, Hebrew occasionally uses the third-person
subject pronouns as non-verbal copulas.
םָח אוּה ןַע]נְכ יִבֲא ‘Ham is the father of Canaan’ (Gen 9:18)
● However, more often than not the copula is omitted, especially in present
tense contexts.
םpיֵע י^נֲא ‘naked (am) I’ or ‘I (am) naked’ (Gen 3:10)
This last type of copular clauses does not have an overt verb, but a covert or
“null” copula. The tense of the null copula clauses is often present, but may be
past or future depending on the context.
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
is/was (3MS)
is/was (3FS)
who?
name M
ה]יָ ה
הoת/יָ ה
יִ מ
(תוֹמְ שׁ) םֵשׁ
man M
woman F
young man M
young woman F
(םיִ שׁ]נֲא) שׁיִא
(םיִ שׁ]נ) הָּשִׁא
ַ (םי0ָע/נ) רַעַ נ
(תוֹרָע/נ) הmֲ ע$ נ
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 22
תוֹמְשׁ .א (‘Names’)
Break into groups of 2 and quiz one another on your names and the names of your other
classmates; be sure to intermix the different types of copular expressions:
#2 #1

איִה/אוּה איִה/אוּה
הoת/יָה/ה]יָה ְ תַּ א/הָ תַּא .
י^נֲא
) verbless (
םֵ שׁ

איִה/אוּה

איִה/אוּה
? ְתַּא/הָ תַּא הoת/יָה/ה]יָה יִ מ

) verbless (
י^נֲא
.ב םֵ גLMתְ תּ
Translate these copular sentences.
. .הmֲ ע$ נ הo ת/ יָ ה איִ ה (א
(ב ה] וה/ י אוּה םיִ ה?ֱא . .
(ג . .הָ תַּא שׁיִא
(ד . .ְתַּא הָ שִּׁ א א?
(ה . ?םיִ ה?ֱא אוּה יִמ
(ו ֫ . .אוּה ה]יָה רַע$ נ
(ז . .הmֲע$נ איִה ְתַּ א
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 23
בֹתְּכִ תּ .ג
Write one example of each type of copular clause from your vocabulary.
.
.
.
7. Nouns - Singular
The lexicon (i.e., vocabulary) of a language may be divided into grammatical
words and lexical words. Grammatical words signal relationships between
words. Examples include conjunctions, prepositions, pronouns and articles (see
§13).
Nouns are lexical words. That is, nouns have semantic content—they refer to
an entity in the external world. Thus, the noun book refers to a concrete object
(a group of pages bound between a cover), whether real or hypothetical.
Hebrew nouns, most of which are formed from a triconsonantal root ( ֫ שׁNֹ שׁ),
are inflected for gender and number. That is, endings added to the ֫ שׁcֹ שׁ tell
you if it is masculine or feminine and singular or plural.
Note: Though the “natural gender” of animate objects often corresponds to their
grammatical gender, (e.g., שׁיִ א ‘man’ is masculine, whereas הָ שִּׁ א ‘woman’ is
feminine), grammatical gender is essentially a syntactic agreement property of
language (e.g., verb inflection must reflect the gender of the subject noun).
Nouns that are masculine do not have an explicit singular inflectional ending:
חָא ‘brother’; ֫ רַ ע$ נ ‘young man’
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 24
Most nouns that are feminine have an explicit singular inflectional suffix:
● Many end with ה ָ- , that is ה ָXXX.
הָמzֲ א ‘ground’; הָמֵהְ בּ ‘cattle’; הmוֹתּ ‘teaching’
● Some nouns end with ת-, that is, תXXX.
תי0ְ בּ ‘covenant’; תוּכְלַ מ ‘kingdom’; תאָ טַּ ח ‘sin’
● However, nouns referring to paired body parts are feminine, but do not
have an overt grammatical gender inflection.
ד] י ‘hand’; ֫ ן^ יַ ע ‘eye’; ֫ לֶגc ‘foot’
Note: Some nouns, like םֵ א ‘mother,’ or body parts (above), are grammatically
feminine even though they do not have a morphologically feminine gender marking
(e.g., ה ָ - ). However, only in cases where the shape of a noun does not indicate its
gender do we include the abbreviations m. or f. in the vocabulary lists.
Dual Plural Singular
§10 §10
‘stallion’ סוּס
Masculine
‘mare’ הָסוּס
Feminine
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
ground F
covenant F
(תוֹמzֲא) הָמzֲ א
(תוֹתי0ְבּ) תי0ְ בּ
son M
daughter F
(םי^ נָבּ) ןֵ בּ
(תוֹנָבּ) תַ בּ
father M
mother F
(תוֹבָא) בָא
(תוֹמִּ א) םֵ א
Appendix
B.1a
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 25
הָבOP נוּ רָכָז .א (‘Masculine and feminine’)
Circle the correct pronoun for each noun and translate.

ְתַּ א
.הmֲ ע$ נ (ה

הָ תַּ א

אוּה
.בָא (א

איִ ה

ְתַּ א
.םֵ א (ו

הָ תַּ א

אוּה
֫ .רַ ע$נ (ב

איִ ה

ְתַּ א
.תַ בּ (ז

הָ תַּ א

אוּה
.ןֵּב (ג

איִ ה

אוּה
.תי0ְ בּ (ח

איִ ה

אוּה
.הָ מzֲא (ד

איִ ה
־ וּ םוֹקָ מַּה תֶא אֵלַּמְ תּ .ב םֵ גLMת7 ת (‘Fill in the Blank and translate’)
Choose the correct gender copula to fill in the blank and translate.
(א אוּה .בָא .
יִמ (ב ?םֵא .
ה] יָ ה/הo ת/ יָ ה
אוּה/איִ ה
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 26
(ג ןֵ בּ הָ תַּ א . .
(ד איִ ה .תי0ְ בּ .
8. The Article ַ ה and the Interrogative ֲ ה
Several grammatical words are clitics. Clitics are words that cannot stand on
their own; they only appear attached to another word.
More specifically, the article •ַ ה, the interrogative ֲ ה, several frequently used
prepositions and the conjunction ו (see §13) are proclitics, i.e., clitics that are
attached to the front of their host words.
The article •ַ ה indicates that a noun is definite (Hebrew has no indefinite art-
icle like English a/an). The form of the article is ͏ַ ה attached to the front of the
word it modifies and a קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ in the first letter of the host word.
ַ ה • רָ בּgִמַּה = רָ בּgִמ + ‘the wilderness’
The interrogative ֲ ה marks a clause as yes-no question (like the English punc-
tuation “?” does). It is very similar in form to the article •ַ ה.
וֹל םוֹלָשֲׁה ‘Is there peace to him?’ (i.e., ‘Is he well?’) (Gen 29:6)
Note: The vowel with the article ה and the interrogative ה may be identical in some
cases; a practical way of telling them apart in some cases is that the article attaches
to nouns whereas the interrogative, since it must be attached to the first word of a
clause, is most often attached to a verb (e.g., םֶ תְּ ע}/ יַ ה), negative (e.g., א?ֲ ה), or even
preposition (e.g., ןִמֲ ה).
Appendix
A.5
אוּה/איִ ה
ה] יָ ה/הo ת/ יָ ה
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 27
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
what? הָ מ house M ֫ (םי| תָבּ) ת^יַ בּ
איִה/אוּה הָמ .א (‘What is it?’)
You and a partner take turns drawing a vocabulary item from §§6-7 while the other one
guesses what it is using the following expressions; if you are unable to guess what it is, ask
for the answer with the expression ?איִ ה/אוּה הָ מ (‘What is it?’).
#2 #1
א?

אוּה
.
ןֵ כּ

איִ ה

אוּה
-ֲ ה ?

איִ ה
.ב בֹ תְּכִתּ
Add the definite article to six vocabulary items from §§5-7 and translate.
. .
. .
. .
9. ל of Possession – Singular
The clitic preposition ל ‘to, for’ can express possession in copular clauses.
־ םיִלָהֹא/ו רbָבוּ ןאֹצ ה]יָה טוֹלְל
‘Lot had sheep, cattle, and tents’ (Gen 13:5)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 28
Note: When ל (or other clitic prepositions; see §13) is attached to a noun with the
article, the vocalization of the article is retained but the ה is replaced by the ל (or
other clitic preposition). E.g., ת^ יַ בּ ה]יָה דֶלֶיַּ ל ‘the child had a house’.
When enclitic pronouns (see also §22) are attached to ל they may function as
possessive pronouns similar to English mine, yours, his, hers.
־ ־ וֹל רֶשֲׁא לָכ ‘all that (belonged) to him’ or ‘all that (was) his’ (Gen 13:1)
The singular forms are listed below.
Plural
§17
‘he has’/‘his’ וֹל
3MS
‘she has’/‘hers’ הָּ ל
3FS
‘you have’/‘yours’ Iְ ל
2MS
‘you have’/‘yours’ Xָ ל
2FS
‘I have’/‘mine’ יִ ל
1S
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
land, earth F
king M
֫ (תוֹצmֲא) ץcֶ א
֫ (םיִכָלְמ) Xֶלֶ מ
Sָ ל/Tְל הָמ .א (‘What do you have?’)
1. Break into groups of 2 and take turns asking each other about your possessions using the
vocabulary from §§6–7; try to vary the copula construction you use.
#2 #1

אוּה
.

איִ ה

Iְ ל
? הָ מ

Xָ ל
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 29
2. Now form new groups of 3 people and ask one another about the other person’s
possessions, replacing the first- and second- person expressions with third person.
ְתּ .ב םֵגLM ת
Translate the following possessive copula sentences.
֫ . .וֹל אוּה ת^יַ בּ (א
. .שׁיִאָל הָשִּׁא א? (ב
. .הָּל הoת/יָה הmֲ ע$ נ (ג
. .יִל תי0ְּב א?ֲה (ד
֫ ֫ .Xֶלֶמַּל איִה ץcֶא (ה .
. .הָ תַּא יִמְל (ו
.םֵאָל הoת/יָה תַבּ (ז .
.Iְ ל הָשִּׁא איִה (ח .
. .הָ מzֲאָה יִמְל (ט
. .בָאָל אוּה ןֵבּ (י
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 30
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ (‘Write’)
Write five possessive copula sentences using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
GO TO READING #1
10. Nouns – Plural and Dual
Singular nouns were introduced in §6. Here the plural and dual (= two) noun
forms are introduced.
Dual Plural Singular
֫ ם^ יַסוּס םיִסוּס סוּס ‘stallion’
Masculine
֫ ם^יF תָסוּס תוֹסוּס הָסוּס ‘mare’
Feminine
● There are some frequently occurring irregular nouns that do not follow
this paradigm. These irregular forms must be memorized (paradigms of
the most common irregular nouns are in Appendix B.2).
Appendix
B.1a
Appendix
B.2
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 31
‘father(s)’ תוֹבָא בָא
‘woman/women’ םיִשׁ] נ הָּ שִׁא
‘man’/‘men’ םיִ שׁ]נֲא שׁיִ א
● The use of the dual is largely confined to things that occur naturally in
pairs (eyes, feet, hands, etc.). Remember that paired body parts are femin-
ine (see §7).
‘hand(s)’ ֫ ם^ י}] י ד] י
‘ear(s)’ ֫ ם^י$ נְ זָ א ֫ ןֶ זֹ א
‘foot/feet’ ֫ ם^יַ לְגf ֫ לֶגc
‘eye(s)’ ֫ ם^י$ניֵ ע ֫ ן^ יַ ע
‘sandal(s)’ ֫ ם^יַ לֲ ע$ נ ֫ לַע$ נ
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
brother(s) M
sister(s) F
head(s) M
foot/feet F
(םיִ חַ א) חָ א
(תוֹיָחֲא) תוֹחָא
(םיִ שׁאm) שׁאp
֫ ֫ (ם^יַ לְגf) לֶ גc
hand(s) F
ear(s) F
eye(s) F
֫ (ם^ י}]י) ד] י
֫ ֫ (ם^י$נְזָא) ןֶזֹא
֫ ֫ (ם^י$ניֵע) ן^יַ ע
–ל ףִלֲחַ תּ .א . . . ’) (‘Change to
⇐ Make the indicated change to each sentence as indicated by the arrow ( ) and translate (see
Appendix B.2 for irregular noun forms and above list for frequently occurring dual nouns).
(א ⇐ dual sing ְ ל ד] י םmְבַא . .
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 32
(ב ⇐ pl sing תוֹחָאֲה ְ ל ףֵסוֹי . .
(ג ⇐ sing pl ְל םיִכָלְ מ לֵאmְ שׂ^ י . .
(ד ⇐ sing dual ֫ ם^י$ נְ זָ א הָסוּסְ ל . .
(ה ⇐ pl sing שׁאp . .הָמֵהְ בַּל
םֵגLMתְ תּ .ב
Translate these simple sentences.
ְל םי^נָ בּ (א ב6ֲ ע$ י . .
(ב ֫ שָׁח]נְל א? ם^יַ לְגf . .
(ג ֫ ם^י$ניֵ ע םיִ שָׁ נַּ ל . .
(ד םיִ שׁ]נֲאָ ה םיִ חַ א . .
ְל תוֹמzֲ א (ה הֹע<ַ פ . .
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with plural nouns using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 33
.
.
.
.
11. Subject Pronouns – Plural
Below is the full set of independent personal pronouns, including the singular
pronouns, which you already learned in §6.
‘they’ םֵ ה 3MP ‘he’ אוּה 3MS
‘they’ ןֵ ה 3FP ‘she’ איִ ה 3FS
‘you’ םֶ תַּ א 2MP ‘you’ הָ תַּ א 2MS
‘you’ ןֶ תַּ א 2FP ‘you’ ְתַּ א 2FS
‘we’ ֫ וּנְח$ נֲ א 1P ‘I’ י^נֲא 1S
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
are/were (3M/FP)
servant(s) M
וּיָ ה
֫ (םי,ָבֲע) דֶבֶ ע
city/cities F
all, every
(םי0ָע) ריִ ע
־ לֹ כּ/לָכּ
Appendix
B.3
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 34
־ וּ םוֹקָמַּה תֶא אֵלַּמְ תּ .א םֵ גLMת7 ת (‘Fill in the Blank and translate’)
Choose the correct gender and number third-person pronominal copula to fill in the blank
and translate.
(א םיִ שׁ]נֲאָה לֹכּ . .תוֹבָא
תוֹמzֲ אָ ה א?ֲה (ב Iְל . ?
(ג ה]והיַ ל ֫ ץcָ אָ ה . .
(ד תַ בַּה . .יִ ל
םֵ גLMתְ תּ .א
Translate these sentences.
֫ . .Xֶלֶ מַּל םי0ָ עֶ ה לֹכּ (א
. .וּנְח]נֲא םיִחַא (ב
ןֵה/םֵה/איִה/אוּה
ןֵה/םֵה/איִה/אוּה
ןֵה/םֵה/איִה/אוּה
ןֵה/םֵה/איִה/אוּה
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 35
. .םי,ָבְע םֶתַּא (ג
. .תוֹנָבּ וּיָה םיִשָׁנַּ ה (ד
. .תוֹרָע/נ ןֶתַּא (ה
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with plural nouns using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
12. שׁV י and ןיֵ א
Two grammatical words, שׁ~ י and ןיֵא, indicate existence and non-existence, re-
spectively. They are used as ‘dummy’ subjects in existential null-copula clauses.
־ בm יִל שׁLי ‘there is much to me’ (= ‘I have much’) (Gen 33:9)
ם^יָמ וֹבּ ןיֵא ‘there was no water in it’ (Gen 37:24)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 36
Both function words are also used as copulas, linking a subject and a predicate
in a copular clause.
הֶ זַּה םוֹקָ מַּבּ ה]וה/י שׁ~י ןֵכָא ‘surely, YHWH is in this place’ (Gen 28:16)
־ רוֹבַּבּ ףֵסוֹי ןיֵא הֵנִּה/ו ‘and look – Joseph was not in the pit’ (Gen 37:29)
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
there ADV םָ שׁ place M (תוֹמוֹקְמ) םוֹקָ מ
םֵ גLMתְ תּ .א
Translate these sentences.
ְל ןיֵא (א הmָ שׂ . .ןֵ בּ
. .יִ ל םוֹקָמ שׁ~יֲה (ב
־ ־ . .לֹכ יִ ל שׁL י (ג
. .םָ שׁ שׁיִא ןיֵא (ד
־ . .בָא Iְל שׁ~יֲה (ה
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with a שׁ~ י or ןיֵ א copula using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 37
.
.
.
.
13. Conjunction P ו and Prepositions ְבּ, ͏ְ כּ, ְ ל, and ןִמ
Conjunctions are grammatical words that serve to connect words, phrases,
clauses, and sentences to each other syntactically, e.g., and, or, but. (Cf. lexical
words, discussed in §7.)
The basic Hebrew conjunction (and the most frequent word in the Hebrew
Bible) is the proclitic conjunction: –/ ו or –וּ. “Clitics” are phrase-level morph-
emes or words that are phonologically attached to the preceding (“proclitics”)
or following (“enclitics”) word.
םי^נָשׁ/ו םיִמ]י ‘days and years’ (Gen 1:14)
The ו conjunction has two functions:
1) It connects words and phrases together , signaling a coordinating relation-
ship (it may be translated with ‘and’, ‘or’, or ‘but’).
֫ Xֶלֶ מַּ ה/ ו םָ עָ ה ‘the people and the king’
2) It marks the beginning of a new clause and is untranslatable (the type of
clause and the context determine the type of connection required for Eng-
lish translation).
֫ רוֹא יִה/י םיִה?ֱא רֶמאֹיּ$ ו ‘(and) God said, “Let there be light!” (Gen 1:3)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 38
Prepositions are another type of grammatical word; they relate a noun, noun
phrase, or clause syntactically to other words in the sentence.
For example, the English preposition into in the following clause relates the
noun phrase the store to the verb phrase they ran:
They ran into the store.
Thus, prepositional phrases serve to specify the location, direction, manner,
means, time, possession, etc., for other constituents such as verb phrases, noun
phrases, and clauses.
The most common prepositions in Hebrew are the four proclitic prepositions:
–͏ְבּ ‘in, at’
–͏ְכּ ‘like, as’
–͏ְ ל ‘to, for’
ןִ מ ‘from, out of, more than’ (in comparisons)
These proclitic prepositions attach to the following word, or they may have
pronouns attached, just as you have already seen with ְל (see §9). However, ןִ מ
differs from the other three proclitic prepositions in that it is usually written
as a separate word; in such cases it is connected to the noun with a ףֵ קַּ מ
(maqqef), a graphic sign ( ־ ) which indicates that the two words are stressed as
a single unit. This is its usual form before a noun with the article.
֫ ־ Xֶלֶ מַּה ןִ מ ‘from the king’
Attached to the following word, ןִ מ takes the form •͏ִ מ or ͏ֵ מ (before gutturals)
םָשׁ + ןִ מ ← םָּשִׁמ ‘from there’
שׁיִא + ןִ מ ← שׁיִאֵמ ‘from a man’
Appendix
A.6
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 39
Other prepositions are not directly attached to the following word, but may be
cliticized with ףֵ קַּ מ. The diagram below illustrates how the most common pre-
positions work to relate nouns temporally or spatially.
The circle represents an activity. Those prepositions to the left of the circle re-
late nouns ‘before’ temporally or ‘behind’ spatially. Those to the right relate
‘after’ temporally or ‘in front of’ spatially. Prepositions indicating ‘above’ and
‘below’ as well as ‘within’ are also clearly situated.
The vertical line to the right represents a static entity, such as a person or
house. The prepositions relating to ‘towards,’ ‘with,’ or ‘alongside’ are thus
situated appropriately to the line.
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְדּ ’) New Words (‘
heavens M (ONLY PL)
upon, over PREP
before PREP
֫ ם^יַ מָשׁ
לַ ע
י~נְפִ ל
waters M (ONLY PL)
sea M
with PREP
֫ ם^יָ מ
(םיִ מּ$ י) ם] י
םִ ע
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 40
.א ־ וּ םוֹקָ מַּה תֶא אֵלַּ מְתּ םֵ גLMת7 ת
Choose the most appropriate preposition to fill in the blank and translate (if more than one
makes sense, translate both).
ןיֵ א (א ֫ . .ם^יָ מ וֹ
וּיָה/ו (ב םיִ ה?ֱא . .
(ג ןֵבְ כּ בָא . .
(ד םיִ ה?ֱא ה] יָ ה ב6ֲ ע$ י . .
(ה / ו םָ הmְבַא ה] וה/ י . .
ְבּ/ְ כּ/ְ ל
ןִמ/ְל/םִ ע
ְכּ/י~נְפִל/ןִ מ
ְכּ/ְ בּ/י~ נְ פִ ל
ְבּ/ְ כּ/ְ ל
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 41
םֵגLMתְ תּ .ב
Translate these sentences.
שׁ~י (א ה] וה/ י . .םוֹקָמַּ בּ
(ב ףֵסוֹי י~ נְ פִ ל הֹע<ַ פ . .
־ ֫ . .רוֹבּ ןִמ ם^יַמַּה (ג
֫ . .םיִ מַּיַּ בּ ם^ יַמ שׁ~י (ד
֫ ־ . .ץcָאָה לַ ע ה] יָ ה שָׁחָנַּ ה (ה
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with a proclitic preposition and/or ו conjunction using your vocabulary
or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 42
14. תוֹלֵ אְ שׁ (‘Questions’)
While a “yes-no” question in Hebrew is indicated by the proclitic ֲ ה at the be-
ginning of the clause, questions that expect an answer relating to circum-
stances (e.g., who? what? why?) are introduced by a small set of grammatical
words.
(‘Question Words’) הָ לֵ אְ שׁ יKְבּ ,
Who? (see §8)
What? (see §8)
Why?
How?
How much, how many?
When?
Where?
From where?
To where?
יִ מ
הָ מ
ַעוּדַּמ ,הָמָ ל
Xיֵא ,הָמַּ בּ/הֶמַּ בּ
הָּמַ כּ/הֶ מַּ כּ
יF תָ מ
הֹפיֵא ,הֵ יַּ א ,יֵ א
֫ ן^ יַ אֵ מ
֫ ה]נָ א ,ןָא
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
sacrifice that is wholly burnt F (תוֹלוֹע) הָלוֹע
םֵ גLMתְ תּ .א
Translate these sentences.
? ?הָ תַּ א יִ מ (א
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 43
? ?םֵה הֹפיֵא (ב
? ?תוֹמֵהְבַּה יִמְל (ג
? ?םי^ נָבּ יִל ןיֵא הָמָל (ד
? ?הָלֹעְל הֶ שַּׂ ה הֵ יַּ א/ ו (ה
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five interrogative sentences using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
GO TO READING #2
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 44
15. Verbs – A Preview
Like most lexical words in Hebrew, verbs can be derived from a triconsonantal
֫ שׁcֹ שׁ (see §7). Vowel patterns and affixes (e.g., prefixes, suffixes, or infixes) are
applied to a ֫ שׁcֹ שׁ to derive a verb in a certain ן? יP נִ בּ (binyan) and to indicate the
verb’s conjugation and person, gender, and number. This information is
called a verb’s “parsing.”
● םי[נ?יPנִ בּ (‘constructions’) are the patterns by which verbs are formed. The
םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ indicate a verb’s voice—whether active, passive, reflexive, or caus-
ative. Each ן]י/נִ בּ has a distinctive pattern of vowels and affixes. There are
seven primary םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ, whose traditional names derive from the 3MS Per-
fect form of the root ל–ע–פ ‘to do’.
Note: The form by which Hebrew verbs are listed in a lexicon or dictionary is the 3MS
ל[ of the Perfect conjugation, e.g., רַ מָ שׁ ‘he guarded’.
Name Example Meaning
ל[ or לַעָ פּ
רַ מָ שׁ
‘he guarded’
– basic active conjugation ( ל[ means ‘light,
easy’)
לַעְ פ^ נ
רַמְשׁ^ נ
‘he was guarded’
– originally reflexive, often passive in meaning
לֵעִ פּ
ץֵ בּd
‘he gathered
(someone/thing)’
– active conjugation with lengthened middle
consonant
לַעֻ פּ
ץַ בּ€
‘he/it was gathered’
– passive conjugation associated with לֵעִ פּ
לֵעַפּ•תִ ה
ץֵ בּ[•תִ ה
‘he/it gathered together’
– reflexive conjugation associated with לֵעִ פּ
ליִעְפִ ה
Xיִלְ שִׁ ה
‘he/it threw (something)’
– causative, active conjugation
לַעְ פָ ה
Xַלְ שָׁ ה
‘he/it was thrown’
– causative, passive conjugation, associated
with ליִעְפִ ה
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 45
The meanings supplied above are a guide for each ן]י/נִ בּ but are not accurate for
every ֫ שׁcֹ שׁ, because the םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ inconsistently derive verbs from other verbs or
from םיִשׁmָ שׁ. The limits of their consistency is outlined in the following
guidelines, which are helpful to understanding the syntax of verbal sentences:
● לַעֻ פּ and לַעְפָ ה derive passive verbs from לֵעִ פּ and ליִעְפִ ה, respectively.
● לַעְפ^ נ and לֵעַ פּ• תִ ה derive intransitive verbs, and sometimes derive pass-
ive verbs from ל[ and לֵעִ פּ, respectively.
● ל[ ,לֵעִפּ, and ליִעְפִ ה derive verbs from םיִשׁEָ שׁ.
Because this inconsistency of verb derivation, the meaning of a verb is not pre-
dictable from the meaning of its ֫ שׁcֹ שׁ. The meaning of each verb (consisting
of a ֫ שׁNֹ שׁ in a ן? יP נִ בּ) must be memorized individually.
● Conjugation in ancient Hebrew denotes the aspect, or view of a verb’s
event: the לַטb/Perfect conjugation views an event as a whole
(perfective); the לֹט‚^ י /Imperfect conjugation views only part of an event
or an event in progress (imperfective).
The conjugations do not signify tense, like English conjugations do (e.g., Simple
Past). However, the perfective and imperfective aspects constrain the tempor-
al interpretation of events so that לַט]/Perfect is predominantly used to de-
scribe past time events, whereas the לֹטF[ י/Imperfect is predominantly used to
describe non-past time events (i.e., present or future).
לַטb/Perfect
Conjugation
‘whole’ view aspect
(perfective)
usually past time
reference
לֹט‚^ י/Imperfect
Conjugation
‘partial/in progress’ view
aspect (imperfective)
usually non-past
time reference
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 46
● Inflectional affixes mark the agreement features of a verb:
person (1, 2, or 3)
gender (M or F; no distinction made in 1st person forms)
number (S or P)
All of the inflected verb conjugations are based on two morphological pat-
terns:
The Suffix Pattern, which uses inflectional suffixes:
֫ –<ַ מָ שׁ ָתּ second person, masculine, singular (2MS)
םֶ תּ–<ַ מְ שׁ second person, masculine, plural (2MP)
The Prefix Pattern, which uses primarily prefixes, sometimes along
with suffixes:
^ י – רֹ מְ שׁ third person, masculine, singular (3MS)
^ י – –רְמְ שׁ וּ third person, masculine, plural (3MP)
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
throw HI (HO)
do/make (something) Q (NI)
guard Q (NI)
direct object marker
voice, sound M
(Xַלְ שָׁ ה) Xיִלְ שִׁ ה
(הָ שֱׂעLנ) הָ שָׂ ע
(רַמְ שׁ^ נ) רַ מָשׁ
־ תֵא, תֶא
(תוֹלוֹק) לוֹק
speak PI
gather PI (PU)
send Q (NI)
people M
רֵבִּ דּ
(ץַבּ€) ץֵבּd
(חַלְ שׁ^ נ) חַ לָשׁ
(םיִ מַּע) םַ ע
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 47
–ל ףיִלֲחַ תּ .א . . . ’) (‘Change to
Change the following verbs from passive to active or active to passive as indicated by the
⇐ arrow ( ) and translate (all the verbs are 3MS).
(א pass ⇐ act .רַ מָ שׁ .
(ב act ⇐ pass Xָלְ שֻׁ ה . .
(ג pass ⇐ act ץֵ בּd . .
(ד ⇐ act pass רַ מְ שׁ^ נ . .
(ה pass ⇐ act חַלָ שׁ . .
םֵגLMתְ תּ .ב
Translate these sentences.
(א ה] וה/ י ־לֶא רֵבִּ דּ םָ הmְבַא . .
(ב לֵאmְ שׂ^ י ־ . .םיִ מַּ עָ ה לָכִּמ ץַבּ€
(ג םיִ ה?ֱא ה]וה/ י ־ . .םzָאָה תֶא הָ שָׂ ע
(ד םיִ ה?ֱא ־לֶא עַמָ שׁ הmָ שׂ . .
֫ . .ת^יַבַּבּ עַמְ שׁ^נ לוֹקַּ ה/ ו (ה
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 48
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five verbal (3MS) sentences using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
16. לH Perfect Conjugation – Singular
The Perfect is the only conjugation built on the Suffix Pattern. (Conjugations
built on the Prefix Pattern are introduced in §23.) The Perfect does not signify
tense (i.e., past, present, or future), but perfective aspect: it views an action or
event as a whole, whether that event is set in the past, present, or future.
Note: The nature of the “whole view” of the perfective aspect means that it is most
often used with past temporal reference, which is why we use the English Simple Past
or variety of Perfect (has/have/had) in the illustrations.
The chart on the next page presents the singular inflection of the ל[ Perfect
conjugation. The suffixes attached to the verb are also listed separately.
Appendix
C.1a
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 49
Plural
§19
‘he guarded’ — רַ מָ שׁ 3MS
‘she guarded’ הָ— הmְ מָ שׁ 3FS
‘you guarded’ ָתּ— ֫ ָתּ<ַ מָ שׁ 2MS
‘you guarded’ ְתּ— ְתּ<ַ מָ שׁ 2FS
‘I guarded’ יִ תּ— ֫ יִ תּ<ַ מָ שׁ 1S
The verb ה]יָ ה (‘be’) is both frequent and irregular. Here is the singular inflec-
tion of the ל[ Perfect conjugation.
Plural
§19
‘he was’ ה]יָ ה 3MS
‘she was’ הoת/יָ ה 3FS
‘you were’ ֫ o תי^יָ ה 2MS
‘you were’ תי^יָ ה 2FS
‘I was’ ֫ י| תי^יָ ה 1S
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
hear, listen Q
take, receive Q
עַמָ שׁ
ח[ָ ל
sit, inhabit Q
way, road M/F
בַ שׁ] י
֫ Xcֶ דּ
call Q
walk, go Q
אmb
Xַלָ ה
.א ־ וּ םוֹקָ מַּה תֶא אֵלַּ מְתּ םֵ גLMת7 ת
Choose the correct verb form to fill in the blank and translate.
ְ תַּ א (א ־ רָבָ דַּ ה תֶ א . .
רמשׁ
Appendix
C.4e
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 50
(ב / ו הbְב0 .קָחְצ^ י .
(ג ה] וה/ י ־לֶא רַמָא םָ הmְבַא " ֵ ל Iְל םיִ ה?א ".
.
(ד הָ תַּ א ־ ֫ לֶא Xcֶדַּ בּ ֫ ןַ ע$נְ כּ . .
(ה / ו הbְב0 " ֵ מ ןmָ ח . ".
םֵגLMתְ תּ .ב
Translate these sentences.
(א םיִה?ֱא ה]וה/י ־ .הָשִּׁאְל םzָאָה ןִמ *עָלֵצ ח[ָ ל
.
. .םיִ מּ$ י אmb אוּה ם^יַ מַּה (ב
היה
היה רמא
Xלה
עמשׁ
*‘rib’
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 51
֫ ־ ֫ . .Xcֶ דַּה תֶא ָתּ<ַ מָשׁ (ג
$ ו (ד ֫ Xֶלֶמיִבֲא לֶא Xַ לָ ה קָחְצ^ י . .
֫ ְבּ ָתְּבַ שׁ] י (ה ֫ ןֶ שֹׁ ג . .
֫ ־ . .ןָגַּ בּ יִ תְּ עַמָ שׁ לוֹקּה תֶ א (ו
(ז הbְב0 ְל הָא<b/ ו הָ חְ לָ שׁ .ב6ֲ ע$ י .
֫ ְל הoת/יָה ץcָאָה/ו (ח .לֵאmְ שׂ^ י .
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five verbal sentences using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 52
17. ל of Possession – Plural
Singular pronominal possession (‘I have’, ‘You have’, ‘He has’, ‘She has’) was in-
troduced in §9 above as a copular expression that uses the enclitic pronouns
with the proclitic preposition ל ‘to, for’. Below both the plural and singular
forms are given.
‘they have’/‘theirs’ םֶהָ ל 3MP ‘he has’/‘his’ וֹל 3MS
‘they have’/‘theirs’ ןֶ הָ ל 3FP ‘she has’/‘hers’ הָּ ל 3FS
‘you have’/‘yours’ םֶכָ ל 2MP ‘you have’/‘yours’ Iְ ל 2MS
‘you have’/‘yours’ ןֶ כָ ל 2FP ‘you have’/‘yours’ Xָ ל 2FS
‘we have’/‘ours’ וּנָ ל 1P ‘I have’/‘mine’ יִ ל 1S
The combination of enclitic pronouns with the other proclitic prepositions, ,ב
כ, and ןִ מ (see §13) is similar to their combination with proclitic ל.
־ וֹתְּכאַלְמ לָכִּמ תַבָשׁ וֹב יִ כּ
‘Because in it he rested from all his work.’ (Gen 2:3)
־ Iוֹמָכּ םָכָח/ו ןוֹב]נ ןיֵא
‘No one is discerning and wise like you.’ (Gen 41:39)
דָחֶא םֶ כִּמ וּחְלִ שׁ
‘Send one from you (P).’ (Gen 35:11)
Note: The proclitics כ and ןִ מ use different forms with some enclitic pronouns: כ
uses -וֹמכּ and ןִ מ uses a reduplicative form (i.e., ןִמ + ןִ מ) with some pronouns.
In addition to the possessive copular use of the proclitic ל with enclitic
pronouns, in non-copular clauses the construction is a prepositional phrase.
֫ ־ םֶחֶל יִל ןFת]נ
‘He gave (to) me bread.’ (Gen 28:20)
֫ ־ אוִה י|תֹחֲא יִל רַמָא אוּה א?ֲה
‘Did he not said to me, “She is my sister.”’ (Gen 20:5)
Appendix
B.5
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 53
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
give, place, set Q ןFת] נ bread M ֫ םֶחֶ ל
םֵ גLMתְ תּ .א
Translate these sentences.
(א ?םֵה וּנָל אוֹלֲה ?
? ?חָא םֶכָל שׁ~יֲה (ב
. .ןֶהְל םי^נָבּ (ג
֫ ־ . .םֶהָל ץcֶ א לָ כּ (ד
־ . .בָא וּנָ ל שׁLי (ה
(ו ףֵסוֹי ֫ . .םֶחֶל םֶהָל ןFת]נ
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five verbal (3MS) sentences using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 54
.
.
.
18. Introduction to Syntax and Word Order
Syntax is the system of relationships among constituents.
Constituent is the label used for the individual words or phrases (e.g., nouns/
noun phrases, verbs/ verb phrases, prepositions/ prepositional phrases) that
relate to each other to form a larger, more complex unit called a clause.
A basic definition of a clause is that it is the combination of at least two con-
stituents: a subject and a predicate.
ףַ צb הֹע<ַ פּ
was angry Pharaoh (Gen 41:10)
predicate subject
Subjects are usually nouns, noun phrases, or some other nominal constituent
(such as a substantive adjective).
Note, however, that an overt subject—one you can actually “see”—is often not
present, because Hebrew allows the subject to be “null.” In the same way that a
“null copula” (see §6) is not explicitly there, and we must assume some form of
“be” for the clause to make sense, so too a subject may not be explicit but we
have to assume it is there since a clause without a subject makes no sense.
֫ ֫ הָל/יָל אmb Xֶשֹׁחַל/ו
‘and the darkness (he) called “night”’ (Gen 1:5)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 55
In Gen 1:5 there is no overt subject. The “he” is assumed (both because it makes
sense in the context and it is suggested by the 3ms verb אmb). So, be on the
lookout for null subjects -- you will find many!
Predicates may be verbal (e.g., a Perfect, Imperfect, or Past Narrative conjuga-
tion) or nominal (e.g., an adjective, Participle, or a prepositional phrase).
Verbal Predicate:
־ םzָאָה לֶא םיִה?ֱא ה]וה/י אm‚ִ יּ$ו
‘and YHWH God called to the man’ (Gen 3:9)
Nominal Predicate (in a Null Copula Clause):
־ ֫ םוֹה•ת י~נְפּ לַע Xֶשֹׁח
‘darkness (was) upon the surface of the deep’ (Gen 1:2)
Like English, Hebrew is primarily a Subject-Predicate word order language.
This means that in normal (“without emphasis”) indicative clauses, the subject
precedes the predicate (regardless of whether the predicate is a verb, adjective,
etc.). For instance:
םיִה?ֱא ה]וה/י הָשָׂע רֶשֲׁא ה4ָשַּׂה תַיַּח לֹכִּמ םוּרָע ה]יָה שָׁחָנַּה/ו
‘Now the serpent was craftier than any wild animal that YHWH God had
created’ (Gen 3:1)
However, you will have noticed by now that many clauses in ancient Hebrew
are not Subject-Predicate in order.
־ ־ ויָחֶא לֶא ףֵסוֹי אָ בּ רֶשֲׁאַכּ יִה/י$ו
‘So when Joseph came to his brothers’ (Gen 37:23)
As illustrated in Gen. 37:23, whenever a grammatical word or phrase, like
ַכּ רֶ שֲׁ א ‘when’, stands at the front of the clause, the word order of the remain-
ing clause is inverted, i.e., it becomes verb-subject. (Note that this inversion
does not happen with participial or null copula clauses.)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 56
The words, like יִ כּ, that trigger this inversion include the relatives רֶ שֲׁ א and ֶ שׁ,
the interrogatives ֲ ה ֫ הָמ, הָמָּל, , etc., negatives א?, לַ א, and most other gram-
matical words, e.g., ֫ םִא ,זָא ,ןַעַ מְ ל, and ןֶ פּ.
There are only a few grammatical words that do not generally trigger Predic-
ate-Subject word order—notably the ְו conjunction, הֵ נִּ ה, and הָ תַּ ע.
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
eat Q לַ כָא
אָצְמִ תּ .א ’) (‘Find
Find and circle the subject noun and predicate verb in each example (if the subject is null,
then insert a Ø where you think it ought to be) and translate.
(א . .ןָ גַּבּ הָ יַּח ה]יָה שָׁחָ נַּ ה/ ו
(ב רַמָא םzָאְלוּ . . . .
(ג ףֵסוֹי ֫ רַע$נ ה]יָה . .
(ד / ו לֵ חm ־ .רָבָ דַּה תָא הmְ מָ שׁ .
(ה / ו ב6ֲ ע$ י ֫ Xcֶדַּבּ Xַ לָ ה . .
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 57
.ב ףיִלֲחMתPו ףיִ סוֹתּ ’) (‘Add and change
Add the given words to the front of each “normal” subject-verb example and then change
the word order accordingly; then translate.
(א י0ְפַּה הָלְכָא הָ שִּׁאָה + יִכּ .
(ב + רֶשֲׁא (םוֹקָמַּה) םיִה?ֱ אָ ה ־ . וֹל רַ מָ א
(ג ֫ ֫ ְל תLנֹ תֻּכּ הָשָׂע ב6ֲע$י + הָ מָּ ל . ףֵסוֹי
(ד + א? לֵ חm רָבָדַּה הmְ מָ שׁ .
(ה + זָא ב6ֲ ע$ י ֫ . Xcֶדַּבּ Xַ לָ ה
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write two Subject-Verb sentences and two Verb-Subject sentences using your vocabulary or
glossary.
.
.
.
.
GO TO READING #3
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 58
19. לH Perfect Conjugation - Plural
In §16 the singular inflectional suffixes of the ל[ Perfect were introduced. Here
the plural inflectional suffixes are added.
‘they guarded’ וּ— וּרְמָ שׁ 3P
‘he guarded’ — רַ מָ שׁ 3MS
‘she guarded’ הָ— הmְ מָ שׁ 3FS
‘you guarded’ םֶ תּ— םֶ תּ<ַ מְ שׁ 2MP ‘you guarded’ ָתּ— ֫ ָתּ<ַ מָ שׁ 2MS
‘you guarded’ ןֶ תּ— ןֶ תּ<ַ מְ שׁ 2FP ‘you guarded’ ְתּ— ְתּ<ַ מָ שׁ 2FS
‘we guarded’ וּנ— ֫ וּנ<ַ מָ שׁ 1P ‘I guarded’ יִ תּ— ֫ יִ תּ<ַ מָ שׁ 1S
For comparison, here is the ל[ Perfect paradigm (singular and plural) of ה]יָ ה.
‘they were’ וּיָ ה 3P
‘he was’ ה]יָ ה 3MS
‘she was’ הoת/יָ ה 3FS
‘you were’ םƒתי^יֲ ה 2MP ‘you were’ ֫ o תי^יָ ה 2MS
‘you were’ ןƒתי^יֲ ה 2FP ‘you were’ תי^יָ ה 2FS
‘we were’ ֫ וּני^יָ ה 1P ‘I was’ ֫ י| תי^יָ ה 1S
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
stand Q דַ מָ ע know Q ע}] י
םי5ָבְ דַּה חַתּ^נְ תּ .א ’) (‘Parse the words
Identify the person, gender, and number of these ל[ Perfect verbs and translate.
חַלָשׁ (ב . ןֶ תּ<ַ מְ שׁ (א .
Appendix
C.4e
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 59
֫ וּני^יָה (ד .
םֶ תְּכַלֲה (ו .
֫ ָ תּgַמָע (ח .
וּעg] י (י .
֫ וּנְלַכָא (ג .
וּרְמָא (ה .
֫ ָ תְּ עַמָשׁ (ז .
הָח‚ָ ל (ט .
.ב ־ וּ םוֹקָ מַּה תֶא אֵלַּ מְתּ םֵ גLMת7 ת
Fill in the blank with the correct form of the provided verb and translate.
ןֶ תַּ א (א ־ .רָבָ דַּ ה תֶ א .
הָ שִּׁ אָ ה/ ו שׁיִאָה (ב ֫ ־ .םֶ חֶ לַּה תֶא .
(ג ֫ וּנְח$ נֲ א ־לֶ א ֫ ןַ ע$נְ כּ רֶ שֲׁ א .םָ שׁ .
(ד י^נֲא ־ ־ לֶא םיִחַאָה תֶא ֫ .ם^יfְצִ מ .
םֶ תַּא (ה ־לֶ א .הֹע<ַ פּ .
רמשׁ
לכא
בשׁי ךלה
חלשׁ
רמא
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 60
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with a ל[ Perfect verb in each using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
20. תוּכיִמְ ס (Bound Nouns)
Hebrew does not have any equivalent to the English preposition ‘of’. Instead,
similar “of-relationships” are expressed by using the “bound-form” of a word.
The relationship between the bound word and the following non-bound form is
called תוּכיִמְ ס: it consists of two elements: the bound word, or Xָמְס^ נ (‘suppor-
ted’), followed by the host, or Xֵ מוֹס (‘supporting’), for the bound word.
֫ ־ Xֶלֶ מַּה רַבְ דּ ‘the word of the king’
the king (the) word of
Xֵמוֹס Xָמְס^ נ
Below is a chart summarizing the noun both in and not in תוּכיִמְ ס form:
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 61
Dual Plural Singular
֫ ם^ יfָבְ דּ םי0ָבְ דּ רָבָ דּ Sֵמוֹס
יKְבִ דּ יKְבִ דּ רַבְ דּ Sָמְס[ נ
Masculine
֫ ם^ יF תָמgַ א תוֹמzֲ א הָמzֲ א Sֵמוֹס
יw תְמgַ א תוֹמgַ א תַמgַ א Sָמְס[ נ
Feminine
Meaning of the תוּכיִמְ ס:
● Two nouns in תוּכיִמְ ס are treated as a compound: the Xָמְס^ נ is “bound” to
the Xֵ מוֹס noun so that the two words are stressed as one. This phenomen-
on is similar to the stress change in English compounds: a whíte hoúse
versus the Whítehouse.
Xֵמוֹס רָבָ דּ ‘word’
Xָמְס^ נ ־ ה]וה/י רַבְ דּ ‘the word of YHWH’ (Ezek 1:3)
Note: Because nouns in תוּכיִמְ ס are treated as a compound they are often attached
with a ףֵ קַּ מ (see §13).
● A Xָמְס^ נ noun cannot have a definite article. However, if the Xֵ מוֹס noun is
definite (e.g., it is a proper noun or has the article), then the Xָמְס^ נ “in-
herits” this definiteness.
־ ה]וה/י יֵאיִב/ נ ‘the prophets of YHWH’ (proper noun) (1 Kgs 18:4)
֫ ־ ץcָאָה בַהְ ז ‘the gold of the land’ (article) (Gen 2:12)
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
tent M ֫ לֶ הֹא
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 62
.א םֵ גLMתְ תּ
Translate the following sentences and תוּכיִמְ ס phrases.
־ .םzָאָה דַיִּמוּ הָיַּח לָכּ דַיִּ מ (א .
(ב תֶ פL י ־יֵלֳהָאְבּ בַ שׁ] י .םֵ שׁ .
(ג םmְבַא םֵ שְׁ בּ אmb ה] וה/ י ־ ֫ ץcֶ אְ בּ ֫ ןַ ע$נְ כּ . .
(ד ֫ ם^ יfְצִ מ ־תֶא וּח‚ָ ל יfָ שׂ תֶ שֵׁ א .םmְבַא .
־ עַמָ שׁ יִ כּ (ה םיִ ה?ֱא ֫ ־ .רַ עַ נַּ ה לוֹק לֶ א .
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five תוּכיִמְ ס phrases using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 63
21. The Irreal Use of the Perfect Conjugation
Biblical Hebrew verbs are associated with two distinct moods: real or
indicative mood verbs are used to make statements; verbs associated with
irreal or non-indicative mood express events that are removed from, but in
some way related to, the “reality” of the speaker’s situation (e.g., a conditional
event, an event as an outcome of another, a commanded event, an instructed
event, etc.).
You studied for Hebrew class. (real)
Study for Hebrew class! (irreal)
If we go to class we will study Hebrew. (irreal)
Several verb conjugations only express one or the other of these moods: the
Past Narrative conjugation (§35) expresses real mood while the Jussive and
Imperative system (§39) express irreal mood. However, the Perfect and
Imperfect (§23) may both express either real or irreal mood.
The real and irreal moods are distinguished throughout the verb conjugations
by word order: clauses with real mood have Subject-Verb word order; irreal
mood clauses have inverted Verb-Subject word order. This word order distinc-
tion is particularly important for distinguishing when the Perfect (or Imper-
fect) expresses real or irreal mood:
־ רָבָדַּה תֶא רַמָשׁ ויִבָא/ ו (subject-verb)
‘(and) his father kept the word’ (Gen 37:11)
־ ֫ תי0ְ בַּה תֶא Iְל Iיֶ ה?ֱא ה]וה/י רַמָשׁ/ ו (verb-subject)
‘(so) YHWH your God shall keep for you the covenant’ (Deut 7:12)
Note: Often the subject in Hebrew is not explicit; in such cases, it is impossible to
identify whether a Perfect expresses real or irreal mood based on the word order.
However, because most Irreal Perfects are prefixed with the ו conjunction (which
serves in this case to mark the beginning of the clause, see §13), the presence of the
conjunction is a good introductory way to distinguish the irreal from the real use of
the verb.
● The most common function of the Irreal Perfect is to mark (semantically)
subordinate clauses. These are equivalent to English clauses beginning
with if/when/so that/in order that/because (i.e., conditional, purpose, result,
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 64
or causal clauses), in which irreal events are related to the reality of the
speaker’s situation.
‘For I have chosen him so that he might command his sons and his
household after him so that they might keep the way of YHWH (וּרְמָשׁ/ ו
֫ ה]וה/י Xcֶ דּ) to practice righteousness and justice so that YHWH might
bring about for Abraham that which he promised.’ (Gen 18:19)
‘If he leaves his father then he shall die.’ ( ־ תֵמ]ו ויִבָא תֶא בַזָע/ ו)
(Gen 44:22)
Note: The Perfect may appear in both the subordinate clause and the governing
clause in constructions like the conditional clause above.
● Another common function of the Irreal Perfect is to mark instructions and
commands (i.e., events imposed on a listener by the speaker).
‘(And) he should stand and say (רַ מָ א/ ו דַ מָ ע/ ו) “I do not wish to marry
her.”’ (Deut 25:8)
־ ֫ ה]וְצִמַּה תֶא ָ תּ<ַ מָ שׁ/ ו ‘(And) you must keep the commandment.’
(Deut 7:11)
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
day M
forget Q
(םיִ מ] י) םוֹי
חַכָ שׁ
rest Q
seventh
תַבָ שׁ
יִעיִבְ שׁ
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 65
.א םֵ גLMתְ תּ
Translate the following sentences.
־ ֫ Xc4 וּרְמָשׁ/ו (א .ה]וה/ י .
(ב ֫ ְל הָ שִּׁא ָתְּח[ָל/ו .קָחְצ^ י .
(ג חַכָ שׁ/ו וָ שֵׂ ע ֫ םָ שִּׁ מ Iְל יִ תְּ חַלָ שׁ/ ו . .
(ד ־ ֫ ֫ ץcֶאְב ָ תְּבַשׁ]י/ו ֫ .ןֶ שֹׁ גּ .
־ ֫ .םי0ָבְ דַּ ה לָ כּ תֵא ָתְּעַמָ שׁ/ ו (ה .
.יִעיִבְשַּׁה םוֹיְבּ וּתְבָשׁ/ו (ו .
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with an Irreal Perfect verb in each using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 66
22. Enclitic Pronouns - Singular
English uses different pronominal forms based on the pronoun’s role in a sen-
tence: e.g., he/she for subject (Nominative case), his/hers for possession (Genit-
ive case), and him/her for object (Accusative case).
In Hebrew only the subject (nominative) pronouns are independent (§§5 and
10). A set of enclitic pronouns fills the roles of possession/genitive and object/
accusative.
● Enclitic pronouns express posse ssion on nouns.
רַבְ דּ + יִ ← י0ָבְ דּ ‘my word’
← ‘my word’ me + word of
תfוֹתּ + וֹ ← וֹתmוֹתּ ‘his teaching’
← ‘his teaching’ him + teaching of
Note: When enclitic pronouns are added to feminine singular nouns, the Xָמְס^ נ form
(i.e., the form ending with a ת) is used.
● Enclitic pronouns make a noun definite; nouns with enclitic pronouns
cannot also have the article.
Either וֹתmוֹתּ ‘his teaching’ or הmוֹתַּ ה ‘the teaching’, BUT NOT BOTH
Below are the basic forms of singular enclitic pronouns with nouns (see Ap-
pendix B.5 for a full paradigm of examples):
Plural
§31
‘his’ , וֹ- - *ויָ 3MS
‘hers’ -, הּ- *ָ היֶ 3FS
‘your’ I- 2MS
‘your’ X- 2FS
‘mine’ י- 1S
Note: The asterisked forms (*) are used when attached to plural nouns.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 67
First, note how similar these pronouns look—you already know them from the
possessive ל (see §§9, 17)! In fact, just as with ל, these pronouns can be added
also to ב and כ.
בּ + I ← Iְ בּ ‘in/at/against you’ (MS)
← ‘in you’ you + in/at
םִ ע + הָ ← הָ מִּ ע ‘with her’
← ‘with her’ her + with
Second, the forms may be slightly different depending on whether the noun to
which they are added is singular or plural:
רַבְ דּ + וֹ ← וֹרָבְ דּ ‘his word’
← ‘his word’ him + word of
רָבְ דּ + ויָ ← ויmָבְ דּ ‘his words’
← ‘his words’ him + words of
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
deed, work M
behold, see! INTJ
(םיִ שֲׂ עַ מ) הֶשֲׂעַ מ
הֵ נִּ ה
find Q
go forth Q
אָ צָ מ
אָ צ] י
.א םֵ גLMתְ תּ
Translate the following sentences.
(א ֫ ֫ .IיLניֵעְבּ *ןֵח י|תאָצָמ .
(ב קָחְצ^י תֵא ח[ָ ל הbְב0 .וֹתְּ שִׁ אְ ל .
(ג ־ םֶכָל אmb יִכּ הֹע<ַ פּ ֫ ־ Iיֶשֲׂעַמּ הַמ רַמָא/ו . .
*‘favor’
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 68
(ד .ויָחֶא וּאְצ]י הֵנִּה/ו .
(ה םmְבַא ־תֶא ח[ָ ל יfָ שׂ ־תֶא/ו וֹתְּ שִׁ א טוֹל ֫ ־ ־ ץcֶ א לֶא וּכְלָה/ו ויִחָא ןֶ בּ ֫ ןַ ע$נְ כּ .
.
֫ ֫ ֫ ?"איִה י|תֹחֲא" ָ תּ<ַמָא הָ מָּ ל (ו ?
(ז הֹע<ַ פּ ־ ויִבָא לֶא רַמָא " ֫ ־ ?Iיֶשֲׂעַ מּ הַ מ " ?
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with a Perfect or Irreal Perfect verb and an enclitic pronoun in each
using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
GO TO READING #4
Appendix
B.2
Appendix
B.2
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 69
23. לH Imperfect Conjugation – Singular
The Perfect and Imperfect were introduced in §15 as the main conjugations.
The Perfect was described as expressing perfective aspect, and a paradigm was
given in §§16 and 19. The Imperfect Conjugation was described as expressing
imperfective aspect: it has a partial view of an action or event, whether that
event is set in the past, present, or future.
Note: The nature of the “partial view” of the perfective aspect means that it is most
often used in a non-past (present or future) temporal setting, which is why we use
the English Future tense (will do) in our illustrations.
The Imperfect is the main conjugation built on the Prefix Pattern. However,
other conjugations, such the Imperative and the Jussive, are also based on the
Prefix Pattern (see §39). The singular paradigm for the ל[ Imperfect is given
below.
Plural
§27
‘he will guard’ רֹ מְ שׁ^ י 3MS
‘she will guard’ רֹ מְ שִׁ תּ 3FS
‘you will guard’ רֹ מְ שִׁ תּ 2MS
‘you will guard’ י0ְ מְ שִׁ תּ 2FS
‘I will guard’ רֹ מְ שֶׁ א 1S
The Imperfect can express both real and irreal mood like the Perfect conjuga-
tion (§21), and is distinguished from indicative uses of the Imperfect in the
same way—by Verb-Subject word order. The Irreal Imperfect can express the
same range of irreal modality as the Irreal Perfect, though most frequently it
expresses categorical negative prohibitions (with א?).
בֹנְג|ת א? ףָא/נ|ת א? חָ צ<|ת א?
‘Do not kill. Do not commit adultery. Do not steal.’ (Exod 20:13-15)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 70
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
reign, become king Q Xַלָ מ blood M
seek Q
(םיִ מָדּ) םָ דּ
שׁfָ דּ
םי5ָבְ דַּה חַתּ^נְ תּ .א ’) (‘Parse the words
Identify the person, gender, and number of these ל[ Imperfect verbs and translate.
X?ְמ^י (ג
יִעְמְ שִׁתּ (ד
לֹ שְׁמִ תּ (א
חַלְשֶׁא (ב
.ב ְתּ םֵגLM ת
Translate the following sentences.
֫ ־ .םzָאָה דַיִּ מ Iיֶ מְדּ תֶא שׁpgֶא (א .
֫ .םָ שִּׁמ י^נְבִל הָשִּׁא ָ תְּ ח[ָל/ו IיL נָ פְ ל וֹכָאְלַמ חַלְשׁ^י אוּה (ב
.
רַמָא (ג " ־ ריִעָה תֶא רֹ מְ שֶׁא . " .
(ד הmָ שׂ וֹמְ שׁ הָ א<b קָחְצ^ י .יִל *קַחְצ^י עַמָשׁ רֶ שֲׁ א לֹכּ" הmְמָא יִכּ "
.
*‘laugh’
Appendix
C.4e
Appendix
C.3c
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 71
(ה ב6ֲ ע$ י ְ ל רַ מָ א ןָבָ ל ".I/נאֹצ רֹמְ שֶׁ א" .
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with a ל[ Imperfect verb in each using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
24. The Infinitive
Infinitives, in contrast to the finite conjugations (e.g., Perfect and Imperfect),
are not inflected for person, gender, or number. Below is the Infinitive form in
all seven primary םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 72
Example ן? יP נִ בּ
רֹ מְ שׁ ל[
רֵ מָ שִּׁ ה לַעְפ^ נ
ץֵ בּ[ לֵעִ פּ
ץַ בּ€ לַעֻ פּ
ץֵ בּ[•תִ ה לֵעַ פּ• תִ ה
Xיִלְ שַׁ ה ליִעְפִ ה
Xַלְ שָׁ ה לַעְפָ ה
Form: The Infinitive may have enclitic pronouns attached that express the sub-
ject or object of the infinitive.
XKְ מָ א ‘your saying’ (Jer 2:35)
I<ָ מְ שִׁ ל ‘to keep you’ (Ps 91:11)
The Infinitive functions as follows:
● It can serve as the subject of another verb.
־ וֹדַּבְל םzָ אָ ה תוֹיֱה בוֹט א?
‘the man being alone is not good’ (Gen 2:18)
● It can serve as the object of another verb.
֫ ־ רֵ בַּ דּ יִתְּע}]י א? הֵנִּ ה
‘Behold, I do not know (how) to speak’ (Jer 1:6)
● It can express purpose/result, usually with a ל preposition.
־ ־ וֹשְׁפ$נ תֶא שֵׁ קַּ בְ ל לוּאָשׁ אָצ]י יִכּ
‘that Saul had gone out to seek his life’ (1 Sam 23:15)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 73
● It can be explanatory after the main verb (i.e., ‘by -ing’).
־ וֹשְׁ דּ[ְל תָ בַּּשַׁה םוֹי תֶא רוֹמָ שׁ
‘Keep (ADV INF) the sabbath day by sanctifying it’ (Deut 5:12)
● It can express a temporal meaning with the בּ or כּ prepositions.
־ וֹכְ לָ מְ בּ ד^ וָ דּ ה]נָשׁ םיִשׁ?ְ שׁ ןֶבּ
‘David was thirty years old when he became king’ (2 Sam 5:4)
־ ־ םָעְ בm] י תיֵבּ לָכּ תֶ א הָכִּה וֹכְלָמְ כּ
‘When he became king he struck down the whole house of Jeroboam’
(1 Kgs 15:29)
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
create Q אmָ בּ light M
night M
(םי0וֹא) רוֹא
֫ הָ ל/ יַ ל
םי5ָבְ דַּה חַתּ^נְ תּ .א ’) (‘Parse the words
Identify the ן] י/ נִ בּ of these Infinitives.
רֹמְשִׁל (ד .
אKָבִּה (ה .
Xֵלַּה•תִהְל (ו .
לֹ שְׁ מ (א .
Xיִלְמַה (ב .
רֵ בַּדּ (ג .
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 74
.ב ְתּ םֵגLM ת
Translate the following sentences.
(א םיִ ה?ֱא ֫ .הָל/יַ לַּבוּ םוֹיַּ בּ לֹ שְׁמִל םי0וֹאָה אmָ בּ
.
(ב םיִ ה?ֱא ה]וה/ י ־ ־ .הָ מzֲאָה תֶא דֹבֲעַל ן4ֵע ןַ גִּ מ שׁיִאָה חַלָשׁ
.
(ג םיִ ה?ֱא ־לֶא רֵבּ}ְ ל Xַ לָ ה םָ הmְבַא .
.
(ד םָ הmְבַא ־תֶא **לֵמָ גִּ ה םוֹיְ בּ *הֶ תְּשִׁמ הָ שָׂ ע קָחְצ^ י .
.
(ה םָ הmְבַא ־ ־ .וֹנְבּ תֶא טֹחְ שִׁ ל ַחֵבְּזִמ תֶא ה]נָבּ
.
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write three sentences with an Infinitive form in each using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
*‘feast’
**‘be
weaned’ N
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 75
.
.
25. The Adverbial Infinitive
The Adverbial Infinitive is neither a noun nor verb (and perhaps is not really
an infinitive). It has no inflectional affixes and does not specify a time or aspect
of the action or event. The forms for all seven primary םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ are provided in
the chart below.
Example ן? יP נִ בּ
רוֹמָ שׁ ל[
רֹ מָ שִּׁה ,רֹמְשׁ^ נ לַעְפ^ נ
ץֵ בּ[ לֵעִ פּ
ץֹ בּ€ לַעֻ פּ
ץֵ בּ[•תִ ה לֵעַ פּ• תִ ה
Xֵלְ שַׁ ה ליִעְפִ ה
Xֵלְ שָׁ ה לַעְפָ ה
The Adverbial Infinitive functions as follows:
● It is an adverb when it is used with a finite verb of the same root and ן]י/נִ בּ
—it expresses a modal nuance (e.g., doubt, necessity, possibility) as the
context dictates.
־ םֶכיֵ ה?ֱא ה]וה/י תוְֹצִמ תֶא וּרְמְשִׁ תּ רוֹמָ שׁ
‘carefully keep the commandments of YHWH your God’ (Deut 6:17*)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 76
֫ וּניֵ לָ ע X?ְ מִ תּ X?ָמֲ ה ‘will you really reign over us?’ (Gen 37:8)
● It is occasionally used to replace finite verb forms, especially Imperatives.
־ וֹשְׁ דּ[ְל תָ בַּּשַׁה םוֹי תֶא רוֹמָ שׁ
‘keep the sabbath day by sanctifying it’ (Deut 5:12)
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
visit, attend Q ד[ָ פּ
םי5ָבְ דַּה חַתּ^נְ תּ .א ’) (‘Parse the words
Identify the ן] י/ נִ בּ of these Adverbial Infinitives.
רֵ בַּדּ (ג .
X?ָה (ד .
Xֵלְמַה (א .
רֹמְשׁ^נ (ב .
.ב ְתּ םֵגLM ת
Translate the following sentences.
(א םיִ ה?ֱא ־תֶא ד6ְ פ^ י ד6ָ פּ לֵאmְ שׂ^ י . .
־ .לֵכאֹתּ לֹכָא ןָגַּה ץֵ ע לֹכִּמ (ב .
(ג ־ ?יִ בּ לֹשְׁמִתּ לוֹשָׁמ םִא יַלָע X?ְמִתּ X?ָמֲה
.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 77
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write three sentences with an Adverbial Infinitive in each using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
26. Objects
Object is the grammatical function of a noun or pronoun that is the “receiver”
or “goal” of the action of a verb. Syntactically, an object noun phrase functions
as the complement of a transitive verb; the presence of an object is necessary for
a transitive verb to be “completed” (see §29).
For example, in Moses struck the rock, the noun phrase ‘the rock’ is the object in
that it is affected by the action of the verb ‘struck’. The noun phrase ‘the rock’
is also the complement in that without it the clause ‘Moses struck’ would be
ungrammatical (i.e., the transitive verb would not be “completed”).
To understand Hebrew syntax, it is useful to distinguish between two types of
objects: objects that are simply nouns or noun phrases and objects that are pre-
positional phrases. Which of these two types of objects is used is dependent
upon the verb—some verbs select nouns as their objects, while others select a
prepositional phrase. Which preposition is used also depends on the verb being
modified.
Nouns that are the objects of verbs are either preceded by the untranslatable
function word תֵ א or nothing at all. In contrast, prepositional phrases that are
objects are never preceded by תֵ א.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 78
For instance, the verb עגנ, ‘touch’, often takes as its object a בּ prepositional
phrase:
־ וּנֶּ מִּ מ וּלְכאֹת א? םיִה?ֱא רַמָא ןָגַּ ה Xוֹתְ בּ רֶשֲׁא ץֵעָה י0ְפִּ מוּ
א?/ ו ְגּ| ת וֹבּ וּע ־ ןוּתֻמְ תּ ןֶ פּ
‘“and from the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the
garden,” God said, “you shall not eat from it and you shall not
touch it, lest you die.”’ (Gen 3:3)
Object nouns that are preceded by the function word תֵ א are individuated (i.e.,
they are strongly characterized as distinct entities or individuals), which
means that they are also often marked with the article.
ד[ָ פּ תֵ א םָ עָ ה ‘He visited the people’
the people [object he visited
marker]
Object nouns preceded by תֵ א are usually the semantic patients of their verbs,
i.e., they are effected (caused) or affected (changed) by the verbal action.
Note: The object marker תֵ א is sometimes attached to the noun with a ףֵ קַּ מ (see §13
within the discussion of ןִ מ); in this case, the vowel is a לוֹגְ ס.
טַ פָ שׁ ־ לֵאmְ שׂ^ י תֶ א ‘He judged Israel’
Israel [object he judged
marker]
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
between PREP
righteousness F
ןיֵ בּ
הbzְ צ
come, enter Q
judgment, justice; custom M
judge, govern Q
אוֹבּ
טָ פְּ שִׁ מ
טַ פָ שׁ
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 79
.א ְתּ םֵגLM ת
Translate the following sentences.
טֹ פְּשׁ^י (א ה] וה/ י ֫ .IיLניֵבוּ י^ניֵ בּ .
֫ .ם^ יוֹגּ בַאְל oתי^יָה/ו .ב .
־ ֫ ְל ןֵב הֵנִּ ה/ ו Iיֶ לֵ א בוּשָׁא בוֹשׁ (ג הmָ שׂ Iְ תְּ שִׁ א .
.
֫ Xc4 וּרְמָשׁ/ו (ד ה] וה/ י תוֹשֲׂ עַ ל טָ פְּ שִׁמוּ הbzְ צ .
.
אוּהַה םוֹקָ מַּ ל אmb (ה עַבָשׁ רֵאְ בּ . .
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five transitive (with an object) sentences using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
Appendix
C.4f
Appendix
C.4g
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 80
.
.
GO TO READING #5
27. לH Imperfect Conjugation – Plural
In the chart below the plural forms of the ל[ Imperfect Verb are included with
the previously learned singular forms (see §23).
‘they will guard’ וּרְמְ שׁ^ י 3MP ‘he will guard’ רֹ מְ שׁ^ י 3MS
‘they will guard’ ֫ ה]נ<ֹ מְ שִׁ תּ 3FP ‘she will guard’ רֹ מְ שִׁ תּ 3FS
‘you will guard’ וּרְמְ שִׁ תּ 2MP ‘you will guard’ רֹ מְ שִׁ תּ 2MS
‘you will guard’ ֫ ה]נ<ֹ מְ שִׁ תּ 2FP ‘you will guard’ י0ְ מְ שִׁ תּ 2FS
‘we will guard’ רֹ מְ שׁ^ נ 1P ‘I will guard’ רֹ מְ שֶׁ א 1S
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
gather Q ץַבb kill Q
thus, so ADV
גfָ ה
הֹ כּ
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 81
םי5ָבְ דַּה חַתּ^נְ תּ .א ’) (‘Parse the words
Identify the person, gender, and number of these ל[ Imperfect verbs and translate.
חַלְ שׁ^י (ו
אm‚^נ (ז
֫ ה]נgֹמֲעַתּ (ח
יִ שׁ<gִ תּ (ט
וּאְצְמ^י (י
וּרְמְשִׁ תּ (א
X?ְמ^נ (ב
וּעְמְ שׁ^י (ג
ד6ְפִ תּ (ד
לֹ שְׁמ^י (ה
.ב ־ וּ םוֹקָ מַּה תֶא אֵלַּ מְתּ םֵ גLMת7 ת
Fill in the blank with the correct Imperfect form of the provided verb and translate.
םֶ תַּ א (א . .יַ לֵ א
םיִ שׁ]נֲאָה (ב ֫ ־ .םֶ חֶ לַּה לָ כּ .
(ג ֫ וּנְח$ נֲ א ־ .חָ אָ ה תֶ א .
עמשׁ
ץבק
גרה
Appendix
C.3a
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 82
(ד הֹ כּ ְ ל ףֵסוֹי . .
א? םֵה (ה . .
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with a ל[ Imperfect verb in each using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
28. לH Imperfect Conjugation of ה? יָ ה
The verb ה]יָ ה (‘be’) is both frequent and irregular. Here is the paradigm of the
ל[ Imperfect Conjugation of the verb (for the Perfect form, see §§16 and 19).
רמא
2ms
תבשׁ
Appendix
C.4a
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 83
‘they will be’ וּיְה^ י 3MP ‘he will be’ הL יְ ה^ י 3MS
‘they will be’ ֫ ה]ניL יְ הִ תּ 3FP ‘she will be’ הL יְ הִ תּ 3FS
‘you will be’ וּיְהִ תּ 2MP ‘you will be’ הL יְ הִ תּ 2MS
‘you will be’ ֫ ה]ניL יְ הִ תּ 2FP ‘you will be’ י^יְהִ תּ 2FS
‘we will be’ הLיְה^ נ 1P ‘I will be’ הL יְ הֶא 1S
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
also ADV
famine M
םַ גּ
בָעm
year F (םי^נָ שׁ) ה]נָ שׁ
.א ְתּ םֵגLM ת
Translate the following sentences.
(א ֫ ֫ ץcֶאְבּ ה]ניLיְהִתּ בָעmָה י~נְשׁ ֫ ם^ יmְצִ מ . .
־ ֫ .םָעְ לּ הLיְה^י אוּה יִתְּע}]י (ב .
֫ ־ .םי,ָבֲעַל י^נjאַל הLיְה^נ וּנְח$ נֲ א םַ ג/ ו (ג .
־ .ויo תֹמ?ֲח וּיְהִיּ הַ מ הֶ א<^ נ/ ו (ד .
.שׁיִאָה *לֹ מִּ הְ ל י^נוֹמָכ וּיְהִ תּ (ה .
*‘circum-
cise’ Q/N לוּמ
Appendix
C.4e
Appendix
B.5c
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 84
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write three sentences with an Imperfect form of היה in each using your vocabulary or
glossary.
.
.
.
29. ליִעְפִהPו לֵעִפּ :םי[נ?יPנִ בּ
The לֵעִ פּ and ליִעְפִ ה are the other two active םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ (versus passive or reflex-
ive) alongside of ל[, and they are the most frequent of the seven primary
םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ after ל[.
Note: In characterizing the patterns of the םי^ נ] י/ נִ בּ, R indicates a verbal root
consonant, and the subscripts
1 2 3
indicate the position of the consonant within the
triconsonantal ֫ שׁcֹ שׁ.
The לֵעִ פּ ן]י/נִ בּ is characterized by a lengthened R
2
where possible (i.e., gutturals
and ר can’t be lengthened) and by:
● an i- class vowel under R
1
in the Suffix Pattern
ץֵּבd ‘he gathered’
● an a - class vowel under R
1
in the Prefix Pattern
ץֵּב[/ י ‘he will gather’
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 85
The ליִעְפִ ה ן]י/נִ בּ is characterized by a i-class theme vowel (i.e., the vowel
between R
2 and R3) and by:
● an -ִ ה prefix (or ה with an i-class vowel) in the Suffix Pattern
Xיִלְ שִׁ ה ‘he threw X’
● an a - class prefix vowel in the Prefix Pattern
Xיִ לְ שׁ$ י ‘he will throw X’
Xֵלְ שַׁ ה ‘throw X!’ (MS Imperative)
Note: The Imperative has a ה prefix instead of a י, ת, א, or נ.
See Appendix C for a full paradigm of the םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ ליִעְפִה/ו לֵעִפּ.
Some לֵעִ פּ and ליִעְפִ ה verbs display a uniform valency-increasing relationship
(factitive and causative voice, respectively) with the ל[ verb of the same ׁ שׁcֹ שׁ:
Xַלָ מ ‘he was king’
Xיִלְמִ ה ‘he made (someone) king’
דֵבָ כּ ‘he was heavy, honored’
דֵבִּ כּ ‘he considered [someone] honored’
דיִ בְּכִ ה ‘he made [someone] honored, heavy’
However, in many other cases, these םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ derive verbs directly from םיִ שׁmָ שׁ,
and therefore they have no systematic syntactic or semantic relationship with
other םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ; often the ׁ שׁcֹ שׁ does not occur in the other active םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ:
רֵבִּ דּ ‘he spoke’ (not used in ל[)
הָ וִּ צ ‘he commanded’ (not used in ל[)
םיִ כְּשִׁ ה ‘to rose early [in the morning]’ (not used in ל[ or לֵעִ פּ)
Xיִלְשִׁ ה ‘he threw [something] (not used in ל[ or לֵעִ פּ)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 86
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
complete, finish PI
spoil, destroy HI
ten M/F
make heavy, honor PI
הָ לִּ כּ
תיִ חְ שִׁ ה
֫ הmָשֲׂע/רֶ שֶׂ ע
דֵבִּ כּ
bless PI
make successful, show
experience HI
cause to swear an oath HI
make someone king HI
Xfֵבּ/XKֵ בּ
ַחיִלְצִ ה
ַעיִבְּ שִׁ ה
Xיִלְמִ ה
םי5ָבְ דַּה חַתּ^נְ תּ .א ’) (‘Parse the words
Identify conjugation, person, gender, and number of these לֵעִ פּ and ליִעְפִ ה verbs and
translate.
֫ וּכיִלְמִה (ו
הzְבִּ כּ (ז
ה]נְצֵבּ[ְתּ (ח
י0ְבּ}ְ תּ (ט
Xיִ לְשַׁ תּ (י
ץֵ בּ[/ נ (א
֫ ה]נ<ֵבּ}ְתּ (ב
֫ ָ תְּ מַ כְּשִׁה (ג
֫ ָתְּכַלְמִה (ד
דֵ בַּכְתּ (ה
.ב ְתּ םֵגLM ת
Translate the following sentences.
$ו (א ה] והי ־תֶ א Xfֵ בּ םָ הmְבַא לֹ כַּ בּ . .
רֵ בּ}ְל הָלִּ כּ אוּה (ב . .
Appendix
C.3b
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 87
֫ ֫ ֫ י^נְבִל הָ שִּׁא ָתְּח[ָ ל/ ו Iֶ כּ<ַ דּ ַחיִלְצִה/ו (ג . .
(ד ַבּ I•תוֹא ַעיִבְּשַׁא ה] והי יֵ ה?ֱא ם^יַמָ שַּׁ ה . .
־ ־ .הmָ שֲׂ עָ ה םָשׁ אָצְמֶא םִא ריִעָה תֶא תיִחְ שַׁ א א? (ה
.
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with a לֵעִ פּ or ליִעְפִ ה verb in each using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
30. Main and Subordinate Clauses
One way to classify clauses is by how they relate to each other. There are two
basic types: main clauses and subordinate clauses. A main clause is one that
can stand on its own; that is, it is not grammatically controlled by another
Appendix
B.5c
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 88
clause. In contrast, a subordinate clause is one that is grammatical controlled
by another clause.
Related to this classification is the distinction between the two ways that
clauses relate to each other: coordination and subordination.
Coordination is the linking of two or more clauses that are of equal syntactic
status; i.e., there is no syntactic hierarchical relationship between the two or
more clauses.
׃ ־ לַכאֹ יּ$ו הָּ מִּע הָּשׁיִאְל םַגּ ןֵתִּ תּ$ו לַכאֹתּ$ו וֹי<ִפִּמ חַקִּתּ$ו
‘and she took some of its fruit and she ate (it) and she gave (it)
also to her husband beside her and he ate’ (Gen. 3:6)
Coordination is most often marked with coordinating conjunctions: / ו ‘and’, וֹא
‘or’, לָבֲא ‘but’, םָלוּא ‘but’. (See §13 for a discussion of / ו and why it is not al-
ways appropriate to translate it when it links clauses.)
However, it is not uncommon for the coordinating conjunction to be absent,
resulting in asyndesis, or unmarked coordination. Compare these two clauses:
the first (Gen. 37:13) has two verbs that are coordinated by the conjunction ו,
the second has two verbs without explicit coordination.
־ םֶהיֵלֲא Iֲחָלְשֶׁא/ו הָכְל ... ףֵסוֹי לֶא לֵאmְשׂ^י רֶמאֹיּ$ו
‘Israel said to Joseph: ... come and I shall send you to them’
(Gen. 37:13)
־ ־ Iיֶחַא םוֹלְשׁ תֶא הֵא< א]נ Xֶל וֹל רֶמאֹ יּ$ו
‘He said to him: Go, please, see about the welfare of your
brothers’ (Gen. 37:14)
Subordination is the linking of two or more clauses so that they have different
syntactic status, i.e. one clause is syntactically dependent on the other.
םֶכי~ניֵע וּח‚ְפ^נ/ו וּנֶּ מִּמ םֶכְלָכֲא םוֹיְבּ יִכּ םיִה?ֱא ַע_ֹי יִכּ
‘because God knows that on the day you eat from it your eyes
shall be opened’ (Gen. 3:5)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 89
The first יִ כּ in Gen. 3:5 indicates that this clause provides the reason for the
serpent’s previous statement (that the humans would not die from eating the
forbidden fruit). The second יִ כּ indicates that what follows is the complement
of the verb ַ ע_ֹ י.
Traditionally, clauses in coordinate relationship are said to form a compound
sentence, whereas those in subordinate relationship form a complex sentence.
Subordination in English is usually marked with a subordinating conjunction:
when, if, although, since, because, while, after, before, etc. Hebrew also has subor-
dinating conjunctions (besides ו); the most commonly used ones are listed here:
before
because, when, if, that, though
just as, when
if not
while, until
in order to, so that
י~נְפִ ל
יִ כּ
רֶ שֲׁ אַ כּ
יֵלוּל
דַ ע
֫ ןַעַ מְ ל
after
if, though
who/which, that
if
therefore
lest, so that not
יKֲחַא
םִ א
רֶ שֲׁ א
וּל
ןֵ כָ ל
ןֶ פּ
Ancient Hebrew, in contrast to Indo-European languages (such as English), has
very few subordinating conjunctions, and (perhaps relatedly) the coordinating
conjunction / ו came to be employed not just to mark coordination, but to mark
the beginning of any type of clause (see §13). This explains why often times
clauses which are syntactically coordinate in Biblical Hebrew may in fact be se-
mantically subordinate. Consider the following segments from parallel material
in Kings and Chronicles.
I4]יְבּ םיִ תּF ת/ נוּ הֵלֲ ע
‘Go up and (= so that, or because) I will place them in your
hand’ (1 Chr. 14:10)
־ ֶ א ןֵ תֶּא ןֹת]נ יִ כּ הֵלֲ ע ־ I4]יְבּ םיִ תְּ שִׁ לְפַּה ת
‘Go up because I will surely place the Philistines in your hand’
(2 Sam. 5:19)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 90
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
open Q
afraid ADJ
test PI
ח[ָ פּ
אK] י
הָסּ^ נ
now ADV
anything PRON
die Q
הָ תַּ ע
֫ הָמוּאְ מ
תוּמ
םֵ גLMת7 תוּ אָצְמִ תּ .א ’) (‘Find and translate
Find the subordinating conjunction(s) in each of the following examples from Readings 5
and 6 and translate them.
(א הָשָׂע רֶשֲׁא הָ יַּ ח לֹכִּמ םוּרָע ה]יָה שָׁחָנַּ ה ה] וה/ י .
.
.ב ע}]י יִכּ םיִ ה?ֱא תוּמָ תּ תוֹמ לַ כאֹתּ רֶשֲׁא םוֹיְ בּ יִ כּ
.
(ג ח[ָל/ו וֹד]י חַלְשׁ^י ןֶפּ םַ גּ ץֵ עֵ מ םיִ יַּחַ ה .
.
(ד וֹל רַמָא רֶשֲׁא םוֹקָ מַּ ה לֶ א Xַלָ ה םיִה?ֱ אָ ה
.
Appendix
C.4a & 4f
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 91
(ה ֫ ֫ אK/י יִכּ יִ תְּע}] י הָתַּע יִכּ הָמוּאְמ וֹל הֶשֲׂעַתּ א? םיִ ה?ֱא הָ תָּ א .
.
(ב םֵ גLMתְ תּ
Based on the context, provide a translation of the ו between the following clause pairs — a
translation that is not simply “and” but interprets the contextual relationship.
.א ֫ וּנֶּמִּמ לַכאֹ תּ רֶשֲׁא םוֹיְ בּ וּח‚ְ פ^ נ/ ו ֫ .ם^י$ ניֵ ע
.
(ב ֫֫ .יִ תְּלַכָא י^נֲא$ו יִל רַמָא שָׁחָנַּ ה .
(ג םיִה?ֱ אָ ה תֶא הָ סּ^ נ םָ הmְבַא . . . ויָלֵא רַמָא/ו
.
(ד ?הָלֹעְל הֶ שַּׂ ה הֵ יַּא/ו םיִצֵעָה/ו שֵׁאָה הֵנִּ ה
.
(ה ֫ .הָמוּאְמ ו? הֶשֲׂעַ תּ א?/ו רַעַנַּ ה לֶ א Ig] י חַ לְ שִׁתּ א?
.
Appendix
C.4e
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 92
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write two sentences with subordinate clauses using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
GO TO READING #6
31. Enclitic Pronouns
In §22 you learned the singular enclitic pronouns. Here is the full paradigm,
adding the plural forms. (Again see Appendix B.5 for a full set of examples):
‘their’ םֶה-, ם- 3MP ‘his’ , וֹ- - *ויָ 3MS
‘their’ ןֶה-, ן- 3FP ‘hers’ , הּ- *ָ הי-ֶ 3FS
‘your’ םֶכ- 2MP ‘your’ I- 2MS
‘your’ ןֶכ- 2FP ‘your’ X- 2FS
‘our’ וּנ- 1P ‘mine’ י- 1S
Note: The asterisked forms (*) are used when attached to plural nouns.
You also learned that enclitic pronouns can combine with prepositions. This is
true for the direct object marker תא as well:
ל + יִ ← יִ ל ‘to/for me’ or ‘mine’
← ‘to me’ me + to/for
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 93
תֶ א + וֹ וֹתֹ א ‘him’ (as object of a verb)
Note: The object marker takes the form תוֹא/תֹ א with enclitic pronouns, versus
־תֶא/תֵ א without.
לַ ע + וּנ ← וּניֵלָ ע ‘to/for me’ or ‘mine’
← ‘upon us’ us + upon
Note: Some prepositions with enclitic pronouns follow the pattern of singular nouns
(e.g., ב ,ל) while others follow the pattern of plural nouns (e.g., דע ,לא ,לע). Still
other prepositions have different forms with versus without enclitic pronouns (e.g., -
וֹמְ כּ versus כ and -נֶמִּ מ versus ןִ מ; see Appendix B.5c for details).
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
two M (F) ֫ ֫ (ם^ יFתְ שׁ) ם^י$נְשׁ strength, power M
cut Q
ַ חֹ כּ
תfָ כּ
–ל ףִלֲחַ תּ .א . . . ’) (‘Change to
⇐ Change the following enclitic pronouns as indicated by the arrow ( ) and translate.
(א pl ⇐ sg .וֹנְ בּ .
(ב 2nd ⇐ 3rd וֹרָבְ דּ . .
(ג ⇐ pl sg י|תיֵ בּ . .
(ד ⇐ pl sg ויoתוֹמוֹלֲ ח . .
(ה masc ⇐ fem ןֶ הָ ל . .
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 94
םֵגLMתְ תּ .ב
Translate these sentences.
(א םיִ ה?ֱא Xfֵ בּ םoתֹא . .
־ ־ .ןֶכיִבֲא תֶא יִתּgַבָע יִחֹ כּ לָכְ בּ יִכּ ןֶ תְּ ע}/י ןֶתַּא/ו (ב
.
.תי0ְ בּ וּת<ָ כּ םֶהי~נְשׁ (ג .
(ד ֫ םֶכי~נְפִל הLיְהִתּ ץcָאָה/ו . .
֫ ־ ֫ . .וּניִבָא תֶא רַעַנַּ ה הֵ נִּ ה/ ו (ה
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with an enclitic pronoun in each using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
Appendix
C.3b
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 95
32. Adjectives
Adjectives modify nouns by specifying attributes of the noun.
קיִ דַּ צ יוֹגּ ‘a nation (that is) righteous’ (= ‘a righteous nation’ (Isa 26:2)
Biblical Hebrew has relatively few pure adjectives; more frequently the תוּכיִמְ ס
relationship is used to modify nouns.
֫ שׁ46ַה םוֹקְמִ בּ ‘in the place of holiness’
= ‘the holy place’ (תוּכיִמְ ס) (Lev 10:17)
שׁוֹדb םוֹקָמְ בּ ‘in a place (that is) holy’
= ‘in a holy place’ (adjective) (Lev 7:6)
Adjectives have the following characteristics:
● Adjectives are declined with the same endings as nouns, except that they
do not have dual endings and do not have restricted gender (see next
point).
Plural Singular
םיִלוֹדְגּ לוֹדָגּ Sֵמוֹס
יֵלוֹדְגּ לוֹדְגּ Sָמְס[ נ
Masculine
תוֹלוֹדְגּ הָלוֹדְגּ Sֵמוֹס
תוֹלוֹדְגּ תַלוֹדְגּ Sָמְס[ נ
Feminine
● Adjectives must agree with the modified noun in both gender and number
(dual nouns are modified by plural adjectives).
קיִ דַּצ שׁיִא ‘a man (who is) righteous’ (= ‘a righteous man’) (Gen 6:9)
םיִ עָ שׁ< םיִ שׁ] נֲ א ‘men (who are) evil’ (= ‘evil men’) (2 Sam 4:11)
֫ תוֹפm ם^ י}] י ‘hands (that are) weak’ (= ‘weak hands’) (Job 4:3)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 96
Adjectives may be used predicatively, substantivally, and comparatively:
● Predicatively: the Adjective may describe a quality of a noun as part of
the predicate; when it it used this way, the verb ה]יָ ה is often omitted.
(When the verb ה]יָ ה is omitted, the tense of the clause must be determ-
ined by context.)
רָבָ דַּ ה בוֹט ‘the word (is) good’ (Deut 1:14)
֫ ץcָאָה הָבוֹט ‘the land (is) good’ (Deut 1:25)
The verb ה]יָ ה is not always omitted, though.
םוּרָע ה]יָה שָׁחָנַּה ‘the serpent was crafty’ (Gen 3:1)
־ רַאֹ תּ תַפ/י הoת/יָה לֵחm ‘Rachel was beautiful of form’ (Gen 29:17)
● Adjectives that specify attributes of nouns also function predicatively in a
relative clause. Such adjectives are often introduced by the ה relative
marker (morphologically identical with the article ה).
הָ לוֹדְגַּה ריִעָ ה ‘the city that (is) great ’ (Gen 10:12)
The use of the ה to introduce a relative clause is clear in cases where the
noun is not definite but the adjective has the ה.
הmָשׁ/יַה/ו הָבוֹטַּה Xc4
‘a path that (is) good and that (is) right’ (1 Sam 12:23)
As with the more common relative marker, רֶ שֲׁ א, the relative ה is not al-
ways present to introduce the relative (such relatives are called ‘un-
marked’ and are quite common in English, too):
הָ לוֹדְגּ ריִ ע ‘a city (that is) great’ (Josh 10:3)
● Substantivally: Adjectives can serve as nouns within the syntax of clause;
this often occurs with a common noun, such as ‘man’, is simply assumed.
(Note that this does not mean that such adjectives are nouns or have be-
come nouns; they simply stand in place of an assumed noun.)
עָ שׁmָכּ קיִ דַּצַכּ ה]יָה/ו ‘so that the righteous are as the wicked’ (Gen 18:25)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 97
● Comparative and superlative use of adjectives: Hebrew has no comparat-
ive or superlative noun-endings like English -er (e.g., bigger) or -est (e.g.,
biggest). Instead, the simple adjective is often used and the comparative
or superlative meaning must be discerned from the larger context.
ןֹ טָ קַּ ה ויִ חָ א ‘his brother who (was) young er ’ (Gen 48:19)
Note: comparison is often expressed with the preposition ןִ מ.
֫ הָ נֶּ מִּ מ הָבוֹט ‘(she is) better than her’ (Judg 15:2)
הָ לוֹדְגַּה יִ תִּ בּ ‘my daughter who (is) old est ’ (1 Sam 18:17)
Note: superlative is also expressed by a תוּכיִמְ ס phrase in which both Xָמְס^ נ and
Xֵמוֹס use the same noun.
֫ םיִשׁzֳ ק שׁ46 ‘holy of holies’ = ‘most holy’ (Exod 29:37)
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
together, altogether ADV
many, much ADJ
nation M
וָ דְּ ח$ י
(םיִבּf) בm
(ם^יוֹגּ) יוֹגּ
righteous ADJ
lift up, carry Q
great ADJ
small ADJ
קיִ דַּ צ
אָשׂ] נ
לוֹדָגּ
ןֹ טb
.א ְתּ םֵגLM ת
Translate the following sentences.
(א ַחֹנ קיִ דַּצ שׁיִא ה]יָה . .
־ ֫ ־ .בm ם]נאֹצ ה]יָה יִכּ וָ דְּח$י תֶבֶשָׁל ץcָאָה םoתֹא אָ שׂ]נ א?/ו (ב
.
Appendix
C.4d
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 98
(ג םmְבַא ־לֶא רַמַא יfָ שׂ ֫ ־ .X^י] ניֵ עְבּ בוֹטַּה הָּל יִשֲׂעַ תּ
.
/ ו (ד םָ הmְבַא .*םוּצָע/ו לוֹדָגּ יוֹגְל הLיְה^י וֹיָה
.
ְלוּ (ה ןָבָ ל הָ לjְגַּה םֵ שׁ תוֹנָב יֵ תְּ שׁ הָ אֵ ל הָ נַּ טְקַּה םֵ שׁ/ ו לֵ חm
.
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with an adjective in each using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
Appendix
C.4e
Appendix
C.4e
*‘mighty’ ADJ
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 99
33. Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns are deictic (pointing) words (e.g., this, that, those in
English). They are similar to adjectives in that they either modify a noun (pre-
dicatively in a relative clause) or stand in place (substantivally) of a noun. How-
ever, the demonstratives cannot be the Xָמְס^ נ form (whereas adjectives can be
bound)—that is, the substantival use of demonstratives is limited to the subject
or complement positions.
הֶ זַּ ה יוֹגַּ ה ‘this nation’ (noun modifier)
רָבָדַּה הֶ ז ‘this (is) the word’ (noun substitute)
־ הֶ לֵּאָה םי0ָבָדַּ ה לָ כּ ‘all these words’ (Gen 29:13) (noun modifier)
־ תאֹז תֶא וּחְלִ שׁ ‘send this one (F) away ’ (2 Sam 13.17) (noun substitute)
Demonstrative pronouns are classified as “near” or “far” based on their deictic
meaning. The far demonstratives are identical with the third-person personal
pronouns.
Plural Singular
these ֫ הֶ לֵּא this
הֶ ז
Masculine
תאֹ ז
Feminine
Near
those
֫ הָ מֵּ ה
֫ הָ נֵּ ה
that
אוּה
Masculine
איִ ה
Feminine
Far
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
behind, after PREP, ADV, CONJ יKֲחַא ,רַחַא
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 100
.א ְתּ םֵגLM ת
Translate the following sentences.
(א םיִה?ֱא ־לֶא רַמָא ַחֹ נ ־ תי0ְבַּה *תוֹא תאֹז .
.
־ ֫ רַ בg ה]יָה הֶ לֵּאָה םי0ָבְ דַּ ה רַ חַ א (ב ה] וה/ י ־לֶ א םmְבַא .
.
ְל וּא<b (ג הbְב0 ־ ֫ "?הֶ זַּ ה שׁיִאָה םִע יִכְ לwתֲה" ָהיֶ לֵ א וּרְמָא/ו
.
תfָ כּ אוּהַה םוֹיַּבּ (ד ה] וה/ י ־תֶ א םmְבַא .תי0ְ בּ
.
(ה לֵאmְ שׂ^י ֫ .איִהַה ץcָ אָבּ בַ שׁ] י .
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with a demonstrative in each using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
Appendix
C.4d
*‘sign’ F
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 101
.
.
.
34. תֶ לֹ גְ ס Noun Pattern
Nouns that follow the תֶ לֹ גְ ס pattern were originally monosyllabic (i.e., one-syl-
lable) nouns in the masculine singular and exhibit a distinct noun pattern.
● תֶלֹגְ ס nouns originated as single-syllable nouns to which a ְ ס לוֹג ‘ helping
vowel’ was added; the result was the creation of a new, second syllable.
The original vowel in the first syllable is regularly altered.
*ךְ לַ מ ֫ ← Xֶלֶ מ ‘king’
Note: A guttural second or third root consonant can affect the vowels.
*רְ ע$ נ ← ֫ רַע$ נ ( ַ instead of ֶ ) ‘young man’
(gutturals prefer a-class vowels)
● Masculine תֶלֹגְ ס nouns are stressed on the initial syllable (originally the
only syllable) in the singular form.
֫ דֶבֶ ע ‘servant’
● Feminine תֶלֹגְ ס nouns come in two forms: those with feminine gender in-
flection (e.g., הmֲ ע$ נ) and those without (e.g., ֫ שֶׁפL נ). Those with feminine
gender inflection (ה ָ - ) are stressed on the final syllable.
*רְע$ נ + הָ ← הmֲ ע$ נ ‘young woman’; P תוpָ ע/ נ
*שְׁפ$ נ ← ֫ שֶׁפL נ ‘life’; P תוֹ שָׁ פ/ נ
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 102
● תֶלֹגְ ס nouns exhibit their original vowel with some suffixes.
*ץ<ַ א + יִ ← יִ צ<ַ א ‘my land’
● תֶלֹגְ ס nouns use a two-syllable base pattern in the plural.
SINGULAR *Xְלַ מ ← ֫ Xֶלֶ מ
PLURAL *Xָלָ מ ← םיִכָלְ מ (like רָבָ דּ)
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
seed M ֫ (םיִ עmְז) עfֶ ז life, self F ֫ (תוֹשָׁפ/נ) שֶׁפL נ
.א ְתּ םֵגLM ת
Translate the following sentences.
(א אmָ בּ *תיִ שׁאKְ בּ םיִ ה?ֱא ֫ ֫ ץcָאָה תֵא/ו ם^יַמָשַּׁ ה תֵ א .
.
(ב ב6ֲ ע$ י ־ ־ ־ ־ ־ וֹתיֵ בּ תוֹשְׁ פ$ נ לָכּ תֶא/ו ויoתֹנְ בּ תֶ א/ ו וי] נָבּ תֶא/ו ויָ שׁ]נ תֶא ח[ָ ל .
.
/ ו (ג ב6ֲ ע$ י . .וֹכּ<}ְ ל Xַ לָ ה
֫ ֫ ץcֶ אְ בּ וּכְלָמ רֶשֲׁא םיִכָלְמַּה הֶלֵּ א/ ו (ד םוֹדֱא ֫ ־ י~נְבִל Xֶלֶ מ Xָלְמ י~נְפִל לֵאmְ שׂ^ י .
.
*‘in the
beginning’
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 103
־ ־ םֶכיKֲ חַ א םֶ כֲע<ַ ז תֶ א/ ו םֶ כְתִּ א י| תי0ְבּ תֶא תpְכֶא (ה ־ רֶ שֲׁא הָיַּחַה שֶׁפLנ לָכּ תֵא/ו
םֶ כְ תִּ א . .
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with a תֶ לֹ גְ ס noun in each using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
GO TO READING #7
35. Past Narrative Conjugation
Languages typically use a past tense or perfective aspect verb form to narrate
past events (e.g., English Simple Past). Some languages, however, may devote a
particular verb form entirely to literary narrative (e.g., French Passé Simple).
Ancient Hebrew has an archaic past tense verb that is mostly restricted to liter-
ary Past Narrative passages.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 104
֫ ֫ ֫ Xֶלֵ יּ$ ו םbָ יּ$ו ְתְּ שֵׁיּ$ו לַכאֹיּ$ ו
‘He ate, he drank, he rose, he went.’ (Gen 25:34)
The Past Narrative conjugation, like the Imperfect, is built on the Prefix Pat-
tern. In the most cases the only distinguishing feature between these two con-
jugations is that the Past Narrative form is prefixed with a ו conjunction with
the distinct vowel pattern •$ ו.
רֹ מְ שׁ^ י ‘he will guard’ (Imperfect)
רֹ מְ שִׁ יּ$ ו ‘he guarded’ (Past)
Note: The distinct vocalization of the Past Narrative conjunction (•$ ו) is regularly
obscured in the first-person singular form, because the א cannot be lengthened. The
שֵׁגָ דּ is also regularly dropped from the לֵעִ פּ forms with a י inflectional prefix.
רֹ מְ שֶׁ א] ו ‘I guarded’ (Past)
ץֵ בּ[/י$ ו ‘he gathered’ (Past)
Similar to the case of other grammatical words (see §18), the distinct vocaliza-
tion on the Past Narrative triggers Verb-Subject word order, so that this most
common type of clause in the Hebrew Bible is always Verb-Subject. For in-
stance, in Gen. 22:3 the Past Narrative form םֵ כְּ שַׁיּ$ ו precedes the subject
םָ הmְבַא.
֫ רHֹבַּ בּ םָהmְבַא םֵכְּ שַׁיּ$ו
‘Abraham rose early in the morning.’ (Gen 22:3)
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
garment M ֫ (םי,ָגְבּ) דֶגֶ בּ clothe HI
command PI
שׁיִ בְּלִ ה
הָ וִּ צ
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 105
.א ְתּ םֵגLM ת
Translate the following sentences.
(א אm‚ִיּ$ו םיִ ה?ֱא ֫ ֫ הָ ל/ יָל אmb Xֶשֹׁ חַ ל/ ו םוֹי רוֹאָ ל .
.
(ב חַ קִּ יּ$ו םmְבַא ־תֶ א יfָ שׂ ־תֶא/ו וֹתְּ שִׁ א טוֹל ־ ־ ־ *םָ שׁוּכ< לָ כּ תֶא/ו ויִחָא ןֶבּ .
.
֫ רֶמאֹ יּ$ ו (ג ה] וה/ י ־לֶ א םָ הmְבַא ֫ *הbֲ חָ צ הֶ זּ הָמָּ ל" הmָ שׂ ".
.
(ד חַ קִּ תּ$ו הbְב0 ־ י_ְ גִבּ תֶ א וָ שֵׂ ע ־תֶ א שֵׁ בְּלַתּ$ו לjָ גַּ ה הּ]נְ בּ ב6ֲ ע$ י ןָ טָקַּה הּ]נְ בּ .
.
(ה אm‚ִיּ$ו קָחְצ^ י ־לֶ א ב6ֲ ע$ י ־ ֫ הָ שִּׁ א חַקּ|ת א?" וֹל רֶמאֹ יּ$ ו וֹתֹא וַצ/י$ו וֹתֹא Xcָב/י$ו
תוֹנְבִּ מ ֫ ןַ ע]נְ כּ . ".
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write a brief narrative (of 3-5 sentences) using your vocabulary or glossary.

Appendix
C.4c
*‘laugh’
Appendix
C.3b;
4b, c, e
Appendix
C.4b
Appendix
C.4a
*‘their pos-
sessions’
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 106



.
36. יִ הP י^ ו
/ י$ ו יִ ה , the 3MS Past Narrative form of ה]יָ ה, is extremely frequent. There are two
distinct functions of this form in narrative.
Note: The same phonological principle accounts for the lack of the שֵׁגָ דּ in / י$ ו יִ ה as in
the לֵעִ פּ forms with a י inflectional prefix—namely, that certain consonants
(ק ,נ ,מ ,ל ,י ,ו and sibilants: שׁ ,שׂ ,צ ,ס) when vocalized with א]וְ שׁ drop the a
lengthening שֵׁגָ דּ. This principle is sometimes referred to mnemonically as
s’‚/נִמְלי^ ו or י^ וְ למוּניdְ ס.
● Often it functions just like other Past Narrative forms with the meaning of
‘was’, ‘became’, or ‘came’.
־ ַחיִלְצַמ שׁיִא יִה/י$ו ףֵסוֹי תֶא ה]וה/י יִה/י$ ו
‘YHWH was with Joseph and he became a successful man’ (Gen 39:2)
־ ־ לֵאוּמְשׁ לֶא ה]וה/י רַבְדּ יִה/י$ ו
‘The word of YHWH came (lit. was) to Samuel’ (1 Sam 15:10)
● Just as frequently, however, the form introduces a circumstantial clause
in a narrative; often such a clause opens or (less often) closes a narrative
episode.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 107
֫ ֫ ךֶלֶמיִבֲא רֶמאֹ יּ$ו אוִהַה תֵעָבּ יִה/י$ ו
‘and then at about that time (lit. and it was at that time and) Abimelek
said . . .’ (Gen 21:22)
הֶ לֵּאָה םי0ָבְ דַּה רַחַא יִה/י$ו
‘It was after these things . . .’ (Gen. 22:1)
־ וֹנְ בּ קָחְצ^י תֶא םיִה?ֱא Xcָב/י$ו םָהmְבַא תוֹמ יKֲחַא יִה/י$ו
־ יִאp יַחַל רֵאְבּ םִע קָחְצ^י בֶ שֵׁיּ$ ו
‘After the death of Abraham God blessed Isaac his son. Isaac settled
near Beer-lahai-roi.’ (Gen 25:11)
Note: Genesis 25:11 concludes the narrative of Abram’s death and Isaac’s burial of
him before beginning the geneaology of Ishmael (Gen 25:12–18).
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
burn, be kindled Q
nose, face, anger M
run Q
הmָ ח
֫ (ם^ יַ פַּ א) ףָ א
ץוּר
gift, grain offering F
bring, make enter HI
not translated; introduces direct
speech COMP
הָח/נִ מ
איִבֵ ה
רֹמאֵ ל
.א ְתּ םֵגLM ת
Translate the following sentences.
(א ֫ ־ הֶ לֵּאָה םי0ָבְ דַּכּ" רֹמאֵל ויָלֵא הmְבִּדּ רֶשֲׁא וֹתְּ שִׁא יKְבִ דּ תֶא וי]נjֲא ַעֹמְשִׁכ יִה/י$ו
֫ וֹפַּא רַחִיּ$ ו ".Iֶדְּבַע יִל הָשָׂ ע .
.
Appendix
C.4b
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 108
(ב ־ ֫ איִה הֵ נִּה/ו רHֹבַּב יִה/י$ו הָ אֵ ל ־ ֫ לֶא רֶמאֹ יּ$ ו ןָבָ ל ֫ ־ ְב א?ֲה יִלּ oתיִ שָׂע תאֹזּ הַ מ" לֵ חm
֫ "?Xָ מִּ ע יִ תּgַבָ ע
.
(ג אֵבָ יּ$ו םיִמ]י יKֲחַא יִה/י$ו ן^ י[ ַל הָח/נִמ הָמzֲ אָ ה י0ְ פִּ מ ה] והי .
.
ַעֹמְשִׁכ יִה/י$ו (ד ןָבָ ל ֫ ־ *עַמֵ שׁ תֶא ב6ֲ ע$ י ־ .וֹל ץmָ יּ$ ו וֹתֹחֲא ןֶ בּ
.
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write three sentences containing יִ ה/ י$ ו using your vocabulary or glossary.

.

.
.
37. לֵ עַ פּ7תִהPו לַעְפ[נ :םי[נ?יPנִבּ
The לַעְפ^ נ and לֵעַ פּ• תִ ה are the primary passive/reflexive םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ. The לַעְפ^ נ
more frequently derives a passive of a ל[ verb than it derives a reflexive mean-
Appendix
C.4e
Appendix
C.4f
*‘news,
report’
Appendix
C.4f
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 109
ing of a ׁ שׁcֹ שׁ, whereas the לֵעַ פּ• תִ ה derives reflexive verbs from םיִ שׁmָ שׁ. In all
cases, both םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ focus on the recipient of the action.
The לַעְפ^ נ ן]י/נִ בּ is characterized:
● an ^ נ prefix in the Suffix Pattern
רַ מְ שׁ^ נ ‘he/it was guarded’
● a lengthened R
1
with ָ (a-class ץֵ מb), and a i-class prefix vowel in the Pre-
fix Pattern
רֵ מָ שּׁ^ י ‘he/it will be guarded’
רֵ מָ שִּׁ ה ‘be guarded!’ (MS Imperative)
Note: The לַעְפ^ נ Imperative has the expected Prefix Pattern vowels, but has a ה
prefix consonant (cf. the Imperfect י, ת, א, נ inflectional prefixes).
The לֵעַ פּ• תִ ה ן]י/נִ בּ is characterized by a lengthened R
2
and an a -class vowel under
R
1
, as well as by:
● a • תִ ה prefix in the Suffix Pattern
ץֵּ ב[•תִ ה ‘he gathered together [with others]’
● a ת following the inflectional prefix in the Prefix Pattern
^ י ץֵ בּ[• ת ‘he will gather together [with others]’
ץֵּ ב[•תִ ה ‘gather together [with others]’ (MS Imperative)
Note: One can think of the ה of the charcteristic •תִ ה prefix being replaced by the
inflectional prefix in the Prefix Pattern. However, the ה prefix reappears in the
Imperative (cf. the ה prefix in the לַעְפ^ נ Imperative), making the לֵעַ פּ• תִ ה
MS Imperative and 3MS Perfect forms (as well as the Infinitives §§24–25) identical.
See Appendix C for a full paradigm of the םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ ליִעְפִה/ו לֵעִפּ.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 110
Ancient Hebrew had a Qal Passive ן]ינִ בּ that fell into disuse and was replaced by
לַעְפ^ נ. Therefore, although לַעְפ^ נ may derive reflexive verbs from roots (below),
very frequently, if a ֫ שׁcֹ שׁ appears in both ל[ and לַעְפ^ נ, the grammatical rela-
tionship between the םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ is one of active-passive voice:
רַ מָ שׁ ‘he guarded’
רַ מְ שׁ^ נ ‘he/it was guarded’
לַעְפ^ נ and לֵעַ פּ• תִ ה both derive verbs from םיִ שׁmָ שׁ with reflexive-voice, that is,
an activity that in some way reflects upon or affects the subject of the action
(much like middle voice in some European languages). In such cases, the mean-
ing cannot be systematically derived from the same ֫ שׁcֹ שׁ in the active םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ.
־ יִ תְּכָלֱהLנ וֹתוֹט/נִכּ לֵצְכּ
‘As a shadow when it declines, I am gone away/vanished’ (Ps 109:23)
־ םיִה?ֱאָה תֶא Xוֹנֲח Xֵ לַּה•תִיּ$ו
‘Enoch walked/conducted himself in accordance with God’ (Gen 5:22)
םי5ָבְ דַּה חַתּ^נְ תּ .א ’) (‘Parse the words
Identify the conjugation, person, gender, and number of these לַעְפ^ נ and לֵעַ פּ• תִ ה verbs and
translate.
אKָקּ^י (ד .
ץֵ בּ[• תֶ א] ו (ה .
֫ ה]נאֶ צָ מִּתּ (ו .
ץֵ בּ[•ת^י (א .
וּרְמְשׁ^נ (ב .
יִכְ לַּה•תִתּ$ ו (ג .
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 111
.ב בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write 3 sentences with a לַעְפ^ נ or לֵעַ פּ• תִ ה verb in each using your vocabulary or glossary.
.
.
.
38. Dynamic and Stative Verbs
A basic division among verbs is that between dynamic and stative. Dynamic
verbs refer to events or movements. Stative verbs refer to states or qualities.
In English, stative verbs are distinguished from dynamic verbs not only by
their basic meaning (i.e., state versus event), but in their semantic limitations:
stative verbs do not usually appear in progressive conjugations (*He was know-
ing) or as imperatives (*Know!).
In Biblical Hebrew, stative verbs not only have semantic limitations (they are
frequently used intransitively, i.e., without an object), but are also distin-
guished from dynamic verbs morphologically in the ל[.
● The vowel patterns in dynamic and stative verbs usually contrast with
each other in both the Suffix Pattern and Prefix Pattern.
Dynamic Suffix Pattern = רַ מָ שׁ ‘he guarded’
Stative Suffix Pattern = דֵבָ כּ ‘he is/was heavy’
ןֹ טb ‘he is/was small’
Dynamic Prefix Pattern = רֹ מְ שׁ^ י ‘he will guard’
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 112
Stative Prefix Pattern = דַ בְּכ^ י ‘he will be heavy’
ןַ ט‚^ י ‘he will be small’
Note: All III-Guttural verbs follow the Prefix Pattern of the stative verbs, whether
they are semantically dynamic or stative: חַ לְ שׁ^ י.
● Stative verbs do not have an active Participle form (see §42), but often
have an adjective form equivalent to the 3MS Perfect form.
3MS Perfect = דֵבָ כּ ‘he is/was heavy’
MSA Adjective = דֵבָ כּ ‘heavy’
● Stative verbs in the Perfect conjugation may express a present state or a
past state.
דֹ אְ מ הzְבָכ יִכּ םo תאָטַּח/ ו
‘(and) their sin, indeed, is very heavy (= serious)’ (Gen 18:20)
֫ ןHֹ זִּ מ וּדְבָכּ לֵאmְשׂ^י י~ניֵע/ ו
‘(and) Israel’s eyes were heavy (= dim) from age’ (Gen 48:10)
● Stative verbs may express either a state or the inception of or entrance
into a state (i.e., ‘became’).
־ ־ ה]וה/י י~נְפּ תֶא םoתbֲעַצ הָ לgָ ג יִ כּ
‘for their outcry has become great before the YHWH’ (Gen 19:13)
GO TO READING #8
39. Jussives and Imperatives
Biblical Hebrew has two distinct moods: the real and irreal (§21). There are two
irreal verb conjugations in Biblical Hebrew: Jussives and Imperatives. (In con-
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 113
trast, the Imperfect and Perfect conjugations may express real or irreal mood
as indicated by their word order; see §§21, 23.)
● The Jussive conjugation occurs in all three persons and expresses both
positive and negative commands or wishes. When expressing a negative
command or wish, the Jussive is preceded by לַא (never א?).
IיLניֵבוּ י^ניֵבּ ה]וה/י טֹפְּ שׁ^י
‘May YHWH judge between me and between you’ (Gen. 16:5)
֫ ֫ ־ יִ נֶּ מִּ מ IיLנָ פּ רֵתְּסַ תּ לַ א ‘do not hide your face from me’ (Ps 102:3)
The Jussive forms follow the Prefix Pattern and are identical to the Imper-
fect forms with two exceptions:
The first-person Jussive forms (sometimes referred to as Cohortatives) of-
ten end with ה ָ - in all םי^ נ] י/ נִבּ.
לH
‘let me/I shall guard’ הmְ מְ שֶׁא 1S
‘let us/we shall guard’ הmְ מְ שׁ^ נ 1P
The ה ָ termination probably originally expressed action to/toward the
speaker or on behalf of the speaker, and it periodically occurs on the Im-
perative and Past Narrative forms with this meaning. However, it has be-
come conventionalized (i.e., it regularly appears) on the first-person
Jussive forms so that its original sense is not always evident.
The second- and third-person Jussive forms are “shortened” versus the
Imperfect. In the ן]י/נִבּ ליִעְפִ ה they have a יKֵ צ theme vowel instead of
־ דוֹי קcיִ ח.
Xֵ לְ מ$ י ‘let him make (someone) king’ (Jussive)
versus
Xיִלְמ$ י ‘he will make (someone) king’ (Imperfect)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 114
With some weak verb םיִשׁmָ שׁ, a shift of the stress to לֵעְּלִ מ (i.e., the front
of the word) results in a vowel change in the post-stress syllable (see Ap-
pendix C.4 for the weak verbs).
֫ ם6] י ‘let him stand up’ (ל[ Jussive of םוק)
versus
םוּק] י ‘he will stand up’ (Imperfect)
● The Imperative verb occurs only in the 2 nd person . It expresses positive
commands and wishes (it cannot be negated).
דֹ אְ מ Iְשְׁפ$נ רֹמְ שׁ ‘Guard your life very much’ (Deut 4:9)
The form of the Imperative is identical to the Jussive minus the prefix.
לH לַעְפ[ נ לֵ עִ פּ לֵ עַ פּ7תִ ה ליִ עְ פִ ה
רֹ מְ שׁ 2MS רֵ מָ שִּׁ ה 2MS ץֵ בּ[ 2MS ץֵ בּ[•תִ ה 2MS Xֵלְמַ ה 2MS
י0ְ מִ שׁ 2FS י0ְ מָ שִּׁ ה 2FS יִ צְ בּ[ 2FS יִצְ בּ[•תִ ה 2FS ֫ יִכיִלְמַ ה 2FS
וּרְמִ שׁ 2MP וּרְמָ שִּׁ ה 2MP וּצְבּ[ 2MP וּצְ בּ[•תִ ה 2MP ֫ וּכיִלְמַ ה 2MP
ֹ ה]נ<ֹ מְ שׁ 2FP ֫ ה]נ<ַמָ שִּׁ ה 2FP ֫ ה] נְ צֵ בּ[ 2FP ֫ ה]נְצֵ בּ[•תִ ה 2FP ֫ ה]נְכֵלְמַ ה 2FP
‘guard’ ‘gather’ ‘reign’
The forms of the irreal conjugations are sometimes followed by ־ א]נ . This word
most often signals a polite request or command (e.g., English please), though it
is not always necessary (or easy) to translate.
֫ ־ ־ Xֶלֶ מַּה לֶ א א] נ רֶבַּ דּ הָתַּע/ ו
‘now, speak, please, to the king’ (2 Sam 13:13)
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
pour out, shed (blood) Q Xַפָ שׁ flee Q חfָ בּ
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 115
םי5ָבְ דַּה חַתּ^נְ תּ .א ’) (‘Parse the words
Identify the םי^ נ] י/ נִ בּ, conjugation, person, gender, and number of these Imperative and
Jussive verbs and translate.
֫ וּכיִלְמַה (ד .
דֵ בַּכ/י (ה .
י0ְ מִ שׁ (ו .
רֵ בַּ דּ (א .
֫ ה]נ<ֵ בּּ} (ב .
םֵ כְּ שׁ$י (ג .
.ב ְתּ םֵגLM ת
Translate the following sentences.
־ ־ לֶא Iְל חfְבּ םוּק/ו יִל6ְבּ עַמְשׁ י^נְב הָ תַּ ע/ ו (א ןָבָ ל יִ חָ א ]נmָ ח .ה
.
֫ ־ ֫ הֵא<וּ IיLניֵע א]נ אָ שׂ" רֶמאֹ יּ$ ו (ב . ".
֫ רֶמאֹ יּ$ ו (ג ה] וה/ י ־לֶ א ב6ֲ ע$ י " ֫ ֫ ־ Iיƒתוֹבֲא ץcֶ א לֶא בוּשׁ ".
.
(ד ־םִע רֵ בַּדִּמ Iְל רֶמָשִּׁה" רֹמאֵל יַלֵא רַמָא ב6ֲ ע$ י ־ עm דַע בוֹטִּ מ ".
.
Appendix
C.4f & 3c
Appendix
C.4c
Appendix
C.4d
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 116
֫ םֶהֵלֲא רֶמאֹ יּ$ ו (ה ןֵ בוּא< ־ ־ ־ רֶ שֲׁא הֶ זַּ ה רוֹבַּה לֶ א וֹתֹא וּכיִ לְשַׁה םz וּכְ פְּ שִׁ תּ לַ א"
".רָבּgִמַּ בּ
.
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with Jussive or Imperative verb in each using your vocabulary or
glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
40. Enclitic Pronouns with Verbs
In §31 we discussed enclitic pronouns expressing possession with nouns and
objects when following prepositions or the object marker (־תֶ א/תֵ א). Enclitic
object pronouns can also directly follow verbs. When the verb is finite (versus
the Infinitive) these pronouns express the object of the verb (equivalent to en-
clitic pronouns with the object marker).
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 117
וֹתוֹא רַמָשׁ = וֹרָמְ שׁ ‘He guarded him’
Below is a summary of the enclitic pronouns on verbs (see Appendix C.2 for a
full paradigm with examples).
‘them’
ם-
3MP ‘him’
֫ וּה- / ו-
3MS
‘them’
ן-
3FP ‘her’
֫ ָ ה- ,הּ ָ -
3FS
‘you’
םֶכ-
2MP ‘you’
I-
2MS
‘you’
ןֶכ-
2FP ‘you’
X-
2FS
‘us’
וּנ-
1P ‘me’
֫ י^נ-
1S
Note: Sometimes there is an “extra” נ between the enclitic pronoun and an Imperfect
verb. (Usually the נ is assimilated.)
Note: Generally, Suffix Pattern/Perfect verbs use an a-class vowel (usually ַ ) before
enclitic pronouns, while Prefix Pattern verbs use an i-class vowel (usually ֵ ).
םיִ שׁBֲח םי5ָבְ דּ
eye, spring F ֫ ,ן^ יַ ע ןיֵ ע NIS messenger, angel M Xָאְלַ מ
םי5ָבְ דַּה חַתּ^נְ תּ .א ’) (‘Parse the words
Identify the conjugation, person, gender, and number of these verbs and the person, gender,
number of the enclitic pronoun and translate.
֫ םֶ כוּעָמְ שׁ (ב .
֫ י^נַ חbְ ל (ד .
םָ א<ָ בִּהְבּ (א .
֫ י^נוּגmֲה (ג .
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 118
֫ Igָבֱעֶא (ו .
םֵאָצְמִ יּ$ ו (ח .
֫ וּנָ תְּ כfֵ בּ (ה .
ןַ תּ<ַ כְּזִה/ו (ז .
.ב ְתּ םֵגLM ת
Translate the following sentences.
־לֶא בָשָׁ יּ$ ו (א הzוּה/ י ".ָהי|תאָצְמ א?" רֶ מאֹיּ$ ו .
֫ ֫ ֫ ".Iיִ תּgַבֲע רֶ שֲׁא תֵא ָתְּע}] י הָתַּא" ויָלֵא רֶמאֹ יּ$ ו (ב
.
(ג ֫ רֶמאֹיּ$ ו ב6ֲ ע$ י ־לֶ א ןָבָ ל ־ ֫ יִ צ<ַאְ לוּ יִ מוֹקְמ לֶא הָכְלֵא/ו י^נֵחְלַּ שׁ .
.
(ד ֫ רֶמאֹיּ$ו וָ שֵׂ ע ־ ־ יִבָא י^נָא םַג י^נֵ כ…ָבּ" ויִבָא לֶ א ".
.
Xַאְלַמ הָּאָצְמִיּ$ ו (ה ה] וה/ י ־ .רָבּgִמַּ בּ ם^ יַמַּה ןיֵע לַ ע
.
Appendix
C.3b
Appendix
C.4f
Appendix
C.4d
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 119
.ג בֹ תְּכִ תּ
Write five sentences with a verb with enclitic pronoun in each using your vocabulary or
glossary.
.
.
.
.
.
41. Word Order and Topic and Focus
In §18 Ancient Hebrew was described as a language with Subject-Verb basic
word order, but in which this order is often inverted due to some sort of trig-
ger at the front of the clause (e.g., יִ כּ). In addition to inversion to Verb-Subject
order triggered by grammatical words, word order changes can also be
triggered by a Topic or Focus constituent.
Topic and Focus constituents are usually placed at the front of the clause
(this is sometimes referred to as “fronting”). The fronting of a Topic or Focus
constituent almost always results in Verb-Subject order.
Topic constituents are used to direct the reader very specifically to what the
clause is about, as in Now let’s talk about grammar—what fun it is! Focus constitu-
ents present contrasts (or in fuzzy terms, “emphasis”) and often follow a Topic,
as with the word fun in Now let’s talk about grammar—what fun it is!
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 120
There are many, many examples in the Hebrew Bible for which the Predicate-
Subject (where the predicate is a verb, null-copula, or participle) order has
been triggered by a fronted Topic or Focus constituent. We will return to issue
of Topic in §46; for now, let us consider a few examples of Focus.
־יִ כּ ויָחֶא וּא<ִיּ$ו וֹתֹ א ־ ויָחֶא לָ כִּמ םֶהיִבֲא בַהָא
‘His brothers saw that him [Joseph] their father loved more
than any of his brothers’ (Gen 37:4)
At the front of Gen 37:4 is the Focus object phrase: וֹתֹ א. The fronting of this Fo-
cus phrase also results in the inversion of the word order for the rest of the
clause: Verb-Subject (םֶהיִבֲא בַהָא).
־ ויָחֶא וֹב וּא/נ[/י$ו / ו ויִבָ א ־ רָבָ דַּ ה תֶ א רַ מָשׁ
‘His brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept the
matter (in mind)’ (Gen 37:11).
In Gen 37:11 what looks like a basic Subject-Verb clause in the second half has
actually been set up by the context, that is, by the contrast with Joseph’s broth-
er, to be a Focus.
Gen 22:12 illustrates Predicate-Subject inversion in a verbless clause. (Remem-
ber that null-copula and participial clauses are not inverted by grammatical
words [see §18]; when they are inverted it is always due to Topic or Focus.)
־יִ כּ יִ תְּע}]י הָתַּע םיִה`ֱ א אKP י הָ תַּ א
‘Now I know that a God-fearer (are) you’ (Gen 22:12)
The (Focus) predicate םיִ ה?ֱא אK/ י is before the subject הָ תַּ א because God
(speaking through his messenger) is telling the Abraham that he has recog-
nized exactly what kind of loyal follower Abraham is.
Gen 3:5 illustrates Predicate-Subject inversion with the participle ַ ע_ֹ י (the par-
ticiple is not triggered by grammatical words like יִ כּ):
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 121
יִ כּ ַעbֹ י םƒתי^יְה^ו םֶכי~ניֵע וּח‚ְפ^נ/ו וּנֶּ מִּ מ םֶ כְ לָ כֲ א םוֹיְ בּ יִכּ םיִ ה?ֱ א
עm] ו בוֹט יֵ עgֹי םיִה?אֵ כּ
‘because God knows that on the day you eat from it, your eyes
will be opened and you will become like gods . . .’ (Gen 3:5)
In this case, the serpent in Genesis 3 wants Eve to believe that God is well aware
of the effects of eating the forbidden fruit and that He is trying to keep Eve and
Adam from something desirable.
When we turn our attention to irreal clauses (in which the normal word order
is Verb-Subject), it makes sense that the focusing and fronting of a subject trig-
gers inversion back to Subject-Verb order. In Gen 44:33, the subject noun רַ עַ נַּ ה
is focused and thus fronted.
־ י^נjאַל דֶבֶע רַעַ נַּ ה תַ חַ תּ Iְדְּבַע א]נ בֶשׁ~י הָתַּע/ ו / ו רַ עַ נַּ ה ־ ויָחֶא םִ ע לַ ע$ י
‘Now, please let your servant stay instead of the boy as a
servant to my lord; and let the boy go up with his brothers’
(Gen 44:33)
The result of the focusing and fronting of the subject noun, is that it now pre-
cedes the irreal verb לַע$ י, producing Subject-Verb order in a irreal clause
(which is normally Verb-Subject order).
םי5ָבְ דַּה חַתּ^ נְתּ ’) (‘Parse the words
Identify the word order in the clauses below from Readings 8-9 (some are given with a bit of
context, in gray) and offer an explanation using the concepts of Topic, Focus, and triggered
inversion.
(א ־ שָׁ חָ נַּה לֶא הָשִּׁאָה רֶמאֹ תּ$ ו ־ ־ ןָ גַּ ה Xוֹתְ בּ רֶשֲׁא ץֵעָה י0ְ פִּ מוּ ,לֵכאֹנ ןָגַּ ה ץֵע י0ְפִּמ"
".'וּנֶּ מִּ מ וּלְכאֹת א?' םיִ ה?ֱא רַמָא

.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 122
(ב וּעgֵיּ$ ו םֵ ה םִ מּ†יֵע יִ כּ

.
(ג רֶמאֹיּ$ ו ־ ־ ".אֵבָחֵא]ו יִכֹנָא םpיֵ ע יִ כּ אmיִא]ו ןָ גַּבּ יִ תְּ עַ מָ שׁ Iְ ל6 תֶ א"

.
(ד ־ םוֹיַּה רֵמָא~י רֶ שֲׁא ",הֶא<^י ה]וה/י" אוּהַה םוֹקָמַּה םֵשׁ םָ הmְבַא אm‚ִ יּ$ ו רַהְ בּ"
".הֶאm~י ה]וה/ י

.
GO TO READING #9
42. Participles
Participles are adjectives that have ם^ נ] י/ נִ בּ distinctions (like verbs). Unlike the
finite conjugations (i.e., the Perfect, Past Narrative, and Imperfect), Participles
are only marked for gender and number (not person).
Participles are declined like adjectives, illustrated below with the לH Active
Participle:
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 123
Plural Singular
םי0ְ מֹ א רֵ מֹ א
Sֵמוֹס
יKְ מֹ א רֵ מֹ א
Sָמְס[ נ
Masculine
תוֹרְמֹא ֫ הmְ מֹ א / תcֶ מֹ א
Sֵמוֹס
תוֹרְמֹא ֫ תcֶ מֹ א / תfְ מֹ א
Sָמְס[ נ
Feminine
The pattern of the ל[ Active Participle pattern is distinct from both the Suffix
and Prefix Patterns. In contrast, the Participle forms of the other ם^ נ] י/ נִ בּ are
closely related to the two basic patterns:
● The לַעְפ^ נ Participle is similar to the Suffix Pattern Perfect conjugation,
except that it has a ץֵ מb-theme vowel instead of a חF תַ פּ.
רָ מְ שׁ^ נ (MS Participle) versus רַ מְ שׁ^ נ (the 3MS Perfect)
● The, לֵעִּפ, לֵעַ פּ• תִ ה and ליִעְפִ ה Participles are based on the Prefix Pattern
with a prefixed מ:
ץֵ בּ[ְ מ (MS Participle; cf. 3MS Imperfect ץֵ בּ[/ י)
ץֵ בּ[• תִ מ (MS Participle; cf. 3MS Imperfect ץֵ בּ[• ת^ י)
Xיִלְמַ מ (MS Participle; cf. 3MS Imperfect Xיִלְמ$ י)
Like Adjectives (see §32), Participles may be used substantivally, or predicatively:
● Substantivally: Some participles are regularly used as “agentive” nouns;
their meaning is derived from the action or function that the agents regu-
larly perform/fulfill.
לֵאmְ שׂ^ י יֵ טְ פֹ שׁ ‘the judges of Israel’ (Num 25:5)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 124
● Predicatively: The Participle may describe an action or event in a clause;
when it used this way, the main verb ה]יָ ה is often omitted and the predic-
ate expresses progressive aspect (the temporal location [tense] of the
event is derived from the context).
־ וֹר•ת^י ןאֹצ תֶא הֶעp ה]יָה הֶשֹׁמ
‘Moses was shepherding the sheep of Jethro’ (Exod 3:1)
ה]וה/י לַכיֵהְבּ בֵכֹשׁ לֵאוּמְ שׁ
‘Samuel (was) lying in the temple of YHWH’ (1 Sam 3:3)
● Participles are often introduced by a -ה prefix. In these cases, the ה func-
tions as a relative marker (as opposed to the definite article), and the
participle functions predicatively within a relative clause that modifies a
noun.
־ הָשִּׁאָה םִע בֵכֹשַׁה שׁיִאָ ה
‘the man who lies with the woman’ (Deut 22:22)
The use of the ה to introduce a relative clause (as opposed to being the
article) is clear in cases where the noun is not definite but the participle
has the ה.
־ הָמֶכְשׁ לֵא תיֵבִּמ הָלֹעָה הָלִּסְמ
‘a highway that goes up from Bethel to Shechem’ (Judg 21:19)
As with the more common relative marker, רֶ שֲׁ א, the relative ה is not al-
ways present to introduce the relative (such relatives are called “un-
marked” and are quite common in English, too):
םי|תיִחְשַׁמ םי^נָבּ םיִעKְמ עfֶז ןוָֹע דֶבֶכּ םַע אֵטֹח יוֹגּ יוֹה
‘Alas, nation (that is) sinning, people (that is) heavy of iniquity, seed
(that is) doing evil, sons (that are) acting corruptly’ (Isa 1:4)
The ן]י/נִבּ ל[, in addition to the Active Participle (above), has a Passive Parti-
ciple with a וּ theme vowel; it is also declined as an adjective.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 125
Plural Singular
םי0וּרֲא רוּרָא
Sֵמוֹס
יKוּרֲא רוּרֲא
Sָמְס[ נ
Masculine
תוֹרוּרֲא הmוּרֲא
Sֵמוֹס
תוֹרוּרֲא תfוּרֲא
Sָמְס[ נ
Feminine
Most occurrences of the ל[ Passive Participle are predicative. The Passive Par-
ticiple functions as the main verb in a clause with a sense similar to the English
Past Participle in similar passive constructions, such as you are blessed. The
temporal location (tense) is derived from the context.
֫ הָ תַּא רוּרָא תאֹזּ oתיִשָׂע יִ כּ
‘because you have done this, you (are) cursed’ (Gen 3:14)
Like the Active Participle, the Passive Participle may be the main verb within a
relative clause, with or without a ה:
֫ ־ ֫ ה]יוּטְנַּ ה יִ עוֹרְזּ ִב ץcָאָה תֶא י|תיִ שָׂ ע יִ כֹ נָ א
‘I made the earth with my arm that (was) stretched out’ (Jer 27:5)
43. The Foreground and Background of Narrative
The majority of the Hebrew Bible is narrative. Because Hebrew has a Past Nar-
rative verb form, this discourse type is readily identifiable. The main thread or
foreground of narrative discourse features the Past Narrative verb.
הֶ לֵּאָה םי0ָבְ דַּה רַחַא יִה/י$ו
‘It was after these things’ (Gen 22:1a)
The Past Narrative clause in Gen 22:1 indicates that the reader is supposed to
understand that this story is picking up with events that happened after the
last story (Genesis 21). But when something is included that is not part of the
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 126
development or progression of the plot action, the narrator avoids using the
Past Narrative verb.
םיִה?ֱא ה]וה/י הָשָׂע רֶשֲׁא ה4ָשַּׂה תַיַּח לֹכִּמ םוּרָע ה]יָה שָׁחָנַּה/ו
‘Now the serpent was craftier than any wild animal that YHWH God had
created’ (Gen 3:1)
In Gen 3:1, the serpent’s relevant qualities are mentioned as scene-setting in-
formation that is not part of the plot action.
In addition to communicating background information, the narrator also
avoids using the Past Narrative verb to portray events in an order other than
their occurrence in the narrative.
־ ־ וי]נ<[ְ בּ Xַבְ סַּבּ זַחֱאLנ רַחַא ל^יַא הֵנִּה/ו א<ַ יּ$ו וי]ניֵע תֶא םָהmְבַא אָשִּׂ יּ$ו
‘Abraham lifted his eyes and looked, and—look!—a ram behind (him)
had been caught in the thicket by its horns’ (Gen 22:13)
In Gen 22:13, the ram as not caught in the thicket right as Abraham looked or
after he looked, but obviously before he looked up. Thus, the Past Narrative
verb is avoided and this preceding event is described with the Perfect verb
זַחֱאL נ.
Similarly, in Gen 2:6, the narrator uses the Imperfect and Irreal Perfect verbs to
report events that contribute to the setting (the state of creation) rather than
the main plot line of the narrative, which begins with God creating man in
verse 7.
־ ־ ־ ־ הָ מzֲאָה י~נְ פּ לָ כּ תֶא הbְ שִׁ ה/ ו ץcָאָה ןִמ הֶלֲע$י דֵא/ ו
‘(and) mist would come up from the earth and would water the entire
surface of the ground’ (Gen 2:6)
Summary:
Discourse material that is presented with the Past Narrative verb is called fore-
ground material. Foreground events are the most salient or important for the
development of the plot line and very frequently occur in succession (i.e., this
happened, then this happened, etc.).
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 127
Discourse material that is presented with other predicates (e.g., null copula
clause, Perfect, Imperfect) is generally background material. Background ma-
terial describes the narrative setting or reports simultaneous events that are
out-of-sequence relative to the narrative plot.
44. The Verbal System – A Summary
The Ancient Hebrew verbal system is summarized in the following chart. It
consists of verbs that express real mood (Past Narrative), verbs that express ir-
real mood (Jussive and Imperative), and forms that may express both real and
irreal mood, as indicated by word order (Perfect, Imperfect).
Real
Mood
SUFF
רַ מָ שׁ
Perfect: perfective (whole view of situation)
PREF
($ו) רֹמְ שּׁ^ י
Past Narrative (Preterite): past event in narrative (or poetry)
רֹמְ שׁ^ י
Imperfect: imperfective (partial/in-progress view of situation)
Irreal
Mood
SUFF
(/ו) רַ מָ שׁ
Irreal Perfect: contingent modality/command
PREF
רֹמְ שׁ^ י
Irreal Imperfect: command or wish (it is negated with א?)
PREF
רֹמְ שׁ^ י
Jussive: command or wish (any person; it is negated with לַ א)
רֹ מְ שׁ
Imperative: command or wish (2nd person only; not negated)
Because the Perfect and Imperfect form the central opposition (perfective : im-
perfective aspect) in the real mood system of Ancient Hebrew, it is best to clas-
sify them as real mood verbs that may nevertheless be used to express irreal
mood as well. This sort of cross-over of forms is found in many other languages
as well.
For example, in English the Past Perfect verb is regularly used to express con-
trary-to-fact modality, as in the statement Had he known, he would have been
there, in which the use of the Past Perfect indicates that he did not know.
GO TO READING #10
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 128
45. Numerals
Numerals in Hebrew fall into two categories, just as they do in English: cardin-
als (the basic forms) and ordinals (the forms used to order items, e.g., in a list).
Both cardinals and ordinals have masculine and feminine forms and the car-
dinal numerals also have a non-bound (Xֵ מוֹס) and bound (Xָמְס^ נ) form.
Ordinals
Feminine Masculine
Cardinals
Masculine Feminine
Xָמְס^ נ Xֵ מוֹס Xָמְס^ נ Xֵ מוֹס
ה] נוֹשׁא0
תי^ נֵ שׁ
תיִ שׁיִ לְ שׁ
תיִ עיִב<
תיִ שׁיִ מֲ ח
תיִ שִּׁ שׁ
תיִעיִבְ שׁ
תי^ניִמְ שׁ
תיִ עיִ שְׁ תּ
תי0יִ שֲׂ ע
ןוֹשׁא0
י^נֵ שׁ
יִשׁיִלְ שׁ
יִעיִב<
יִשׁיִמֲ ח
יִ שִּׁ שׁ
יִעיִבְ שׁ
י^ניִמְ שׁ
יִ עיִ שְׁ תּ
י0יִ שֲׂ ע
1
st
2
nd
3
rd
4
th
5
th
6
th
7
th
8
th
9
th
10
th
תַ חַ א
יֵ תְּ שׁ
שׁ?ְ שׁ
עַבּ<ַ א
שֵׁמֲ ח
שֵׁ שׁ
עַ בְ שׁ
הL נֹ מְ שׁ
עַשְׁ תּ
֫ רֶ שֶׂ ע
תַ חַ א
֫ ם^יַ תְּ שׁ
שׁ?ָ שׁ
עַבּ<ַ א
שֵׁמָ ח
שֵׁ שׁ
֫ עַ בֶ שׁ
הL נֹ מְ שׁ
֫ עַשֵׁ תּ
֫ רֶ שֶׂ ע
דַ חַ א
י~נְ שׁ
֫ תֶשׁ?ְ שׁ
֫ תַעַבּ<ַ א
ֵ תֶשֵׁ מֲ ח
֫ תֶ שֵׁ שׁ
תַעְבִ שׁ
ת$ נֹ מְ שׁ
תַעְשִׁ תּ
֫ תcֶ שֲׂ ע
דָ חֶ א
ַ ם^ יַנְ שׁ
הָשׁ?ְ שׁ
הָ עָ בּרַ א
הָ שִּׁמֲ ח
הָ שִּׁ שׁ
הָעְבִ שׁ
ה] נֹ מְ שׁ
הָ עְ שִׁ תּ
הmָ שֲׂ ע
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
The following principles describe how the numerals work:
● 1 is an adjective; it agrees in gender and number with the noun it modifies.
● 2-10 are nouns that may be in apposition (any order) or תוּכיִמְ ס with a
noun.
־ ~ ~ ם^י$נְשׁ םיִשׁ]נֲא םיִשׁ]נֲא ם^י$נְשׁ םיִשׁ]נֲא י~נְ שׁ ‘two men’
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 129
● 3-10 (cf. 1 and 2) take the opposite gender form to the noun they modify.
םי^נָ בּ הָ שׁוֹלְ שׁ ‘three sons’ and תוֹנָבּ שׁוֹלָ שׁ ‘three daughters’
(contrast דָחֶא ןֶ בּ ‘one son’ and תַחַא תַ בּ ‘one daughter’)
● 11-19 are constructed of the numerals 1-9 followed by 10 (M רָ שָׂ ע; F הKְ שֶׂ ע).
They agree in gender with the noun they modify (like 1 and 2).
Note: there are alternate forms for 11 and 12
~ ͏ רָשָׂע דַחַא רָשָׂע יֵ תְּשַׁ ע ‘11’
~ ͏ רָ שָׂ ע םי~ נְ שׁ רָ שָׂ ע י~ נְ שׁ ‘12’
● 20-90 are the plural forms of 2-9; single integers are conjoined with ו.
͏ םי0ְ שֶׂ ע ‘20’
͏ דָ חֶ א/ ו םיִ שׁוֹלְ שׁ ‘31’
͏שֵׁמָח/ו םיִעָבּ<ַ א ‘45’
● 100s are based on ‘100’ (FS הָ אֵ מ; FS NIS תַ אְ מ; P תוֹאֵ מ)
ַ ם^יַ תאָ מ (DU) ‘200’
־ ͏ תוֹאֵמ שׁ?ָ שׁ ‘300’, etc.
● Certain nouns appear in the singular even with numerically plural modifi-
ers:
͏ ה] נָ שׁ רָ שָׂ ע דַ חַ א ‘11 year(s)’
͏ םוֹי רָשָׂע דַחַא‌ ‘11 day(s)’
יִא רָשָׂע דַחַא שׁ ‘11 man (men)’
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 130
46. Topic
In §18 when we examined Biblical Hebrew word order, we discussed the fact
that the basic word order in Biblical Hebrew is Subject-Verb. In §41 the nu-
ances of Hebrew word order were expanded by an introduction to Topic and
Focus, with examples of Focus constituents. In this lesson, the notion of Topic
will be considered further.
In §41, Topic was defined as “what a clause is about,” but this definition is too
narrow, since Topic can applied to three different levels:
1) Syntactic Topic, the constituent that sits in a special ‘Topic’ position at the
front of a clause;
2) Clause Topic, the constituent in a clause that the rest of the clause is about;
3) Discourse Topic, the constituent in a discourse (which may be as small as a
single clause or as large as a multi-part story) that the rest of the dis-
course is about.
One constituent may function as all three types of Topics in the same text;
however, it is also possible that three different constituents serve as each type
within the same text. Thus, while the term Topic is very useful in understand-
ing how the Hebrew authors were manipulating their language to structure
their texts, we should use the term with care and clarity.
Genesis 1 contains all three types of Topics and will serve as a good example
text.
Genesis 1 and Discourse Topic
Consider first the chapter as a whole (including the first three-and-a-half
verses of chapter 2): the repetition of םיִ ה?ֱא as the subject in almost every
verse (it is missing only in vv. 13, 15, 19, 23, 30) is a strong signal that םיִ ה?ֱא is,
minimally, part of a complex Discourse Topic, which is succintly summarized in
the first verse:
֫ ֫ ץcָאָה תֵא/ו ם^יַמָשַּׁה תֵא םיִה?ֱא אmָבּ תיִשׁאKְבּ
‘in the beginning (that) God created the heavens and the earth’
(Gen 1:1)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 131
Gen 1:1 includes three constituents, the verb אmָ בּ, the subject םיִ ה?ֱא, and the
object ֫ ֫ ץcָאָה תֵא/ו ם^יַמָשַּׁה תֵא (a merism for the world), which the rest of the
creation story is ‘about’.
Genesis 1 and Clausal Topic
Genesis 1 appears, by the repetition of words and overall content, to be ‘about’
םיִ ה?ֱא, who is involved in אmָ בּ-ing the world. And yet, there are numerous
clauses in which one of these constituents does not appear to be the Topic.
֫ םיִה?ֱא רֶמאֹיּ$ ו ־ רוֹא יִה/י$ו רוֹא יִה/י
‘(and) God said, “Let light be.” And light existed.’ (Gen 1:3)
While the first clause in the verse (in gray) exhibits the typical pattern in the
story, [Past Narrative verb + םיִ ה?ֱא], the subsequent two clauses make no men-
tion of God or the verb אmָ בּ. Instead, the subject in each is רוֹא and the verb is
a form of היה ‘to be, exist’. Thus, the clausal topic is רוֹא and the verb in each
clause describes something about the Topic -- its coming into existence.
Genesis 1 and Syntactic Topic
The use of the Syntactic Topic position most often lines up with either a Dis-
course or Clausal Topic. However, in rarer cases the Syntactic Topic does not
line up with the other types.
־ וֹמְלַצְבּ םzָ אָ ה תֶא םיִה?ֱ א אmְבִיּ$ ו ֫ םיִה?ֱא םֶלֶצְבּ וֹתֹא אmָ בּ
‘(and) God created the man in his image; in the image of God he created
him’ (Gen 1:27)
In Gen 1:27 the prepositional phrase ֫ םיִה?ֱא םֶלֶצְבּ is fronted in the special Top-
ic position (before the null subject, verb אmָ בּ, and object phrase וֹתֹ א). The Top-
ic-fronting indicates that it is the information “in the image of God” that the
rest of the clause is really about.
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 132
This serves as an interesting counterpart to the first clause in the verse (אmְבִיּ$ ו
־ וֹמְלַצְבּ םzָ אָ ה תֶא םיִ ה?ֱא), which exhibits the pattern [Past Narrative verb +
םיִ ה?ֱא] that is so common in Genesis 1 (see above on םיִ ה?ֱא as a Discourse
Topic). Whereas the first half of the verse reinforces the Discourse Topic, the
second half uses the Syntactic Topic position to highlight a Clausal Topic other
than םיִ ה?ֱא.
GO TO READING #11
47. Masoretic Accents
םיִ מָ עְט, or accents, were added to the Bible by the Masoretes (ca. 500-1000 C.E.),
a group of scholars responsible for the preservation of the Hebrew Bible as well
as the addition of accents and vowels.
The accents serve to break up the text into “sense” units so that when the text
is read or chanted, a pause (or breath) is taken in a logical place. Knowing the
accents, therefore, informs the reader both where to place word stress and how
to phrase groups of words.
In addition, accents can also be of consequence for interpretation, as illustrated
by Isaiah 40:3. If the division of the verse by the accents are observed, the pre-
positional phrase is part of the crier‘s statement, but the Septuagint, followed
by the New Testament, treats the prepositional phrase as indicating the loca-
tion of the crier.
׃ ֽ ֖ ֔ ֙ ֑ ֣ ֖ ֕ ֔ ֣ וּניֵה?אֵל הָלִּסְמ הָבmֲעָבּ וּרְּשׁ$י ה]וה/י Xcֶדּ וּנַּ פּ רָבּgִמַּ בּ אKוֹק לוֹק
A voice cries out: In the wilderness prepare the way of the LORD, make
straight in the desert a highway for our God.“ (Isa 40:3, NRSV)
Compare
This is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah spoke when he said, “The
voice of one crying out in the wilderness: ‘Prepare the way of the Lord,
make his paths straight.’” (Matt 3:3, NRSV)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 133
There are 27 accents used by twenty-one books of the Hebrew Bible as well as a
variant 21 accents used exclusively in Psalms, Job, and Proverbs. The accents
are categorized as disjunctive—those which make a sense break with what
follows—and conjunctive—those that make a sense connection with what
follows. In addition, the disjunctive accents are of different “levels” depending
on the “strength” of their disjunction. Level 1 accents make the greatest
disjunction.
Listed below are the accents of the first three disjunctive levels as well as the
two most common conjunctive accents which function as servi (“servants”),
immediately preceding certain disjunctive accents.
LEVEL ONE
Silluq ׃ק ולי ס (always with sof pasuq ׃קוס פ ףוס)
Atnah ¸ ח¸נתא
LEVEL TWO
Segolta אתלגס (postpositive)
Zaqef Qatan ןטק ףקז
Zaqef Gadol ל וד ג ף ק ז (variant of zaqef qatan)
Tifha א ח פ ט
LEVEL THREE
Revia עי ב ר
Pashta אטשׁפ (postpositive)
Tevir ¸ ר¸ י ב ת
Note: If two of the same disjunctive accents appear within one clause, most often the
first of the two will mark the more disjunctive “sense” break.
MAJOR CONJUNCTIVE
Munah ¸ ח¸נומ (servi for atnah, segolta, zaqef, revia, and pashta)
Merka א כ ר מ (servi for silluq, tifha, and tevir)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 134
Verse divisions by the accents can be understood as operating on a continuous
dichotomy: the strongest disjunctive divides the verse in half, the next
strongest divides each half in half again, etc.
In the following verses the strength of each disjunction is represented by
vertical lines between the words: one vertical line (|) represents a level one
disjunction, two vertical lines (||) a level two disjunction, and three vertical
lines (|||) a level three disjunction.
Genesis 1:1-2
1:1 ׃ץ ¸ ר א ה ת א ו ׀׀ ם י מ ש ה ת א ׀ םי ¸ הל _ א א¸ ר ב ׀׀ תי שׁא ר ב
1:2 ׀ םו ¸ ה ת י¸ נ פ־ל ע ׀׀ ך ¸ שׁ ח ו ׀׀ וה ב ו ׀׀׀ וה ת ה ת י ה ׀׀׀ ץ ¸ ר א ה ו
׃ם י מ ה י נ פ־ל ע ׀׀ ת ¸ פ ¸ ח ר מ ׀׀ םי הל _ א חו ¸ ר ו
48. Complements and Adjuncts
To understand the relationship between a verb and the constituents that
modify it (referred to as a verb’s valency), it is helpful to make a distinction
between complements and adjuncts.
Complements are constituents limited (in number) and required by the verb,
both syntactically and semantically: syntactically they are required for
grammaticality; semantically they complete the meaning of the predication.
The underlined elements in the following clauses are complements.
וי ב א בק ¸ ע י־ת ¸ א ף סוי א ב י ו
‘(and) Joseph brought in Jacob, his father’ (Gen 47:7)
ן ¸ שׁ ג ץ ¸ ר ¸ א ב וב שׁ י
‘let them live in the land of Goshen’ (Gen 47:6)
ם ה םי מ ¸ רי ע י כ וע ד י ו
‘(and) they knew that they were naked’ (Gen 3:7)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 135
םֵ ח$ נ• תִ הְ ל ןֵ אָ מ/ י$ ו
‘He refused to be comforted’ (Gen 37:35)
Note: Valency is a broader concept than transitivity, though often the two coincide:
the direct object of a transitive verb is always a complement, but a complement may
be something other than a direct object, such as the locative prepositional phrase
with intransitive בַשׁ] י in Gen 47:6 above.
Despite the fact that complements are “required,” they may not always appear
with a verb for one of several reasons:
● The verb may exhibit different senses with different sets of complements,
such as אmb in the following examples: with the sense ‘call’ (Gen 3:9) אmb
has one prepositional complement; with the sense of ‘name’ (Gen 1:5) it
has a prepositional and a accusative complement.
־ םzָאָה לֶא םיִה?ֱא ה]וה/י אm‚ִ יּ$ו
‘Yhwh God called to Adam’ (Gen 3:9)
םוֹי רוֹאָל םיִה?ֱא אm‚ִ יּ$ו
‘God called the light day ’ (Gen 1:5)
● The verb may be capable of expressing both a general and more specific
meaning depending on whether it has a complement, as in ריִ שׁ in the fol-
lowing examples (cf. English ‘He read’ versus ‘He read a book’):
־ תאֹ זַּה הmיִשַּׁה תֶא לֵאmְשׂ^י ריִשׁ]י זָא
‘Then Israel sang this song’ (Num 21:17)
הmֵמַּזֲא$ו הmיִשָׁא
‘I will sing and I will praise!’ (Ps 57:8)
● The complement may be null, supplied by the context (similar to null sub-
jects; see §18). Compare the following:
־ ןָ דּ דַע ףֹדּ<ִ יּ$ו . . . ויִחָא הָבְּשׁ^נ יִכּ םmְבַא עַמְשִׁ יּ$ו
‘Abram heard that his brother had been taken captive . . . and he
pursued (them) as far as Dan.’ (Gen 14:14)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 136
־ הָבוֹח דַע םֵפְדּ<ִיּ$ו םֵ כַּיּ$ו
‘He struck them and pursued them as far as Hobah.’ (Gen 14:15)
In contrast to complements, adjuncts are limitless and optional: adjuncts may
be added or omitted without affecting the basic grammaticality (syntax) or
sense (semantics) of the clause. They add information that the narrator or au-
thor considers important. The underlined elements in the following clauses are
adjuncts.
תי^נֵשַּׁה ה]נָשַּׁ בּ ויָלֵא וּאֹבָיּ$ו
‘(and) they came to him in the second year’ (Gen 47:18)
־ ־ ־ וּה_ָ שׂ שׁיִא ם^יfְצִמ וּרְכָמ יִכּ הֹע<ַפְל ם^יfְצִמ תַמgַא לָכּ תֶא ףֵסוֹי ןHִ יּ$ו
‘(and) Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh, because the
Egyptians, each one, sold his field’ (Gen 47:20)
GO TO READING #12
49. Case Relations
Case involves morphology, syntax, and semantics. Traditionally, case is
thought of in terms of morphological inflectional form of nouns, pronouns, and
adjectives (e.g., Latin, German). However, more crucially, cases indicate the
particular syntactic role or relationship between words in an expression. Each
case is typically used to express multiple semantic relationships among the
words they relate in an expression.
Note: Although case is related to the valency distinctions of complement and adjunct
(§48), it is more narrowly concerned with transitivity and more intricately related to
traditional inflectional case marking.
Languages show different types and degrees of morphological case marking. In
English, morphological case marking is preserved only in the personal pro-
nouns.
Nominative
Accusative
Genitive
I
me
my
he
him
his
she
her
her
we
us
our
they
them
their
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 137
Although Hebrew at one time morvphologically distinguished these three
cases, by the period of Biblical Hebrew cases relations are indicated by other
means, including syntax, morpho-syntax, and lexical.
The Nominative case indicates the subject of a verb: the agent of an active verb
and the patient of a passive one. An agent performs an action or brings about a
change of state. A patient experiences a state or undergoes a change. Nominat-
ive case relations are normally indicated syntactically by its nearness to the
verb (immediately before or after).
ףֵסוֹי אֹבָיּ$ו
‘Joseph came’ (Gen 47:1)
־ םָאָבְצ לָכ/ו ץcָאָה/ו ם^יַמָשַּׁה וּלֻּכ/י$ו
‘the heavens and the earth and all their host were finished’ (Gen 2:1)
The Accusative case indicates the direct object of a transitive verb. Often there
is no special marking for this relationship (especially if no confusion between
accusative and nominative is likely). However, frequently Hebrew lexically
indicates the accusative relation by ־תֶ א/תֵ א.
־ ויִבָא ב6ֲע$י תֶא ףֵסוֹי אֵבָיּ$ו
‘(and) Joseph brought in Jacob, his father’ (Gen 47:7)
Note: But because the direct object of an active (transitive) verb is identical with the
subject of a passive (intransitive) verb—both are patient, sometimes the latter is
marked by ־תֶא/תֵ א.
־ ־ םmְבַא Iְמִשׁ תֶא דוֹע אKָ קּ^י א?/ו
‘And your name will no longer be called Abram . . . (Gen 17:5)
Some verbs show variation between an unmarked accusative (direct object)
and a prepositionally marked one, as in the following examples.
־ ה]וה/י תֶא ה4וֹא
‘I will praise Yhwh.’ (Gen 29:35)
ה]והיַל וּדוֹה
‘Praise (to) Yhwh!’ (Is 12:4)
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 138
Genitive case relations are indicated morphosyntactically (vowel reduction
and word order) by the bound noun/תוּכיִמְ ס construction. The semantic
relationship of the Xֵ מוֹס to the cliticized Xָמְס^ נ may be that of subject, object,
or possessor of an activity implied by the Xָמְס^ נ noun, or else it may adjectivally
modify the Xָמְס^ נ noun.
־ ֫ ה]נָ שׁ תַאְמוּ םיִשׁ?ְשׁ יfוּגְמ י~נְ שׁ יֵמ/י הֹע<ַ פּ לֶא ב6ֲע$י רֶמאֹיּ$ו
‘(and) Jacob said to Pharaoh, “The days of the years of my sojourn have
been 130 years”’ (Gen 47:9)
֫ ֫ ֫ סֵסְמְעf ץcֶאְבּ ץcָאָה בַטיֵמְבּ ם^יfְצִמ ץcֶאְבּ
‘. . . in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Ramses (=
Ramses’ land)’ (Gen 47:11)
Other case relations, corresponding to semantic relationships such as recipi-
ent/indirect object, location, manner, etc. are usually marked lexically by pre-
positions or treated syntactically in a similar manner to accusatives.
Sometimes a verb may exhibit both strategies for marking its complement,
such as with the locative complement of בַ שׁ] י in the following.
֫ ֫ ןֶ שֹׁגּ ץcֶ אְבּ וּבְשׁ~ י
‘Let them live in the land of Goshen’ (Gen 47:6)
ָהיִבָא תיֵ בּ בֶשֵׁ תּ$ו רָמָתּ Xֶלֵתּ$ו
‘Tamar went and lived (in) her father’s house.’ (Gen 38:11)
50. Lexical Semantics
Semantics is concerned with meaning in language at every level of expression.
Meaning is compositional; that is, the meaning of a text or utterance is “com-
posed” of its constituent parts. One of the most central constituents are words,
whose meaning is the focus of lexical semantics.
A lexical semantic distinction already introduced is that between grammatical
words and lexical words (§7). Grammatical words are more context dependent
for their meaning, whereas lexical words have more context-independent con-
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 139
tent. This is why it is easier to define lexical words out of context (e.g., nouns,
verb, adjectives) than grammatical words (e.g., pronouns, prepositions, con-
junctions).
Dictionaries or lexica contain “decontextualized” senses of words, derived from
multiple instances of their use in expressions. The challenge in learning a new
language is to assign the correct decontextualized sense from the dictionary or
lexicon to each reading or speaking situation. It can be a temptation either to
rely too heavily on the context and so deny that meaning is compositional, or
to apply all the senses into each and every instance and so forget the contribu-
tion of the context. A balanced approach will view the decontextualized dic-
tionary sense(s) as providing guidance for integrating a word into a expressive
context.
As an example, consider the verb אmb (Qal). To begin with, we need to
distinguish two homonyms of this verb: אmb I ‘call’, and אmb II ‘meet’; the
latter is a by-form of הmb. If we examine HALOT, we find a number of senses
listed for אmb (Qal) I, including the following:
1) call (to someone)
2) name (someone/something)
3) call, summon, or invite (someone)
4) proclaim or announce (something)
5) call or cry aloud (generally or to a deity)
6) read or recite (aloud)
On the one hand, it is easy enough to see meaning shared among these senses:
אmb (Qal) I involves making audible, coherent sounds directed toward
someone or something. In a given expression we will then examine the details
of the context to determine precisely which of these senses is most suitable.
In many cases recognizing valency patterns (i.e., patterns of complements and
adjuncts) and case (i.e., accusative or prepositional objects of the verb) be-
comes crucial for making such judgments. For example, sense (2) and (3) tend
to have two complements (besides the subject): the name given and the person
or thing named; the person summoned and the event or person they are
summoned to (the complements are underlined).
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 140
֫ ֫ הָל/יָל אmb Xֶשֹׁחַל/ו םוֹי רוֹאָל םיִה?ֱא אm‚ִיּ$ו
‘God named the light day and the darkness he named night.’ (Gen 1:5)
֫ ־ םֶחָל לָכֱאֶל ויָחֶאְל אm‚ִיּ$ו רָהָבּ חַבֶז ב6ֲע$י חַ בְּזִיּ$ו
‘Jacob offered a sacrifice on the mountain and summoned his relatives
(lit., brothers) to eat food (lit., bread).’ (Gen 31:54)
By contrast, the other senses frequently have just one object: the thing an-
nounced or read or the person (deity) cried out to.
־ XKְבַא וי]נָפְל וּא<‚ִ יּ$ו וֹל רֶשֲׁא הLנְשִׁ מַּה תֶבֶכּ<ִמְבּ וֹתֹא בֵכּ<ַ יּ$ו
‘And he rode him in his second chariot and they shouted in front of
him “Kneel!”’ (Gen 41:43)
Note: The prepositional phrase וי]נָפְ ל is an adjunct; it does not “complete” the sense
of the verb in any way, but modifies it by specifying the location of the proclamation.
֫ םָעָה י~נְזָאְבּ אm‚ִיּ$ו תי0ְבַּה רֶפֵס חַקִּ יּ$ו
‘He took the book of the covenant and read (it) in the hearing (lit.,
ears) of the people.’ (Exod 24:7)
־ ־ אm‚ֶא יַה?ֱא לֶא/ו ה]וה/י אm‚ֶא יִל רַצַּ בּ
‘In my distress I called Yhwh and to my God I cried.’ (2 Sam 22:7)
In each of these patterns, lexical clues help further distinguish among senses of
the verb: one ‘reads’ a book (Exod 24:7) but ‘shouts’ an exclamatory word (Gen
41:43).
Lexical semantics concerned not only with the different senses of a single word
but also sense relations between similar (synonymous) words. Such sense rela-
tions are understood as forming intricate semantic structures in languages.
The more the related senses of similar words can be distinguished, the more
fully the senses of each individual word is understood and vice-versa.
For example, אmb (Qal) I, glossed above as involving making audible, coherent
sounds directed toward someone or something, is related to קַ עָ צ (Qal) and its
by-form קַעָ ז (Qal). An examination of the various instances of these verbs
Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (2011 draft) 141
shows both overlap and distinction in their senses. For example, קַעָז/קַעָ צ nev-
er express naming or reading, in contrast to אmb. In addition, they usually in-
volve making audiable sounds in a distressing or alarming situation (Exod 2:23
below), while אmb only sometimes has a similar sense (e.g., 2 Sam 22:7, above).
־ ־ וּקָעְזִ יּ$ו הzֹבֲעָה ןִמ לֵאmְשׂ^י י~נְב וּח/נָאֵיּ$ו
‘(and) the children of Israel groaned from the (forced) labor and they
cried out (in distress).’ (Exod 2:23)
GO TO READING #13
Appendix A
Phonology
1. From “Biblical” Hebrew to “Masoretic” Hebrew
Vowels
Based on comparative evidence from languages related to Hebrew, like
Akkadian and Arabic, grammarians believe that the vowels of ancient Hebrew
changed between the biblical period and the period in which the vowel points
were added in the Masoretic Text. Ancient Hebrew distinguished vowels
primarily based on quality (timbre) and quantity (length; macrons indicate
“long”), as in the diagram below. (The traditional phonetic “trapezoid” chart
distinguishes vowels based on the vertical and horizontal position of the
highest point of the tongue in the production of the sound.)
Front
Backness
Central Back
Height
Close
i/ī u/ū
a/ā
Mid
Open
Reconstructed Ancient Hebrew vowels: 3 phonemes
Scholars reconstruct a vowel inventory for ancient Hebrew that is essentially
identical to that of reconstructed proto-Semitic. One difference between
ancient Hebrew and proto-Semitic is that at some point in the late second
millennium, all Hebrew long a vowels, i.e., /ā/, underwent what is
affectionately called “the Canaanite Shift” and became /ō/.
In contrast to the ancient Hebrew, the Masoretic system we know from the
Tiberian tradition of Masoretes (which gave us the Leningrad Codex that we use
as the basis for most of our Hebrew Bibles) makes the most sense as a system of
vowel timbre, without any distinction of length, as shown in the following dia-
gram (i as in machine; e as in they; ɛ as in bɛt; a as father; ɔ as in bought; o as in
go; u as in rude).
Appendices A2
Front
Backness
Central Back
Height
Close
ִ = i u = וּ/ֻ
ֵ = e o = וֹ
ֶ = ɛ ɔ = ָ
ַ = a
Examples
i as in machine
e as in they
ɛ as in bɛt
a as father
ɔ as in bought
o as in go
u as in rude
Mid
Open
Masoretic (Tiberian) Hebrew vowels: 7 phonemes
While some students are taught to pronounce ancient Hebrew with the recon-
structed vowels, most courses use a mixture that derives from the pronunci-
ation of Hebrew in the modern state of Israel. Consider the below chart in
order to appreciate fully the complexities of working with a language that has
a 3,000-year history.
Front
Backness
Central Back
Height
Close
i u
o
ɛ
a
Mid
Open
Israeli (Ashkenazic) Hebrew vowels: 5 phonemes
2. Vowel Changes from Ancient to “Tiberian” Hebrew
There is a pattern to the numerous vowel changes that occur when nouns are
made plural, dual, and construct. However, this pattern is obscured by the Mas-
oretic vowel system in the Hebrew Bible. Analyzed from a historical perspect-
ive (i.e., looking at the changes in the language over time), though, the changes
are regular and predictable.
The key to understanding the how the Tiberian Hebrew vowel system relates to
the probable Ancient Hebrew vowel system is to assume that the Tiberian
vowel points preserve for the most part the older system of long and short
Appendices A3
vowels. If this is so, then we can classify the vowels in terms of their historical
status as pure long, short, lengthened short, or reduced short. The following table
presents this classification (note that we simplify the issue of the vowel mark-
ers; not all pure long vowels are marked with a ו or י).
Pure
Long
Lengthened
Short
Short Reduced Short
a-class a
(ה)ָ ← → ַ ← → ֲ or ְ
i-class
e
i
י ֵ
י ִ
ֵ ←
ֶ
→ ←
ִ
→ ֱ or ְ
u-class
o
u


ֹ ←
ָ
→ ←
ֻ
→ ֳ or ְ
Based on this chart, the following principles emerge:
● Pure Long vowels are stable and do not change.
סוּס ‘horse’
֫ ־ (ֶלֶּמַה יֵסוּס ‘the horses of the king’
םי0יִדַּ צ ‘righteous ones’
Note: The doubled ד prevents the vowel under the צ from reducing (see below).
● Short vowels lengthen a) in a stressed syllable; and b) immediately before
a stressed syllable (i.e., lengthened short).
רָבָ דּ ‘word’ (both vowels are lengthened short a-class vowels)
● Short vowels reduce two syllables or further before the stressed syllable
(i.e., reduced short).
רַבְ דּ ֫ ־ (ֶלֶּמַה ‘the word of the king’
Note: The short a-class vowel under ד has become a reduced short; the a-class
vowel under ב stays short instead of becoming a lengthened short as in the
absolute form, above.
Appendices A4
3. Vowel Letters
Originally the Hebrew language, like other Semitic alphabetic languages (e.g.,
Phoenician, Aramaic), was written with consonants only. Vowels were simply
understood by the literate, such as scribes.
However, even educated scribes must have had a few problems with a wholly
consonantal system, because by the 8th century, texts exhibit the use of three
consonants, ו, ה, and י to mark certain vowels (historically long or lengthened
vowels) at the ends of words. These “vowel markers” (their Hebrew name is
הָאי9ְקַּה תוֹמִּ א ‘mothers of reading’; the common Latin translation of this is
matres lectionis), were first used in Aramaic by the 10th century B.C.E. before be-
ing adopted later by Hebrew writers.
Over time the ancient Hebrew system of vowel markers was expanded so that
they stood for long/lengthened vowels not just at the end of words (i.e., word-
final vowel markers), but anywhere in the word (i.e., word-medial or word-in-
ternal vowel markers).
In particular ו and י marked vowels that resulted from the contraction of vow-
els with a following consonantal ו or י: aw became ô (often written as ־ ו=ו םֶלוֹח),
uw became û (often written as ק@וּשׁ), ay became ê (often written as ־ דוֹי יBֵ צ),
and iy became î (often written as ־ דוֹי ק@יִ ח). The full system looked like this:
ה stood for long/lengthened a, e or o vowels at the end of a word,
e.g., ָכְּלַמ, הDָשׂ, הֹמGְ שׁ ה .
ו stood for long/lengthened or contracted u and o vowels,
e.g., וּבוּשׁ, םוֹי, וֹד= י.
י stood for long/lengthened or contracted i and e vowels,
e.g., יִשׁיִא, יHניֵ ע.
So, where do the vowel “points” that you have learned come from? Although
the pronunciation of the Hebrew Bible was preserved for centuries by an oral
“reading tradition,” around the 6th century C.E. scholars called Masoretes, who
were responsible for preserving the text of the Hebrew Bible, became con-
cerned about the long-term preservation of their reading tradition. They de-
veloped “points” to represent the Hebrew vowels. It was the responsibility of
Appendices A5
specialists called םיKנָ דּLM נ (‘pointers’) to add these תוֹדוּקN נ (‘points’) to the exist-
ing consonantal text.
Since the text of the Hebrew Bible had become sacred, the points were super-
imposed upon the existing text, which itself was a product from many different
hands and stages, dialects, and idiolects of ancient Hebrew. This is why only
some of the vowels in Hebrew use a ו or י with a vowel point. When a vowel
marker (ו ,י, or ה) is present in the text of the Hebrew Bible, the spelling is
called scriptio plene (‘full writing’); when a vowel letter is absent the spelling is
called scriptio defectiva (‘defective writing’). More simply the two modes are
called full and defective spelling.
4. Syllables, Vowels, and Word Stress
A syllable begins with a consonant (C) and ends with either a vowel (CV =
open), or a consonant (CVC = closed).
Note: The vocalic וּ form of the ו conjunction before certain consonant-vowel
combinations (see A.6 below) is the only exception to consonant-first syllables.
רָבָ דּ has two syllables: an open –ָדּ (CV)
and
a closed רָ ב– (CVC).
Note: The vowel letters (ה, ו, י) and א do not close syllables! However, הּ at the
end of a word does close a syllable. The dot, called a mappiq, indicates that the ה is
a consonant and not a vowel letter.
● Open syllables usually have (historically) long/lengthened vowels (as –ָדּ
in רָבָ דּ) unless stressed— then they may have short vowels (as –ֶ֫ מ in ֫ (ֶלֶ מ).
Note: A syllable is either stressed or unstressed: in most words the last syllable is
stressed. Words that are not stressed on the last syllable in the lessons and
exercises have an accent mark over the stressed syllable, written as ֫ .
● Closed syllables usually have (historically) short vowels (as (ֶ ל- in ֫ (ֶלֶ מ)
unless stressed—then they may have long vowels (as רָ ב- in רָבָ דּ).
Note: The ָ vowel sign represents the short u-class ףוּטָח ץֵמS in a closed, unstres -
sed syllable, and elsewhere the lengthened a-class ץֵמS. E.g., הָמ-ְכָ ח = [chochma].
Appendices A6
● Open syllables that are unstressed may have a reduced (from a historically
short), vocal א= וְ שׁ vowel (as -ְדּ in ְדּ - ָ ב - םי9 ).
5. The Article ַ ה and the Interrogative ֲ ה
The form of the article is ͏ַ ה attached to the front of the word it modifies and a
קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ in the first letter of the host word.
ַ ה • רָ בּZִמַּה = רָ בּZִמ + ‘the wilderness’
However, this basic form may be modified as follows:
#1 • ͏ַ ה before non-guttural consonants: סוּסַּ ה ‘the horse’
#2 ͏ָ ה usually before א, ע, or ר: שׁא\ָ ה ‘the head’
#3 ͏ַ ה usually before ה or ח: לָכיֵהַ ה ‘the temple’
#4 ͏ֶ ה before ָה, ͏ָ ח, or ͏ָ ע (unstressed!): םי9ָהֶ ה ‘the mountains’
#5 ͏ָ ה before ֫͏ָ ה or ֫͏ָ ע (stressed!): רָהָ ה ‘the mountain’
BUT before ֫͏ָ ח (stressed!) it is ֫ ͏ֶה: לKיָ חֶ ה ‘the valor’
Summary of the article before gutturals:
ר
stressed qamets unstressed qamets
א
זָעָ ה רָ פָ עֶ ה

ע
ָ ה
שׁא\ָ ה
בָאָ ה
ריִ עָ ה
רָהָ ה םי9ָהֶ ה ← ה
֫ לKיָ חֶ ה םָ כָ חֶ ה

ח
ַ ה
לָכיֵהַ ה
֫ שׁDֹ חַ ה
Note: There are a few nouns whose first vowel changes when the article is added:
֫ ץ@ָאָ ה

ַ ה • ֫ ץ@ֶא +
‘the earth’
ןָ גַּ ה

ַ ה • ןַג +
‘the garden’
םָ עָ ה

ַ ה • םַע +
‘the people’
Appendices A7
The basic form of the interrogative ֲ ה may also be modified as follows:
#1 ͏ַ ה before a guttural or any consonant with א= ו` ש vowel: בָא אוּהַ ה ‘Is he a
father?’
#2 ֶ ה before a guttural with ץֶ מS vowel: הָ תַּ א םָ כָ חֶ ה ‘Are you wise?’
6. Attaching the Clitic Prepositions
The vocalization of the ו conjunction:
● ͏N ו normally
דיK וcN ו ‘and David’
Note: The definite article remains when the conjunction is added.
שׁיִאָהN ו ‘and the man’
● ͏K ו before N י
N ו + הcוּהN י ← הcוּהיK ו ‘and Judah’
● with the corresponding full vowel before a א=וְשׁ ףֵטָ ח
םוֹדֱאe ו ‘and Edom’ יKנֲאM ו ‘and I’
● וּ before ב, מ, פ, or simple א= וְ שׁ (other than N י). This may be mnemonically
referred to as the BuMP-Sheva Rule.
N ו + ֫ תKיַ בּ ← ֫ תK יַבוּ ‘and a house’
N ו + םיK נָ פּ ← םיKנָפוּ ‘and a face’
N ו + הcוּהיִ מ ← הcוּהיִ מוּ ‘and from Judah’
N ו + םיִלוֹדְגּ ← םיִ לוֹדְגוּ ‘and great (things)’
Note: This is the only case in which a vowel begins a syllable!
Appendices A8
● Some special cases:
Quiescent א:
םיִ הGאH ו ‘and God’ י=נgאM ו ‘and the Lord’
͏= ו occasionally before a stressed syllable:
֫ וּהֹב= ו ‘and emptiness’
The principles of vocalization for the clitic prepositions are:
● ͏ְבּ, ͏ְ כּ, ͏ְ ל before a consonant with a full vowel
֫ (ֶלֶ מְ ל ‘to/for a king’
֫ תKיַבְ בּ ‘in/at a house’
● ִ͏בּ, ִ כּ, ִ ל before a consonant with a simple א= וְ שׁ
תי9ְבִ בּ ‘according to a covenant’
BUT before N י the vowel becomes י ִ
ְ ל + הcוּהN י ← הcוּהיִ ל ‘to/for Judah’
● The corresponding full vowel before a compound א= וְ שׁ
ְכּ + רֶ שֲׁ א ← רֶ שֲׁ אַ כּ ‘like that which’
ְ ל + םוֹדֱא ← םוֹדֱאֶ ל ‘to/for Edom’
● The article vocalization before a noun with the article (i.e., the article’s
consonant ה is replaced by the clitic preposition)
ְ ל + ֫ (ֶלֶ מַּ ה ← ֫ (ֶלֶ מַּ ל ‘to/for the king ’
● Some special cases:
Quiescent א:
םיִהGאֵ ל ‘to/for God’ י= נgאַ ל ‘to/for the Lord’
͏ְָבּ, ָ כּ, ָ ל before a stressed syllable in some words:
הֶזָ בּ ‘in this’
Appendices A9
The preposition ןִ מ may also be proclitic. In this case, the vocalization is:
● ͏ִ מ before non-gutturals (the assimilation of ן into the following consonant
is marked by a קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ)
ןִ מ + םָ שׁ ← םָ שִּׁ מ ‘from there’
BUT before N י the vowel becomes a י ִ
ןִ מ + הcוּהN י ← הcוּהיִ מ ‘from Judah’
● ͏ֵ מ before gutturals (the vowel lengthens because the guttural cannot be
lengthened, i.e., they do not allow קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ)
ןִ מ + שׁיִ א ← שׁיִאֵמ ‘from a man’
Appendix B
Nominal Morphology
1a. Noun Inflection (§§6, 10, 20)
Dual Plural Singular
֫ םK יiָבְ דּ םי9ָבְ דּ רָבָ דּ )ֵמוֹס
יBְבִ דּ יBְבִ דּ רַבְ דּ )ָמְס- נ
Masculine
֫ םK יj תָמZַ א תוֹמcֲ א הָמcֲ א )ֵמוֹס
יk תְמZַ א תוֹמZַ א תַמZַ א )ָמְס- נ
Feminine
1b. Adjective Inflection (§32)
Plural Singular
םיִלוֹדְגּ לוֹדָגּ )ֵמוֹס
יֵלוֹדְגּ לוֹדְגּ )ָמְס- נ
Masculine
תוֹלוֹדְגּ הָלוֹדְגּ )ֵמוֹס
תוֹלוֹדְגּ תַלוֹדְגּ )ָמְס- נ
Feminine
2. Frequent Irregular Nouns
Singular
Somech

Nismach
Plural
Somech Nismach
‘father’ M
בָא יִבֲא, בַא תוֹבָא תוֹבֲא
‘brother’ M
חָא יִ חֲא םיִ חַ א יֵ חַא
‘sister’ F
תוֹחָא תוֹחֲא תוֹיָחֲא תוֹיְחַא
‘man’ M
שׁיִ א שׁיִ א םיִ שׁ= נֲא יֵ שׁN נַא
Appendices A11
Singular
Somech

Nismach
Plural
Somech Nismach
‘woman’ F
הָ שִּׁא ֫ תֶ שֵׁ א םיִשׁ= נ יֵשׁN נ
‘house’ M ֫ תKיַ בּ תיֵ בּ םיִ תָּ בּ יֵ תָּ בּ
‘son’ M
ןֵ בּ ןֶ בּ םיKנָ בּ יHנְ בּ
‘daughter’ F
תַ בּ תַ בּ תוֹנָ בּ תוֹנְ בּ
‘day’ M
םוֹי םוֹי םיִמ= י יֵ מN י
‘city’ F
ריִ ע ריִ ע םי9ָ ע יBָ ע
‘head’ M
שׁא\ שׁא\ םיִ שׁאl יֵשׁאl
3. Personal Pronouns (§§5, 10)
‘they’ ֫ הָ מֵּ ה / םֵ ה 3MS ‘he’ אוּה 3MS
‘they’ ֫ הָ נֵּ ה / ןֵ ה 3FS ‘she’ איִ ה 3FS
‘you’ םֶ תַּ א 2MS ‘you’ הָ תַּ א 2MS
‘you’ ןֶ תַּ א 2FS ‘you’ ְתַּ א 2FS
‘we’ ֫ וּנְחM נֲ א 1S ‘I’ יKנֲא 1S
4. Demonstrative Pronouns (§33)
Plural Singular
‘these’ ֫ הֶ לֵּא ‘this’
הֶ ז
Masculine
תאֹ ז
Feminine
Near
‘those’
֫ הָ מֵּ ה
֫ הָ נֵּ ה
‘that’
אוּה
Masculine
איִ ה
Feminine
Far
Appendices A12
5a. Enclitic Pronouns with Singular Nouns (§§9, 20)
With Feminine With Masculine
his law
her law
your law
your law
my law
their law
their law
your law
your law
our law
וֹתlוֹתּ
הּoתlוֹתּ
֫ p`תlוֹתּ
(kתlוֹתּ
יqתlוֹתּ
םo תlוֹתּ
ןo תlוֹתּ
םֶכ` תiוֹתּ
ןֶכ` תiוֹתּ
ֵ וּנֵתlוֹתּ
his word
her word
your word
your word
my word
their word
their word
your word
your word
our word
וֹרָבְ דּ
הּlָבְ דּ
֫ prָבְ דּ
(Bָבְ דּ
י9ָבְ דּ
םlָבְ דּ
ןlָבְ דּ
םֶ כrַבְ דּ
ןֶ כrַבְ דּ
ֵ וּנֵרָבְ דּ
3MS וֹ
3FS ָ הּ
2MS ְ p
2FS ֵ (
1CS ִ י
3MP ָ ם
3FP ָ ן
2MP ְ םֶ כ
2FP ְ ןֶ כ
1CP ֵ֫ וּנ
5b. Enclitic Pronouns with Plural Nouns (§§17, 31)
With Feminine With Masculine
his laws
her laws
your laws
your laws
my laws
their laws
their laws
your laws
your laws
our laws
ויo תוֹרוֹתּ
֫ ָהיsתוֹרוֹתּ
֫ pיsתוֹרוֹתּ
ַ (יַתוֹרוֹתּ
יjתוֹרוֹתּ
םֶ היk תוֹרוֹתּ
ןֶהיk תוֹרוֹתּ
םֶכיkתוֹרוֹתּ
֫ ןֶ כיk תוֹרוֹתּ
֫ וּניk תוֹרוֹתּ
his words
her words
your words
your words
my words
their words
their words
your words
your words
our words
ויlָבְ דּ
֫ ָ הי@ָבְ דּ
֫ pי@ָבְ דּ
(K יiָבְ דּ
יiָבְ דּ
םֶהיBְבִ דּ
ןֶ היBְבִ דּ
םֶכיBְבִ דּ
ןֶ כיBְבִ דּ
֫ וּניBָבְ דּ
3MS וי ָ
3FS ֫ ָ הי ֶ
2MS ֫ pי ֶ
2FS ֫ (K י ַ
1CS י ַ
3MP םֶהיֵ
3FP ןֶהיֵ
2MP םֶכיֵ
2FP ןֶכיֵ
1CP ֫ וּניֵ
Appendices A13
5c. Enclitic Pronouns with ל, ָכּ/וֹמָכּ ,ןִ מ, and the Object
Marker -תֶ א/תוֹא
him
her
you
you
me
them
them
you
you
us
וֹתוֹא
הּoתוֹא
p`תוֹא
(oתוֹא
יqתוֹא
םo תוֹא
ןֶ ה` תֶ א
םֶ כ` תֶ א
ןֶ כ` תֶ א
֫ וּנoתוֹא
from him
from her
from you
from you
from me
from them
from them
from you
from you
from us
֫ וּנֶּ מִּ מ
֫ ה=נֶ מִּ מ
pְ מִּ מ
(ֵ מִּ מ
֫ יKנֶ מִּ מ
םֶהֵ מ
ןֶ הֵ מ
םֶ כִּ מ
ןֶ כִּ מ
֫ וּנֶּ מִּ מ
like him
like her
like you
like you
like me
like them
like them
like you
like you
like us
ֹ וּהֹ מָ כּ
֫ ָ הוֹמָ כּ
֫ pוֹמָ כּ
(וֹמָ כּ
֫ יK נוֹמָ כּ
םֶהָ כּ
ןֵ הָ כּ
םֶכָ כּ
ןֶ כָ כּ
֫ וּנוֹמָ כּ
for him
for her
for you
for you
for me
for them
for them
for you
for you
for us
וֹל
הָּ ל
pְ ל
(ָ ל
יִ ל
םֶהָ ל
ןֶ הָ ל
םֶכָ ל
ןֶ כָ ל
֫ וּנָ ל
3MS וֹ
3FS הָּ
2MS ְ p
2FS ָ (
1CS ִ י
3MP םָ /םֶ ה
3FP ָ ןֶ ה
2MP םֶ כָ
2FP ןֶ כָ
1CP ָ֫ וּנ
Appendix C
Verb Morphology
Strong Verb Quick Reference Chart:
Representative Forms
QAL NIFAL PIEL PUAL HITPAEL HIFIL HOFAL
PERF 3MS
רַ מָ שׁ רַמְשׁK נ ץֵ בּ0 ץַ בּt ץֵ בּu`תִ ה (יִלְ שִׁ ה (ַלְ שָׁ ה
IMPF 3MS
רֹ מְ שׁK י רֵמָּשׁK י ץֵ בּuN י ץַ בּtN י ץֵ בּu` תK י (יִ לְ שׁM י (ַלְ שׁ= י
PAST 3MS
רֹ מְ שִׁ יּM ו רֵמָּשִׁיּM ו ץֵ בּuNיM ו ץַ בּtNיM ו ץֵ בּu` תִיּM ו (ֵלְ שַׁיּM ו (ַלְ שָׁיּM ו
IMV MS
רֹ מְ שׁ רֵמָּשִׁ ה ץֵ בּu ץֵ בּu`תִ ה (ֵלְ שַׁ ה
INF
רֹ מְ שׁ רֵמָּשִׁ ה ץֵ בּu ץַ בּt ץֵ בּu`תִ ה (יִלְ שַׁ ה (ַלְ שָׁ ה
INF ADV
רוֹמָ שׁ
רֹ מָ שִּׁ ה
רֹ מְ שׁK נ
ץֵ בּu ץֹ בּt ץֵ בּu`תִ ה (ֵלְ שַׁ ה (ֵלְ שָׁ ה
PTCP MS
רֵ מֹ שׁ רָמְשׁK נ ץֵ בּuְ מ ץָ בּtְ מ ץֵ בּu` תִ מ (יִלְ שַׁ מ (ָלְ שָׁ מ
רמשׁ ‘guard’ ץבק ‘gather’ ךלשׁ ‘throw’
1a. The “Strong” Verb
QAL NIFAL PIEL PUAL HITPAEL HIFIL HOFAL
PERF 3MS
רַ מָ שׁ רַ מְ שׁK נ ץֵ בּ0 ץַ בּt ץֵ בּu`תִ ה (יִלְ שִׁ ה (ַלְ שָׁ ה
3FS
הlְ מָ שׁ הlְ מְ שׁK נ הָצְבּ0 הָצְבּt הָצְ בּu`תִ ה הָכיִלְ שִׁ ה הָכְלְ שָׁ ה
2MS
֫ ָתּrַ מָ שׁ ֫ ָתּrַ מְשׁK נ ֫ ָתְּ צַ בּ0 ֫ ָתְּ צַ בּt ֫ ָתְּצַ בּu`תִ ה ֫ ָתְּ כַלְ שִׁ ה ֫ ָתְּ כַלְ שָׁ ה
2FS
֫ ְתּrַ מָ שׁ ֫ ְתּrַ מְשׁK נ ֫ ְתְּ צַ בּ0 ֫ ְתְּ צַ בּt ֫ ְתְּצַ בּu`תִ ה ֫ ְתְּ כַלְ שִׁ ה ֫ ְתְּ כַלְ שָׁ ה
1CS
֫ יִ תּrַ מָ שׁ ֫ יִ תּrַ מְשׁK נ ֫ יִ תְּ צַבּ0 ֫ יִ תְּ צַבּt ֫ יִ תְּצַ בּu`תִ ה ֫ יִ תְּ כַלְ שִׁ ה ֫ יִ תְּ כַלְ שָׁ ה
3CP
וּרְמָ שׁ וּרְמְשׁK נ וּצְבּ0 וּצְבּt וּצְ בּu`תִ ה וּכיִלְ שִׁ ה וּכְלְ שָׁ ה
2MP
םֶ תּrַ מְ שׁ םֶ תּrַ מְ שׁK נ םֶ תְּ צַבּ0 םֶ תְּ צַבּt םֶ תְּצַ בּu`תִ ה םֶתְּכַלְ שִׁ ה םֶתְּכַלְ שָׁ ה
2FP
ןֶ תּrַ מְ שׁ ןֶ תּrַ מְ שׁK נ ןֶ תְּ צַבּ0 ןֶ תְּ צַבּt ןֶתְּצַ בּu`תִ ה ןֶתְּכַלְ שִׁ ה ןֶתְּכַלְ שָׁ ה
1CP
֫ וּנrַ מָ שׁ ֫ וּנrַ מְשׁK נ ֫ וּנְ צַבּ0 ֫ וּנְ צַבּt ֫ וּנְצַ בּu`תִ ה ֫ וּנְכַלְמִ ה ֫ וּנְכַלְ שָׁ ה
Appendices A15
IMPF 3MS
רֹ מְ שׁK י רֵ מָ שּׁK י ץֵ בּuN י ץַ בּtN י ץֵ בּu` תK י (יִ לְ שׁM י (ַלְ שׁ= י
3FS/2MS
רֹ מְ שִׁ תּ רֵ מָ שִּׁ תּ ץֵ בּuְ תּ ץַ בּtְ תּ ץֵ בּu` תִ תּ (יִ לְ שַׁ תּ (ַלְ שָׁ תּ
2FS
י9ְ מְ שִׁ תּ י9ְ מָ שִּׁ תּ יִצְבּuְ תּ יִצְבּtְ תּ יִצְבּu` תִ תּ ֫ יִכיִ לְ שַׁ תּ יִכְלְ שָׁ תּ
1CS
רֹ מְ שֶׁא רֵ מָ שֶּׁא ץֵ בּuֲ א ץַ בּtֲ א ץֵ בּu` תֶ א (יִ לְ שַׁא (ַלְ שָׁא
3MP
וּרְמְ שׁK י וּרְמָ שּׁK י וּצְבּuN י וּצְבּtN י וּצְבּu` תK י ֫ וּכיִלְ שׁM י וּכְלְ שׁ= י
3FP
֫ ה=נrֹ מְ שִׁ תּ ֫ ה=נrַ מָ שִּׁ תּ ֫ ה= נְ צֵבּuְ תּ ֫ ה= נְ צַבּtְ תּ ֫ ה=נְצֵבּu` תִ תּ ֫ ה=נְכֵ לְ שַׁ תּ ֫ ה=נְכַ לְ שָׁ תּ
2MP
וּרְמְ שִׁ תּ וּרְמָ שִּׁ תּ וּצְבּuְ תּ וּצְבּtְ תּ וּצְבּu` תִ תּ ֫ וּכיִ לְ שַׁ תּ וּכְלְ שַָׁ תּ
2FP
֫ ה=נrֹ מְ שִׁ תּ ֫ ה=נrַ מָ שִּׁ תּ ֫ ה= נְ צֵבּuְ תּ ֫ ה= נְ צַבּtְ תּ ֫ ה=נְצֵבּu` תִ תּ ֫ ה=נְכֵ לְ שַׁ תּ ֫ ה=נְכַ לְ שָׁ תּ
1CP
רֹ מְ שׁK נ רֵ מָ שּׁK נ ץֵ בּuN נ ץַ בּtN נ ץֵ בּu`תK נ (יִ לְ שׁM נ (ַלְ שׁ= נ
QAL NIFAL PIEL PUAL HITPAEL HIFIL HOFAL
PAST 3MS
רֹ מְ שִׁיּM ו רֵ מָ שִּׁיּM ו ץֵ בּuNיM ו ץַ בּtNיM ו ץֵ בּu` תִיּM ו (ֵלְ שַׁיּM ו (ַלְ שָׁיּM ו
JUSS 3MS
רֹ מְ שׁK י רֵ מָ שִּׁ תּ ץֵ בּuְ תּ ץַ בּtN י ץֵ בּu` תK י (ֵלְ שׁM י (ַלְ שׁ= י
1CS
הlְ מְ שֶׁא הlְ מָ שֶּׁא הָצֵבּuֲ א הָצְבּtֲ א הָצֵבּu` תֶ א הָכיִלְ שַׁא
IMV MS
רֹ מְ שׁ רֵ מָ שִּׁ ה ץֵ בּu ץֵ בּu`תִ ה (ֵלְ שַׁ ה
FS
י9ְ מִ שׁ י9ְ מָ שִּׁ ה יִ צְ בּu יִצְ בּu`תִ ה ֫ יִכיִלְ שַׁ ה
MP
וּרְמִ שׁ וּרְמָ שִּׁ ה וצְבּu וּצְ בּu`תִ ה ֫ וּכיִלְ שַׁ ה
FP
֫ ה=נrֹ מְ שׁ ֫ ה=נrַמָ שִּׁ ה ֫ ה= נְ צֵבּu ֫ ה=נְצֵ בּu`תִ ה ֫ ה= נְ כֵלְ שַׁ ה
INF
רֹ מְ שׁ רֵ מָ שִּׁ ה ץֵ בּu ץַ בּt ץֵ בּu`תִ ה (יִלְ שַׁ ה (ַלְ שָׁ ה
ADV INF
רֹ מָ שׁ רֹ מְ שׁK נ
רֹ מָ שִּׁ ה
ץֵ בּu ץַ בּt ץֵ בּu`תִ ה (ֵלְ שַׁ ה (ֵלְ שָׁ ה
PTCP MSA
רֵ מֹ שׁ רָ מְ שׁK נ ץֵ בּuְ מ ץָ בּtְ מ ץֵ בּu` תִ מ (יִלְ שַׁ מ (ַלְ שָׁ מ
FSA
הlְ מֹ שׁ הlָ מְ שׁK נ הָצְבּuְ מ הָצָבּtְ מ הָצְבּu` תִ מ הָכיִלְ שַׁ מ הָכָלְ שָׁ מ
֫ ת@ֶ מֹ שׁ ֫ ת@ֶ מְשׁK נ ֫ תֶצֶבּuְ מ ֫ תֶצֶבּtְ מ ֫ תֶצֶבּu` תִ מ ֫ תֶ כֶלוַ מ ֫ תֶ כֶלְ שָׁ מ
MPA
םי9ְ מֹ שׁ םי9ָ מְ שׁK נ םיִצְבּuְ מ םיִצָבּtְ מ םיִצְבּu` תִ מ םיִ כיִ לְ שַׁ מ םיִ כָ לְ שָׁ מ
FPA
תוֹרְמֹ שׁ תוֹרָמְשׁK נ תוֹצְבּuְ מ תוֹדָקֻּפְ מ תוֹצְבּu` תִ מ תוֹכיִלְ שַׁ מ תוֹכָלְ שָׁ מ
Appendices A16
1b. Recognizing the Derived םי-נ6י7נִ בּ
Note: R indicates a verbal root consonant, and the subscripts
1 2 3
indicate the
position of the consonant within the triconsonantal root.
לַעְפ- נ/Nifal
● Perfect is characterized by a נ prefix and ַ (חj תַ פּ) under R2.
● Imperfect is characterized by a lengthened R
1
(indicated by קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ)
with ָ (a-class ץֵ מS)
● Imperative is characterized by a ִ ה prefix and lengthened R
1

with ָ (a-class ץֵ מS).
The Nifal Imperative generally occurs with the Nifal’s reflexive sense (as opposed
to its passive sense).
● Adverbial Infinitive has two forms: דyְפK נ and דyָ פִּ ה
● Participle is characterized by a K נ prefix and ָ (a-class ץֵ מS) under R2.
לֵ עִ פּ/Piel
● Perfect conjugation is characterized by i-class vowel under R
1
and
lengthened R
2
(indicated by קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ).
● Imperfect conjugation is characterized by ְ under the prefix consonant,
a-class vowel under R
1
, and lengthened R
2
(indicated by קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ).
● Past Narrative exhibits a peculiarity with the 3MS and 3MP forms: the שֵׁגָ דּ
“falls out” of the י prefix. This phenomenon is part of a general tendency
of the consonants ו, י , ל, מ, נ, ק, ס, צ, שׂ and שׁ to drop a שֵׁגָ דּ when
they have a vocal א= וְ שׁ.
This phenomenon is often referred to as vilminqs (= קנמליו + sibilants) or
sqinmlevi (i.e., “skin ‘em Levi”).
־ הֶשֹׁמ לֶא ה=והNי רֵ בּzN יM ו ‘YHWH spoke to Moses’ (Num 1:1)
Appendices A17
● Participle is characterized by a מ inflectional prefix and the vowel
pattern of the masculine singular is the same as that of the Prefix pattern
in the respective םיK נ= יN נִבּ.
Piel Imperfect דֵ קַּפN י and Participle דֵ קַּפְ מ
לַ עֻ פּ/Pual
● Perfect is characterized by a u-class ( ָ or ֻ ) vowel under R
1
and a
lengthened R
2
.
● Imperfect is characterized by a ְ under the prefix, a u-class ( ָ or ֻ )
vowel under R
1
, and lengthened R
2
(indicated by קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ).
● Imperative and 1
st
Person Jussive do not occur in the Pual.
● Infinitive and Adverbial Infinitive each occur only once: וֹתוֹנֻּ ע (Ps 132:1)
and בֹנֻּ גּ (Gen 40:15), respectively.
● Participle is characterized by ְ מ prefix, a u-class vowel under R
1

( ָ or ֻ ), and a lengthened R
2
(indicated by קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ).
לֵ עַ פּ<תִ ה/Hitpael
● Perfect is characterized by a ` תִ ה prefix, an a-class vowel under R
1
, and a
lengthened R
2
(indicated by קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ).
● Imperfect is characterized by a ` ת after the prefix, an a-class vowel under
R
1
, and a lengthened R
2
(indicated by קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ).
● Imperative is characterized by a ` תִ ה prefix, an a-class vowel under R
1
, and
a lengthened R
2
(indicated by קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ).
● Infinitive and Adverbial Infinitive are identical in form to the 3ms
Perfect and 2ms Imperative.
● Participle is characterized by ` תִ מ prefix, an a-class vowel under R
1
, and a
lengthened R
2
(indicated by קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ).
Appendices A18
ליִ עְ פִ ה/Hifil
● Perfect conjugation is characterized by a ִ ה (or ה with an i-class vowel)
prefix and an i-class theme vowel (i.e., between R
2
and R
3
).
● Imperfect conjugation is characterized by an a-class vowel under the
prefix and an i-class theme vowel (i.e., between R
2
and R
3
).
Note: the i-class theme vowel is often spelled defectively (without י).
֫ וּתִ חְ שַׁ יּM ו ‘they destroyed’ (2 Sam 11:1)
● Past Narrative conjugation shows a slightly altered Prefix pattern. The
theme vowel in the Past Narrative verb form is ֵ instead of י ִ .
֫ ־ לַעַ בַּה תֶא אוּהHי דֵמְשַׁיּM ו ‘Jehu destroyed the Baal’ (2 Kgs 10:28)
● Participle is characterized by a מ inflectional prefix throughout. Also, the
vowel pattern of the masculine singular is the same as that of the Prefix
pattern in the respective םיK נ= יN נִבּ.
Hifil Imperfect די0ְפM י and Participle די0ְ פַ מ
לַעְפָ ה/Hofal
● Perfect is characterized by a u-class vowel under the prefix (ָ ה or ֻ ה).
● Imperfect is characterized by a u-class vowel under the prefix ( ָ or ֻ ).
● Imperative and 1
st
Person Jussive do not occur in the Hofal.
● Infinitives are rare.
● Participle is characterized by a u-class vowel under the prefix (ָ מ or ֻ מ)
Appendices A19
2. Enclitic Pronouns with Verbs (§40)
FOLLOWING CONSONANT
WITH
ENERGIC NUN
PREFIX VERB SUFFIX VERB FOLLOWING VOWEL
*וּהN נ ← וּנּ
*ָהN נ ← ֫ הָ נֶּ
*pN נ ← ֫ ָּךֶּ
*יK נN נ ← יִ נֶּ
*וּנN נ ← וּנּ
וּה ֵ֫
ָ ה ֶ֫
p ְ
( ֵ
יK נ ֵ֫
ם ֵ
ן ֵ
םֶ כ ְ
ןֶ כ ְ
וּנ ֵ֫

הּ ָ
p ְ
(ֶ / ( ֵ
יK נ ַ֫
ם ָ
ן ָ
םֶ כ ְ
ןֶ כ ְ
וּנ ָ֫
וּה- / ו-
ָ ה-
p-
(-
יK נ-
ם-
ן-
םֶ כ-
ןֶ כ-
וּנ-
3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS
3MP
3FP
2MP
2FP
1CP
Note: Suffix Pattern (Perfect) verbs have an a-class linking vowel (i.e., the vowel
between the verb form and the suffixed pronoun). Prefix Pattern (Imperfect, Past
Narrative, and Imperative) have an i-class linking vowel.
3. Introduction to Guttural Verbs
Guttural consonants (א, ה, ח, and ע) have four main characteristics.
● Characteristic #1: Gutturals (and ר) cannot be lengthened (i.e., they
cannot have a קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ).
● Characteristic #2: Gutturals prefer a-class vowels (both before and after).
● Characteristic #3: Gutturals ה, ח, and ע at the end of a word may be
preceded by a ֫ חj תַ פּ הָבוּנְגּ (‘stolen’ patach) (traditionally furtive patach).
● Characteristic #4: Gutturals usually have a א=וְשׁ ףֵטָ ח instead of א= וְ שׁ.
These characteristics result in predictable changes in verbal roots containing a
guttural consonant.
Appendices A20
3a. I-Guttural Verbs
#1 Nifal Imperfect has a ֵ (יBֵ צ) prefix vowel instead of the normal
ִ (ק@יִ ח) to “compensate” for the fact that the guttural consonant cannot
be lengthed (i.e., take a קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ).
דֵמָעH י instead of *דֵמָּעK י (compare to ד|ָ פּK י)
#2 Qal Imperfect Dynamic verbs have a ַ (חj תַ פּ) prefix vowel instead of ִ
(ק@יִ ח). Qal Imperfect Stative verbs have a ֶ (לוֹגְ ס) prefix vowel instead
of ִ (ק@יִ ח).
דֹמֲעM י instead of *דֹמְעK י (compare דyְ פK י)
קַ זֱ חe י instead of *קַ זְ חK י (compare דַ בְּכK י)
Note: Both dynamic and stative 1CS Qal Imperfect have ֶ (לוֹגְ ס) as the prefix
vowel: דֹמֱעֶ א and קַזֱחֶ א
I-Guttural Paradigm: דַ מָע ‘stand’
QAL (DYNAMIC) QAL (STATIVE) NIFAL PI/PU/HIT HIFIL HOFAL
PERF 3MS
דַ מָ ע קֵ זָ ח דַמֱעe נ דיִמֱעֶ ה דַמֳעָ ה
3FS
הcְ מָ ע הSְ זָ ח הcְמֶעe נ ִ הcיִמֱעֶ ה הcְמָעָ ה
2MS
֫ ְתּZַמָ ע ַ ָתּLַזָ ח ַ ָתּZַמֱעe נ ֫ ָתּZַמֱעֶ ה ֫ ָתּZַמֳעָ ה
2FS
ְתּZַ מָ ע ְתּLַ זָ ח ְתּZַמֳעe נ R ַ ְתּZַמֱעֶ ה ַ ְתּZַמֳעָ ה
1CS
֫ יִ תּZַמָ ע ֫ יִ תּLַזָ ח ַ יִ תּZַמֳעe נ ַ יִ תּZַמֱעֶ ה ַ יִ תּZַמֳעָ ה
3CP
וּדְמָ ע וּקְזָ ח וּדְמֶעe נ E ִ וּדיִמֱעֶ ה וּדְמָעָ ה
2MP
םֶ תּZַ מֲ ע םֶ תּLַ זֲ ח םֶ תּZַמֱעe נ םֶ תּZַמֱעֶ ה ֫ םֶ תּZַמֳעָ ה
2FP
ןֶ תּZַ מְ ע ןֶ תּLַ זֲ ח ןֶ תּZַמֱעe נ G ןֶ תּZַמֱעֶ ה ֫ ןֶ תּZַמֳעָ ה
1CP
֫ וּנZַמָ ע ַ וּנLַזָ ח ַ וּנZַמֱעe נ ֫ וּנZַמֱעֶ ה ַ וּנZַמֳעָ ה
Appendices A21
IMPF 3MS
דֹמֲעM י קַ זֱ חe י דֵמָעH י U דיִמֲעM י דַמֳע= י
3FS/2MS
דֹ מֲ עַ תּ קַ זֱ חֶ תּ דֵ מָ עֵ תּ דיִמֲעַ תּ דַ מֳ עָ תּ
2FS
י~ְ מַ עַ תּ י0ְ זֶ חֶ תּ י~ְ מָ עֵ תּ L ִ י~יִמֲעַתּ י~ְ מָ עָ תּ
1CS
דֹ מֱ עֶ א קַ זֱ חֶ א דֵ מָ עֵ א דיִמֲעֲא דַ מֳ עָ א
3MP
וּדְמַעM י וּקְזֶחe י וּדְמָעH י A ִ וּדיִמֲעM י וּדְמָע= י
3FP
ֹ ה=נZֹמֲעַ תּ ַ ה=נLַ זֱ חֶ תּ ה=נZַ מָ עֵ תּ ֫ ה=נZֵמֲעַ תּ ַ ה=נZַמֳעָ תּ
2MP
וּדְמֲעַ תּ וּקְזֱחֶ תּ וּדְמָעֵ תּ R ִ וּדיִמֲעַ תּ וּדְמָעָ תּ
2FP
ֹ ה=נZֹמֲעַ תּ ַ ה=נLַ זֱ חֶ תּ ה=נZַ מָ עֵ תּ ֫ ה=נZֵמֲעַ תּ ַ ה=נZַמֳעָ תּ
1CP
דֹמֲעM נ קַ זֱ חe נ דֵמָעH נ דיִמֲעM נ דַמֳע= נ
#3 Qal Imperative and Infinitive have ֲ (חjתַ פּ ףֵטָ ח) under the first radical.
דֹ מֲ ע instead of *דֹ מְ ע (compare דyְ פּ)
Note: A ףֵ טָ ח vowel will always be the same class as that of the preceding vowel.
דיִמֱעֶה דיִמֲעM י (Hifil 3MS Perfect and Imperfect)
Note: The ףֵ טָ ח vowel may change to a full vowel if the vowel in the following
syllable is reduced to a א=וְ שׁ.
דֹמֲעM י (Qal 3MS Imperfect) BUT וּדְמַעM י (Qal 3MP Imperfect)
I-Guttural: Representative Forms
QAL (DYNAMIC) QAL (STATIVE) NIFAL PI/PU/HIT HIFIL HOFAL
PAST 3MS
דֹ מֲ עַ יּM ו קַ זֱ חֶ יּM ו דֵ מָ עֵ יּM ו R דֵ מֲ עַ יּM ו דַ מֳ עָ יּM ו
JUSS 3MS
דֹמֲעM י קַ זֱ חe י דֵמָעH י דֵמֲעM י דַמֳע= י
1CS
הcְ מֶ עֶ א הSְ זֶ חֶ א הcְ מָ עֵ א E הcיִמֲעַא
IMV MS
דֹ מֲ ע קַ זֲ ח דֵמָעֵ ה דֵמֲעַ ה
FS
י~ְ מִ ע י0ְ זִ ח י~ְמָעֵ ה G ִ י~יִמֲעַ ה
MP
וּדְמִ ע וּקְזִ ח וּדְמָעֵ ה ִ וּדיִמֲעַ ה
FP
ֹ ה=נZֹמֲ ע ַ ה=נLַזֲ ח ֫ ה=נZַמָעֵ ה U ֵ ה=נZֵמֲעַ ה
Appendices A22
INF
דֹ מֲ ע קַ זֲ ח דֵמָעֵ ה דיִמֲעָ ה דַמֳעָ ה
ADV INF
דוֹמָ ע קוֹזָ ח דֹמָעֵ ה
דֹמֲעM נ
L
דֵמֲעַ ה דֵמֳעָ ה
PTCP MS
דֵ מֹ ע קֵ זָ ח דָמֱעe נ דיִמֲעַ מ דָמֳעָ מ
FS
הcְ מֹ ע הSֵ זֲ ח הcָמֱעe נ A הcיִמֲעַ מ הcָמֳעָ מ
ֶ תDֶמֹ ע ֶ תDֶמֱעe נ ֶ תDֶמֲעַ מ ֫ תDֶמֳעָ מ
MP
םי~ְ מֹ ע םי0ֵ זֲ ח םי~ָמֱעe נ R םי~יִמֲעַ מ םי~ָמֳעָ מ
FP
תוֹדְמֹ ע תוֹקֵזֲ ח תוֹדָמֱעe נ תוֹדיִמֲעַ מ תוֹדָמֳעָ מ
3b. II-Guttural Verbs
#1 The Piel, Pual, and Hitpael do not have their characteristic lengthening
of R
2
(i.e., no קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ). The preceding vowel may lengthen.
Before ר the vowel always lengthens:
(iֵ בּ instead of *(ֵּרִ בּ (compare דֵ קִּ פּ)
Before א the vowel usually lengthens:
רֵאֵ בּ instead of *רֵּאִ בּ
Before ה, ח, or ע the vowel usually does not lengthen:
םַחK נ instead of *םַחH נ
#2 Qal Imperfect and Imperative have an a-class theme vowel with both
stative and dynamic roots.
Stative: בַהֱאe י (expected)
Dynamic: טַחְשׁK י instead of *טֹחְשׁK י (compare דyְ פK י)
#3 R
2
has a אוְשׁ ףֵטָ ח instead of a simple א= וְ שׁ when the verb ends in a vocalic
inflectional suffix in all םיK נ= יN נִבּ except for the Hifil.
הlֲחָ בּ instead of *הlְחָ בּ (compare הcLָ פּ)
Appendices A23
וּרֲחָ בּ instead of *וּרְחָ בּ (compare וּדLָ פּ)
Note: ר does not always require a א=וְשׁ ףֵטָ ח, as in וּכrֵ בּ
Paradigm: טַחָ שׁ ‘slaughter’ and )רבּ ‘bless’
QAL NIFAL PIEL PUAL HITPAEL HIFIL/HOFAL
PERF 3MS
טַ חָ שׁ טַחְשׁK נ (iֵ בּ (iֹּ ב (Bָבּ`תִ ה
3FS
הָטֲחָ שׁ הָטֲחְשׁK נ הָ כrֵ בּ הָ כrֹּ ב הָכ•ָבּ`תִ ה
2MS
֫ ָתְּ טַ חָ שׁ ַ ָתְּ טַחְשׁK נ ַ ָתְּ כַרֵ בּ ַ ָתְּ כַרֹּ ב ֫ ָתְּכBָבּ`תִ ה
2FS
ְתְּ טַ חָ שׁ ְתְּטַחְשׁK נ ְתְּ כiֵ בּ ְתְּ כiֹ בּ ְתְּכBָבּ`תִ ה R
1CS
ַ יִ תְּ טַ חָ שׁ ַ יִ תְּ טַחְשׁK נ ֫ יִ תְּ כiֵ בּ ַ יִ תְּ כַרֹּ ב ֵ יִ תְּכֵ רָבּ`תִ ה
3CP
וּטֲחָ שׁ וּטֲחְשׁK נ וּכrֵּ ב וּכrֹ בּ וּכ•ָבּ`תִ ה E
2MP
םֶ תְּ טַ חְ שׁ םֶתְּטַחְשׁK נ םֶ תְּ כiֵ בּ םֶ תְּ כiֹ בּ םֶ תְּכBָבּ`תִ ה
2FP
ןֶ תְּ טַ חְ שׁ ןֶתְּטַחְשׁK נ ןֶ תְּ כiֵ בּ ןֶ תְּ כiֹ בּ ןֶ תְּכBָבּ`תִ ה G
1CP
ַ וּנְטַ חָ שׁ ַ וּנְטַחְשׁK נ ַ וּנְכַרֵ בּ ַ וּנְכַרֹ בּ ֵ וּנְכֵ רָבּ`תִ ה
U
IMPF 3MS
טַחְשׁK י טֵחָּשׁK י (BָבN י (iֹבN י (Bָבּ`תK י
3FS/2MS
טַ חְ שִׁ תּ טֵ חָּ שּׁqת (Bָבְתּ (iֹבְתּ (Bָ בּ` תִ תּ L
2FS
יִטֲחְשִׁ תּ יִטֲחָּשִׁ תּ יִ כ•ָבְתּ יִ כrֹבְתּ יִ כ•ָ בּ` תִ תּ
1CS
טַ חְ שֶׁא טֵ חָּ שֶׁא (Bָבֲא (iֹבֲא (Bָ בּ` תֶא A
3MP
וּטֲחְשׁK י וּטֲחָּשׁK י וּכ•ָבN י וּכrֹבN י וּכ•ָבּ`תK י
3FP
֫ ה=נְטַ חְ שִׁ תּ ַ ה=נְטַ חָּ שִׁ תּ ֵ ה=נְכֵרָבְ תּ ַ ה=נְכַרֹבְ תּ ֵ ה=נְכֵרָ בְּ תּ`ת R
2MP
וּטֲחְשּׁqת וּטֲחָּשִׁ תּ וּכ•ָבְתּ וּכrֹבְתּ וּכ•ָ בּ` תִ תּ
2FP
֫ ה=נְטַ חְ שִׁ תּ ַ ה=נְטַ חָּ שִׁ תּ ֵ ה=נְכֵרָבְ תּ ַ ה=נְכַרֹבְ תּ ֵ ה=נְכֵרָ בְּ תּ`ת
1CP
טַחְשׁK נ טֵחָּשׁK נ (BָבN נ (iֹבN נ (Bָבּ`תK נ
Appendices A24
II-Guttural: Representative Forms
QAL NIFAL PIEL PUAL HITPAEL HIFIL/HOFAL
PAST 3MS
טַ חְ שִׁ יּM ו טֵ חָּ שִׁיּM ו ֫ (@ָבNיM ו (iֹבNיM ו (Bָ בּ` תִיּM ו R
JUSS 3MS
טַחְשׁK י טֵחָּשׁK י (BָבN י (iֹבN י (Bָבּ`תK י
1CS
הָ טֲ חְ שֶׁא הָטֲחָּשֶׁא הָ כ•ָבֲא הָ כ•ֹבֲא הָ כ•ָ בּ` תֶא E
IMV MS
טַ חְ שׁ טֵחָּשִׁ ה (Bָ בּ (Bָבּ`תִ ה
FS
יִטֲחַ שׁ יִטֲחָּשִׁ ה יִ כ•ָ בּ יִכ•ָבּ`תִ ה G
MP
וּטֲחַ שׁ וּטֲחָּשִׁ ה וּכ•ָ בּ וּכ•ָבּ`תִ ה
FP
ַ ה=נְטַ חְ שׁ ֵ ה=נְטֵחָּשִׁ ה ֫ ה=נְכBָ בּ ֵ ה=נְכֵ רָבּ`תִ ה U
INF
טֹ חְ שׁ טֵחָּשִׁ ה (Bָ בּ (Bָבּ`תִ ה
ADV INF
טוֹחָ שׁ טֹחְשׁK נ (Bָבּ/(\ָ בּ (Bָבּ`תִ ה L
PTCP MS
טֵ חֹ שׁ טָחְשׁK נ (Bָבְ מ (lֹבְ מ (Bָבּ`תִ מ
FS
הָטֲחֹ שׁ הָטָחְשׁK נ הָכ•ָבְ מ הָכlֹבְ מ הָכ•ָבּ`תִ מ A
ֶ תֶ טֶ חֹ שׁ ֶ תֶ טֶחְשׁK נ ֶ תֶכֶרָבְ מ ֶ תֶכֶרֹבְ מ ֶ תֶכֶ רָבּ`תִ מ
MP
םיִ טֲ חֹ שׁ םיִ טָ חְ שׁK נ םיִכ•ָבְ מ םיִכlֹבְ מ םיִכ•ָבּ`תִ מ R
FP
תוֹטֲחֹ שׁ תוֹטָחְשׁK נ תוֹכ•ָבְ מ תוֹכlֹבְ מ תוֹכ•ָבּ`תִ מ
3c. III-Guttural Verbs
These verbs may take an a-class theme vowel; if there are not changes, a חj תַ פּ
הָבוּנְגּ appears before R
3
.
Paradigm: חַלָ שׁ ‘send’
QAL NIFAL PIEL PUAL HITPAEL HIFIL HOFAL
PERF
3MS
חַלָ שׁ חַלְשׁK נ חַּלִ שׁ חַ לֻּ שׁ חַ לַּ תְּ שִׁ ה ַחיִלְשִׁ ה חַלְשָׁ ה
3FS
הָ חְ לָ שׁ הָחְלְשׁK נ הָחְ לִּ שׁ הָחְ לֻּ שׁ הַחְלַּ תְּ שִׁ ה ִ הָחיִלְשִׁ ה הָהְלְשָׁ ה
2MS
ַ ָתְּחַ לָ שׁ ַ ָתְּחַלְשׁK נ ַ ָתְּחַּ לִ שׁ ּ ָתְּחַ לֻּּ שׁ ּ ָתְּ חַ לַּ תְּ שִׁ ה ֫ ָתְּ חַלְשִׁ ה ֫ ָתְּ חַלְשָׁ ה
2FS
ַ ְתַּחַ לָ שׁ ַ ְתַּחַלְשׁK נ ּ ְתַּחַ לִּ שׁ ּ ְתַּחַ לֻּ שׁ ּ ְתַּ חַ לַּ תְּ שִׁ ה ַ ְתַּ חַלְשִׁ ה ְתְּ חַ לְ שָׁ ה
1CS
ַ יִ תְּחַ לָ שׁ ַ יִ תְּחַלְשׁK נ ַ יִ תְּחַּ לִ שׁ ּ יִ תְּחַ לֻּ שׁ ֫ יִ תְּ חַלַּ תְּ שִׁ ה ֫ יִ תְּ חַלְשִׁ ה ֫ יִ תְּ חַלְשָׁ ה
Appendices A25
3CP
וּחְלָ שׁ וּחְלְשׁK נ וּחְ לִּ שׁ וּחְ לֻּ שׁ וּחְלַּ תְּ שִׁ ה ִ וּחיִלְשִׁ ה וּחְלְשָׁ ה
2MP
םֶ תְּחַלְ שׁ םֶ תְּחַלְשׁK נ םֶ תְּחַ לִּ שׁ םֶ תְּחַ לֻּ שׁ םֶ תְּ חַלַּ תְּ שִׁ ה םֶ תְּ חַ לְ שִׁ ה םֶ תְּ חַ לְ שָׁ ה
2FP
ןֶתְּחַלְ שׁ ןֶתְּחַלְשׁK נ ןֶתְּחַ לִּ שׁ ןֶתְּחַ לֻּ שׁ ןֶ תְּ חַלַּ תְּ שִׁ ה ןֶ תְּ חַ לְ שִׁ ה ןֶ תְּ חַ לְ שָׁ ה
1CP
ַ וּנְחַ לָ שׁ ַ וּנְחַלְשׁK נ ַ וּנְחַּ לִ שׁ ֫ וּנְחַ לֻּ שׁ וּנְחַ לַּ תְּ שִׁ ה ַ וּנְחַלְשִׁ ה ֫ וּנְחַלְשָׁ ה
IMPF
3MS
חַלְשׁK י חַלָ שּׁK י חַּלְשׁN י חַ לֻּשׁN י חַ לַּ תְּ שׁK י ַ חיִ לְ שׁM י חַלְשׁ= י
3FS/
2MS
חַלְשִׁ תּ חַלָ שִּׁ תּ חַ לַּ שְׁ תּ חַ לֻּ שְׁ תּ חַ לַּ תְּ שִׁ תּ ַ חיִ לְ שַׁ תּ חַלְשָׁ תּ
2FS
יִ חְ לְ שִׁ תּ יִחְלָ שִּׁ תּ יִחְ לַּ שְׁ תּ יִחְּלֻשְׁ תּ יִחְ לַּ תְּ שּׁqת יִ חיִ לְ שַׁ תּ יִ חְ לְ שָׁ תּ
1CS
חַלְשֶׁא חַלָ שֶּׁא חַ לַּ שֲׁא חַ לֻּ שֲׂא חַ לַּ תְּ שֶׁ א ֫ ַחיִ לְ שַׁא חַלְשָׁא
3MP
וּחְלְשׁK י וּחְלָ שּׁK י וּחְלַּשׁN י וּחְלֻּשׁN י וּחְלַּ תְּ שׁK י ֫ וּחיִלְשׁM י וּחְלְשׁ= י
3FP
֫ ה=נְחַ לְ שִׁ תּ ַ ה=נְחַ לָ שִּׁ תּ ֫ ה=נְחַ לַּ שְׁ תּ ֫ ה=נְחַ לֻּ שְׁ תּ ּ ה=נְחַ לַּ תְּ שִׁ תּ ַ֫ ה=נְחַ לְ שַׁ תּ ַ ה=נְחַ לְ שָׁ תּ
2MP
וּחְ לְ שִׁ תּ וּחְלָ שִּׁ תּ וּחְ לַּ שְׁ תּ וּחְ לֻּ שְׁ תּ וּחְ לַּ תְּ שִׁ תּ ֫ וּחיִ לְ שַׁ תּ וּחְ לְ שָׁ תּ
2FP
֫ ה=נְחַ לְ שּׁqת ַ ה=נְחַ לָ שִּׁ תּ ֫ ה=נְחַ לַּ שְׁ תּ ֫ ה=נְחַ לֻּ שְׁ תּ ּ ה=נְחַ לַּ תְּ שִׁ תּ ַ֫ ה=נְחַ לְ שַׁ תּ ַ ה=נְחַ לְ שָׁ תּ
1CP
חַלְשׁK נ חַ לָ שּׁK נ חַּלַשׁN נ חַ לֻּשׁ= נ חַ לַּתְּשׁK נ ַחיִלְשׁM נ חַלְשׁ= נ
III-Guttural: Representative Forms
QAL NIFAL PIEL PUAL HITPAEL HIFIL HOFAL
PAST
3MS
חַלְשִׁ יּM ו חַלָּשִׁיּM ו חַ לַּשׁNיM ו חַ לֻּשׁNיM ו חַ לַּתְּשּׁKיM ו חַלְשַׁ יּM ו חַלְשָׁ יּM ו
JUSS
3MS
חַלַשׁK י חַלָּשׁK י חַ לַּשׁN י חַ לֻּשׁN י חַ לַּ תְּ שׁK י חַלְשׁM י חַלְשׁ= י
1CS
הָ חְ לְ שֶׁא הָ חְ לָּ שֶׁא הָחְ לַּ שֲׁא הָחְ לֻּ שֲׁא הָחְ לַּ תְּ שֶׁ א הָחיִלְשַׁא הָ חְ לְ שָׁא
IMV
MS
חַלְ שׁ חַלָּשִׁ ה חַ לַּ שׁ חַ לַּ תְּ שִׁ ה חַלְשַׁ ה
FS
יִחְלִ שׁ יִחְלָּשִׁ ה יִחְ לַּ שׁ יִחְלַּ תְּ שִׁ ה ִ יִחיִלְשַׁ ה
MP
וּחְלִ שׁ וּחְלָּשִׁ ה וּחְ לַּ שׁ וּחְלַּ תְּ שִׁ ה ִ וּחיִלְשַׁ ה
FP
ַ ה=נְחַ לְ שׁ ַ ה=נְחַלָּשִׁ ה ּ ה=נְחַ לַּּ שׁ ֫ ה=נְחַ לַּ תְּ שִׁ ה ַ ה=נְחַלְשַׁ ה

INF
ַחGְ שׁ חַלָּשִׁ ה חַ לַּ שׁ חַ לַּ תְּ שִׁ ה ַחיִלְשַׁ ה
ADV
INF
ַ חוֹלָ שׁ חGְשׁK נ ַחֵ לַּ שׁ חַ לַּ תְּ שִׁ ה ַ חֵ לְ שַׁ ה ַ חֵ לְ שָׁ ה
Appendices A26
PTCP
MS
ַחֵלֹ שׁ חָלְשׁK נ ַ חֵלַּשְׁ מ חָ לֻּשְׁ מ חַ לַּ תְּ שִׁ מ ַ חיִ לְ שַׁ מ חָלְשָׁ מ
FS
הָ חְ לֹ שׁ הָחָלְשׁK נ הָחְלַּשְׁ מ הָחָלֻּשְׁ מ הָחְלַּ תְּ שִׁ מ הָחיִלְשַׁ מ הָחָלְשָׁ מ
ַ תַחַ לֹ שׁ ַ תַחַלְשׁK נ ּ תַ חַ לַּשְׁ מ ּ תַ חַ לֻּשְׁ מ ּ תַ חַ לַּ תְּ שִׁ מ ַ תַ חַלְשַׁ מ ַ תַ חַלְשָׁ מ
MP
םיִ חְ לֹ שׁ םיִחָלְשׁK נ םיִ חְלַּשְׁ מ םיִ חָלֻּשְׁ מ םיִ חְלַּ תְּ שִׁ מ םיִ חיִ לְ שַׁ מ םיִחָלְשָׁ מ
FP
תוֹחְלֹ שׁ תוֹחָלְשׁK נ תוֹחְלַּשְׁ מ תוֹחָלֻּשְׁ מ תוֹחְ לַּ תְּ שִׁ מ תוֹחיִלְשַׁ מ תוֹחָלְשָׁ מ
4. Introduction to Weak Verbs
The paradigms in lessons of this book use םיִשׁlָ שׁ that have three regular con-
sonants (i.e., no gutturals or glides). These are referred to as strong verbs.
Hebrew, however, contains many more weak verbs than strong. Weak verbs
have one or more “weak” (e.g., glide) consonants in the שׁ@ֹ שׁ that may affect
the form’s vowel pattern.
Weak verbs fall into one of four main classes (Roman numerals are used to
refer to the position of the weak letter in the שׁ@ֹ שׁ):
● A ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ that begins or end with א: I-א, III-א
● A ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ that begins with נ: I-נ
● A ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ with ו or י (i.e., glides): I-ו/י, II-ו/י, III-ה (originally III-ו/י)
● A ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ with an identical consonant in second and third positions: II-III
This chart lists all the classes of weak verbs:
Class Traditional Name Examples
I-א ʾ Pe Alef רַמָ א
III-א ʾ Lamed Alef אָצָ מ
I-נ Pe Nun לַפ= נ
I-ו/י Pe Vav/Yod שׁi=י בַשׁ= י
III-ה ʾ Lamed He הָ לָ גּ
II-ו/י ʿAyin Vav/Yod םיִשׂ םוּק
II-III ʿ ʿ Ayin Ayin בַבָ ס
Appendices A27
Weak Verbs Quick Reference Chart: Representative Forms
STRONG I-א III-א I-נ I-ו י / III-ה II-ו י / II-III
PERF 3MS
רַ מָ שׁ רַ מָ א אָ צָ מ שַׁג= נ בַשׁ= י הָלָ גּ םS בָ ס
IMPF 3MS
רֹ מְ שׁK י
רַמאֹ י אָצְמK י שַׁ גִּיּM ו בֵשׁH י הֶ לְ גK י םוּק= י בֹ ס= י
PAST 3MS
רֹ מְ שִׁ יּM ו
֫ רֶמאֹּ יM ו אָ צְ מִיּM ו שַׁ גִּיּM ו ּ בֶשֵׁיּM ו ּ לֶגִיּM ו ּ םSָיּM ו ֫ בָ סָ יּM ו
IMV MS
רֹ מְ שׁ
רֹ מֱ א אָ צְ מ שַׁ גּ בֵ שׁ הֵלְ גּ םוּק בֹ ס
INF
רֹ מְ שׁ
רֹ מֱ א אֹ צְ מ ֶ תֶשֶּׁ ג ֫ תֶבֶ שׁ תוֹלְ גּ םוּק בֹ ס
ADV INF
רוֹמָ שׁ
רוֹמָא אוֹצָ מ שׁוֹג= נ בוֹשׁ= י הGָ גּ םוֹק בוֹבָ ס
PTCP MS
רֵ מֹ שׁ רֵ מֹ א אֵ צֹ מ שֵׁגֹ נ בֵשֹׁ י הֶלֹ גּ םS בֵבֹ ס
4a. I-א Verbs
The majority of verbs that begin with א are classified as I-Guttural verbs and
follow that pattern.
Qal 3MS Imperfect (dynamic) רַ זָ א is רֹזֱאe י
Qal 3MS Imperfect (stative) בֵהָ א is בַהֱאe י
However, five verbs are classified as I-א weak verbs because they have a unique
vocalization in the Qal Imperfect and Past Narrative conjugations. In all the
other conjugations and םיK נ= יN נִבּ these roots behave exactly as I-Gutturals.
The five םיִשׁlָ שׁ that are I-א can be learned by a traditional mnemonic device:
רַמָ א ‘he said’
הָבָ א ‘he was willing’
לַכָ א ‘he ate’
הַפָ א ‘he baked’
דַבָ א ‘he perished’
‘He said:
I am willing
to eat
what I bake
even if I perish!’
Appendices A28
In the Qal Imperfect and Past Narrative conjugations the initial א in these five
םיִשׁlָ שׁ becomes quiescent; in other words, it loses its consonantal status. The
following changes take place in these verb forms:
● An R
2
תַ פְ כּ דַגְ בּ lacks a לu שֵׁגָ דּ.
לַכאֹ י (compare בֹ תְּ כK י)
● The prefix vowel becomes a ֹ (םֶלוֹח).
לַכאֹ י (compare בַהֱאe י)
● The theme vowel (the vowel between R
2
and R
3
) becomes ַ (חj תַ פּ)
לַכאֹ י (compare רֹ זֱ אe י)
Note: The theme vowel also appears as ֵ (יBֵ צ) in pausal forms, as in ֫ לֵ כאֹ י, and
as ֶ (לוֹגְ ס) in the Past Narrative of רמא as ֫ רֶ מאֹּיM ו.
● Often the R
1
א is not written in the 1CS form.
לַ כֹא instead of *לַ כאֹא
Paradigm: רַמָ א ‘say’
(also דַבָ א ‘perish’ הָבָ א ‘be willing’, לַכָ א ‘eat’, and הָ פָ א ‘bake’)
IMPF 3MS IMPF 1CS PAST
QAL רַמאֹ י רַ מֹ א ֫ רֶמאֹיּM ו
*These five םיִ שׁlָ שׁ behave differently only in the לu
Imperfect and Past Narrative; they conform to
I-Guttural in other conjugations and םיK נ= יN נִ בּ.
4b. III-א Verbs
A similar phenomenon takes place in III-א verbs as in I-א: the א becomes quies-
cent. When the א becomes quiescent it cannot close a syllable.
תאָצָ מ instead of *ְתְּאַצָ מ
● The quiescent א cannot be vocalized with a א= וְ שׁ.
Appendices A29
● A תַ פְ כּ דַגְ בּ letter following the quiescent א never has a לu שֵׁגָ דּ.
● The vowel preceding the quiescent א lengthens.
Here are the other characteristics to note about the III-א verbs.
● ֶ (לוֹגְ ס) appears before א in the 3FP/2FP Imperfect in all םיK נ= יN נִבּ.
Qal ֫ ה=נאֶ צְ מִתּ Nifal ֫ ה=נאֶ צָ מִּ תּ
Piel ֫ ה=נאֶ צַּ מְ תּ Pual ֫ ה=נאֶ צֻּ מְ תּ
Hitpael ֫ ה=נאֶ צַּ מ` תִתּ
Hifil ֫ ה=נאֶ צְ מַתּ Hofal ֫ ה=נאֶ צְ מֻתּ
● Only Qal Perfect shows a distinction in vowel pattern between dynamic
and stative.
Perfect אָ צָ מ (dynamic) versus אֵ לָ מ (stative)
Imperfect אָצְמK י (dynamic) like אָלְמK י (stative)
● Nifal, Piel, and Hifil Perfect have a ֵ (יBֵ צ) theme vowel instead of a
ַ (חj תַ פּ) before consonantal inflectional suffixes.
Nifal Piel Hifil
2MS ֫ oתאֵצְמK נ ֫ o תאֵ צִּ מ ֫ oתאֵצְמִ ה
2FS תאֵצְמK נ תאֵ צִּ מ תאֵצְמִ ה
1CS ֫ יqתאֵצְמK נ ֫ יqתאֵ צִּ מ ֫ qתאֵצְמִ ה
2MP םsתאֵצְמK נ םsתאֵ צִּ מ םsתאֵצְמִ ה
2FP ןsתאֵצְמK נ ןsתאֵ צִּ מ ןsתאֵצְמִ ה
1CP ֫ וּנאֵצְמK נ ֫ וּנאֵ צִּ מ ֫ וּנאֵצְמִ ה
● Hofal has a ֻ (ץוּבּ0) instead of ָ (ףוּטָח ץֵ מS) under the prefix.
אָצְמֻ ה instead of *אָצְמָ ה
אָצְמ‚ י instead of *אָצְמ= י
Appendices A30
Paradigm: אָצָ מ ‘find’
QAL NIFAL PIEL PUAL HITPAEL HIFIL HOFAL
PERF
3MS
אָ צָ מ אָצְמK נ אֵּ צִ מ אָ צֻּ מ אֵצַּמ`תִ ה איִצְמִ ה אָצְמֻ ה
3FS
הָאְצָ מ הָאְצְמK נ הָאְ צִּ מ הָאְ צֻּ מ הָ אְ צַּמ`תִ ה ֫ הָאיִצְמִ ה הָאְצְמֻ ה
2MS
֫ oתאָ צָ מ ֫ oתאֵצְמK נ ֫ o תאֵ צִּ מ ֫ o תאֵ צֻּ מ ּ o תאֵ צַּמ`תִ ה ֫ oתאֵצְמִ ה ֫ oתאֵצְמֻ ה
2FS
תּאָצָ מ תאֵצְמK נ תאֵ צִּ מ תאֵ צֻּ מ תאֵ צַּמ`תִ ה תאֵצְמִ ה תאֵצְמֻ ה
1CS
֫ יqתאָ צָ מ ֫ יqתאֵצְמK נ ֫ יqתאֵ צִּ מ ֫ יqתאֵ צֻּ מ ֫ יq תאֵצַּמ`תִ ה ֵ יqתאֵצְמִ ה ֵ יqתאֵצְמֻ ה
3CP
וּאְצָ מ וּאְצְמK נ וּאְ צִּ מ וּאְ צֻּ מ וּאְ צַּמ`תִ ה ִ וּאִצְמִ ה וּאְצְמֻ ה
2MP
םsתאָצְ מ םsתאֵצְמK נ םsתאֵ צִּ מ םsתאֵ צֻּ מ םs תאֵ צַּמ`תִ ה םsתאֵצְמִ ה םsתאֵצְמֻ ה
2FP
ןsתאָצְ מ ןsתאֵצְמK נ ןsתאֵ צִּ מ ןsתאֵ צֻּ מ ןsתאֵצַּמ`תִ ה ןsתאֵצְמִ ה ןsתאֵצְמֻ ה
1CP
ָ וּנאָ צָ מ ֫ וּנאֵצְמK נ ּ וּנאֵּ צִ מ ֫ וּנאֵ צֻּ מ ּ וּנאֵצַּמ`תִ ה ֫ וּנאֵצְמִ ה ֵ וּנאֵצְמֻ ה
IMPF
3MS
אָצְמK י אֵצָ מּK י אֵצַּמN י אָצֻּמN י אֵצַּמ`תK י איִצְמM י אָצְמ‚ י
3FS/
2MS
אָ צְ מִ תּ אֵ צָ מִּ תּ אֵ צַּ מְ תּ אָ צֻּ מּ`ת אֵ צַּ מ` תִתּ איִצְמַ תּ אָ צְ מֻ תּ
2FS
יִאְצְמּqת יִאְצָ מִּ תּ יִאְ צַּ מְ תּ יִאְ צֻּ מְ תּ יִאְ צַּ מ` תִתּ ִ יִאיִ צְ מַ תּ יִאְצְמֻ תּ
1CS
אָ צְ מֶא אֵ צָ מֶּ א אֵ צַּ מֲא אָ צֻּ מֲא אֵ צַּ מ` תֶא איִצְמַא אָ צְ מֻא
3MP
וּאְצְמK י וּאְצָ מּK י וּאְ צַּמN י וּאְ צֻּמN י וּאְ צַּמ`תK י ִ וּאיִצְמM י וּאְצְמ‚ י
3FP/
2FP
֫ ה=נאֶ צְ מּqת ֫ ה=נאֶ צָ מִּ תּ ּ ה=נאֶ צַּ מְ תּ ֫ ה=נאֶ צֻּ מְ תּ ּ ה=נאֶ צַּ מְ תּqת ֶ ה=נאֶ צְ מַ תּ ֫ ה=נאֶ צְ מּƒת
2MP
וּאְצְמּqת וּאְצָ מִּ תּ וּאְ צַּ מְ תּ וּאְ צֻּ מְ תּ וּאְ צַּ מְ תּqת ִ וּאיִ צְ מַ תּ וּאְצְמֻ תּ
1CP
אָצְמK נ אֵ צָמּK נ אֵצַּמN נ אָצֻּמN נ אֵצַּמ`תK נ איִצְמM נ אָצְמ‚ נ
III-א: Representative Forms
QAL NIFAL PIEL PUAL HITPAEL HIFIL HOFAL
PAST 3MS
אָ צְ מִיּM ו אֵ צָ מִּיּM ו אֵ צַּמNיM ו אָ צֻּמNיM ו אֵ צַּ מ` תִיּM ו אֵ צְ מַיּM ו אָ צְ מֻיּM ו
JUSS 3MS
אָצְמK י אֵצָ מּK י אֵצַּמN י אָצֻּמN י אֵצַּמ`תK י אֵצְמM י אָצְמ‚ י
1CS
הָאְצְמֶא הָאְצָ מִּ א הָאְ צַּ מֲא הָאְ צַּ מ` תֶא הָאיִצְמַא
Appendices A31
IMV MS
אָ צְ מ אֵצָ מִּ ה אֵ צַּ מ אֵצַּמ`תִ ה אֵצְמַ ה
FS
יִאְצִ מ יִאְצָ מִּ ה יִאְ צַּ מ יִ אְצַּמ`תִ ה יִאיִצְמַ ה
MP
וּאְצִ מ וּאְצָ מִּ ה וּאְ צַּ מ וּאְ צַּמ`תִ ה וּאיִצְמַ ה
FP
֫ ה=נֶאצְ מ ֫ ה=נאֵצָ מִּ ה ֫ ה=נאֵ צַּ מ ּ ה= נאֶצַּמ`תִ ה ֫ ה= נאֵצְּמַ ה
INF
אֹ צְ מ אֵצָ מִּ ה אֵ צַּ מ אָ צֻּ מ אֵצַּמ`תִ ה איִצְמַ ה אָצְמֻ ה
ADV INF
אוֹצָ מ אֹצְמK נ אֹ צַּ מ אֵצַּמ`תִ ה אֵצְמַ ה
PTCP MS
אֵ צֹ מ אָצְמK נ אֵצַּמְ מ אָצֻּמְ מ אֵצַּמ`תִ מ איִצְמַ מ אָצְמֻ מ
FS
הָאְצֹ מ הָאָצְמK נ הָ אְ צַּמְ מ הָ אָ צֻּמְ מ הָ אְ צַּמ`תִ מ הָאיִצְמַ מ הָאָצְמֻ מ
תאֵצֹ מ תאֵצְמK נ תאֵ צַּמְ מ תאֵ צֻּמְ מ תאֵ צַּמ`תִ מ תאֵצְמַ מ תאֵצְמֻ מ
MP
םיִאְצֹ מ םיִאָצְמK נ םיִ אְ צַּמְ מ םיִ אָ צֻּמְ מ םיִ אְ צַּמ`תִ מ םיִאיִצְמַ מ םיִאָצְמֻ מ
FP
תוֹאְצֹ מ תוֹאָצְמK נ תוֹאְצַּמְ מ תוֹאָצֻּמְ מ תוֹאְצַּמ`תִ מ תוֹאיִצְמַ מ תוֹאָצְמֻ מ
4c. I-נ Verb
I-נ weak verbs undergo two changes that make them weak:
#1 When the נ closes a syllable (i.e., it does not have a vowel and is preceded
by a verbal prefix), it assimilates to the following consonant, lengthening
it (i.e., the following consonant will have a קָ זָ ח שֵׁגַ דּ).
Qal 3MS Imperfect לֹ פּK י (instead of *לֹפNנK י)
Nifal 3MS Perfect שַׁ גּK נ (instead of *שַׁגNנK נ)
Hifil MS Participle שׁיִ גַּ מ (instead of *שׁיִ גNנַ מ)
BUT, נ does not assimilate to gutturals גַהNנK י
#2 When the נ occurs at the beginning of a form and it does not have a
vowel, it may undergo aphaeresis (i.e., the initial נ drops out). Aphaeresis
only occurs in the Qal Imperative and Infinitive.
Qal 2MS Imperative שַׁ גּ (instead of *שַׁגN נ)
Appendices A32
Qal Infinitive ֫ תֶשֶׁ גּ, from *`תְשַׁ גּ, (instead of *שַׁגN נ)
Note: The שֵׁגָ דּ in the ג is a לu שֵׁגָ דּ, because the ג now stands at the beginning of
the word. The Infinitive forms that undergo aphaeresis also add a ת to the end of
the form.
BUT, the נ remains with a few םיִשׁlָ שׁ:
Qal Infinitive/2MS Imperative לֹפN נ
חFָ ל and ןGת6 נ
The verb חuָ ל follows the I-נ pattern:
#1 The ל assimilates (just like a נ would) to the ק.
Qal 3MS Imperfect חַ קּK י
Qal 3FS Imperfect חַ קִּ תּ
#2 The ל undergoes aphaeresis in the imperative and infinitive forms.
Qal 2MS Imperative חu
Qal Infinitive ֫ תַחu
However, the ל does not assimilate in the Nifal.
Nifal 3MS Perfect חuְ לK נ
The verb ןjת= נ is not only a I-נ verb, it also has a נ as the final consonant of the
֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ. When inflectional endings are added and the final נ in ןjת= נ does not have
a full vowel, it assimilates to the following consonant (just like the initial נ in
the same environment). This does not happen in other םיִשׁlָ שׁ that end in נ.
Qal 2MS Perfect ֫ ָתּj ת= נ (from *ָתּNנjת= נ)
Qal 2FS Perfect ְתּj ת= נ (from *ְתּNנjת= נ)
Qal 1CS Perfect ֫ יִ תּj ת= נ (from *יִ תּNנjת= נ)
Qal Infinitive תֵ תּ (with suffixes, -תּ q ת, from *` תN נִ תּ)
Appendices A33
Paradigm: לַ פ6 נ ‘fall’, שַׁג6 נ ‘draw near’
QAL NIFAL PI/PU/HIT HIFIL HOFAL
PERF 3MS
לַפ= נ שַׁג= נ שַׁ גּK נ שׁיִ גִּ ה שַׁ גֻּ ה
3FS
הָלְפ= נ הָשְׁג= נ הָשְׁגּK נ ּ הָשׁיִ גִּ ה הָשְׁגֻּ ה
2MS
ַ ָתְּלַ פ= נ ַ ָתְּ שַׁג= נ ּ ָתְּ שַׁ גּK נ ּ ָתְּ שַׁ גִּ ה ּ ָתְּ שַׁ גֻּ ה
2FS
ַ ְתְּלַ פ= נ ַ ְתְּ שַׁג= נ ּ ְתְּ שַׂ גּK נ R ּ ְתְּ שַׁ גִּ ה ּ ְתְּ שַׁ גֻּ ה
1CS
יִ תְּלַפ= נ ַ יִ תְּ שַׁג= נ ּ יִ תְּ שַׂגּK נ ּ יִ תְּ שַׁגִּ ה ּ יִ תְּ שַׁגֻּ ה
3CP
וּלְפ= נ וּשְׁג= נ וּשְׁגּK נ E ֫ וּשׁיִגִּ ה וּשְׁגֻּ ה
2MP
םֶ תְּלַפN נ םֶ תְּשַׁגN נ םֶ תְּ שַׂגּK נ םֶ תְּ שַׁגִּ ה םֶ תְּ שַׁגֻּ ה
2FP
ןֶתְּלַפN נ ןֶ תְּשַׁגN נ ןֶ תְּ שַׂגּK נ G ןֶ תְּ שַׁגִּ ה ןֶ תְּ שַׁגֻּ ה
1CP
ַ וּנְלַ פ= נ ַ וּנְשַׁג= נ ּ וּנְשַׁ גּK נ ּ וּנְ שַׁ גִּ ה ַ וּנְ שַּׁגֻ ה
U
IMPF 3MS
לֹ פּK י שַׁ גּK י שֵׁגָנּK י שׁיִ גּM י שַׁ גּ‚ י
3FS/2MS
לֹ פִּ תּ שַׁ גִּ תּ שֵׁגָ נִּ תּ L שׁיִ גַּ תּ שַׁ גֻּ תּ
2FS
יִ לְ פִּ תּ יִשְׁ גּּqת יִשְׁגָ נִּ תּ ּ יִשׁיִ גַּ תּ יִשְׁ גֻּ תּ
1CS
לֹ פֶּ א שַׁ גֶּ א שֵׁגָ נֶּ א A שׁיִ גַּ א שַׁ גֻּ א
3MP
וּלְ פּK י וּשְׁ גּK י וּשְׁ גָ נּK י ִ וּשׁיִּ גM י וּשְׁ גּ‚ י
3FP
ּ ה= נְ לֹ פִּ תּ ּ ה=נְשַׁ גּּqת ַ ה=נְשַׁגָ נּּqת R ֫ ה=נְשֵׁ גַּ תּ ה=נְשַׁ גֻּ תּ
2MP
וּלְ פִּ תּ וּשְׁ גִּ תּ וּשְׁגָ נִּ תּ ִ וּשׁיִּ גַ תּ וּשְׁ גֻּ תּ
2FP
ּ ה= נְ לֹ פִּ תּ ּ ה=נְשַׁ גּּqת ַ ה=נְשַׁגָ נּּqת ֫ ה=נְשֵׁ גַּ תּ ה=נְשַׁ גֻּ תּ
1CP
לֹ פּK נ שַׁ גּK נ שֵׁגָנּK נ שׁיִגּM נ שַׁ גּ‚ נ
I-נ: Representative Forms
QAL NIFAL PI/PU/HIT HIFIL HOFAL
PAST 3MS
לֹ פִּיּM ו שַׁ גִּיּM ו שֵׁגָ נִּיּM ו R שֵׁ גַּיּM ו שַׁ גּּ‚יM ו
JUSS 3MS
לֹ פּK י שַׁ גּK י שֵׁגָנּK י שֵׁ גּM י שַּׁגֻ יּ
1CS
הָלְ פֶּ א הָשְׁ גֶּ א הָשְׁגָ נֵּ א E ֫ הָשׁיִ גַּ א
Appendices A34
IMV MS
לֹפN נ שַׁ גּ שֵׁגָנִּ ה שֵׁ גַּ ה
FS
יִלְפK נ יִשְׁ גּ יִשְׁגָ נִּ ה G ֫ יִשׁיִגַּ ה
MP
וּלְפK נ וּשְׁ גּ וּשְׁ גָ נִּ ה ִ וּשׁיִּגַ ה
FP
ֹ ה=נְלֹ פN נ ּ ה=נְשַׁ גּ ֫ ה=נְשַׁ גָנִּ ה U ּ ה= נְ שֵׁ גַּ ה
INF
לֹפN נ ֶ תֶשֶּׁ ג שֵׁגָנִּ ה שׁיִ גַּ ה שַׁ גֻּ ה
ADV INF
לוֹפ= נ שׁוֹג= נ שֵׁגָנִּ ה L שֵׁ גַּ ה שֵׁ גֻּ ה
PTCP MS
לֵפֹ נ שֵׁגֹ נ שָׁ גּK נ שׁיִ גַּ מ שָׁ גֻּ מ
FS
הָלְפֹ נ הָשְׁגֹ נ הָשָׁגּK נ A הָשׁיִ גַּ מ הָ שָׁ גֻּ מ
֫ תֶלֶ פֹ נ ֫ תֶ שֶׁגֹ נ ֫ תֶ שָׁ גּK נ ֫ תֶ שֶׁ גַּ מ ֫ תֶ שָׁ גֻּ מ
MP
םיִלְפֹ נ םיִ שְׁ גֹ נ םיִ שָׁ גּK נ R םיִ שׁיִגַּ מ םיִ שָׁגֻּ מ
FP
תוֹלְפֹ נ תוֹשְׁגֹ נ תוֹשָׁ גּK נ תוֹשׁיִגַּ מ תוֹשָׁגֻּ מ
4d. I-ו/י Verb
I-ו/י weak verbs undergo two changes:
#1 The ו or י contracts with the preceding vowel.
Qal 3MS Imperfect בֵשׁH י (from *בֵשׁNיM י)
Qal 3MS Imperfect שׁiיK י (from *שׁiNיK י)
Hifil 3MS Perfect ביִשׁוֹה (from *ביִשׁNוַ ה)
Hofal 3MS Perfect בַ שׁוּה (from *בַשׁNוֻ ה)
#2 The ו or י undergoes aphaeresis when it lacks a full vowel at the
beginning of the word (only in Qal Imperative and Infinitive of some
םיִשׁlָ שׁ that are I-ו ). This is similar to the form of I-נ weak verbs.
2MS Imperative בֵ שׁ, instead of *בֵשׁN י
Infinitive ֫ תֶבֶ שׁ (from *`תְבֵ שׁ), instead of *בֵשׁN י
(Morphologically, the ת is a feminine ending—with no semantic value
—that was added after the י underwent aphaeresis.)
Appendices A35
BUT, ארי is an example of a שׁ@ֹ שׁ that retains the initial י in the
Imperative (אlN י) and Infinitive (א\N י).
There are three different types of I-ו/י weak verbs:
#1 Original I-ו verbs – these verbs originally began with ו.
The ו is replaced with a י in Qal, Piel, Pual, and Hitpael.
Qal 3MS Perfect בַשׁ= י and Imperfect בֵשׁH י
The original ו appears (as consonant or vowel marker) in Nifal, Hifil, and
Hofal.
Nifal 3MS Perfect בַ שׁוֹנ and Imperfect בֵשָׁ וּK י
Hifil 3MS Perfect ביִשׁוֹה and Imperfect ביִ שׁוֹי
Qal Prefix verbs of dynamic I-ו/י roots have an a-i pattern.
Dynamic (a-i) בֵשׁH י from *בִשׁNיM י
Qal Prefix verbs of stative I-ו/י roots have an i-a pattern.
Stative (i-a) שׁiיK י from *שׁiNיK י
#2 Original I-י verbs – these verbs originally began with י. The י appears in
all forms (as a consonant or a vowel marker).
Qal 3MS Imperfect שַׁ ביK י and Infinitive שֹׁבN י
Hifil 3MS Perfect ביִ טיֵ ה and 3MS Imperfect ביִ טיH י
There are only seven I-י type םיִשׁlָ שׁ (all have stative i-a Prefix pattern).
שֵׁב= י Q ‘it was dry’ ןמי HI ‘he chose/used the right arm’
בַט= י Q ‘he was good’ קM נ= י Q ‘he suckled’
ללי HI ‘he howled’ *ץu= י Q ‘he awoke’
רַ שׁ= י Q ‘it was straight, upright’
Appendices A36
#3 I-י-צ verbs – these roots begin with –צי and undergo changes like I-נ
weak verbs. The י assimilates into the צ when it closes a syllable (this is
similar to the assimilation of the נ in I-נ verbs).
Hifil 3MS Perfect ביִ צִּ ה (from *ביִצNיִ ה)
There are only six I-י-צ roots (all with stative i-a in the Prefix pattern).
בצי HIT ‘he stationed himself’ קַצ= י Q ‘he poured’
גצי HI ‘he set, placed’ רַצ= י Q ‘he formed, fashioned’
עצי HI ‘he spread, lay’ תַ צ= י Q ‘it kindled, burned
The Verb (ַלָ ה
The verb (ַלָ ה follows the original I-ו pattern:
Qal 3MS Perfect (ַלָ ה Hifil 3MS Perfect (יִלוֹה
Qal 3MS Imperfect (ֵלH י Hifil 3MS Imperfect (יִלוֹי
Qal 3MS Past Narrative ֫ (ֶלֵ יּM ו
Qal 2MS Imperative (ֵ ל
Qal Infinitive ֫ תֶ כֶ ל
Paradigm: בַשׁ6 י ‘sit’, שׁI6 י ‘possess’; בַט6 י ‘be good’
QAL NIFAL
PI/PU/
HIT HIFIL HOFAL QAL HIFIL
PERF 3MS
בַשׁ= י שׁi= י בַ שׁוֹנ ביִשׁוֹה בַ שׁוּה בַט= י ביִ טיֵ ה
3FS
הָ בְ שׁ= י הָשׁr= י הָבְ שׁוֹנ ֫ הָ ביִשׁוֹה הָבְ שׁוּה הָבְט= י ִ הָביִ טיֵ ה
2MS
֫ ָתְּבַ שׁ= י ַ ּoתְשַׁ ר= י ֫ ָתְּבַ שׁוֹנ ֫ ָתְּבַשׁוֹה ֫ ָתְּבַ שׁוּה ֫ ָתְּבַט= י ַ ָתְּבַטיֵ ה
2FS
ְתְּבַשׁ= י ְתְּשׁi= י ְתְּבַ שׁוֹנ R ְתְּבַשׁוֹה ְתְּבַ שׁוּה ְתְּבַט= י ְתְּבַטיֵ ה
1CS
֫ יִ תְּבַ שׁ= י ַ יִ תְּשַׁ ר= י ֫ יִ תְּבַ שׁוֹנ ֫ יִ תְּבַשׁוֹה ֫ יִ תְּבַ שׁוּה ַ יִ תְּבַט= י ַ יִ תְּבַטיֵ ה
3CP
וּבְ שׁ= י וּשׁr= י וּבְ שׁוֹנ E ֫ וּביִשׁוֹה וּבְ שׁוּה וּבְט= י ִ וּביִ טיֵ ה
2MP
םֶ תְּבַשׁN י םֶ תְּשׁiN י םֶ תְּבַ שׁוֹנ םֶ תְּבַשׁוֹה םֶ תְּבַ שׁוּה םֶ תְּבַטN י םֶ תְּבַטיֵ ה
2FP
ןֶ תְּבַשׁN י ןֶ תְּשׁiN י ןֶתְּבַ שׁוֹנ G ןֶתְּבַשׁוֹה ןֶתְּבַ שׁוּה ןֶתְּבַטN י ןֶ תְּבַטיֵ ה
1CP
֫ וּנְבַ שׁ= י ַ וּנְשַׁ ר= י ֫ וּנְבַ שׁוֹנ ֫ וּנְבַשׁוֹה ֫ וּנְבַ שׁוּה ַ וּנְבַט= י ַ וּנְבַטיֵ ה
Appendices A37
IMPF 3MS
בֵשׁH י שׁiיK י בֵשָׁ וּK י U ביִ שׁוֹי בַשׁוּי בַטיK י ביִ טיH י
3FS/2MS
בֵשֵׁ תּ שׁiיִ תּ בֵשָׁ וִּ תּ ביִ שׁוֹתּ בַ שׁוּתּ בַטיִ תּ ביִ טיֵ תּ
2FS
יִבְשֵׁ תּ יִשׁrיִ תּ יִבְשָׁ וּּqת L ֫ יִביִ שׁוֹתּ יִבְ שׁוּתּ יִבְטיִ תּ ֫ יִ ביִ טיֵ תּ
1CS
בֵשֵׁא שׁiיִ א בֵ שּׁ= וֶא ביִ שׁוֹא בַ שׁוּא בַטיִא ביִ טיֵ א
3MP
וּבְ שׁH י וּשׁrיK י וּבְשָׁ וּי A ֫ וּביִ שׁוֹי וּבְשׁוּי וּבְטיK י ֫ וּביִ טיH י
3FP
֫ ה=נְבַ שֵׁ תּ ֫ ה=נְשׁiיִ תּ ֫ ה=נְבַ שָׁ וִּ תּ ֫ ה=נְבֵ שׁוֹתּ ֫ ה=נְבַ שׁוּתּ ֫ ה=נְבַטיִ תּ ֫ ה=נְבַטיֵ תּ
2MP
וּבְ שֵׁ תּ וּשׁrיִ תּ וּבְשָׁ וִּ תּ R ֫ וּביִ שׁוֹתּ וּבְ שׁוּתּ וּבְטיִ תּ ֫ וּביִ טיֵ תּ
2FP
֫ ה=נְבַ שֵׁ תּ ֫ ה=נְשׁiיִ תּ ֫ ה=נְבַ שָׁ וִּ תּ ֫ ה=נְבֵ שׁוֹתּ ֫ ה=נְבַ שׁוּתּ ֫ ה=נְבַטיִ תּ ֫ ה=נְבַטיֵ תּ
1CP
בֵשׁH נ שׁiיK נ בֵשָׁוּK נ ביִ שׁוֹנ בַ שׁוּנ בַטיK נ ביִטיH נ
I-ו/י: Representative Forms
QAL NIFAL PI/PU/HIT HIFIL HOFAL QAL HIFIL
PAST 3MS
֫ בֶשֵׁיּM ו שׁiִיּM ו בֵשָׁ וִּיּM ו R ֫ בֶשֹׁיּM ו בַ שׁוּיּM ו בַטיִיּM ו בֵ טֵ יּM ו
JUSS 3MS
֫ בֶשׁH י שׁiיK י בֵשָׁ וּK י בֵ שׁוֹי בַטיK י בֵטיH י
1CS
הָ בְ שֵׁא הָשׁrיִ א הָבְשָׁ וֶּא E ֫ הָביִ שׁוֹא הָבְטיִא ִ הָ ביִ טיֵא
IMV MS
בֵ שׁ שׁB בֵשָׁוִּ ה בֵשׁוֹה בַטN י בֵטיֵ ה
FS
יִבְ שׁ יִ שׁr יִבְשָׁוִּ ה G ֫ יִ ביִשׁוֹה יִבְטK י ֫ יִביִ טיֵ ה
MP
וּבְ שׁ וּשׁr וּבְ שָׁוִּ ה ֫ וּביִשׁוֹה וּבְטK י ִ וּביִ טיֵ ה
FP
֫ ה=נְבֵ שׁ ַ ה=נְשַׁ ר ֫ ה=נְבַ שָׁוִּ ה U ֫ ה=נְבֵשׁוֹה ַ ה=נְבַטN י ֵ ה=נְבֵטיֵ ה
INF
֫ תֶבֶ שׁ ֶ תֶ שֶׁ ר בֵשָׁוִּ ה ביִשׁוֹה בַ שׁוּה בֹטN י ביִ טיֵ ה
ADV INF
בוֹשׁ= י שׁוֹר= י בֵשָׁוִּ ה L בֵשׁוֹה בֵ שׁוּה בוֹט= י בֵטיֵ ה
PTCP MS
בֵשֹׁ י שׁBֹ י בָ שׁוֹנ ביִשׁוֹמ בָשׁוּמ בֵטֹ י ביִ טיֵ מ
FS
הָ בְ שֹׁ י הָשׁrֹ י הָבָ שׁוֹנ A הָ ביִשׁוֹמ הָבָשׁוּמ הָבְטֹ י הָביִטיֵ מ
֫ תֶבֶ שֹׁ י ֶ תֶשֶׁ רֹ י ֫ תֶבֶ שׁוֹנ ֫ תֶ בֶשׁוֹמ ֫ תֶבֶשׁוּמ ֶ תֶבֶטֹ י ֶ תֶבֶטיֵ מ
MP
םיִבְשֹׁ י םיִשׁrֹ י םיִבָ שׁוֹנ R םיִבְשׁוֹמ םיִבְשׁוּמ םיִבְטֹ י םיִביִטיֵ מ
FP
תוֹבְשֹׁ י תוֹשׁrֹ י תוֹבָ שׁוֹנ תוֹבְשׁוֹמ תוֹבְשׁוּמ תוֹבְטֹ י תוֹביִטיֵ מ
Appendices A38
4e. III-ה Verb
Most III-ה weak verbs originally ended with י (or ו). The ה in the 3MS Perfect
form is only a vowel letter marking the long final vowel. This vowel letter was
added after the final י or ו was lost. The original R
3
י or ו shows up only rarely.
Qal Passive Participle (דוּקָפּ) exhibits the original י :
יוּלָ גּ ‘uncovered’
Qal 3MS Perfect of some verbs shows the original ו :
וֵלָ שׁ ‘he was at ease’
Note: the few םיִשׁlָ שׁ that actually have a ה as their original R
3
have a קיִ פַּ מ in
the ה, i.e., הּ. This signifies that the הּ is a consonant rather than a vowel letter:
הַּבָ גּ ‘it was high/lofty/tall’
● All forms without an inflectional suffix end in ה (except the Infinitive,
which has תוֹ-):
Perfect – 3MS הָלָ גּ Infinitive – תוֹלְ גּ
Imperfect – 3MS הֶ לְ גK י Adverbial Infinitive – הGָ גּ
Imperative – 2MS הֵלְ גּ Participle – MS הֶלֹ גּ; MS (ַמְסK נ FORM הֵלֹ גּ
● Forms with a vocalic inflectional suffix or a enclitic pronouns with a
linking vowel drop the R
3
ה:
Qal Perfect 3CP וּלָ גּ
Qal Perfect 3MS + 1CS suffix ַ יKנַלָ גּ
● In all forms with a consonantal suffix, the R
3
contracts:
1) into י ִ in the active םיK נ= יN נִבּ (Qal, Piel, Hitpael, and Hifil).
Qal Perfect 2MS ֫ oתיִלָ גּ
2) into י ֵ in the passive םיK נ= יN נִבּ (Nifal, Pual, and Hofal).
Nifal Perfect 2MS ֫ o תיֵלְגK נ
Appendices A39
3) into י ֶ in Prefix verb 3FP/2FP in all םיK נ= יN נִבּ.
Qal Imperfect 3FP/2FP ֫ ה= ניֶ לְ גִ תּ
● In Past and Jussive forms without an inflectional suffix, the R
3
ה drops.
֫ לֶגK י ‘let him uncover’ and ֫ לֶגִיּM ו ‘he uncovered’
Paradigm: הָלָ גּ ‘reveal’
QAL NIFAL PIEL PUAL HITPAEL HIFIL HOFAL
PERF 3MS
הָלָ גּ הָלְגK נ הָ לִּ גּ הָלֻ גּ הָ לַּגּ`תִ ה הָלְגִ ה הָלְגָ ה
3FS
הoתְלָ גּ הoתְלְגK נ הo תְ לִּ גּ הo תְ לֻּ גּ הoתְ לַּגּ`תִ ה הoתְלְגִ ה הoתְלְגָ ה
2MS
֫ o תיִלָ גּ ֫ oתיֵ לְ גK נ ֫ o תיִ לִּ גּ ֫ o תיֵ לֻּ גּ ֫ ָתּיִ לַּגּ`תִ ה ֫ o תיִ לְ גִ ה ֵ o תיֵ לְ גָ ה
2FS
`תיִלָ גּ תיֵלְגK נ תיּ ִ לִ גּ תיֵ לֻּ גּ תיִ לַּגּ`תִ ה תיִ לְ גִ ה תיֵ לְ גָ ה
1CS
֫ יq תיִלָ גּ ֫ יqתיֵלְגK נ ּ יq תיִ לִּ גּ ֫ יq תיֵ לֻּ גּ ּ יqתיִ לַּגּ`תִ ה ֫ יqתיִלְגִ ה ֫ יqתיֵלְגָ ה
3CP
וּלָ גּ וּלְגK נ וּלִּ גּ וּלֻּ גּ וּלַּגּ`תִ ה וּלְגִ ה וּלְגָ ה
2MP
םs תיִ לְ גּ םsתיֵלְגK נ םsתיִּלִ גּ םs תיֵלֻּ גּ םsתיִ לַּגּ`תִ ה םsתיִלְגִ ה םsתיֵלְגָ ה
2FP
ןsתיִלְ גּ ןsתיֵלְגK נ ןs תיִלִּ גּ ןs תיֵלֻּ גּ ןs תיִ לַּגּ`תִ ה ןs תיִ לְ גִ ה ןs תיֵ לְ גָ ה
1CP
֫ וּניִלָ גּ ֫ וּניֵ לְ גK נ ּ וּניִ לִּ גּ ֫ וּניֵ לֻּ גּ ֫ וּניִ לַּגּ`תִ ה ֫ וּניִ לְ גִ ה ֫ וּניֵ לְ גָ ה
IMPF 3MS
הֶ לְ גK י הֶלָ גּK י הֶ לַּגN י הֶ לֻּגN י הֶ לַּּג`תK י הֶ לְ גM י הֶ לְ ג= י
3FS/2MS
הֶ לְ גִ תּ הֶלָ גִּ תּ הֶ לַּגְתּ הֶ לֻּגְתּ הֶ לַּּג`תִתּ הֶ לְ גַ תּ הֶ לְ גָ תּ
2FS
יִ לְ גִ תּ יִלָ גִּ תּ יִ לַּגְתּ יִ לֻּגְתּ יּ ִ לּ ְ ג` תִ תּ יִ לְ גַ תּ יִ לְ גָ תּ
1CS
הֶ לְ גֶא הֶלָ גֶּ א הֶ לַּגֲא הֶ לֻּגֲא הֶ לַּּג`תִא הֶ לְ גַא הֶ לְ גָא
3MP
וּלְ גK י וּלָ גּK י וּלַּגN י וּלֻּגN י וּלְּ גּj תK י וּלְ גM י וּלְ ג= י
3FP
֫ ה= ניֶלְגִ תּ ֫ ה= ניֶלָ גִּ תּ ּ ה= ניֶ לַּגְתּ ּ ה= ניֶ לֻּגְתּ ּ ה=ניֶּלַ גּ` תִ תּ ֶ ה= ניֶלְגַ תּ ֶ ה= ניֶלְגָ תּ
2MP
וּלְ גִ תּ וּלָּ גִּ תּ וּלַּגְתּ וּלֻּגְתּ וּלַּ גּ` תִ תּ וּלְ גַ תּ וּלְ גָ תּ
2FP
֫ ה= ניֶלְגִ תּ ֫ ה= ניֶלָ גִּ תּ ּ ה= ניֶ לַּגְתּ ּ ה= ניֶ לֻּגְתּ ּ ה=ניֶּלַ גּ` תִ תּ ֶ ה= ניֶלְגַ תּ ֶ ה= ניֶלְגָ תּ
1CP
הֶלְגK נ הֶלָ גּK נ הֶ לַּגN נ הֶ לֻּגN נ הֶ לַּּג`תK נ הֶלְגM נ הֶלְג= נ
Appendices A40
III- ה: Representative Forms
QAL NIFAL PIEL PUAL HITPAEL HIFIL HOFAL
PAST 3MS
ּ לֶגִיּM ו לָ גִּיּM ו לַגNיM ו לַ גּ` תִיּM ו ּ לֶגֶיּM ו
JUSS 3MS
ִ לֶגִ י לָ גּK י לַגN י לַ גּ` תK י ֶ לֶגֶ י
1CS
NO DISTINCT 1CS JUSSIVE FORM – IDENTICAL WITH 1CS IMPERFECT
IMV MS
הֵלְ גּ הֵלָ גִּ ה הֵּלַ גּ הֵ לַּגּ`תִ ה הֵלְגַ ה
FS
יִלְ גּ יִ לָ גִּ ה יִ לַּ גּ יִ לַּגּ`תִ ה יִ לְ גַ ה
MP
וּלְ גּ וּלָ גִּ ה וּלַּ גּ וּלַּגּ`תִ ה וּלְגַ ה
FP
֫ ה= ניֶלְ גּ ֫ ה=ניֶ לָ גִּ ה ֫ ה= ניֶ לַּ גּ ֫ ה=ניֶ לַּגּ`תִ ה ֫ ה=ניֶלְגַ ה
INF
תוֹלְ גּ תוֹלָגִּ ה תוֹלַּ גּ תוֹלֻּ גּ תוֹלַּגּ`תִ ה תוֹלְגַ ה תוֹלְגַ ה
ADV INF
הGָ גּ הGְגK נ ה„ַ גּ ה„ֻ גּ ה„ַגּ`תִ ה הֵלְגַ ה הֵלְגָ ה
PTCP MSA
הֶלֹ גּ הֶלְגK נ הֶ לַּגְ מ הֶ לֻּגְּ מ הֶ לַּגּ`תִ מ הֶלְגַ מ הֶלְגָ מ
FSA
הָלֹ גּ הָלְגK נ הָ לַּגְ מ הָ לֻּגְּ מ הָ לַּגּ`תִ מ הָלְגַ מ הָלְגָ מ
MPA
םיִ לֹ גּ םיִ לְ גK נ םיִ לַּגְ מ םיִ לֻּגְ מ םיִ לַּגּ`תִ מ םיִ לְ גַ מ םיִ לְ גָ מ
FPA
תוֹלֹ גּ תוֹלְגK נ תוֹלַּגְ מ תוֹלֻּגְ מ תוֹלַּגּ`תִ מ תוֹלְגַ מ תוֹלְגָ מ
4f. II-ו/י Verb
II-ו/י weak verbs have a ו or י as R
2
. They are classified as weak verbs because
the ו or י undergoes one of two changes:
#1 elides (i.e., drops out)
Qal 3MS Perfect/MS Participle םָ שׂ אָ בּ םS
#2 contracts with a preceding or following vowel—the ו or י in these forms is
merely a vowel letter, not a remnant of the original ו orי consonant.
Qal 3MS Imperfect םיִשׂ= י אוֹב= י םוּק= י
Note: several common םיִשׁlָ שׁ retain their R
2
ו or י as a consonant (and thus the ו
or י does not disappear or contract).
Appendices A41
ה=יָ ה ‘he is’; ה=יָ ח ‘he is alive’; ה= וS ‘he waited’
L exicon Tip #1: The II-ו/י weak verbs are listed in your lexicons by their
Infinite form because this form (unlike the 3MS Perfect as in other verbs) better
reflects the three consonants of these weak םיִשׁlָ שׁ.
Lexicon Tip #2: A few םיִשׁlָ שׁ are listed as both II-ו and II-י because they ex-
hibit two infinitive forms: an R
2
ו and an R
2
י.
םוּשׂ and םיִ שׂ
ןוּל and ןיִ ל
Though theseםיִשׁlָ שׁ should be classified as II-י forms, some older lexicons list
them as II-ו.
● Some םיִשׁlָ שׁ exhibit a distinction between dynamic and stative patterns
in the Qal.
םS (dynamic) versus תֵ מ (stative)
● Instead of Piel, Pual, and Hitpael, most םיִשׁlָ שׁ that are II-ו/י roots have
Polel, Polal, and Hitpolel םיK נ= יN נִבּ.
םֵ מוֹק`תִ ה םָ מוy םֵמוֹק but Piel הָ וִּ צ and Pual הָ וֻּ צ
● Linking vowels often connect the שׁ@ֹ שׁ to the consonantal inflectional
suffixes: וֹ in Nifal and Hifil Perfect, י ֶ in Qal and Hifil Imperfect.
Nifal 2MS Perfect ֫ o תוֹמוּקN נ
Hifil 2MS Perfect ֫ oתוֹמי0ֲ ה
Qal 3FP/2FP Imperfect ֫ ה= ניֶ מוּקְתּ
Hifil 3fp/2fp Imperfect ֫ ה= ניֶמי0ְ תּ (sometimes ֫ ה=נְמ|ָ תּ)
Appendices A42
Paradigm: םוּק ‘arise’, תוּמ ‘die’, םיִ שׂ ‘set’
QAL II-ו QAL STATIVE QAL II-י NIFAL POLEL HIFIL HOFAL
PERF 3MS
םS תֵ מ םָ שׂ םוֹק= נ םֵמוֹק םי0ֵ ה םuוּה
3FS
֫ הָמS ֵ הo תֵ מ ֫ הָמָ שׂ ֫ הָ מוֹק= נ הָמְמוֹק ִ הָמיִ קֵ ה הָ מLוּה
2MS
֫ ָתְּ מu ַ הָ תַּ מ ֫ ָתְּ מַ שׂ ֫ o תוֹמוּקN נ ַ ָתְּ מַמוֹק ֫ oתוֹמי0ֲ ה ַ ָתְּ מַ קוּה
2FS
ְתְּ מu ְתַּ מ ְתְּ מַ שׂ תוֹמוּקN נ ְתְּ מַמוֹק ֫ תוֹמי0ֲ ה ַ ְתְּ מַ קוּה
1CS
֫ יִ תְּ מu ַ יִ תַּ מ ֫ יִ תְּ מַ שׂ ֫ יqתוֹמוּקN נ ַ יִ תְּ מַמוֹק ֫ יqתוֹמי0ֲ ה ַ יּqתְמַ קוּה
3CP
֫ וּמS ֫ וּתֵ מ ֫ וּמָ שׂ ֫ וּמוֹק= נ וּמְמוֹק ִ וּמיִ קֵ ה וּמLוּה
2MP
םֶ תְּ מu םֶ תַּ מ םֶ תְּ מַ שׂ םs תוֹמוּקN נ םֶ תְּ מַמוֹק םsתוֹמי0ֲ ה םֶ תְּ מuוּה
2FP
ןֶ תְּ מu ןֶ תַּ מ ןֶ תְּ מַ שׂ ןs תוֹמוּקN נ ןֶ תְּ מַמוֹק ןsתוֹמי0ֲ ה ןֶ תְּ מuוּה
1CP
֫ וּנְמu ֫ וּנ`תַ מ ֫ וּנְמַ שׂ ֫ וּנוֹמוּקN נ ַ וּנְ מַמוֹק ֫ וּנוֹמי0ֲ ה ַ וּנְמַ קוּה
IMPF 3MS
םוּק= י תוּמ= י םיִ שׂ= י םוֹקּK י םֵ מוֹקN י םי0= י םuוּי
3FS/2MS
םוּקָתּ תוּמָ תּ םיִ שָׂ תּ םוֹקִּ תּ םֵמוֹקְ תּ םי0ָ תּ םuוּתּ
2FS
֫ יִ מוּקָ תּ ֫ יqתוּמָ תּ ֫ יִמיִ שָׂ תּ ֫ יִמוֹקִּ תּ יִ מֲמוֹקְ תּ ִ יִמיִ קָ תּ יִ מLוּתּ
1CS
םוּקָא תוּמָא םיִ שָׂ א םוֹקֶּ א םֵמוֹקֲא םי0ָ א םuוּא
3MP
֫ וּמוּק= י ֫ וּתוּמ= י ֫ וּמיִ שׂ= י ֫ וּמוֹקּK י וּמֲ מוֹקN י ֫ וִּ מי0= י וּמuוּי
3FP
ֶ ה= ניֶ מוּקְתּ ֶ ה= ניֶתוּמְ תּ ֶ ה=ניֶמיִשְׂ תּ ֫ ה= נְמוֹקִּ תּ ֫ ה= נְ מֵמוֹקְ תּ
֫ ה=נְמ|ָ תּ
ֶ ה= נֶמי0ְ תּ
ַ ה= נְ מַקוּתּ
2MP
֫ וּמוּקָ תּ ֫ וּתוּמָ תּ ֫ וּמיִ שָׂ תּ ֫ וּמוֹקִּ תּ וּמֲמוֹקְ תּ ֫ וִּ מי0ָ תּ וּמuוּתּ
2FP
ֶ ה= ניֶ מוּקְתּ ֶ ה= ניֶתוּמְ תּ ֶ ה=ניֶמיִשְׂ תּ ֫ ה= נְמוֹקִּ תּ ֫ ה= נְ מֵמוֹקְ תּ
֫ ה=נְמ|ָ תּ
ֶ ה= נֶמי0ְ תּ
ַ ה= נְ מַקוּתּ
1CP
םוּק= נ תוּמ= נ םיִשׂ= נ םוֹקּK נ םֵ מוֹקN נ םי0= נ םuוּנ
Appendices A43
II-ו/י: Representative Forms
QAL II-ו QAL STATIVE QAL II-י NIFAL POLEL HIFIL HOFAL
PAST 3MS
ּ םSָיּM ו ּ תָ מָ יּM ו ּ םֶ שָׂ יּM ו םוֹקִּיּM ו םֵמוֹקNיM ו ָ ם…ָּ יM ו םuוּיּM ו
JUSS 3MS
םy= י תֹ מ= י םֵשׂ= י םוֹקּK י םֵ מוֹקN י ם|= י
1CS
֫ הָ מוּקָא ֫ הoתוּמָא ֫ הָמיִ שָׂא ֫ הָמוֹקֶּ א הָמֲמוֹקֲא ִ הָמיִ קָא
IMV MS
םוּק תוּמ םיִ שׂ םוֹקִּ ה םֵמוֹק ם|ָ ה
FS
֫ יִ מוּק ֫ יqתוּמ ֫ יִמיִ שׂ ֫ יִ מוֹקִּ ה יִ מֲמוֹק ֫ יִמי0ָ ה
MP
֫ וּמוּק ֫ וּתוּמ ֫ וּמיִ שׂ ֫ וּמוֹקִּ ה וּמֲמוֹק ִ וּמיִ קָ ה
FP
ֹ ה=נְמֹ ק ֹ ה= נ` תֹ מ ֫ ה= נְ מֵ שׂ ֫ ה= נְ מוֹקִּ ה ֫ ה= נְ מֵמוֹק ֫ ה=נְמ|ָ ה
INF
םוּק תוּמ םיִ שׂ םוֹקִּ ה םֵמוֹק םי0ָ ה םuוּה
ADV INF
םוֹק תוֹמ םוֹשׂ םוֹקִּ ה םֵמוֹק ם|ָ ה ם|וּה
PTCP MS
םS תֵ מ םָ שׂ םוֹק= נ םֵ מוֹקְ מ םי0ֵ מ םSוּמ
FS
הָ מS הo תֵ מ הָמָ שׂ הָ מוֹקN נ הָמְ מוֹקְ מ הָמי0ְ מ הָ מSוּמ
MP
םיִ מS םיq תֵ מ םיִמָ שׂ םיִ מוֹקN נ םיִמְ מוֹקְ מ םיִמי0ְ מ םיִ מSוּמ
FP
תוֹמS תוֹתֵ מ תוֹמָ שׂ תוֹמוֹקN נ תוֹמְ מוֹקְ מ תוֹמי0ְ מ תוֹמSוּמ
4g. II-III Verb
II-III weak verbs are roots with identical second (R
2
) and third (R
3
) root letters.
They have the following characteristics:
● The identical root letters may assimilate.
Qal 3CP Perfect ֫ וּבַּ ס or וּבֲבָ ס
Note: When the lengthened (from assimilation) consonant is at the end of the
word, the קָ זָ ח שֵׁ גָ דּ drops out.
Qal 3MS Perfect בַ ס (from *בַּ ס)
Sometimes instead of R
2
assimilating forward into R
3
, it assimilates
back to R
1
.
Qal 3MP Imperfect ֫ ובֹּס= י but also ֫ וּבֹסּK י
Appendices A44
● Instead of Piel, Pual, and Hitpael, most II-III weak verbs have Po‘el, Po‘al,
and Hitpo‘el.
Po‘el בֵבוֹס BUT Piel לֵ לּ0
● Linking vowels often appear before consonantal inflectional suffixes in
some forms: Qal, Nifal, Hifil, and Hofal Suffix patterns have וֹ, and Qal,
Nifal, Hifil, and Hofal Prefix patterns have י ֶ .
2MS PERF: Q ֫ o תוֹבַּ ס NI ֫ o תוֹבַּסN נ HI ֫ o תוֹבִּסֲ ה
2/3FP IMPF: Q ֫ ה=ניֶ בֻּ סְ תּ NI ֫ ה=ניֶּבַ סִּ תּ HI ּ ה=ניֶ בִּ סְ תּ
FP IMV: Q ּ ה=ניֶבֻּ ס NI ֫ ה= ניֶ בַּסִּ ה HI ּ ה= ניֶ בִּסֲ ה
Paradigm: בַ בָס ‘surround’, לF ‘be slight’
QAL DYNAMIC QAL STATIVE NIFAL POEL HIFIL HOFAL
PERF
3MS
בָס / בַבָ ס לu בַס= נ בֵבוֹס בֵסֵ ה בַ סוּה
3FS
ַ הָבְבָס / הָבַּ ס ַ הָ לַּ ק ַ הָ בַּס= נ הָבְבוֹס ֫ הָ בֵּסֵ ה ַ הָבַּ סוּה
2MS
֫ o תוֹבַּ ס ֫ o תוֹלּu ֫ o תוֹבַּסN נ ֫ ָתְּ בַבוֹס ֫ o תוֹבִּסֲ ה ֫ o תוֹבַּ סוּה
2FS
תוֹבַּ ס תוֹלּu תוֹבַּסN נ ְתְּ בַבוֹס תוֹבִּסֲ ה תוֹבַּ סוּה
1CS
֫ יqתוֹבַּ ס ֫ יqתוֹלּu ֫ יqתוֹבַּסN נ ַ יִ תְּ בַבוֹס ֫ יqתוֹבִּסֲ ה ֫ יqתוֹבַּ סוּה
3CP
ַ וּבְבָס / וּבַּ ס ַ וּלַּ ק ַ וּבַּס= נ וּבְבוֹס ֫ וּבֵּסֵ ה ַ וּבַּ סוּה
2MP
םs תוֹבַּ ס םs תוֹלּu םs תוֹבַּסN נ םֶ תְּ בַבוֹס םֶ תּוֹבִּסֲ ה םs תוֹבַּ סוּה
2FP
ןs תוֹבַּ ס ןs תוֹלּu ןs תוֹבַּסN נ ןֶ תְּ בַבוֹס ןs תוֹבִּסֲ ה ןs תוֹבַּ סוּה
1CP
֫ וּנוֹבַּ ס ֫ וּנוֹלּu ֫ וּנוֹבַּסN נ ַ וּנְבַבוֹס ֫ וּנוֹבִּסֲ ה ֫ וּנוֹבַּ סוּה
IMPF
3MS
בֹס=י /בֹסּK י לuH י בַ סּK י בֵבוֹסN י בֵ ס= י בַ סּ‚י / בַסוּי
3FS/2MS
בֹ סָ תּ / בֹ סִּ תּ לuֵ תּ בַ סִּ תּ בֵבוֹסְתּ בֵ סָ תּ בַסוּתּ
2FS
֫ יִ בֹּסָתּ / יִבְ סִּ תּ ַ יִ לַּ קֵ תּ ֫ יִ בַּ סִּ תּ יִבְבוֹסְתּ ֵ יִ בֵּ סָ תּ ֫ יִ בּסוּתּ
1CS
בֹסָא / בֹ סֶּ א לuֵ א בַ סֶּ א בֵבוֹסֲא בֵ סָא בַסוּא
Appendices A45
3MP
ֹ וּבֹּס=י / וּבְסּK י ַ וּלַּ קH י ֫ וּבַּסּK י וּבְבוֹסN י ֫ וּבֵּס= י ַ וּבַּסוּי
3FP
ּ ֫ ה= ניֶ בֻּסְתּ / ה=נְבֹ סִּ תּ ֫ ה=ניֶ לּuְ תּ ֫ ה=ניֶבַּ סִּ תּ ֫ ה=נְבֵבוֹסְתּ ּ ה=ניֶ בִּ סְ תּ ּ ה= ניֶ בַּסוּת
2MP
ֹ וּבֹּסָ תּ /וּבְ סִּ תּ ַ וּלַּ קֵ תּ ֫ וּבַּ סִּ תּ וּבְבוֹסְתּ ֫ וּבֵּ סָ תּ ַ וּבַּסוּתּ
2FP
ּ ֫ ה= ניֶ בֻּסְתּ / ה=נְבֹ סִּ תּ ֫ ה=ניֶ לּuְ תּ ֫ ה=ניֶבַּ סִּ תּ ֫ ה=נְבֵבוֹסְתּ ּ ה=ניֶ בִּ סְ תּ ּ ה= ניֶ בַּסוּת
1CP
בֹס=נ / בֹסּK נ לuH נ בַסּK נ בֵבוֹסN נ בֵס= נ בַסוּנ
II-III: Representative Forms
QAL DYNAMIC QAL STATIVE NIFAL POEL HIFIL HOFAL
PAST 3MS
֫ בָ סָ יּM ו לuֵיּM ו בַ סִּיּM ו בֵ בוֹסNיM ו ּ בֶ סָ יּM ו בַסוּיּM ו
JUSS 3MS
בֹ ס= י לuH י בַ סּK י בֵבוֹסN י בֵ ס= י בַסוּי
1CS
֫ הָבֹּ סָא ַ הָ לַּ קֵא ּ הָבַּ סֶּ א הָבְבוֹסֲא ֫ הָבֵּ סָא
IMV MS
בֹ ס בַסִּ ה בֵבוֹס בֵסָ ה
FS
֫ יִ בֹּ ס ַ יִ בַּּסִ ה יִבֲבוֹס ֫ יִ בֵּסָ ה
MP
֫ וּבֹּ ס ֫ וּבַּסִּ ה וּבֲבוֹס ֫ וּבֵּסָ ה
FP
֫ ה=ניֶבֻּ ס ֫ ה= ניֶ בַּסִּ ה ֫ ה=נְבֵבוֹס ֫ ה= נֶ בּיִסֲ ה
INF
בֹ ס לy בַסִּ ה בֵבוֹס בֵסָ ה בַ סוּה
ADV INF
בוֹבָ ס לוֹלS בוֹסִּ ה בֵבוֹס בֵסָ ה בֵ סוּה
PTCP MS
בֵבֹ ס לu בָס= נ בֵבוֹסְ מ בֵסֵ מ בָסוּמ
FS
הָבְבֹ ס הָ לּu הָ בַּסN נ הָבְבוֹסְ מ הָ בִּסְ מ הָבַּסוּמ
MP
םיִבְבֹ ס םיִ לּu םיִבַּסN נ םיִבְבוֹסְ מ םיִ בִּסְ מ םיִבַּסוּמ
FP
תוֹבְבֹ ס תוֹלּu תוֹבַּסN נ תוֹבְבוֹסְ מ תוֹבִּסְ מ תוֹבַּסוּמ
4h. Doubly-Weak Verbs
At this point, you have studied all of the major categories of weak םיִשׁlָ שׁ in
Biblical Hebrew. However, many verb םיִשׁlָ שׁ contain more than one weak
consonant. Thus, such םיִשׁlָ שׁ are referred to as “doubly-weak.” This is the fi-
nal category of weak םיִשׁlָ שׁ that you will study. Below are listed some com-
mon doubly-weak םיִשׁlָ שׁ:
Appendices A46
הָבָא I-א, III-ה
הl= י I-ו/י, III-ה
אָ צ= י I-ו/י, III-א
אָשׂ= נ I-נ, III-א
הָט= נ I-נ, III-ה
אוֹבּ II-ו/י, III-א
ה=יָ ה II-ו/י, III-ה

Although most of these םיִשׁlָ שׁ are still relatively simple to identify, other
םיִשׁlָ שׁ become more difficult to identify since it is possible that up to two of
their three םיִשׁlָ שׁ consonants may not be apparent, as in the verb (ַ יּM ו.
The key to correctly identifying and parsing these doubly weak verbs is to use a
three step process of elimination.
STEP 1 : Identify what parts of the verb form are inflectional affixes and
what parts are remnants of the שׁ@ֹ שׁ.
(ַ יּM ו: the M ו and ַיּ are clearly inflectional affixes for the Past Narrative
conjugation; thus ( is the only remaining consonant from the שׁ@ֹ שׁ of
this verb.
STEP 2 : Rule out which weak consonants cannot be part of the verbal שׁ@ֹ שׁ,
or vice versa, and identify which weak consonants can account for what is
left of the verbal שׁ@ֹ שׁ in the verb form.
(: Since we have only one consonant of the ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ left, the other two
consonants must be ones that disappear in some way.
• Of the weak consonants (the gutturals, ו, נ, and י), only ו, ה, and י elide, and נ
assimilates. Hence, the remaining consonants of this verb’s ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ cannot be
ע, ח , א, or ר.
• נ only assimilates at the beginning of a שׁ@ֹ שׁ (except in ןתנ), so we can rule
out a ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ that ends in נ.
• ה only elides at the end of a ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ, so we rule out a ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ beginning with ה.
• ו and י often elide in II-ו/י verbs; however, these weak verbs never have a
final ה which elides or an initial נ which assimilates. Thus we can conclude
that this verb is not a II-ו/י.
Appendices A47
For the verb (ַ יּM ו we are left with two logical possibilities after the first two
steps: the שׁ@ֹ שׁ is either הכנ or הכי.
STEP 3 : Use your lexicon to identify which of your logical םיִשׁlָ שׁ actually
exists in the Hebrew Bible. If both exist, then scan through the existing
forms in each שׁ@ֹ שׁ to aid you in identifying which is your verb’s שׁ@ֹ שׁ.
In the case of (ַ יּM ו the the lexicon should tell you that הכי as a שׁ@ֹ שׁ does not
exist. Therefore, the שׁ@ֹ שׁ for this verb is הכנ HI ‘smite, strike’.
(ַ יּM ו: Hifil 3MS Past √הכנ (from *הֶ כN נַ יּM ו)
Appendix D
Using a Lexicon
At this point in your study of Herew, you should begin to transition from using
our glossary to using a full-scale lexicon (pl. lexica).
Unlike dictionaries, which provide definitions of words and rules of usage, lex-
ica provide glosses from one language to another. In addition, lexica for ancient
languages often provide attested forms of words as well as examples taken
from ancient texts.
In this section, you will first be introduced to the basic steps for using the
dated but affordable and still standard lexicon for Biblical Hebrew, A Hebrew
and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, edited by Brown, Driver, and Briggs
(BDB). Following this discussion are sample pages from this lexicon with side-
bar notes explaining the layout of the entries.
Following the introduction to BDB is a discussion of two newer lexica: The Con-
cise Dictionary of Classical Hebrew, edited by Clines (CDCH), and The Hebrew and
Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, edited by Koehler, Baumgartner, and
Richardson (HALOT).
Basic Principles for using BDB:
Step 1: Identify the three-letter ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ and look it up in the lexicon.
Step 2a: If the word is a verb, identify the ן=יNנִ בּ (see the Parsing Flow Chart in
the Appendix F for help).
Step 2b: If multiple meanings are listed for the ן=יNנִ בּ, determine which
meaning best fits the context for your passage. The lexicon may reference
the verse on which you are working; this is the editors’ opinion of which
meaning best suits the passage.
Step 3a: If the word is a noun, look for its entry after the entry for the
verbal ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ.
Step 3b: Same as Step 2b.
Appendices A49
How to Read a BDB Entry, Part 1: Verbs
1. Running headers provide the first and last words included on each page.
2. Verbs are listed in 3MS Perfect form.
3. The most common meanings are given in bold.
4. In parentheses are attestations and basic meanings of the root in other Semitic languages.
5. Entries are arranged by ן= יN נִ בּ as follows: Qal, Niph., Pi., Pu., Hithp., Hiph., Hoph.
6. A partial listing of conjugated forms is provided for each ן= יN נִ בּ.
7. Multiple meanings are given in outline form–I.1.a.–with italicized glosses.
Appendices A50
How to Read a BDB Entry, Part 2: Nouns
1. Running headers provide
the first and last words
included on each page.
2. Nouns are listed after the
related verbal root, even
if they do not begin with
the first consonant of the
֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ, like ַ חֵ בְּזִ מ. Note
that such nouns are also
conveniently listed
alphabetically with
direction to go to the שׁ@ֹ שׁ
entry for the meaning.
3. Identification as noun
(n.) and gender (m. or f.)
follow the form.
4. Then the most common
meanings are listed in
bold.
5. In parentheses are
attestations and basic
meanings of the root in
other Semitic languages.
6. A partial listing of
declined forms is given.
7. Multiple meanings are
arranged in outline form
—2.a.—with italicized
glosses.
While BDB remains a standard lexicon, especially for students, because of the
pedagogical value of its root-based layout and extensive citation and transla-
tion of biblical forms and verses, two new lexica are increasingly preferred by
many students and teachers: The Concise Dictionary of Classical Hebrew, edited by
Clines (CDCH), and The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, edited by
Koehler, Baumgartner, and Richardson (HALOT). These two lexica not only
Appendices A51
represent the latest scholarship in Hebrew lexicography (‘dictionary writing’),
they have both been is-
sued in reasonably af-
fordable student
editions.
CDCH and HALOT differ
from BDB in important
ways. HALOT and CDCH
include much of the
same information
(glossed meanings, list-
ing of representative in-
flected forms), but both
add information from
non-biblical Hebrew
texts, from early in-
scriptions to the Dead
Sea Scrolls, that the
much older BDB did not
have access to. Interest-
ingly, HALOT includes
reference to the non-
biblical texts only when
the ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ is biblical—it
does not list non-biblic-
al words when they do
not also occur in the
Bible. CDCH, in contrast,
adds entries for words
found in non-biblical
texts but not in biblical
texts.
Another difference between the two is that while HALOT follows BDB by includ-
ing attested cognates from other Semitic languages (including Ugaritic, which
had not been discovered when BDB was written) as well as speculations about
many words’ etymologies, CDCH lacks cognate and etymological information.
Appendices A52
For the student, perhaps the most noticeable difference between BDB, on the
one hand, and HALOT and CDCH, on the other hand, is layout. While BDB lists
all the forms of a word under the ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ, as the entries above illustrate, HALOT
and CDCH list words alphabetically. For example, you can see in the CDCH entry
for חבז and ַ חֵבְּזִ מ below, the noun ַ חֵבְּזִ מ is listed with other מ words (instead
of in the ז entry, as it in BDB).
Basic Principles for using HALOT and CDCH:
Step 1a: If the word is a verb, identify its ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ, look it up in the lexicon.
Step 1b: Then identify the ן=יNנִ בּ (see the Parsing Flow Chart in the Appendix F
for help). If multiple meanings are listed for the ן=יNנִ בּ, determine which
meaning best fits the context for your passage. The lexicon may reference
the verse on which you are working; this is the editors’ opinion of which
meaning best suits the passage.
Step 2a: If the word is a noun, look for its entry alphabetically.
Step 2b: If multiple meanings are listed for the word, determine which
meaning best fits the context for your passage. The lexicon may reference
the verse on which you are working; this is the editors’ opinion of which
meaning best suits the passage.
Appendices A53
How to Read a CDCH Entry, Part 1: Verbs -- חבז
1. A single running header
identifies the first word
included on each page.
2. Verbs are listed by
consonants only, no
vowels (in contrast to
BDB, which lists verbs
by the 3ms Perfect
form).
3. Entries are arranged by
ן= יN נִבּ as follows: Qal,
Ni., Pi., Pu., Hi., Ho.,
Htp.
4. Representative inflected
forms follow each ן= יN נִבּ
label.
5. Multiple meanings are
given in outline form—
1a.—with bold glosses.
Appendices A54
How to Read a CDCH Entry, Part 2: Nouns -- ַחֵבְּזִ מ
1. A single running header
identifies the first word
included on each page.
2. Nouns are listed with
their singular, non-
bound (ךֵמוֹס) form
alphabetically (in
contrast to BDB, which
lists all nouns,
regardless of spelling,
with their ֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ).
3. Identification as noun
(n.) and gender (m. or
f.) follow the form.
4. A partial listing of
declined forms is given.
5. Meanings are given in
outline form—1a. (if
multiple meanings
exist) —with bold
glosses for primary
meanings and italicized
contextually nuanced
meanings.
Appendices A55
Appendix E
Terminology
Many reference works on Hebrew (lexica and grammars) employ the tradition-
al Latin-based grammatical terms to describe Hebrew. In order to facilitate us-
ing such resources, the following list provides equivalencies between the
terminology of this grammar and the traditional Latin-based terminology.
Term in this grammar Traditional term
Vowel letter
לu שֵׁגָ דּ
קָ זָ ח שֵׁגָ דּ
֫ חj תַ פּ הָבוּנְגּ
תוּכיִמְ ס
(ָמְסK נ
(ֵ מוֹס
Infinitive
Adverbial Infinitive
Enclitic pronouns
Proclitic Prepositions
Past Narrative
Irreal Perfect
֫ שׁ@ֹ שׁ
Subject Pronouns
םיK נ= יN נִבּ/ן=יNנִבּ
First-person Jussive
Mater lectionis (‘mother of reading’)
Dagesh lene
Dagesh forte
Furtive patach
Construct relationship
Construct form
Absolute form
Infinitive Construct
Infinitive Absolute
Suffixed pronouns
Inseparable Prepositions
Waw-Consecutive Imperfect
Waw-Consecutive Perfect
(Triconsonantal) root
Independent Pronouns
Stem(s)
Cohortative
Hebrew-English Glossary
Conventions
Verbs are listed alphabetically by the Perfect 3MS forms for each םי# נ% י& נִ בּ in which they occur.
In addition, a list of all the םי# נ% י& נִ בּ for each verb appears for the ל* Perfect 3MS form, or the
unvocalized ֫ שׁ,ֹ שׁ if it does not occur in ל*. The L and R numbers after the gloss refer to the
lesson and reading number, respectively, in which the word appears as a vocabulary item.
Abbreviations
ADJ adjective
ADV adverb
C common (gender)
COLL collective
COMP complementizer
COND conditional
CONJ conjunction
DEM demonstrative pronoun
DET determiner/article
DU dual
ENCL enclitic
EXST existential
F feminine
HI Hifil
HIT Hitpael
HO Hofal
IMPV imperative
INF infinitive
INTJ interjection
INTER interrogative
LOC locative
M masculine
NI Nifal
NIS .ָמְס# נ/bound/clitic form
NOUN noun
NUM numeral
PASS passive
PI Piel
P plural
PN proper noun
PREP preposition
PRON independent pronoun
PTCP participle
PU Pual
Q Qal
S singular
VB verb
א
; בָ א תוֹבָ א P NOUN M father L7, R1
דַבָ א VB Q perish; PI, HI destroy
דֵ בִּ א VB PI destroy
הָבָ א VB Q be willing, consent
֫ .ֶלֶמיִבֲ א PN Abimelech
לֵבָ א PN Abel
לָבֲ א CONJ but
לַבָ א VB Q, HIT mourn
֫ לֶבֵ א NOUN M mourning R13
לֵבָ א ADJ M mourning R10
֫ ; ןֶבֶ א םי#נָבֲ א P , י>נְבַ א P NIS NOUN F stone
Hebrew-English Glossary G2
םָ ה?ְבַ א PN Abraham
ם?ְבַ א PN Abram
םוֹלָשְׁבַ א PN Absalom
םוֹדֱ א PN Edom
םAָ א NOUN M man, humankind; PN Adam R1, 8
,הָמAֲ א תַמBַ א NIS ; תוֹמAֲ א P NOUN F ground, land L7, R8
,ןוֹדָ א ןוֹדֲ א NIS םי#נCֲ א ; P ; י> נCֲ א P NIS NOUN M master, lord L4
י% נCֲ א PN (EPITHET) the Lord L4
ּ וּהָ יּ# נCֲ א PN Adonijah
בַהָא ,בֵהָ א VB Q love R4
ֹ ;לֶהֹ א םיִלָהֹ א P יֵ לֳ הָ א , P NIS NOUN M tent L20
ןוֹרֲהַ א PN Aaron
וֹא CONJ or
םָלוּא CONJ but
;רָצוֹא רַצוֹא NIS תוֹרָ צוֹא ; P תוֹרְצֹא , P NIS NOUN M treasure, store; treasury, storehouse
;רוֹא םיIוֹא P NOUN M light L24
רוֹא VB Q be(come) light; H give light, shine, make shine
;תוֹא תוֹתוֹא P NOUN M/F sign R11
[תוא] VB NI consent, agree
ֹ ;ןֶזֹ א ֫ ם#יL נְ זָ א DU י>נְזָא , NIS NOUN F ear L10
רַזָ א VB Q gird, equip
,חָ א יִ חֲ א NIS םיִ חַ א; P , יֵחֲא P NIS NOUN M brother L10, R4
דָחֶ א , תַ חַ א F NUM one, each one R5
תַזֻּחֲא ,הָזֻּחֲ א NIS NOUN F landed property R12
זַחָ א VB Q seize, grasp, hold on to
Hebrew-English Glossary G3
תוֹחָ א , NIS ;תֹחֲא P [תוֹיָ חֲ א] NOUN F sister L10
יPֲ חַ א ,רַ חַ א PREP, ADV, CONJ behind, after L30, 32
,רֵחַ א ֫ ת,ֶ חַ א F ADJ another
־ הֶ זִּמ יֵא ;יֵ א INTE where?; from where? L14
ב>יוֹא NOUN M (= Q PTCP) enemy
הָביֵ א NOUN F enmity, personal hostility
הֵ יַּ א ? INTER where
.יֵ א ADV how; INTJ How? L14
֫ ל# יַ א , ליֵ א NIS ; םיִ ליֵ א P , יֵליֵ א P NIS NOUN M ram R1
֫ ־ ן# יַא, ןיֵ א EXST ADV there is/are not L12
֫ ן#יַ א INTER where? L14
הֹפיֵ א INTER where? L14
םיִשׁ%נֲא; שׁיִ א P , יֵ שׁ&נַ א P NIS NOUN M man L6, R1
.ַ א ADV only, surely
לַכָ א VB Q eat L18, R5
הָלְכָ א NOUN F food, eating R11
־לֶ א PREP to, towards
לַ א ADV not (with commands) R6
לֵ א NOUN M god, God, mighty one
֫ הֶ לֵּ א CP DEM these
םיִ הTֱ א NOUN M God; gods L4
֫ .ֶלֶמיִלֱ א PN Elimelech
םֵ לִּ א VB PI bind (a sheaf) R10
הָ מֻּלֲ א , תַמֻּלֲ א NIS ; תוֹמֻּ לֲ א P NIS NOUN F sheaf
֫ ףֶלֶ א םיִ פָ לֲ א ; P יֵ פְּ לַ א , P NIS NOUN M (only P) thousand, clan; cattle
Hebrew-English Glossary G4
םִ א COND if; also marks alternative condition, i.e., or
תוֹמִּא ;םֵ א P NOUN F mother L7, R1
הָ מָ א תַ מֲ א , NIS תוֹהָמֲא ; P תוֹהְמַא , P NIS NOUN F maid, handmaid
הָ מַּ א תַ מַּ א , NIS תוֹמַּ א ; P NIS NOUN F cubit
ןַמָ א VB Q support; HI believe
ץֵמָ א VB Q be strong, bold; PI strengthen (something); HIT make oneself bold, obstinate
ץֵמִּ א ) VB PI strengthen (something
רַמָ א VB Q say
֫ רֶמֵ א םיIָמֲא ; P יPְמִא , P NIS NOUN M speech, word
תֶמֱ א NOUN F truth, faithfulness
ָ ה% נָ א INTER where?, to where?
֫ ֫ אָ נָּ א, הָנָּ א INTJ ah!, now!
ַ ַ וּנְחַנ, וּנְחַנֲ א PRON 1CP we
יִכֹנָא, י#נֲ א PRON 1CS I
אָ סָ א PN Asa
ףַ סָ א VB Q gather, remove
ףַ א ADV also, even, moreover
ףַ א ם# יַ פַּא ; P יֵ פַּ א , P NIS NOUN M nose, face, anger
יִ כּ ףַ א CONJ furthermore; how much more!
הָפָ א VB Q bake
סֵפָ א VB Q be at an end, be no more
֫ ם# י[ְפֶ א PN Ephraim
֫ לֶצֵ א NOUN M proximity; PREP beside
הָ עָ בּ]ַא ;עַבּ]ַ א F םיִעָ בּ]ַ א ; P NUM four; P forty
֫ ם#יַ תְּ עַ בּ]ַ א ADJ/SUBST four-fold
Hebrew-English Glossary G5
ןוֹרֲ א NOUN M chest, ark
רוּרָ א Q PASS PTC cursed R8
֫ ח[ֹ א תוֹח?ֳ א ; P תוֹח]ָ א , P NIS NOUN M way, path
֫ .,ֹ א NOUN M length
.Pָ א VB Q be long; HI prolong, lengthen
ם?ֲ א PN Aram
֫ ץ,ֶ א תוֹצ?ֲ א ; P תוֹצ]ַ א , P NIS NOUN F earth, land L9, R6
ר[ָ א VB Q, PI curse
ר[ֵ א VB PI curse
ט[?ֲ א PN Ararat
שֵׁ א NOUN M, F fire R3
הָ שִּׁ א תֶ שֵׁא , NIS ; םיִשׁ% נ P יֵ שׁ&נ , P NIS NOUN F woman, wife L6, R1
רוּשַּׁ א PN Assyria
םָשָׁ א NOUN M guilt (offering)
רֶשֲׁ א CONJ that, which, who; COMP that L30, R3
־ יaתֹא ;תֵא, תֶ א W. ENCL PRON direct object marker L15
־ ;תֵא, תֶ א יִתִּ א W. ENCL PRON PREP with
הָתַּ א PRON 2MS you L5
ְתַּ א PRON 2FS you L5
םֶ תַּ א PRON 2MP you L11
֫ ה% נֵתַּא, ןֶ תַּ א PRON 2FP you L11
ב
ְ בּ PREP in, at, with, by L13
רֵ אְ בּ NOUN M well, cistern, pit
֫ עַבֶ שׁ רֵ אְ בּ PN Beersheba
Hebrew-English Glossary G6
לֶבָ בּ PN Babylon
֫ דֶגֶּב , םיdָגְ בּ P , יeְגִ בּ P NIS NOUN M garment L35, R10
דַ בּ ) דַבְ ל see ל, NOUN M solitude (with
[לדבּ] VB HI divide, separate
ֹ וּהֹּב NOUN M emptiness R11
הָ מֵ הְ בּ תַ מֱ הֶ בּ , NIS תוֹמֵ הְ בּ ; P תוֹמֲ הַ בּ , P NIS NOUN F cattle R1
אוֹבּ VB Q come, enter; HI bring, make enter L26, R6
רוֹבּ תוֹראֹבּ ; P NOUN M well, cistern, pit r1
שׁוֹבּ VB Q be ashamed
רַ חָּב VB Q choose
חַטָ בּ VB Q trust
֫ ם,ֶ טְ בּ ) ֫ (ם,ֶט + ְּב PREP not yet, before
ןיֵ בּ PREP (only NIS) between L26
ןיִ בּ VB Q perceive, observe, have insight; HI understand, give understanding, teach
ה% ניִ בּ תL ניִ בּ , NIS תוֹניִ בּ ; P NOUN F understanding
֫ ת# יַ בּ תיֵ בּ , NIS ; םיִ תָּ בּ P , יg תָ בּ P NIS NOUN M house L8, R1
־ לֵא תיֵ בּ PN Bethel
֫ ־ םֶ חֶל תיֵ בּ PN Bethlehem
הָ כָ בּ VB Q weep, bewail; PI lament R10
הָ כִּ בּ VB PI lament
רוֹכְ בּ NOUN M first-born
תיִ כְ בּ NOUN F formal weeping R13
הָ הְ לִ בּ PN Bilhah
ְבּ, טאָלְ בּ טָ ל ) (טאָל + ְּב NOUN M secrecy
קָ לָ בּ PN Balak
Hebrew-English Glossary G7
יִ תְּלִבְל ,יִ תְּ לִ בּ ADV not, except
;הָ מָ בּ תוֹמָבּ P NOUN F high-place
הָמַּבּ ,הֶ מַּ בּ INTER how? L14
ןֵּב ־ןֶ בּ , NIS ; םי# נָ בּ P , י> נְ בּ P NIS NOUN M son L7, R1
־ ה% נָ שׁ ןֶ בּ IDIOM. X years old
ה% נָ בּ VB Q build R3
ןיִ מ% י& נִ בּ PN Benjamin
רוּבֲ עַ בּ R8 (רוּבֲ ע + ְ בּ) PREP, CONJ for the sake of, on account of, in order that
ַ ;דַעַּב דַ עְ בּ NIS PREP behind, on behalf of, away from
֫ זַ עֹ בּ PN Boaz
֫ לַעַ בּ םיִ לָ עְ בּ ; P יֵ לֲ עַ בּ , P NIS NOUN M owner, lord, husband; Baal R7
֫ עַצֶ בּ NOUN M (unlawful) profit, gain R10
קֵצָ בּ NOUN M dough
ע*ָ בּ VB Q split, cleave
ַ עֵ קִּ בּ VB PI split, cleave
הָ עjִּב תַ עjִּ ב , NIS תוֹעkְּ ב ; P NOUN F valley, plain
רkָּב ר*ְּ ב , NIS ; םיIkְ בּ P NOUN M cattle, herd, ox R12
ֹ רlֹּב םיIkְּ ב , P NOUN M morning R6
שֵׁ קִּ בּ VB PI seek R10
רַּב NOUN M corn
א?ָּב VB Q create L24
ח[ָ בּ VB Q flee L39
תיIְּב NOUN F covenant L7
.Pֵ בּ VB PI bless; PU, NI be blessed L29, R9
֫ ֫ ם#יַכ]ִ בּ ;.,ֶ בּ DU ; יֵכ]ִ בּ DU NIS NOUN M knee R13
Hebrew-English Glossary G8
תַכּ]ִבּ ,הָכ?ְ בּ NIS תוֹכ?ְ בּ ; P תוֹכ]ִ בּ , P NIS NOUN F blessing R13
רָשָׂ בּ רַ שְּׂ ב , NIS םיIָ שְּׂ ב ; P NOUN M flesh R10
לֵ שִּׁ בּ VB PI boil
תוֹנָ בּ ,תַ בּ P NOUN F daughter L7, R1
֫ ־ עַבֶ שׁ תַ בּ PN Bathsheba
.וֹתְבּ ) ֫ (.nוָ תּ + ְּב PREP M (only NIS) in the middle of
ג
לַ אָ גּ VB Q redeem, act as a kinsman
לֵ אֹ גּ NOUN M (= Q PTCP) kinsman-redeemer, close relative
הַּ בָ גּ VB Q be high, lofty, tall; HI make high
לוּבְ גּ NOUN M border, territory
הָלוֹדְגּ ,לוֹדָ גּ F םיִלוֹדְ גּ ; MP תוֹלוֹדְ גּ , FP יֵלCגּ ; MP NIS ADJ great L32
לqָגּ, לeָ גּ VB Q be great; PI make great, grow
֫ לrֹ גּ NOUN M greatness, magnificence
ןוֹעBִ גּ PN Gideon
;יוֹגּ םי# יֹ גּ P י>יוֹגּ , P NIS NOUN M nation, people L32
תַ יּ# וְ גּ ,הָיּ#וְ גּ NIS תוֹיּ#וְ גּ ; P NOUN F body, corpse R12
עL וָ גּ VB Q pass away, perish R13
רוּגּ VB Q to sojourn, abide R12
ןוֹחָ גּ NOUN M belly (of reptiles)
הָ לָ גּ VB Q uncover, reveal
דָ עְ לִ גּ PN Gilead
םַ גּ ADV also, even L28
לַמָ גּ VB Q to wean; to do or show R13
לָמָ גּ לַמְ גּ , NIS םיִ לַּמְ גּ ; P יֵ לַּמְ גּ , P NIS NOUN M camel R1
Hebrew-English Glossary G9
ןַ גּ םיִ נַּ גּ , P NOUN M garden R2
בLנָ גּ VB Q steal; NI be stolen; PI steal away; PU be stolen away; HIT go by stealth
הָב>נְ גּ NOUN F stolen item
רַעָ גּ VB Q rebuke, speak insultingly to someone R7
רֵ גּ NOUN M resident alien, stranger
תוֹרָגּ]ַ גּ NOUN FP neck
֫ ן,ֹ גּ NOUN M threshing floor R13
ר?ְ גּ PN Gerar
שׁ[ָ גּ VB Q cast out, thrust out; PI drive out, away
֫ ןֶ שֹׁ גּ PN Goshen
ד
גַאָ דּ VB Q be anxious, worry
הָ בִּדּ NOUN F report, rumor
קַבָ דּ VB Q cling, cleave, keep close
,רָבָ דּ רַבְ דּ NIS םיIָבְ דּ ; P יPְבִ דּ , P NIS NOUN M word, thing L5, R4
רֵּבִ דּ VB PI speak L15, R7
֫ רֶבֶ דּ NOUN M pestilence, plague
שַׁבְ דּ NOUN M honey
הָגָ דּ ,גָ דּ F NOUN M fish R11
ד#וָ דּ PN David
רוֹדּ NOUN M generation
הָ לָ דּ ) VB Q draw (water
ּ תֶלֶ דּ ; תוֹתָלְ דּ P , תוֹתְלַ דּ P NIS NOUN F door R1
םָ דּ םּ q , NIS םיִמָ דּ ; P יֵמְ דּ , P NIS NOUN M blood, P bloodguilt L23, R10
הָ מָ דּ VB Q be like, resemble
Hebrew-English Glossary G10
תוּמְדּ NOUN F likeness R11
ןָ דּ PN Dan
֫ תַ עַ דּ NOUN F/M knowledge R8
רַ דּ]ַ דּ NOUN M thistles
֫ .,ּ r םיִכ?ְ דּ ; P יֵכ]ַ דּ , P NIS NOUN M/F way, road L16, R5
.[ָ דּ VB Q tread, march, walk
שׁ[ָ דּ VB Q seek L23
אָשָׁ דּ VB Q be green; H cause to sprout
֫ אֶשֶׁ דּ NOUN M grass R11
ןtתֹ דּ PN Dothan
ה
ַ ה • DET the L8
ֲ ה INTER marker for “yes” and “no” question L8
֫ הָ ADV to, toward (attached to nouns) R7
אֵ ה INTJ behold, see! R12
דיִבֱאֶה (דַבָא) VB HI destroy
דָ טָ אָ ה PN Atad
ריִאֵ ה R11 ) רוֹא ( VB HI give light, shine, make shine
ןיִמֱאֶ ה ) ןַמָ א ( VB HI believe
.יIֱאֶה ) .Pָ א ( VB HI prolong, lengthen
איִבֵ ה L36, R7 ) אוֹבּ ( VB HI bring, make enter
ליִ דְּבִ ה R11 (לדב) VB HI divide, separate
ןיִ בֵ ה (ןיִ בּ) VB HI understand, give understanding, teach
טיִ בִּ ה VB HI look, gaze
֫ לֶבֶ ה PN Abel
Hebrew-English Glossary G11
דיִ גִּ ה R5 (דגנ) VB HI declare
רָגָ ה PN Hagar
איִ שׁBִ ה R11 (אָ שָׁדּ) VB H cause to sprout
אוּה MS PRON he; DEM that L5
ףיִסוֹה R7 (ףַס%י) HI multiply, do again, continue
איִצוֹה R11 (אָצ%י) VB H bring forth
דיIוֹה R7 (ד[% י) VB H bring down, cause to descend
ביִ שׁוֹה R12 (בַשׁ%י) VB H settle, set, cause to sit, inhabit
ַעיIְזִ ה R11 (ע[ָז) VB HI produce seed
ה% יֱ חֶ ה R12 (ה%יָח) H keep alive, let live, revive
הָ טִּ ה (הכנ) ) VB HI turn, incline (something
איִ ה FS PRON she; DEM that L5
ה%יָ ה VB Q become, be L6
הָ כִּ ה R10 (הכנ) VB HI smite, strike
ריִ כִּ ה R10 ) (רכנ VB HI recognize, regard
,לָ כיֵ ה לַכיֵ ה NIS תוֹלָכיֵה , P יֵ לְ כיֵ ה , P NIS NOUN M palace, temple
ִ ה שׁיִ בְּ ל L35, R10 (שַׁבָל) VB HI clothe
.ַלָ ה VB Q walk, go L16, R3
לֵלִּ ה VB PI praise
ֵ הָ מֵּה, םֵ ה MP PRON they; DEM those L11
ןוֹמָ ה NOUN M multitude, crowd
תיִ מֵ ה R7 ) תוּמ ( VB H kill
ןֵ ה INTJ behold, see! R8
֫ הָ נֵּ ה, ןֵ ה FP PRON they; DEM those L11
֫ הָ נֵּ ה ADV here
Hebrew-English Glossary G12
הֵ נִּ ה INTJ behold, see! L22, R3
ַחיִ נִּה/ַחי#נֵ ה VB HI cause to rest, make quiet; set down; let remain, leave
ריִסֵ ה VB HI cause to depart, remove
ריִ תְּסִ ה (רתס) VB HI conceal
ריִבֱעֶ ה VB H allow to pass over R12
הָ לֱ עֶ ה R6 ) הָ לָ ע ( VB HI cause to rise up, lead up
דיִמֱעֶ ה R12 (דַמָע) VB H set up, cause to stand
.ַ פָ ה VB Q overturn, destroy
הָ כֵ פֲ ה NOUN F overthrow, destruction
איִ לְ פִ ה (אלפ) VB HI do an extraordinary thing
דיIְפִ ה ) (ד[ָפ) VB HI divide, separate (something
רֵפֵ ה (ררפ) VB HI break, frustrate
טיִ שְׁפִ ה R4 (טַ שָׁפ) VB HI strip off, remove
גיִ צִּ ה R12 (גצי) VB HI set, place, establish
קיִ דְּ צִ ה (קCָצ/קeָצ) VB HI justify
ליִ צִּ ה R7 ) לצנ ( VB HI snatch away, deliver
ַחיִלְצִ ה L29 (חַלָצ/ַחֵלָצ) VB HI make successful, show experience
ַחיִמְצִ ה (חַ מָ צ) VB HI cause to sprout, grow
ליִהjִ ה ) (להק VB HI congregate
ריִטjִ ה (רטק) VB HI make sacrifices smoke
םיwֵ ה (םוּק) VB HI raise, erect
םַ קֻּ ה (ם*% נ) VB HO be avenged
ריִצjִ ה (רַצk/רֵ צk) VB HI shorten
רֵ שׁ*x תִ ה (רַ שׁk) VB HIT conspire
םיIָ ה ;רַ ה P ; ,רָ הָ ה םיIָהֶ ה W. DET NOUN M mountain, hill country R3
Hebrew-English Glossary G13
הָ א]ֶ ה (הָ א?) VB HI show, exhibit
הָ בּ]ִ ה R9 (הָ ב?) VB HI make much/many, make multiply
ג[ָ ה VB Q kill, slay L27, R7
ףיִ דּ]ִ ה (ףq?) VB HI chase
ה?ָ ה VB Q conceive, become pregnant
קיִ ח]ִ ה (קַ ח?) VB HI cause to be distant, far away; remove
ןוֹרֵה ,ןוֹי?ֵ ה NOUN M conception, pregnancy
דיw]ִ ה (ד*?) VB HI cause to skip
ַעיִ שׁ]ִ ה (עַ שׁ?) VB HI condemn
קיִ חְ שִׂ ה (קַחָשׂ) VB HI utterly mock
איִ שִּׁ ה R8 (אשׁנ) VB HI deceive
גיִ שִּׂ ה R12 (גשׂנ) VB HI collect, reach
ליִכְשִׂ ה R5 (לַ כָשׂ) VB HI look at, ponder; give insight, teach
ריִאְ שִׁ ה (ראשׁ) VB HI leave over, behind
ַעיִ בְּשִׁ ה L29, R10 (עבשׁ) ) VB HI cause to swear (an oath
ריִ בְּשִׁ ה R12 (רַבָשׁ) VB HI sell grain
תיִ בְּשִׁ ה (תַבָשׁ) VB HI put an end to, destroy
תיִ חְ שִׁ ה L29 (תחשׁ) VB HI spoil, destroy
ביִ שֵׁ ה R7 (בוּשׁ) VB HI return (something)g
םיִ כשִׁ ה R6 (םכשׁ) VB HI wake early
ןיִכשִׁ ה R5 (ןכשׁ) VB HI settle (someone), cause to dwell
.יִלְ שִׁה L15, R7 (ךלשׁ) VB HI throw
דיִמְ שִׁ ה (דמשׁ) VB HI annihilate
ןיִמְ שִׁ ה (ןֵמָשׁ) VB HI make fat
עַ שֵׁ ה (עַעָשׁ) VB HI blind
Hebrew-English Glossary G14
הkְ שִׁ ה (הקשׁ) VB HI water, give drink
טיwְ שִׁ ה (ט*ָשׁ) VB HI show/cause quietness
הnוֲחַ תְּ שִׁ ה R6 ) הוח ( VB HISHTAFEL bow down, prostrate oneself
לֵ בַּאxתִ ה R10 ) לַבָ א ( VB HIT mourn
ץֵ מַּ אx תִ ה ) ץֵמָ א ( VB HIT make oneself bold, obstinate
אֵ בַּחxתִ ה R5 ) (אבח ) VB HIT hide (oneself
אֵ בּLנxתִ ה VB HIT prophesy
םֵחLנxתִ ה VB HIT be grieved, allow oneself to be comforted R10
לֵ כּL נx תִ ה VB HIT behave cunningly R10
אֵ לַ פּx תִ ה (אלפ) VB HIT be difficult, extraordinary
לֵלַ פּx תִ ה (ללפ) VB HIT pray
ץֵ בּ*x תִ ה (ץבק) VB HIT gather (intransitive)
ו
& ו CONJ and
֫ רֶמֹאיּL ו ) (רמא VB Q 3MS PAST he said
ז
תאֹ ז FS DEM this
חַ בָ ז VB Q, PI slaughter, sacrifice
הֶ ז MS DEM this
בַהְז ,בָהָ ז NIS NOUN M gold
רַ כָ ז VB Q remember
;רָכָ ז םיIָ כְ ז P NOUN M male R11
הָ פְּלִ ז PN Zilpah
ןָמְ ז NOUN M appointed time, time
Hebrew-English Glossary G15
,הָעֵ ז תַ עֵ ז NIS NOUN F sweat R8
םי#נ{ְ ז NOUN MP old age R7
,ן|ָ ז ה%נ|ְ ז FS ; ,ן*ְ ז MS NIS ; םי#נ|ְ ז MP , תוֹנ|ְ ז FP ; י>נjִ ז MP NIS ADJ old R13
ן|ָ ז VB Q be old
ח[ָ ז VB Q rise, come forth, appear
ע[ָ ז VB Q sow seed; HI produce seed R11
֫ ;ע[ֶ ז םיִע?ְ ז P יֵ ע]ַז , P NIS NOUN M seed L34
ח
[אבח] ) VB NI, HIT hide (oneself); HI hide (something
לַבָ ח VB Q bind, pledge; NI be pledged; PI writhe, twist
לֵבֹ ח NOUN M (= Q PTCP) mariner, sailor
קַ בָ ח VB Q, PI embrace
ןוֹרְבֶ ח PN Hebron
שַׁ בָ ח VB Q bind, bind on, bind up; PI bind, restrain; PU be bound up R3
שֵׁ בִּ ח VB PI bind, restrain
שַּׁ בֻ ח VB PU be bound up
תיִ גַּ ח PN Haggit
רוֹגֲ ח NOUN M belt, girdle R5
לqָ ח VB Q cease, come to an end
שׁAָ ח , הָ שׁAֲ ח F םיִ שׁAֲח ; MP תוֹשׁAֲח , FP ADJ new
ֹ םיִ שׁAֳח ;שׁrֹ ח P יֵ שׁBָח , P NIS NOUN M new moon, month
[הוח] VB HISHTAFEL bow down, prostrate oneself
הָ וַּ ח PN Eve
לוֹח NOUN M mud, sand R9
,הָמוֹח תַמוֹח NIS , תוֹמוֹח P NOUN F wall
Hebrew-English Glossary G16
קַ זָ ח VB Q be strong; HI strengthen, seize R12
אָ טָ ח VB Q sin
םיִאָטֲח ,אְ טֵ ח P יֵ אָ טֲ ח , P NIS NOUN M sin
הָאָטֲ ח NOUN F sin
תאַ טַּח ,תאָטַּ ח NIS תוֹאָ טַּח ; P תאֹ טַּח , P NIS NOUN F sin, sin-offering
יַ ח M , יֵ ח NIS , םיִ יַּ ח MP הָ יַּ ח ; F תוֹיַּ ח , FP ADJ alive, living
ה%יָ ח VB Q live, be alive; H keep alive, let live, revive
הָ יַּ ח תַ יַּ ח , NIS תוֹיַּ ח ; P NOUN F animal R1, 11
֫ ליֵח ,ל# יַ ח NIS םיִ ל% יֲ ח ; P NOUN M strength, wealth, valor; army R12
םיִ יַּ ח NOUN MP life R5
קיֵ ח NOUN M bosom, lap
םָכָ ח M , םַכֲ ח NIS ; הָ מָ כֲ ח F תוֹמָכֲח , P תוֹמְכַח , FP NIS ADJ wise
םַכָ ח VB Q be wise
םוֹלֲ ח ; P תוֹמוֹלֲח NOUN M dream R4
םַלָ ח VB Q dream R4
[ללח] VB NI be defiled; PI he polluted, defiled; HI begin
קַ לָ ח VB Q, PI divide, distribute; NI divide oneself
קָ לָ ח ADJ smooth, slippery
ֵ קֶ לֵ ח NOUN M portion, share, territory
הkְ לֶ ח NOUN F portion
דַ מָ ח VB Q desire, take pleasure in
רוֹמֲ ח ; P םיIוֹמֲח NOUN M donkey R1
תוֹמָ ח NOUN F mother-in-law
סָ מָ ח NOUN M violence
ֹ רֶ מֹ ח NOUN M cement, mortar, clay
Hebrew-English Glossary G17
,שֵׁ מָ ח F ;הָ שִּׁ מֲ ח P םיִ שִּׁ מֲ ח NUM five; P fifty R12
֫ שֶׁ מֹ ח NOUN M fifth part R12
,יִשׁיִמֲ ח F תיִ שׁיִמֲח NUM fifth R11, 12
ןֵ ח NOUN M favor, grace R12
ה% נָ ח VB Q incline, bend down, camp
הָ נַּ ח PN Hannah
.וֹנֲ ח PN Enoch
טL נָ ח VB Q embalm R13
םיִ ט} נֲ ח NOUN M (always PL) embalming R13
ןL נָ ח VB Q show favor, be gracious
ף> נָ ח VB Q be polluted, profane; HI pollute, make profane
֫ דֶ סֶ ח NOUN M kindness, goodness R12
.ַ שָׂ ח VB Q keep back, withhold
הָ סָ ח VB Q seek refuge
֫ ץֶפֵ ח NOUN M delight, pleasure
־ ~jָח, יִקֻּ ח ;קֹ ח, קָ ח W. ENCL PRON NOUN M statute R12
֫ ב,ֶ ח ; תוֹב?ֲ ח P , תוֹב]ַ ח NIS NOUN F sword R5
בPֹ ח PN Horeb
ה?ָ ח VB Q burn, be kindled L36
.ַ שָׂ ח VB Q keep back, withhold R9
בַ שָׁ ח VB Q think, devise; NI be reckoned R113
הָשָׁ ח VB Q be silent; HI exhibit silence, make still/quiet
֫ .ֶ שֹׁ ח NOUN M darkness R11
תֵ ח יִ תִּ ח Hittite ; םיִ תִּ ח PN Heth; Hittites
ת•תָ ח VB Q be shattered, dismayed
Hebrew-English Glossary G18
ט
חָבַּ ט NOUN M bodyguard R10
לַבָ ט VB Q dip something (into) R10
,בוֹט םיִ בוֹט P יֵ בוֹט, MP NIS הָ בוֹט , F תַבוֹט , NIS , תוֹבוֹט FP ADJ good, pleasant R5
רוֹהָ ט ADJ clean, pure
[לוּט] HI cast, hurl, throw; HO be hurled, cast, throw
אֵמָ ט ADJ unclean
ףַ ט NOUN M children R12
֫ ם,ֶ ט ) ְּב ADV not yet, before (with
ף[ָ ט VB Q tear, rend, pluck R10
י
רֹא&י םיIֹ א& י ; P יPֹ א& י , NIS NOUN M stream; PN Nile
֫ תֶמֶב&י ;הָמָב& י NIS NOUN F sister-in-law
שֵׁב% י VB Q be(come) dry; HI cause to be dry
הָשָׁ בּL י NOUN F dry land R11
ַ ם#יַד%י ;ד% י DU יe& י , NIS תוֹד%י ; P , תוֹד&י NIS NOUN F hand L10, R2
[הדי] VB HI give thanks, praise, confess
עq% י VB Q know L19, R4
בַה% י VB Q give; (always IMPV; frequently functions as INTJ come!) R12
אוּה> י PN Jehu
הAוּה& י PN Judah
ןtת% נוֹה& י PN Jonathan
ַ עֻ שׁוֹה& י PN Joshua
ה% וה& י PN YHWH (personal name of Hebrew God) L2
בָאוֹי PN Joab
Hebrew-English Glossary G19
שָׁאוֹי PN Joash
םוֹי םיִמ%י ; P יֵמ&י , P NIS L21, R5 םוֹי םוֹי daily ; םוֹיַּ ה NOUN M day; W. ART today
ה%נוֹי NOUN F dove
ה%נוֹי PN Jonah
ףֵסוֹי PN Joseph
וָ דְּחL י ADV together, altogether L36, R6
דיִח% י ADJ, SUBST only, only one, solitary R6
בַט% י VB Q be good, pleasing; HI do (something) well, deal well with
ַ ן# יַ י NOUN M wine
לֹכ% י VB Q be able, have power R7
דוֹלּ# י (דַ ל% י) Q PASS PTC born
דַ ל% י VB Q beget, bear (children) R8
דַ לּ} י VB PU be born R13
֫ דֶ לn י ; הָ דְּ לL י F NOUN M boy ;F girl R1
[ללי] VB HI howl
םיִ מּLי ;ם% י P NOUN M sea L13, R9
־ ףוּס םL י PN Sea of Reeds (“Red Sea”)
[ןמי] VB HI go right, choose the right, use the right hand
ןיִ מ% י NOUN F right side, right hand
קLנ% י VB Q suck; HI suckle, nurse
ףַ ס% י VB Q add; HI multiply, do again, continue
֫ ןַ עL י CONJ because R9
ב€ֲעL י PN Jacob
הָפ% י VB Q be fair, beautiful; PI beautify
֫ תֶ פn י PN Japhet
Hebrew-English Glossary G20
אָ צ% י VB Q go forth; HI bring forth L22
[בצי] VB HIT station oneself, take one's stand
[גצי] VB HI set, place, establish; HO be stayed, stopped, detained
קָחְצ# י PN Isaac
עצי VB HI lay, spread; HO be laid, spread
קַצ% י VB Q pour, pour out; HI pour (oil); HO be poured, cast, molten, firmly established
רַ צ% י VB Q form, fashion, shape
תצי VB Q kindle, burn; NI be kindled; HI kindle, set on fire
ץ*% י VB Q awake
אP% י VB Q fear
אP% י ADJ afraid L30, R5
תַא]# י ,הָ א]# י NIS NOUN F fear, terror, reverence
ד[% י VB Q go down, descend
[דרי] VB HI bring down, cause to descend
ןֵ דּ]L י PN Jordan (River)
ה?% י ) VB Q, HI throw, cast, shoot (arrows
ַ חP% י NOUN M moon R7
֫ ִ םַלָ שׁוּר& י PN Jerusalem
וֹחיI& י PN Jericho
.,n י ,.P% י NIS NOUN M upper thigh, side R12
֫ ה%יְמ]# י, וּה%יְ מ]# י PN Jeremiah
֫ ק[& י ,ק,n י NIS NOUN M green (thing), greenness R11
שׁ[% י VB Q take possession, inherit
יִלאֵעְמְשׁ# י ; םיִ לאֵ עְ מְ שׁ# י P PN Ishmaelite
לֵא?ְשׂ# י PN Israel
Hebrew-English Glossary G21
שׁ> י EXST there is L12
בַשׁ% י VB Q sit, dwell (Q PTCP inhabitant, dweller); HI set, cause to sit, inhabit, settle L16, R6
יַשׁ# י PN Jesse
לאֵעָמְשׁ# י PN Ishmael
עשׂי VB NI be saved; HI save, deliver
ֵ עַשֵׁ י NOUN M deliverance, rescue, salvation
רַשׁ% י VB Q be smooth, right; PI make even, smooth
[רתי] VB NI be left over, remain over; HI leave over, leave a remnant
כ
ְכּ PREP like, as L13
רֶשֲׁאַ כּ CONJ as, just as, when L30
דַבְכּ ,דֵבָכּ M NIS םיdֵ בְכּ ; MP יeְ בִכּ , MP NIS ADJ heavy R12
דַבָכּ, דֵבָכּ VB Q be heavy; PI, HI make heavy, honor L29
דוֹבָ כּ NOUN M glory, honor, wealth
֫ םיִ שָׂ בִכּ ;שֶׁבֶ כּ P NOUN M lamb
שַׁבָ כּ VB Q subdue, dominate
הֹ כּ ADV thus, so L27, R13
םי# נֲ הֹ כּ ;ןֵהֹ כּ P י> נֲ הֹ כּ , P NIS NOUN M priest R12
בַ כוֹכּ ,בָכוֹכּ NIS םיִ בָכוֹכּ ; P יֵ בְכוֹכּ , P NIS NOUN M star R7
[לוּכ] VB PILPAL contain, sustain, keep
[ןוּכ] VB NI be set up, established, fixed; HI establish, set up, make firm
ַחֹ כּ NOUN M strength, power L31
[דחכ] V PI hide, conceal
דֵחִ כּ R12 (דחכ) V PI hide, conceal
יִ כּ CONJ because, when, if, though, but; COMP that L30, R4
Hebrew-English Glossary G22
םִא יִ כּ CONJ but
רַּכִכּ ,רָ כִּ כּ NIS םיIָּ כִכּ ; P יPְּ כִכּ , P NIS NOUN F round district, loaf, weight
־ .ֵלֻּכּ ,לֹ כּ, לָכּ W. ENCL PRON ADJ all, every; NOUN M everything L11, R4
הָלָ כּ VB Q be complete, PI complete, finish, PU be completed, finished
הָלִּ כּ VB PI complete, finish L29
הָלֻּ כּ VB PU be completed, finished R11
הָלַּ כּ NOUN F daughter-in-law, bride
לַכְּלִ כּ R12 (לוּכ) VB PILPAL contain, sustain, keep
םיִ לֵ כּ ,יִלְ כּ P NOUN M vessel, utensil
ןוֹיְלִ כּ PN Kilyon
ןֵ כּ ADV so, thus, yes
סLנָ כּ VB Q gather, collect; PI gather together; HIT gather oneself together
֫ י#נֲעLנְ כּ, ןַעLנְכּ PN Canaan, Canaanite
ףL נְ כּ ,ף%נָ כּ NIS ; תוֹפ%נְכּ DU יֵ פ& נַ כּ , DU NIS NOUN F wing, extremity R11
אֵסִּ כּ NOUN M seat, throne R1
הָ סִּ כּ VB PI cover, conceal R10
֫ םיִ פָ סְ כּ ;ףֶסֶּ כ P יֵ פְ סַ כּ , P NIS NOUN M silver, money R10, 12
֫ םיִסָעְּכ ,סַעַ כּ P NOUN M vexation, anger
רֵ פִּ כּ VB PI appease, atone
רַ כּ NOUN M saddlebag
ה?ָ כּ VB Q hollow out, dig
םיִ בוּרְ כּ ;בוּרְ כּ P NOUN M cherub – type of subordinate divine being R5
ּ םיִ מ?ְּכ ;ם,ֶ כּ P יֵמ]ַּ כ , P NIS NOUN M/F vineyard
ע[ָ כּ VB Q bend one’s knee, bow down, kneel
ת[ָ כּ VB Q cut, cut off, cut down L31, R13
Hebrew-English Glossary G23
ב•תָ כּ VB Q write
֫ ֫ תn נֹתְ כּ, תnנֹתֻּ כּ NIS תוֹנx תָכּ; P NIS NOUN F tunic R4
ל
ְ ל PREP to, for L13
אT ADV no, not L5
הָאֵ ל PN Leah
רֹמאֵ ל COMP used to introduce direct speech ); רמא not translated (= Q INF
~ְבַבֵל ,~ֶּבִל ;בָבֵל, בֵ ל W. ENCL PRON NOUN M heart, mind R13
ְ ל דַ ב R12 (דב+ל) ADV alone, only
יִתְּלִבְ ל (יתלב+ל) ADV not, except
ןָבָ ל PN Laban
ה%נֵבְ ל תLנְבִל , NIS םי#נֵבְל; PL NOUN F sun-baked brick
ןוֹנָבְ ל PN Lebanon
שֵׁבָ ל , שַׁבָ ל VB Q wear; HI clothe
הָהָ ל VB Q languish R12
ַ טַהַ ל NOUN M flame R8
וּל COND would that, if (irreal) L30
יֵ לוּל COND if not (irreal, negative) L30
תוֹחֻל ;ַ חוּל P NOUN M tablet, board, plank, plate
טוֹל PN Lot
י#וֵ ל PN Levi
֫ םֶחֶ ל NOUN M bread, food L17, R7
, טאָ ל טָ ל ) ְּב NOUN M secrecy (always with
טT NOUN M gum R10
֫ הָל&יַ ל NOUN M night L24
Hebrew-English Glossary G24
דַכָ ל VB Q capture
ןֵכָ ל CONJ therefore L30
דַמָ ל VB Q learn; PI teach
֫ הָמָל, הָ מַּ ל INTER why? L14
֫ .ֶמָ ל PN Lamech
֫ ןַ עַמְ ל PREP for the sake of; CONJ in order that (purpose), so that (result) L30, R7x
םָ לוֹעְ ל ) םָלוֹע NOUN M W. PREP forever, long (see
יִפְ ל R12 ) (הֶ פּ+ְ ל PREP according to
י>נְפִ ל PREP, CONJ before R13
םי#נָפְ ל ADV formerly, previously
ח*ָ ל VB Q take, receive L16, R3
ט*ָ ל VB Q glean, pick up, gather
טֵקִּ ל R12 (ט*ָ ל) VB PI gather, collect
;ןוֹשָׁ ל תוֹנֹשְׁ ל P NOUN M tongue, language
מ
דֹאְ מ NOUN M strength; ADV exceedingly
תַ אְ מ ,הָאֵ מ NIS NOUN F hundred R12
֫ הָמוּאְ מ PRON anything L30, R6
תוֹרוֹאְמ ;רוֹאָ מ P NOUN M luminary, light, lamp R11
לָכֲאַ מ NOUN M food R2
֫ ;תֶלֶכֲאַ מ תוֹלָכֲאַ מ P NOUN F knife R3
ןֵאִ מ VB PI refuse R10
םיIוּגְ מ ;רוּגָ מ P NOUN M temporary abode, place of sojourning R10, 12
רָ בּBִ מ NOUN M wilderness R7
םי#נוֹדְמ ,םי#נAְמ ,םי#נ% וBִמ ;ןוֹדָ מ P NOUN M strife, contention
Hebrew-English Glossary G25
ַ עוּדַּ מ INTER why? L14
ן% יBִ מ PN Midian
הָ מ INTER what? how? L8
תַמוּהְ מ ,הָמוּהְ מ NIS NOUN F tumult, confusion
הָ יִּ בֲאוֹמ, יִבָ אוֹמ ;בָ אוֹמ F PN Moab; Moabite
יeֲ עוֹמ ;דֵ עוֹמ P NIS NOUN M meeting, appointed time R11
םיaתְ פוֹמ ;תֵפוֹמ P NOUN M wonder, sign, portent
תוּמ VB Q die; HI kill L30, R5
֫ תnוָ מ NOUN M death
תוֹחָבְּזִמ ;͏ַחֵבְּזִ מ P NOUN M altar R3
הָחָ מ VB Q blot out, wipe away
ןוֹלְחַ מ PN Machlon
;הnנֲחַ מ תוֹנֲחַמ/םי#נֲחַ מ P NOUN M encampment, camp R13
;הֶטַּ מ תוֹטַּ מ P NOUN M staff, rod, branch, tribe
תַטִּמ ,הָטִּ מ NIS תוֹטִּמ ; P NOUN F bed, couch R12
יִ מ INTER who? L6
בַטיֵמ ,בָטיֵ מ NIS NOUN M best, best part R12
֫ ;תrֶלּLיְ מ תוֹדְלּLיְ מ P ) דלי NOUN F midwife (= PI PTC
ַ יֵמיֵמ/יֵמ ;ם#יַ מ NIS NOUN M water L13, R4
ןיִ מ NOUN M kind, species R11
תוֹכַּמ ;הָכַּ מ P NOUN F blow, wound
ריִ כָ מ PN Machir
הָלֵפְּכַ מ PN Machpelah
רַכָ מ VB Q sell R10
הָאֵלְמ ,אֵלָ מ FS אֵ לְ מ ; MS NIS םיִאֵלְמ ; MP , תוֹאֵלְמ FP ADJ full R7
Hebrew-English Glossary G26
אֵלָ מ VB Q be full, fill; PI fill R11
אֵלִּ מ (אֵלָמ) VB PI fill
םיִכָאְלַמ ,.ָאְלַ מ P יֵ כֲ אְ לַ מ , P NIS NOUN M messenger, angel L40, R6
֫ תֶ כאֶלְמ ,הָ כאָ לְ מ NIS תוֹכֲאְלַמ ; P NIS NOUN F work R11
֫ חַלֶ מ NOUN M salt
תוֹמָחְלִמ ;הָמָחְלִ מ P תוֹמֲחְלִמ , P NIS NOUN F war, battle
֫ םיִכָלְמ ;.ֶלֶ מ P יֵכְלַמ , P NIS יִ כְּלַמ ; W. ENCL PRON NOUN M king L9
.ַלָ מ VB Q reign, be(come) king L23, R10
הָ כְּלִ מ PN Milcah
תוּכְלַ מ NOUN F royalty, royal power, reign, kingdom
תֶכֶלְמַמ ,הָכָלְמַ מ NIS תוֹכָלְמַמ ; P NOUN F kingdom, rule
אPְמַ מ PN Mamre
תֶלֶ שְׁמֶמ ,הָלָשְׁמֶ מ NIS NOUN F rule, dominion R11
־ןִ מ and ִ מ • PREP from; more than L13
ה% נָ מ VB Q count, number, assign; PI appoint, ordain
הֵ נִּ מ VB PI appoint, ordain
תַח&נִמ ,הָח&נִ מ NIS NOUN F gift, grain offering L36
הֶ שּׁLנְ מ PN Manasseh
;סַ מ םיִסִּ מ P NOUN M forced labor, conscription
,דֵפְּסִ מ דַפְּסִ מ NIS NOUN M funeral ceremony, mourning rites R13
םיִ טַּעְמ ,טַעְ מ P ADV little, few R12
ַ /לַעַ מ ֫ ,לַ עַ מִּ מ ֫ הָלְעַ מ W. LOC NOUN M higher part, above; W. LOC upward
םיִלָלֲעַמ ,לָלֲעַ מ P יֵ לְ לַ עַ מ ; P NIS NOUN M deed, practice
,ה?ָעְ מ ת[ָעְ מ NIS תוֹרָעְמ ; P תוֹרֲעַמ , P NIS NOUN F cave R13
(י>נְפּ + ןִמ) י>נְ פִּ מ PREP, CONJ from before R8
Hebrew-English Glossary G27
;הֶשֲׂעַ מ םיִשֲׂעַ מ P יֵ שֲׂ עַ מ , P NIS NOUN M deed, work L22
אָצָ מ VB Q find L22, R4
;ה%וְצִ מ תוְֹצִ מ P NOUN F commandment
ַ֫ ם# יַרְצִ מ PN Egypt
֫ םrֶקִּ מ R8 ֫ םrl) NOUN M W. PREP (from the) east (see
ה> וjִ מ ,הn וjִ מ NIS NOUN M collection, collected mass R11
םוֹקְמ ,םוֹקָ מ NIS ; תוֹמ€ְ מ P NOUN M place L12, R3
,הn נjִ מ ה> נjִ מ NIS י>נjִ מ ; P NIS NOUN M property (land or livestock) R12
א?ָ מ PN Mara (‘bitterness’)
הֵ א]ַמ ,הֶא]ַ מ NIS NOUN M appearance, vision
תוֹלָ גּ]ַ מ NOUN FP place of feet; ADV at [his] feet
קוֹח?ֵ מ R3 ) קוֹח? NOUN M at a distance (see
הָ יּIֹ מ PN Moriah
הָ בָכּ]ֶ מ NOUN F chariot
ר[ָ מ VB Q be bitter; PI HI make bitter
,הֶ ע]ִ מ הֵ ע]ִ מ NIS יֵ ע]ִ מ ; P NIS NOUN M pasture R12
֫ ת,ֹכְּשַׂ מ NOUN F wages
הֶשֹׁ מ PN Moses
.ַ שָׁ מ VB Q pull, drag, carry off R10
יֵבְכְּ שִׁמ ;בָכְּשִׁ מ P NIS NOUN M couch, place of lying
ןָ כְּשִׁ מ NOUN M dwelling, tabernacle
לַשָׁ מ VB Q rule R4, 8
֫ ת,ֶמְשִׁ מ NOUN F guard, watch; charge, function
תַ חְ פְּ שִׁ מ ,הָחָפְּשִׁ מ NIS תוֹחָ פְּ שִׁ מ ; P תוֹחְ פְּ שִׁ מ , P NIS NOUN F family, clan R1
טַ פְּ שִׁ מ ,טָפְּשִׁ מ NIS םיִטָ פְּ שִׁ מ ; P יֵטְ פְּ שִׁ מ , P NIS NOUN M judgment, justice; custom L26
Hebrew-English Glossary G28
תֵ מ ) תוּמ ADJ M dead (= Q PTC
י•תָ מ INTER when? L14
֫ ,ם#יLנxתָ מ י>נxתָ מ NIS NOUN DU hips, loins R10
נ
א% נ Illocutionary signal equivalent to I tell you, or a marker of politeness please R6
תוֹא% נ ) תוא ( VB NI consent, agree
זַחֱאn נ R6 (זחא) VB NI grasped, held fast
םֻא& נ NOUN M utterance (always NIS) R9
ףַסֱאn נ ) ףַ סָ א ( VB NI be gathered, assembled
[ףאנ] VB Q, PI commit adultery
ףֵ א# נ VB PI commit adultery
,הkָ א& נ ת*ֲ אL נ NIS NOUN F groan, groaning
[אבנ] VB NI, HIT prophesy
אָּב#נ VB NI prophesy
[טבנ] VB PI, HI look, gaze
טֵ בּ# נ VB PI look, gaze
,איִב% נ איִב& נ NIS ; םיִאיִב& נ P יֵאיִב&נ , NOUN M prophet
.?ְב# נ ) (ךרב VB NI be blessed, bless oneself
֫ ,בֶגn נ הָ בְּגn נ W. LOC NOUN M south
֫ בֶגn נ PN Negeb
[דגנ] VB HI declare
֫ דֶגn נ ADV, PREP in front of, in sight of, opposite to R12
עַג% נ VB Q touch, reach, strike R8
שַׁג% נ VB Q draw near, approach
[להנ] להנ) ( VB PI escort, transport, supply
Hebrew-English Glossary G29
לֵ ה# נ להנ) ( VB PI escort, transport, supply
דוֹנ PN Nod
ַחוּנ VB Q rest; HI cause to rest, make quiet; set down; let remain, leave
ַ חֹ נ PN Noah
אָ בְּחn נ R8 ) (אבח VB NI hide (oneself)x
רוֹח% נ PN Nahor
ַ לַחַ נ NOUN M torrent (valley)/run-off ravine, wadi
,הָלֲחL נ תַלֲחL נ NIS NOUN F possession, property, inheritance
[םחנ] VB NI be sorry/regret, comforted; PI comfort, console
םַ ח# נ VB NI be sorry/regret, comforted
םַ ח# נ VB PI comfort, console R10
דָמְחn נ R8 דמח) ADJ desirable (= NI PTC
שָׁח% נ PN Nahash
,שָׁח% נ םיִ שָׁח& נ P NOUN M serpent R1
בַשְׁחnנ (בַ שָׁ ח) VB NI be reckoned
הָ ט% נ ) VB Q stretch out, extend; HI turn (something
עַ ט% נ VB Q plant
[הכנ] VB HI smite, strike
תאֹכ& נ NOUN F resin R10
[רכנ] VB NI be recognized; HI recognize, regard
רַכּ# נ ) (רַ כ% נ VB NI be recognized
רָכ> נ NOUN M foreign thing
הָ יּIְ כ% נ ,יIְכ% נ F םיIְכ%נ ; MP תוֹיּIְכ%נ , FP ADJ foreign, alien
אָצְמ# נ R12 אָצָמ) ( VB NI be found, be discovered, be caught
[הסנ] VB PI test
Hebrew-English Glossary G30
הָ סּ# נ L30, R6 (הסנ) VB PI test
עַס% נ VB Q pull up (tent pegs), set out, journey R10
דַפְּס# נ (דַ פָ ס) VB NI be bewailed
רַ תְּס# נ ) (רתס VB NI hide (oneself)X
֫ ַ ם#יַלֲעLנ ,לַעַ נ DU NOUN F sandal, shoe
יִמֳע% נ PN Naomi (‘my pleasantness’)
֫ םיIָע&נ ;רַעL נ P יPֲ עL נ , P NIS NOUN M lad, young boy L6, R3
תוֹרָ ע& נ ;ה?ֲעL נ P תוֹרֲ עL נ , P NIS NOUN F maiden, young girl L6
לַפ% נ VB Q fall R13
אָלְפ# נ (אלפ) VB NI be difficult, extraordinary
םיִ לִ פ& נ NOUN MP giants, “fallen ones”
ח*ְפ# נ R5 (ח*ָפ) VB NI be opened
ץ?ְפ# נ (ץ[ָ פּ) VB NI spread
֫ תוֹשָׁפ&נ ;שֶׁפn נ P תוֹשְׁפLנ , P NIS NOUN F life, self L34, R10
[בצנ] VB NI take one’s stand, station oneself; be stationed, appointed R10
בַצּ# נ (בצנ) VB NI take one’s stand, station oneself; be stationed, appointed
[לצנ] VB NI be delivered, deliver oneself; HI snatch away, deliver
לַצּ# נ (לצנ) VB NI be delivered, deliver oneself
רַצ% נ VB Q watch, guard, keep
הָ ב|& נ NOUN F female R11
ה% וj# נ R11 ) (הוק VB NI be collected
יw&נ ,יw% נ MS NIS םיִ יּw&נ ; MP ADJ clean, innocent, exempt
ם*% נ VB Q avenge, take vengeance; NI avenge oneself; HO be avenged
םַ קּ# נ (ם*% נ) VB NI avenge oneself
ע[j# נ (ע[k) VB NI be rent, split asunder
Hebrew-English Glossary G31
רַ שׁj# נ (רַ שׁk) VB NI was bound, joined together
הָ א]# נ (הָ א?) VB NI show oneself, appear
ףq]# נ (ףq?) VB NI are pursued
אָשׂ% נ VB Q lift up, carry; NI be deceived; HI deceive L32, R6
[גשׂנ] VB HI collect, reach
אָ שׁ% נ VB NI be deceived; HI deceive
אָ שּׁ# נ (אָ שׁ%נ) VB NI be deceived
רַ אְ שׁ# נ R12 (ראשׁ) VB NI be left over/behind, remain over, behind
עַ בְּשׁ# נ R9 (עבשׁ) ) VB NI swear (an oath
םיִשׁ% נ הָּשִׁ א NOUN FP women; see
ןַ עְשׁ# נ (ןעשׁ) VB NI lean, support oneself
קַשׁ% נ VB Q, PI kiss R13
קֵ שּׁ# נ VB Q kiss
֫ םיIָשׁ&נ ;רֶ שׁn נ P יPְ שׁ#נ , P NIS NOUN M vulture, eagle
ן•ת% נ VB Q give, place, set L17, R5
ןtת% נ PN Nathan
ס
בַבָ ס VB Q turn about, go around, surround R10
ביִבָ ס ADV/PREP around, about
;.ַבְס יֵכְבִ ס P NIS NOUN M thicket R9
םCְ ס PN Sodom
םיִסוּס ;סוּס P יֵ סוּס , P NIS NOUN M horse, stallion R1
הָסוּס NOUN F mare R1
ףוּס ־ ףוּס םL י NOUN M reeds, rushes; see
רוּס VB Q turn aside, depart; HI cause to depart, remove
Hebrew-English Glossary G32
יLניִ ס PN Sinai
רֵחֹ ס Q PTCP trader R10
חַלָ ס VB Q forgive
ביIֵח&נַ ס PN Sennacherib
[רַעָס] VB Q storm
דַפָ ס VB Q wail, lament; NI be bewailed R13
רַפָ ס VB Q count, number; PI recount, declare
רֵ פִּ ס R7 (רַ פָ ס) VB PI recount, declare
֫ םיIָפְס ;רֶפֵ ס P יIְ פִ ס ; W. ENCL PRON NOUN M scroll, document, book
סיIָ ס NOUN M high official R10
] רתס [ VB NI hide (oneself); HI conceal
֫ רƒתֵ ס NOUN M hiding-place, secrecy
ע
֫ םיdָבֲע ;דֶבֶ ע P יeְבַע , P NIS NOUN M servant L11
דַ בָ ע VB Q serve, work R8
רוּבֲעַ בּ ,רוּבֲ ע only as PREP, CONJ for the sake of, on account of, in order that R8
רַ בָ ע VB Q pass over; H allow to pass over R10
֫ רֶ בֵ ע NOUN M side, edge R13
םיIְבִע ;יIְ בִ ע P PN Hebrew
דַ ע PREP unto, as far as; CONJ while, until L30
םיdֵ ע ;דֵ ע P יeֵ ע , P NIS NOUN M witness
תqֲע ,הAֵ ע NIS NOUN F congregation
הAָ ע PN Adah
תוּדֵ ע NOUN F testimony
֫ ןrֵ ע PN Eden
Hebrew-English Glossary G33
דֵ בוֹע PN Obed
דוֹע ADV still, yet, again R7
םיִמָלוֹע ;םָלוֹע P יֵ מְלוֹע , P NIS NOUN M forever, long duration, antiquity R8
תוֹנוֲֹ ע ,ןוָֹ ע P NOUN M transgression, iniquity
ףוּע VB Q fly; POLEL fly about
ףוֹע NOUN M flying creatures, fowl, insects R11
ףֵ פוֹע VB POLEL fly about R11
רוֹע NOUN M skin, (animal) hide R8
;זֵ ע םיִ זִּע P NOUN F goat R1
בַ זָ ע VB Q abandon, forsake R13
֫ ;ן# יַ ע ֫ ם# יL ניֵ ע DU י>ניֵע , DU NIS NOUN F eye, spring L10, 40, R2
םיIָ ע ;ריִ ע P יPָ ע , P NIS NOUN F city L11
ם„יֵ ע ADJ naked
לַ ע PREP upon, over L13
הָ לָ ע VB Q go up R3
תַ לֹ ע ,הָ לֹ ע NIS תוֹלוֹע ; P NOUN F burnt offering L14, R3
הֵלָע ,הֶלָ ע NIS NOUN M leaf, leafage R2
יdָ מִּע/יִמִּ ע ;םִ ע W. ENCL PRON PREP with; with me, at my side L13, R8
םיִ מַּע ;םַ ע P יֵ מַּע , P NIS יִ מַּע ; W. ENCL PRON NOUN M people L15
דַ מָ ע VB Q stand; HI set up, cause to stand L19
֫ קֶ מֵ ע NOUN M valley, plain R10
ה?ֹ מֲ ע PN Gomorrah
ה% נָ ע VB Q answer, respond
םיw% נֲ ע ,ק% נֲ ע P PN Anak, Anakite
רַפֲע ,רָפָ ע NIS NOUN M dust, dirt, dry earth R8
Hebrew-English Glossary G34
ןוֹרְפֶ ע PN Ephron
םיִצֵע ;ץֵ ע P יֵצֲע , P NIS NOUN M tree; P wood R1
םיִ בַּצֲע ,בָצָ ע P א ) NOUN M idol (always P
֫ םיִבָצֲע ,בֶצֶ ע P NOUN M pain, hurt, toil R8
ןוֹבָ צִּ ע NOUN M pain, toil
֫ תוֹמָצֲע/םיִמָצֲע ;םֶצֶ ע P NOUN F bone R13
ב|ֲע ,ב|ָ ע NIS NOUN M heel, footprint, hinderpart R8
ד*ָ ע VB Q bind together (legs of an animal for sacrifice) R3x
ר*ָ ע VB Q pluck, root up
רֵ ע PN Er
֫ ֫ ם#יַ בּ]ַעָה ;ב,ֶ ע DU NOUN M evening, sunset R11
ב„ָ ע NOUN M swarm (of flies), mixture
הָ ב?ֲ ע NOUN F desert-plain, steppe; Jordan valley
םוֹרָ ע ADJ naked
םוּרָ ע ADJ crafty, shrewd, sensible R5
.[ָ ע VB Q set out, lay in rows R6
תַ מPֲע ,הָמPֲ ע NIS תוֹמPֲע ; P NOUN F heap
הָ פּ]ָ ע PN Orpah
ֵ֫ תוֹבְּשִׂע ,בֶ שֵׂ ע P NOUN M herb, herbage R11
הָשָׂ ע VB Q do, make, act L15, R4
וָ שֵׂ ע PN Esau
֫ ה?ָ שֲׂ ע ,רֶ שֶׂ ע FS םיIְ שֶׂ ע ; P NUM S ten; P twenty R4, 10
יIיִ שֲׂ ע NUM M tenth
םיִ תִּע/תוֹתִּ ע ;תֵ ע P NOUN F time
הָ תַּ ע ADV now L30, R6
Hebrew-English Glossary G35
פ
יִ פּ ,הֶ פּ NIS ) יִפְ ל see ל, NOUN M mouth (with
הֹ פּ DEM here R6
רַ פיִטוֹפּ PN Potiphar
[אלפ] VB NI, HIT be difficult, extraordinary; HI do an extraordinary thing
֫ םיִ שְׁגַליִפּ ,שֶׁגֶ ליִפּ P יֵ שְׁ גַ לִפּ , P NIS NOUN F concubine
[ללפ] VB HIT pray
םיִ תְּ שִׁ לְפּ ,יִ תְּ שִׁ לְ פּ P PN Philistine; Philistines
ןֶ פּ CONJ lest, so that not (negative purpose) L30, R5
םי# נָ פּ ;הnנָפּ P NOUN M (always P) face R11
סַ פּ NOUN M palm (of hand) (PL meaning uncertain in reference to Joseph’s tunic)
֫ לֶ סֶ פּ NOUN M idol, image
֫ לַעֹ פּ NOUN M doing, deed, work
֫ םיִמָעְ פּ ;םַ עַפּ P יֵ מֲ עַ פּ , P NIS NOUN M step, time
דkָ פּ VB Q attend to, visit, appoint L25
ח*ָ פּ VB Q open eyes, ears; NI be opened L30
דיwָ פּ NOUN M commissioner, deputy, overseer
רַ פּ NOUN M young bull, steer R1
ד[ָ פּ ) VB Q separate; HI divide, separate (something
ה?ָ פּ NOUN F heifer, cow R1
ה?ָ פּ VB Q bear fruit, be fruitful
יIְ פּ NOUN M fruit R2
הֹ ע]ַ פּ PN Pharaoh
ץ[ָ פּ VB Q break through/open/out; NI spread; PU broken down
ץ[ֹ פּ VB PU broken down
Hebrew-English Glossary G36
[ררפ] VB HI break, frustrate
םיִ שׁ?ָּפ ;שׁ?ָ פּ P NOUN M horseman R13
טַ שָׁ פּ VB Q spread out, take off clothes; HI strip off, remove
֫ םיִעָ שְׁפּ ;עַ שֶׁ פּ P , יֵעְ שִׁ פּ P NIS NOUN M offense, crime, wrongdoing R13
֫ םיִחtתְ פּ ;ח• תֶפּ P יֵחxתִ פּ , P NIS NOUN M opening
ח•תָ פּ VB Q open
ר• תָ פּ VB Q interpret
צ
ןאֹ צ NOUN M/F sheep, flock R4
אָבְצ ,אָבָ צ NIS תוֹאָ בְ צ ; P תוֹאְ בִ צ , P NIS NOUN M host, army; hard service R11
;יִבְ צ ם#יָבְ צ P NOUN M gazelle
קCָצ/קeָ צ VB Q be righteous; HI justify
֫ יwBִצ ;קrֶ צ W. ENCL PRON NOUN M righteousness
ת*Bִ צ ,הkAְ צ NIS תוֹקAְ צ ; P תוֹקBִ צ , P NIS NOUN F righteousness L26
םיwיִ דַּ צ ;קיִדַּ צ MP ADJ righteous L32
הָ וִּ צ L35, R8 (הוצ) VB PI command
קַחָ צ VB Q laugh; PI jest
קֵחִ צ (קַחָצ) VB PI jest
קֹחְ צ NOUN M laughter, laughing-stock
ןוֹיִ צ PN Zion
הָלִּ צ PN Silah
חַלָצ/ַחֵלָ צ VB Q prosper, be successful; HI make successful, show experience
֫ וֹמְלַצ ;םֶלֶ צ W. ENCL PRON NOUN M image, likeness R11
אֵמָ צ VB Q be thirsty
חַמָ צ VB Q sprout, spring up; HI cause to sprout, grow
Hebrew-English Glossary G37
םיIיִ עְ צ ;ריִ עָ צ MP ADJ small, young
ת*ֲעַצ ,הkָעְ צ NIS NOUN F cry, outcry
יIְצ ,יIָ צ NOUN M fragrant resin
ר[ָ צ VB Q show hostility
ק
,ה?וּבj ת[ֻ בj NIS תוֹרוּבj ; P NOUN F burial, grave
ץַ בk VB Q gather (intransitive) L27
ץֵ בּw VB PI gather (transitive) L15
רַ בk VB Q, PI bury
רֵ בּw R12 (רַ בk) VB PI bury
֫ םיIָ בj ;רֶבl P יPְ בw , P NIS NOUN M grave, sepulchre R13
שׁוֹדj ,שׁוֹדk NIS םיִ שׁוֹדj ; P ADJ sacred, holy
֫ םrl NOUN M front, east, aforetime; ADV anciently R8
שׁqk/שׁek VB Q be holy; PI consecrate
שֵׁ דּw R11 (שׁqk/שׁek) VB PI consecrate
ֹ םיִ שׁAֳק ;שׁrֹ ק P יֵ שׁBk , P NIS NOUN M holiness, apartness, sacredness
] להק [ VB HI congregate
לַ הj ,לָ הk NIS NOUN M assembly, congregation
] הוק [ VB NI be collected
תוֹלוֹק ;לוֹק P NOUN M voice, sound L15, R5
םוּק VB Q rise, stand up; PI confirm, establish; HI raise, erect R6
םֵ יּw (םוּק) VB PI confirm, establish
ץוֹק NOUN M thorns, thorn-bush
ןֹטk ןָטk ADJ MS small; F, P supplied by
הָ נַּטj ,ןָטk F םיִ נַּטj ; MP תוֹנַּטj , FP יֵ נַּטj ; MP NIS ADJ small
Hebrew-English Glossary G38
ןֹטk VB Q be small, insignificant L32
[רטק] VB PI, HI make sacrifices smoke
רֵ טּw (רטק) VB PI make sacrifices smoke
ַ ן# יַ ק PN Cain
לַלk VB Q be slight, trifling; be quick
ן* ,ן| NIS םיִ נּw ; P יִ נּw ; W. ENCL PRON NOUN M nest
אֵ נּw VB PI envy R7
אָ נּ* ADJ jealous
ה%נk VB Q buy, acquire R12
הֵ צj ,הֶצk NIS NOUN M end, extremity R12
רַצk/רֵצk VB Q be short, impatient; PI HI shorten
רֵ צּw (רַצk/רֵ צk) VB PI shorten
רַצk VB Q reap, harvest
א?k VB Q call, proclaim, read aloud L16, R6
הָ בוֹרj ,בוֹרk F םיִ בוֹרj ; MP תוֹבוֹרj , FP ADJ near
ב[k/בPk VB Q draw near, approach R7
֫ ם# יַ ב?j ,ב,l DU NOUN M inward part, midst, DU entrails
הָאיIj NOUN F proclamation
֫ ,ן,l ם#יLנ]* DU תוֹנ?j , P תוֹנ]* , P NIS NOUN F horn R6
ע[k VB Q tear, rend; NI be rent, split asunder R10
רַ שׁk VB Q bind, conspire together; NI was bound, joined together; PI bind on; HIT conspire
רֵ שּׁw (רַ שׁk) VB PI bind on
֫ תוֹתָשׁj ;תֶ שׁl P יִ תְּשׁ* ; W. ENCL PRON NOUN F bow
ר
הָא? VB Q see, look; NI show oneself, appear; HI show, exhibit R3
Hebrew-English Glossary G39
ןֵ בוּא] PN Reuben
םיִ שׁא? ;שׁא„ P יֵ שׁא? , P NIS NOUN M head L10, R2
ה% נֹ שׁאיI ,ןוֹשׁאI F םי# נֹ שׁאיI ; MP תוֹנֹ שׁאI , FP ADJ first
תיִ שׁאP NOUN F beginning or chief (part) R11
הָ בּ[ ,ב[ F תַ בּ[ , F NIS םיִ בּ[ ; MP תוֹבּ[ , FP ADJ many, much L32
ב„ NOUN M multitude, greatness, abundance
בַב? VB Q be(come) many, much
הָ ב? VB Q be(come) many, multiply; HI make much/ many, make multiply R11
םיִעיִבI ;יִ עיִ ב] R11 ) עַ בּ]ַ א NUM fourth (those belonging to) the fourth generation (cf.
םיִעֵּבI, ַעֵּבI MP ADJ/SUBST M (those belonging to) the fourth generation
הkְ בI PN Rebekah
֫ ם# יַ לְג[ ;לֶג, DU יֵ לְג[ , DU NIS NOUN F foot L10, R2
הA? VB Q have dominion, rule R11
ףq? VB Q pursue, chase, persecute; NI are pursued; PI pursue ardently; PU be chased away; HI chase
ףֵ דּI (ףq?) VB PI pursue ardently
ףַ דּ… (ףq?) VB PU be chased away
ַ םיִ טָה] ;טַהַ ר P NOUN M water-trough
;ַחוּר תוֹחוּר P NOUN F spirit, wind R5
ץוּר VB Q run L36
תוּר PN Ruth
בַ ח] ,בָ ח? MS NIS הָ בָח] ; FS תַבֲח[ , FS NIS ADJ wide, broad
םָעְבַ ח] PN Rehoboam
םיwוֹח] ;קוֹח? MP (קוֹח?) ADJ far, distant; NOUN M distance, at a distance
לֵ ח? PN Rachel
םַ חI VB PI have compassion on
Hebrew-English Glossary G40
ףַ חI VB PI hover R11
קַ ח? VB Q be far, distant; PI send far away, distance; HI cause to be distant, far away; remove
קַ חI (קַ ח?) VB PI send far away, distance
םkיP ADV emptily, vainly
֫ בֶכ, NOUN M (COLL) chariot, war chariot(s) R13
שַׂמ? VB Q creep (on the ground), move lightly R11
֫ שֶׂ מ, NOUN M creeping things, moving things R11
ןLנ? VB Q, PI give a ringing cry
ןֵנּI (ןL נ?) VB PI give a ringing cry
,ע[ הָ ע? F םיִע? ; MP יֵ ע? , MP NIS תוֹע? ; FP ADJ bad, evil R5
ַ עP NOUN M friend
בָ ע? NOUN M famine, hunger L28, R12
הָ ע? VB Q shepherd, tend, pasture R4
הֶ ע„ NOUN M shepherd (= Q PTCP) R4
סֵ סְ מְ ע[ PN Rameses
אָ פ? VB Q heal R13
ק[ ADV only, still, but, however, nevertheless R12
,קP הkיP F םיwיP ; MP תוֹקP , FP ADJ empty R7
ד*? VB Q skip about; PI dance, leap; HI cause to skip
דֵ קּI (ד*?) VB PI dance, leap
͏ַ עיw? NOUN M extended surface, expanse, firmament R11
הָעָשׁ] ,עָ שׁ? F םיִעָשׁ] ; MP יֵ עְ שׁI , MP NIS ADJ wicked
עַ שׁ? VB Q be wicked; HI condemn

תוֹדָשׂ ;הrָ שׂ P יeְ שׂ , P NIS NOUN M field R8
Hebrew-English Glossary G41
הֵ שׂ ,הֶ שׂ NIS NOUN M sheep or goat R1
םיִשׂ םוּשׂ VB Q put, place, set R6
קַ חָ שׂ VB Q laugh, play; PI make sport, jest; HI utterly mock
קֵ חִ שׂ (קַחָשׂ) VB PI make sport, jest
םַטָ שׂ VB Q be at enmity with, be hostile towards R13
לַכָ שׂ VB Q be prudent; HI look at, ponder; give insight, teach
֫ וֹלְכִ שׂ ,לֶכֵ שׂ W. ENCL PRON NOUN M prudence, insight
לאֹ מְ שׂ NOUN M left side, left hand
,הָ לְ מִ שׂ תַלְמִ שׂ NIS תוֹלָמְ שׂ ; P תוֹלְמִ שׂ , P NIS NOUN F outer garment, cloak, mantle R10
ַחֵמָשׂ/חַמָ שׂ VB Q rejoice, be glad; PI make rejoice, glad
ַ חֵ מִּ שׂ (ַחֵמָשׂ/חַמָשׂ) VB PI make rejoice, glad
א> נָ שׂ VB Q hate R4
ריִ עָ שׂ ADJ hairy, goat R10
תַ פְ שׂ ,הָפָ שׂ NIS ם#י•תָפְ שׂ ; DU יgתְפִ שׂ , DU NIS NOUN F lip, shore R9
;קַ שׂ םיִ קָּ שׂ P יֵ קָּ שׂ , P NIS א NOUN M sack(cloth) R10
;רַ שׂ םיIָ שׂ P יPָ שׂ , P NIS NOUN M official, captain, prince R10
ה?ָ שׂ PN Sarah
י?ָ שׂ PN Sarai
םיdיIְ שׂ ;דיIָ שׂ P יeיIְ שׂ , P NIS NOUN M survivor

-ֶ שׁ • CONJ that, which, who
לוּאָ שׁ PN Saul
לוֹאְ שׁ NOUN F underworld, Sheol R10
לַ אָ שׁ VB Q inquire, ask R10
[ראשׁ] VB NI be left over/behind, remain; HI leave over, behind
Hebrew-English Glossary G42
֫ םיִטָבְ שׁ ;טֶבֵ שׁ P יֵטְבִ שׁ , P NIS NOUN M rod; tribe R13
֫ םיִ לֳ בִּשׁ ;תֶלִ בִּ שׁ P יֵלֲ בִּשׁ , P NIS NOUN F ear of grain
[עבשׁ] VB NI swear (an oath); HI cause to swear (an oath)
֫ עַבְשׁ,עַבֶ שׁ NIS הָעְבִשׁ , F תַעְבִ שׁ , F NIS םיִעְבִשׁ ; P NUM seven; P seventy R4, 13
,יִעיִבְ שׁ תיִעיִבְ שׁ F NUM seventh L21
֫ ם#יַ תָּעְבִ שׁ NOUN DU seven-fold
֫ עַבֶ שׁ PN Sheba
רַבָ שׁ VB Q break; PI shatter, break
רֵ בִּ שׁ (רַבָשׁ) VB PI shatter, break
רַבָ שׁ VB Q buy grain; HI sell grain R12
֫ וֹרְבִ שׁ ;רֶבֶ שׁ W. ENCL PRON NOUN M grain R12
תַבָ שׁ VB Q cease, desist, rest; HI put an end to, destroy L21
תַ בַּשׁ ,תָ בַּ שׁ NIS תוֹתָבַּשׁ ; P NOUN F sabbath, rest
יַ דַּ שׁ PN Shaddai, Almighty
בוּשׁ VB Q turn back, return; HI return (something) R6
;לָ עוּשׁ םיִ לָ עֻ שׁ NOUN M fox R1
ףוּשׁ VB Q bruise R8
טַחָ שׁ VB Q slaughter R3
[תחשׁ] VB PI, HI spoil, destroy
תֵ חִ שׁ (תחשׁ) VB PI spoil, destroy
ת[יִ שׁ ,ה?יִ שׁ NIS תוֹריִשׁ ; P NOUN F song
תיִ שׁ VB Q put, set
בַכָ שׁ VB Q lie (down) R12
חַכָ שׁ VB Q forget L21
לֹכָ שׁ VB Q be bereaved, childless; PI make childless
Hebrew-English Glossary G43
לֵכִּ שׁ (לֹכָשׁ) VB PI make childless
[םכשׁ] VB HI wake early
םֶכְ שׁ PN Shechem
ןַכָ שׁ VB Q settle, dwell
ןַכְ שׁ ,ןֵכָ שׁ NIS NOUN M inhabitant, neighbor
הTִ שׁ PN Shiloh
וֵלָ שׁ VB Q be at ease, prosper
םוֹלְ שׁ ,םוֹלָ שׁ NIS םיִמוֹלְ שׁ ; P NOUN M peace, well-being L5, R4
חַלָ שׁ VB Q send L15, R4
,ןָ חְ לֻ שׁ ןַחְלֻ שׁ NIS תוֹנָחְלֻ שׁ ; P , תוֹנֲחְלֻ שׁ P NIS NOUN M table R1
שׁ] [ךל VB HI throw, cast L15
םֵלָ שׁ VB Q be whole; PI reward, pay back
םֵ לִּ שׁ (םֵ לָ שׁ) VB PI reward, pay back
הֹמלְ שׁ PN Solomon
ףַ לָ שׁ VB Q draw out, off
הָ שׁTְשׁ ,שׁTָ שׁ F ; םיִ שׁTְ שׁ P NUM three; P thirty R12
,יִ שׁיִלְשׁ הָ יִּשׁיִלְ שׁ F םיִשׁיִלְ שׁ ; P NUM a third, third; P thirtieth R6
םיִשֵּׁלִ שׁ ADJ/SUBST (those belonging to) the third generation R13
םָ שׁ ADV there L12, R6
תוֹמֵשׁ ;םֵ שׁ P NOUN M name L6, R8
םֵ שׁ PN Shem
[דמשׁ] VB HI annihilate
לֵאוּמְ שׁ PN Samuel
֫ ,ם#יַמָ שׁ יֵ מְ שׁ NIS NOUN M heavens L13, R6
םַמָ שׁ VB Q be uninhabited, be deserted; be appalled R12
Hebrew-English Glossary G44
ןֵמָ שׁ VB Q grow fat; HI make fat
ה% נֹ מְ שׁ ,הn נֹ מְ שׁ F םי# נֹ מְ שׁ ; P NUM eight; P eight
י#ניִמְ שׁ NUM eighth
עַמָ שׁ L16, R3 . לוֹקְ בּ VB Q hear, listen; obey W
֫ עַמֵ שׁ NOUN M report, news, hearsay
רַ מָ שׁ VB Q keep, guard L15, R5
֫ שֶׁ מֶ שׁ NOUN M/F sun R7
תL נְ שׁ ,ה%נָ שׁ NIS םי#נָשׁ ; P י> נְ שׁ , P NIS NOUN F year L28, R4
֫ ם# יLנְ שׁ M , ֫ ם# יַ תְּ שׁ F י# נֵ שׁ ; NUM two; second L31, R6, 8, 11, 12
רָ ע& נִ שׁ ) PN Shinar (Babylonia
[ןעשׁ] VB NI lean, support oneself
עַ עָ שׁ VB Q be blinded; HI blind
֫ םיIָעְ שׁ ;רַעַ שׁ P יPֲעַ שׁ , P NIS NOUN M gate
תַחְפִ שׁ ,הָחְפִ שׁ NIS ; תוֹחָ פְ שׁ P NOUN F maidservant
טַפָ שׁ VB Q judge, govern L26
.ַ פָ שׁ VB Q pour out, shed (blood) L39, R10
[הקשׁ] VB HI water, give drink
ט*ָ שׁ VB Q be quiet, undisturbed, inactive; HI show/cause quietness
ץ[ָ שׁ VB Q swarm, teem R11
֫ ץ,ֶ שׁ NOUN M swarmers, swarming things R11
הָ שִּׁ שׁ ,שֵׁ שׁ F םיִ שִּׁשׁ ; P NUM six, sixty
יִ שִּׁ שׁ NUM sixth R11
הt תָ שׁ VB Q drink
,ם#יַתְּ שׁ יֵ תְּ שׁ NIS NUM F two
ק• תָ שׁ VB Q be quiet
Hebrew-English Glossary G45
ת
תLוֲאַתּ ,ה%וֲאַ תּ NIS NOUN F desire R8
םי#נֵאְ תּ ;ה%נֵאְ תּ P י>נֵאְתּ , P NIS NOUN F fig-tree; fig R5
הָבֵ תּ NOUN F ark
תַ אוּבְתּ ,הָ אוּבְ תּ NIS תוֹאוּבְתּ ; P NOUN F produce, yield R12
֫ וּהֹ תּ NOUN M emptiness, formlessness R11
תוֹמוֹהְתּ ;םוֹהְ תּ P NOUN M/F deep, sea, abyss
֫ .nוָ תּ ) in the midst of .וֹתְבּ NOUN M midst (often in compound PREP
תוֹדְ לוֹתּ NOUN F descendants
תַבֲ עוֹתּ ,הָבֵ עוֹתּ NIS וֹתּ ; וֹבֵע ת P וֹתּ , וֹבֲע ת P NIS NOUN F abomination
ת[וֹתּ ,ה?וֹתּ NIS תוֹרוֹתּ ; P NOUN F direction, instruction, law
֫ יַ תְּ חַתּ ,תַחַ תּ W. ENCL PRON PREP under, beneath R6
הָלָ תּ VB Q hang
תLנוּמְתּ ,ה% נוּמְ תּ NIS NOUN F likeness, form
הָמיִמְתּ ,םיִמָ תּ F םיִמיִמְ תּ ; MP תֹ מיִ מְ תּ , FP ADJ complete, sound
םַמָ תּ VB Q be complete, finished R12
םי# ני# נְ תּ ,ןיִ נַּ תּ P NOUN M serpent, dragon, sea-monster R11
הָעָ תּ VB Q wander about R10
רַפָ תּ VB Q sew together R5
שַׂפָ תּ VB Q lay hold of, wield
תL וjִתּ ,ה% וjִ תּ NIS NOUN F hope
םיִ פ?ְ תּ NOUN M P teraphim (a kind of idol, a means of divination)x
שׁיִ שׁ]ַ תּ PN Tarshish
הkוּשְׁ תּ NOUN F longing R8
ּ ,עַשֵׁ תּ הָעְשִׁ תּ F םיִ עְ שִׁ תּ ; P NUM nine; P ninety
יִעיִשְׁ תּ NUM ninth
ENGLISH–HEBREW GLOSSARY
[direct object marker (mostly for definite nouns)] ־תֶ א , תֵ א , with suffix י&תֹ א , etc.
[illocutionary signal equivalent to “I tell you”] א( נ
[marker of politeness, such as “please”] א( נ
[question marker for “yes” & “no” questions] ͏ֲ ה
A
Aaron ןוֹרֲהַ א
abandon Q בזע
Abel ֫ לֶבֶ ה
abide Q רוג
Abimelech ֫ 7ֶלֶמיִבֲ א
abomination הָ בֵ עוֹתּ
about ביִבָ ס
above ַ לַעַ מ only ֫ לַעַמִּ מ
Abraham םָ ה?ְבַ א
Abram ם?ְבַ א
Absalom םוֹלָשְׁבַ א
abundance בB
abyss םוֹהְ תּ
according to (הֶפ+ְ ל יִפְ ל )
acquire Q הנק
act Q השׂע
act as a kinsman Q לאג
Adah הFָ ע
Adam םFָ א
add Q ףסי
Adonijah ּ וּהָ יּJ נKֲ א
aforetime ֶ םLֶ ק
after יMֲחַ א , רַחַ א
again דוֹע
agree NI תוא
ah!, now! ֫ הָ נָּ א , ֫ אָ נָּ א
alien יQְכ( נ F הָ יּQְכ( נ
alive יַ ח
all ־לָ כּ , לכּ (with suffix, 7ֵ לֻּ כּ , etc.)
allow to pass over ריִבֱעֶ ה (HI רבע)
Almighty יַ דַּ שׁ
alone דַבְל (דַבּ+ְ ל)
also םַ גּ ; ףַ א
altar ͏ַ חֵבְּזִ מ P תוֹחָבְּזִ מ
Anak ק(נֲ ע
Anakites םיZ(נֲ ע
anciently ֶ םLֶ ק
and ͏[ ו
angel 7ָאְלַ מ
anger ֫ סַעַ כּ ; ףַ א
animal הָ יַּ ח
English-Hebrew Glossary G47
annihilate HI דמשׁ
another רֵחַ א
answer Q הנע
antiquity םָלוֹע
apartness ֹ שׁLֹ ק
appear Q חרז; NI האר
appearance הֶא\ַ מ
appease PI רפכ
appoint Q דקפ; PI הנמ
appointed time דֵ עוֹמ ; ןָמְ ז
approach Q ברק , ברק ; Q שׁגנ
Aram ם?ֲ א
Ararat ט^?ֲ א
ark הָבֵ תּ ; ןוֹרֲ א
army ַ לJ יַ ח ; אָבָ צ
around ביִבָ ס
as רֶשֲׁאַ כּ ; ͏ְכּ
as far as דַ ע
Asa אָ סָ א
ask Q לאשׁ
assembly לָ ה`
assign Q הנמ
Assyria רוּשַּׁ א
at ͏ְבּ
at one’s feet תוֹלָ גּ\ַ מ
at a distance קוֹח?ֵ מ
at my side יbָמִּ ע
Atad דָ טָ אָ ה
atone PI רפכ
attend to Q דקפ
avenge Q םקנ
avenge oneself NI םקנ
awake Q ץקי
away from ַ דַ עַּב CST דַ עְ בּ
B
Baal ּ לַעַ בּ
Babylon לֶבָ בּ
bad ע^ F הָ ע?
bake Q הפא
Balak קָ לּ ָ ב
Bathsheba ֫ ־ עַבֶ שׁ תַ בּ
battle הָמָחְלִ מ
be Q היה
be able Q לכי
be alive Q היח
be appointed N דקפ
be ashamed Q שׁוב
be at an end Q סֵפָ א
be at ease Q ולשׁ
English-Hebrew Glossary G48
be at enmity with, be hostile towards Q םַטָ שׂ
be avenged HO םקנ
be beautiful Q הפי
be bereaved Q לכשׁ
be bewailed NI דפס
be bitter Q דרמ
be blinded Q עעשׁ
be born PU דלי
be bound NI רשׁק
be bound up PU שׁבח
be cast HO לוּט
be chased away PU ףדר
be childless Q לכשׁ
be collected NI הוק
be comforted NI םחנ
be complete Q םמת; Q הלכ; PU הלכ
be deceived NI אשׂנ
be defiled NI ללח
be delivered NI לצנ
be detained HO גצי
be difficult NI hit אלפ
be dismayed Q תתח
be distant Q קחר
be dry, become dry Q שׁבי
be established NI ןוכ
be fair Q הפי
be far Q קחר
be finished Q םמת
be fixed NI ןוכ
be found אָצְמJ נ (NI אצמ)
be fruitful Q הרפ
be full Q אלמ
be gathered, be assembled ףַסֱאf נ (NI ףסא)
be glad Q חמשׂ , חמשׂ
be good Q בטי
be gracious Q ןנח
be great Q לדג
be green Q אשׁד
be grieved HIT םחנ
be heavy Q דבכ
be high Q הבג
be holy Q שׁדק
be hurled HO לוּט
be impatient Q רצק
be inactive Q טקשׁ
be insignificant Q ןטק
be joined together NI רשׁק
be kindled Q הרח; NI תצי
be king Q ךלמ
be laid HO עצי
English-Hebrew Glossary G49
be left behind NI ראשׁ
be left over NI ראשׁ; NI רתי
be light, become light Q רוא
be like Q המד
be lofty Q הבג
be long Q ךרא
be many Q הבר; Q בבר
be much Q בבר
be old Q ןקז
be opened NI חקפ
be pleasing Q בטי
be pledged NI לבח
be polluted Q ףנח
be poured HO קצי
be profane Q ףנח
be prudent Q לכשׂ
be pursued NI ףדר
be quick ללק
be quiet Q קתשׁ; Q טקשׁ
be reckoned NI בשׁח
be recognized NI רכנ
be rent NI ערק
be right Q רשׁי
be righteous Q קדצ
be saved NI עשׂי
be set up NI ןוכ
be shattered Q תתח
be short Q רצק
be silent Q השׁח
be slight Q ללק
be small Q ןטק
be smooth Q רשׁי
be sorry NI םחנ
be split asunder NI ערק
be spread HO עצי
be stationed בצנ
be stayed HO גצי
be stolen NI בנג
be stolen away PU בנג
be stopped HO גצי
be strong Q קזח; Q ץמא
be successful Q חלצ
be tall Q הבג
be thirsty Q אמצ
be thrown HO לוּט
be trifling Q ללק
be undisturbed Q טקשׁ
be whole Q םלשׁ
be wicked Q עשׁר
be willing Q הבא
English-Hebrew Glossary G50
be wise Q םכח
bear (children) Q דלי
bear fruit Q הרפ
beautify PI הפי
because ֫ יִ כּ ,ןַעh י
become Q היה
become king Q ךלמ
become many Q הבר; Q בבר
become much Q בבר
become pregnant Q הרה
Beer-Sheva ֫ עַבֶ שׁ רֵ אְ בּ
before יiנְפִ ל ; ֫ םjֶ ט
beget Q דלי
begin HI ללח
beginning (part) תיִ שׁאM
behave cunningly HIT לכנ
behind ַ דַ עַּב CST דַ עְ בּ ; יMֲחַ א , רַחַ א
behold! ; אֵ ה הֵ נִּ ה ; ןֵ ה
behold, see הֵ נִּ ה ; ;ןֵ ה אֵ ה
believe HI ןמא
belly (of reptiles) ןוֹחָ גּ
belt רוֹגֲ ח
bend down Q הנח
beneath ּ תַחַ תּ
Benjamin ןיִ מ( י[ נִ בּ
beside ֵ לֶצֵ א
best, best part בָטיֵ מ
Bethel ־ לֵא תיֵ בּ
Bethlehem ֶ ־ םֶ חֶל תיֵ בּ
between ֫ ןJ יַּב only in CST ןיֵ בּ
bewail Q הכב
Bilhah הָ הְ לִ בּ
bind Q רשׁק; Q לבח; PI שׁבח
bind on PI רשׁק
bind, bind on, bind up Q שׁבח
bind (sheaves) PI םלא
bless PI ךרב
blessing הָכ?ְ בּ
blind HI עעשׁ
blood םָ דּ
bloodguilt םָ דּ
blot out Q החמ
blow הָכַּ מ
board ͏ַ חוּל P תוֹחֻ ל
Boaz ֫ זַ עֹ בּ
body, corpse הָ יּJוְ גּ
body guard חָבַּ ט
boil PI לשׁב
bold Q ץמא
bone ֶ םֶצֶ ע
English-Hebrew Glossary G51
book ֵ רֶפֵ ס
border לוּבְ גּ
bosom קיֵ ח
bow ֶ תֶ שֶׁ ק
bow down HISHTAFEL הוח
branch הֶטַּ מ P תוֹטַּ מ
bread ֶ םֶחֶ ל
break Q רבשׁ ; PI רבשׁ ; HI ררפ
break through/open/out Q ץרפ
bride הָלַּ כּ
bring HI אוב
bring down HI דרי
bring forth HI אצי
broad בָ ח?
broken down PU ץרפ
brother חָ א P םיִ חַ א
bruise Q ףושׁ
build Q הנב
burial, grave ה?וּבl
burn Q הרח; Q תצי
burnt offering הָ לֹ ע
bury Q, PI רבק
but םִא יִ כּ ; יִ כּ ; םָלוּא ; לָבֲ א
buy Q הנק
buy grain Q רבשׁ
by ͏ְבּ
C
Cain ַ ןJ יַ ק
call Q ארק
camel לָמָ גּ
camp NOUN הfנֲחַ מ P תוֹנֲחַ מ , םיJנֲחַ מ
camp VB Q הנח
Canaan, Canaanite ֫ ןַ עhנְ כּ , יJנֲעhנְ כּ
captain רַ שׂ P םיQָ שׂ
capture Q דכל
cast Q, HI הרי; HO PTCP קָ צוּמ; HI ךלשׂ; HI לוּט
cast out Q שׁרג
cattle ר`ָּב ; הָ מֵ הְ בּ ; ֶ ףֶלֶ א
cause quietness HI טקשׁ
cause to be distant HI קחר
cause to be dry HI שׁבי
cause to be far away HI קחר
cause to depart HI רוס
cause to dwell HI ןכשׁ
cause to grow HI חמצ
cause to rest HI ͏ַחוּנ
cause to skip HI דקר
cause to sprout HI חמצ; HI אשׁד
cause to swear (an oath) HI עבשׁ
English-Hebrew Glossary G52
cave ה?ָעְ מ
cease Q לדח ; Q תבשׁ
cement ֹ רֶ מֹ ח
charge ֶ תjֶמְשִׁ מ
chariot הָ בָכּ\ֶ מ
chariot, war chariot (COLL) ֫ בֶכj
chase HI ףדר
chase Q ףדר
cherub בוּרְ כּ
chest ןוֹרֲ א
chief (part) תיִ שׁאM
children ףַ ט
choose Q רחב
choose the right HI ןמי
cistern רוֹבּ ; רֵ אְ בּ
city ריִ ע P םיQָ ע
clan הָחָפְּשִׁ מ ; ֶ ףֶלֶ א
clay ֹ רֶ מֹ ח
clean יZ( נ ; רוֹהָ ט
cleave Q קבד
cling Q קבד
close relative Q לֵ אֹ גּ
clothe HI שׁבל
collect Q סנכ
collect, reach גיִ שִּׂ ה (HI גשׂנ)
collected mass הf וlִ מ
collection הf וlִ מ
come Q אוב
come forth Q חרז
come to an end Q לדח
comfort PI םחנ
command PI הוצ
commandment ה(וְצִ מ P תוְֹצִ מ
commissioner דיZָ פּ
commit adultery Q, PI ףאנ
complete םיִמָ תּ ; PI הלכ
conceal HI רתס
conceive Q הרה
conception ןוֹי?ֵ ה (also ןוֹרֵ ה)
concubine ֶ שֶׁגֶ ליִ פּ
condemn HI עשׁר
confess HI הדי
confirm PI םוק
confusion הָמוּהְ מ
congregate HI להק
congregation לָ ה` ; הFֵ ע
consecrate PI שׁדק
consent Q הבא; NI תוא
console PI םחנ
conspire HIT רשׁק
English-Hebrew Glossary G53
conspire together Q רשׁק
contain, sustain, keep לַכְּלִ כּ (PILPEL לוּכ)
contention ןוֹדָ מ; P םיJנוֹדְמ/םיJנFְ מ , םיJ נ( וoִ מ
continue HI ףסי
corn רַּב
couch בָכְּשִׁ מ
count Q רפס ; Q הנמ
covenant תיQְּב
cover, conceal PI הסכ
cow ה?ָ פּ
crafty םוּרָ ע
create Q ארב
creep (on the ground) Q שׂמר
creeping things ֶ שֶׂ מֶ ר
crowd ןוֹמָ ה
cry ה`ָעְ צ
cubit הָ מַּ א
curse Q, PI ררא
custom טָפְּשִׁ מ
cut, cut off, cut down Q תרכ
D
daily םוֹי םוֹי
Dan ןָ דּ
dance PI דקר
darkness ֫ 7ֶ שֹׁ ח
daughter תַ בּ P תוֹנָ בּ
daughter-in-law הָלַּ כּ
David דJוָ דּ
day םוֹי P םיִ מ( י
deal well with HI בטי
death ֫ תfוָ מ
deceive HI אשׂנ
declare PI רפס; HI דגנ
deed ֫ לַעֹ פּ ; לָלֲעַ מ ; הֶשֲׂעַ מ
deep םוֹהְ תּ
defile PI ללח
delight ֫ ץֶפֵ ח
deliver HI לצנ; HI עשׂי
deliver oneself NI לצנ
deliverance ֵ עַשֵׁ י
depart Q רוס
deputy דיZָ פּ
descend Q דרי
desert-plain הָ ב?ֲ ע
desire NOUN ה(וֲאַ תּ
desire VB Q דמח
desist Q תבשׁ
destroy Q ךפה; PI, HI טחשׁ; PI, HI דבא; HI תבשׁ
destruction הָ כֵ פֲ ה
English-Hebrew Glossary G54
devise Q בשׁח
die Q תומ
direction ה?וֹתּ
dirt רָ פָ ע
distance קוֹח?
distant קוֹח?
distribute Q, PI קלח
divide Q, PI קלח; HI לדב
divide (something) HI דרפ
divide oneself NI קלח
do Q השׂע
do again HI ףסי
do an extraordinary thing HI אלפ
do (something) well HI בטי
do, show Q לַמָ גּ
document ֵ רֶפֵ ס
doing ֫ לַעֹ פּ
dominate Q שׁבכ
dominion הָלָשְׁמֶ מ
donkey רוֹמֲ ח
Dothan ןpתֹ דּ
dough קֵצָּב
dove ה(נוֹי
dragon ןיִנַּ תּ
draw (water) Q הלד
draw near Q ברק , ברק ; Q שׁגנ
draw out/off Q ףלשׁ
drink Q התשׁ
drive away PI שׁרג
drive out PI שׁרג
dry earth רָ פָ ע
dry land הָשָׁ בּh י
dust רָ פָ ע
dwell Q ןכשׁ; Q בשׁי
dweller Q PTCP בשׁוי
dwelling ןָ כְּשִׁ מ
each (one) דָחֶ א
E
eagle ֶ רֶשֶׁ נ
ear ֹ ןֶ זֹ א DU ֫ םJיh נְ זָ א
ear of grain ּ תֶלֹ בִּ שׁ P םיִ לֳ בִּ שׁ
earth ץjֶ א
east ֶ םLֶ ק
eat Q לכא
eating הָלְכָ א
Eden ֵ֫ ןLֵ ע
Edom םוֹדֱ א
Egypt ַ֫ םJ יַרְצִ מ
eight הfנֹמְ שׁ F ה(נֹמְ שׁ
English-Hebrew Glossary G55
eighth יJניִמְ שׁ
eighty םיJ נֹ מְ שׁ
Elimelech ֶ 7ֶלֶמיִלֱ א
embalm Q טh נָ ח
embalming (always P) םיִ טs נֲ ח
embrace Q, PI קבח
emptily ם`יM
emptiness ֫ וּהֹ תּ ; ֹ וּהֹּב
encampment הfנֲחַ מ P תוֹנֲחַ מ , םיJנֲחַ מ
end הֶצ`
enemy (Q PTCP) בiיוֹא
enmity הָביֵ א
Enoch 7וֹנֲ ח
enraged NI רעס
enter Q אוב
envy PI אנק
Ephraim ֫ םJ י^ְפֶ א
Ephron ןוֹרְפֶ ע
equip Q רזא
Er רֵ ע
erect HI םוק
Esau וָ שֵׂ ע
escort, transport, supply לֵ הJ נ (PI להנ)
establish PI םוק; HI ןוכ; HI גצי
Eve הָ וַּ ח
even םַ גּ ; ףַ א
evening ֫ בjֶ ע
every ־לָ כּ , לכּ (with suffix, 7ֵ לֻּ כּ , etc.)
everything ־לָ כּ , לכּ (with suffix, 7ֵ לֻּ כּ , etc.)
evil ע^ F הָ ע?
exceedingly דֹאְ מ
except יִ תְּ לִ בּ
exempt יZ( נ
exhibit HI האר
exhibit silence HI השׁח
expanse ͏ַ עיZ?
extend Q הטנ
extended surface ͏ַ עיZ?
extraordinary NI hit אלפ
extremity הֶצ` ; ֫ תוֹפ(נְכּ םJיַפ(נְ כּ ף(נָכּ
eye ֫ ַ םJיh ניֵ ע ןJ יַ ע
F
face ףַ א ; הf נָ פּ
faithfulness תֶמֱ א
fall Q לפנ
fallen ones םיִ לִ פ[ נ (literal meaning)
family הָחָפְּשִׁ מ
famine בָ ע?
far קוֹח?
English-Hebrew Glossary G56
fashion Q רצי
father בָ א P תוֹבָ א
favor ןֵ ח
fear NOUN הָ א\J י
fear VB Q ארי
female הָ בt[ נ
few טַעְ מ
field הLָ שׂ P תוֹדשׂ
fifth יִ שִּׁ מֲ ח
fifth part ֫ שֶׁ מֹ ח
fifty םיִ שִּׁ מֲ ח
fig ה(נֵאְ תּ
fig-tree ה(נֵאְ תּ
fill Q אלמ; PI אלמ
find Q אצמ
finish PI הלכ
firmament ͏ַ עיZ?
firmly established HO קָ צוּמ
first ןוֹשׁאQ
first-born רוֹכְ בּ
fish גָ דּ F הָגָ דּ
five שֵׁ מָ ח F הָּ שִׁ מֲ ח
flame ַ טַהַ ל
flee Q חרב
flesh רָשָׂ בּ
flock ןאֹ צ
fly Q ףוע
fly about POLEL ףוע
flying creatures ףוֹע
food לָכֲאַ מ ; ֶ םֶחֶ ל ; הָלְכָ א
foot ֶ לֶגֶ ר
footprint בtָ ע
for ͏ְ ל
for the sake of רוּבֲ ע (only as רוּבֲ עַ בּ ; ֫ ןַ עַמְ ל )
foreign יQְכ( נ F הָ יּQְכ( נ
foreign thing רָכi נ
forever םָלוֹע
forget Q חכשׁ
forgive Q חלס
form NOUN ה( נוּמְ תּ
form VB Q רצי
formal weeping תיִ כְ בּ
formerly םיJנָפְ ל
formlessness ֫ וּהֹ תּ
forsake Q בזע
forty םיִ עָ בּ\ַ א
four עַ בּ\ַ א F הָ עָ בּ\ַ א
four-fold ּ םJיַ תְּ עַ בּ\ַ א
fourth יִעיִ ב\ (those belonging to) the fourth
generation םיִעֵּבQ ; יִעיִ ב\
English-Hebrew Glossary G57
fourth generation (those belonging to)
םיִעֵּבQ , ַ עֵּבQ
fowl ףוֹע
fragrant resin יQְצ ,יQָ צ
friend ͏ַ עM
from ־ןִ מ and •ִ מ
from before יiנְ פִּ מ
from where? ־ הֶ זִּ מ יֵ א
front ֶ םLֶ ק
fruit יQְ פּ
frustrate HI ררפ
full אֵלָ מ
function ֶ תjֶמְשִׁ מ
funerary ceremony, mourning rites דֵפְּסִ מ
furthermore יִ כּ ףַ א
G
garden ןַּ ג
garment ֫ דֶגֶּב
gate ֫ רַעַ שׁ
gather Q סנכ; Q ףסא; Q/PI טקל; Q/PI ץבק
gather oneself together HIT סנכ
gather together PI סנכ
gaze PI, HI טבנ
generation רוֹדּ
Gerar ר?ְּ ג
giants םיִ לִ פ[ נ
Gideon ןוֹעדִ גּ
gift הָח[נִ מ
Gilead דָ עְ לִ גּ
gird Q רזא
girdle רוֹגֲ ח
give Q ,בַה( י ןתנ
give a ringing cry Q, PI ןנר
give drink HI הקשׁ
give insight לכשׂ
give light HI רוא
give thanks HI הדי
give understanding HI ןיב
glean Q טקל
glory דוֹבָ כּ
go, walk Q ךלה
go around Q בבס
go by stealth HIT בנג
go down Q דרי
go forth Q אצי
go right HI ןמי
go up Q הלע
God םיִ הvֱ א ; לֵ א
gods םיִ הvֱ א
English-Hebrew Glossary G58
gold בָ הָ ז
Gomorrah ה?ֹ מֲ ע
good בוֹט
goodness ֫ דֶ סֶ ח
Goshen ֫ ןֶ שֹׁ גּ
govern Q טפשׁ
grace ןֵ ח
grain offering הָח[נִ מ
grasped, held fast NI זחא
grass ֶ אֶשֶּׁ ד
grave ֶ רֶבֶ ק
great לוֹדָ גּ
greatness בB ; ֫ לLֹ גּ
green (thing), greenness ֫ קjf י
groan ה`ָ א[ נ
groaning ה`ָ א[ נ
ground הָמFֲ א
grow PI לדג
grow fat Q ןמשׁ
guard NOUN ֶ תjֶמְשִׁ מ
guard VB Q רמשׁ; Q רצנ
guilt (offering) םָשָׁ א
gum טv
H
Hagar רָגָ ה
Haggit תיִ גַּ ח
hairy ריִ עָ שׂ
hand ד( י DU ַ םJ יַד( י P תוֹד( י
handmaid הָ מָ א
hang Q הלת
Hannah הָ נַּ ח
hard service אָבָ צ
harvest Q רצק
hate Q אנשׂ
have compassion on PI םחר
have dominion Q הדר
have insight Q ןיב
have power Q לכי
he אוּה
head שׁאB P םיִ שׁא?
heal Q אפר
heap הָמMֲ ע
hear, listen Q עמשׁ
heart בֵ ל , בָבֵ ל
heavens ֫ םJ יַמָ שׁ
heavy דֵבָ כּ
Hebrew יQְ בִ ע P םיQְ בִ ע
Hebron ןוֹרְבֶ ח
English-Hebrew Glossary G59
heel בtָ ע
heifer ה?ָ פּ
herb, herbage ֵ בֶ שֵׂ ע
herd ר`ָּב
here ֵ הָ נֵּ ה
Heth תֵ ח
hide (of an animal) רוֹע
hide (oneself) NI, HIT אבח; NI רתס
hide (something) HI אבח; PI דחכ
hiding-place ֫ רwתֵ ס
high official סיQָ ס
high-place הָ מָ בּ
higher part ַ לַעַ מ (only ֫ לַעַמִּ מ ‘above’ and
֫ הָלְעַ מ ‘upwards’)
hill country רַ ה, P םיQָ ה w/art םיQָהֶ ה , רָהָ ה
hinderpart בtָ ע
Hittite יִ תִּ ח
Hittites םיִ תִּ ח
holiness ֹ שׁLֹ ק
hollow out, dig Q ה?ָ כּ
holy שׁוֹד`
honey שַׁבְ דּ
honor NOUN דוֹבָ כּ
honor VB PI, HI דבכ
hope ה( וlִ תּ
Horeb בMֹ ח
horse סוּס
horseman שׁ?ָ פּ
host אָבָ צ
hostility (personal) הָביֵ א
house ֫ תJ יַ בּ, P םיִ תָּ בּ
hover PI ףחר
how 7יֵ א
how much more! יִ כּ ףַ א
How! 7יֵ א
how? הָ מ
howl HI ללי
humankind םFָ א
hundred הָאֵ מ
hunger בָ ע?
hurl HI לוּט
hurt ֶ בֶצֶ ע
I
I יJ נֲ א , יִכֹנָ א
idol ֶ לֶ סֶּפ ; בָצָ ע
if יִ כּ ; םִ א
if (irreal) וּל
if not (irreal, negative) יֵ לוּל
image ֫ םֶלֶ צ ֶ֫פּ; לֶ ס
English-Hebrew Glossary G60
in ͏ְבּ
in front of ֶ דֶגֶ נ
in order that רוּבֲ ע (only as רוּבֲ עַ בּ)
in order that (purpose) ֫ ןַ עַמְ ל
in sight of ֶ דֶגֶ נ
in the middle of 7וֹתְּב (only in CST) see ֫ 7fוּp ת
incline Q הנח
incline (something) HI הטנ
inhabitant ןֵכָ שׁ; Q PTCP בשׁוי
inherit Q שׁרי
inheritance הָלֲחh נ
iniquity ןוָֹ ע
innocent יZ( נ
inquire Q לאשׁ
insects ףוֹע
insight ֫ לֶכֵ שׂ
instruction ה?וֹתּ
interpret Q רתפ
inward part ֶ בjֶ ק
Isaac קָחְצJ י
Ishmael לאֵעָמְשׁJ י
Israel לֵא?ְשׂJ י
J
Jacob בxֲעh י
Japhet תֶ פf י
jealous אָ נּy
Jehu אוּהi י
Jeremiah ֫ וּה(יְ מ\J י , ה(יְ מ\J י
Jericho וֹחיQ[ י
Jerusalem ֫ ͏ִםַלָ שׁוּר[ י
Jesse יַשׁJ י
jest PI קחצ
jest PI קחשׂ
Joab בָאוֹי
Joash שָׁאוֹי
Jonah ה(נוֹי
Jonathan ןpת( נוֹה[ י
Jordan (River) ןֵ דּ\h י
Jordan valley הָ ב?ֲ ע
Joseph ףֵסוֹי
Joshua ͏ַ עֻ שׁוֹה[ י
journey Q עסנ
Judah הFוּה[ י
judge Q טפשׁ
judgment טָפְּשִׁ מ
just as רֶשֲׁאַ כּ
justice טָפְּשִׁ מ
justify HI קדצ
English-Hebrew Glossary G61
K
keep Q רמשׁ; Q רצנ
keep alive ה( יֱ חֶ ה (HI ה(יָ ח)
keep back, withhold Q ךשׂח
keep close Q קבד
kill Q גרה; HI תומ
Kilyon ןוֹיְלִ כּ
kind ןיִ מ
kindle Q תצי; HI תצי
kindness ֫ דֶ סֶ ח
king ֫ 7ֶלֶ מ
kingdom הָכָלְמַ מ ; תוּכְלַ מ
kinsman-redeemer Q לֵ אֹּ ג
kiss Q, PI קשׁנ
knee ֫ 7jֶ בּ
know Q עדי
knowledge ַ תַעַּ ד
L
Laban ןָבָ ל
lad ֫ רַעh נ
lamb ֫ שֶׁבֶ כּ
Lamech ֶ 7ֶמֶ ל
lament Q דפס; PI הכב
lamp רוֹאָ מ P תוֹרוֹאְ מ
land ץjֶ א ; הָמFֲ א
landed property הָ זֻּחֲ א
language ןוֹשָׁ ל P שְׁ ל תוֹנֹ
lap קיֵ ח
laugh Q קחשׂ; Q קחצ
laughing-stock קֹחְ צ
laughter קֹחְ צ
law ה?וֹתּ
lay HI עצי
lay hold of Q שׂפת
leaf הֶ לָ ע
leafage הֶ לָ ע
Leah הָאֵ ל
lean NI ןעשׁ
leap PI דקר
learn Q דמל
leave ͏ַחוּנ
leave a remnant HI רתי
leave behind HI ראשׁ
leave over HI ראשׁ; HI רתי
Lebanon ןוֹנָבְ ל
left hand לאֹ מְ שׂ
left side לאֹ מְ שׂ
length ֹ 7jֹ א
lengthen HI ךרא
English-Hebrew Glossary G62
lest ןֶ פּ
let remain ͏ַחוּנ
Levi יJוֵ ל
lie (down) Q בכשׁ
life ֫ שֶׁפf נ ; םיִ יַּ ח
lift up Q אשׂנ
light רוֹאָ מ P תוֹרוֹאְ מ ; רוֹא
like ͏ְכּ
likeness ה( נוּמְ תּ ; ֫ םֶלֶ צ ; תוּמְדּ
lip הָפָ שׂ
little טַעְ מ
live Q היח
living יַ ח
loaf רָכִּ כּ
long duration םָלוֹע
longing ה`וּשְׁ תּ
look Q האר; PI, HI טבנ
look at HI לכשׂ
lord ּ לַעַ בּ ; ןוֹדָ א
Lord, the (epithet) י( נKֲ א
Lot טוֹל
love Q בהא
luminary רוֹאָ מ P תוֹרוֹאְ מ
M
Machir ריִ כָ מ
Machlon ןוֹלְחַ מ
Machpelah הָלֵפְּכַ מ
magnificence ֫ לLֹ גּ
maid הָ מָ א
maiden ה?ֲעh נ
maidservant הָחְפִ שׁ
make Q השׂע
make bitter PI, HI דרמ
make childless PI לכשׁ
make enter HI אוב
make even PI רשׁי
make fat HI ןמשׁ
make firm HI ןוכ
make glad PI חמשׂ , חמשׂ
make great PI לדג
make heavy PI, HI דבכ
make high HI הבג
make many HI הבר
make much HI הבר
make multiply HI הבר
make oneself bold HIT ץמא
make oneself obstinate HIT ץמא
make profane HI ףנח
English-Hebrew Glossary G63
make quiet HI ͏ַחוּנ; HI השׁח
make rejoice PI חמשׂ , חמשׂ
make a sacrifice smoke PI, HI רטק
make shine HI רוא
make smooth PI רשׁי
make sport PI קחשׂ
make still HI השׁח
make successful HI חלצ
male רָ כָ ז
Mamre אMְמַ מ
man שׁיִ א P םיִ שׁ( נֲ א ; םFָ א
Manasseh הֶ שּׁhנְ מ
many ב^ P םיִ בּ^
Mara (‘bitterness’) א?ָ מ
march Q ךרד
mare הָסוּס
mariner Q PTCP לֵבֹ ח
master ןוֹדָ א
meeting דֵ עוֹמ
messenger 7ָאְלַ מ
Midian ן( יoִ מ
midst among ֫ 7fוָ תּ (in compound 7וֹתְבּ ‘in
the midst of’); ֶ בjֶ ק
midwife הFְלּhיְ מ
mighty one לֵ א
Milcah הָ כְּלִ מ
mind בֵ ל , בָבֵ ל
mixture בBָ ע
Moab בָ אוֹמ
Moabite יִבָ אוֹמ P הָ יִּבֲ אוֹמ
molten HO קָ צוּמ
money ֫ ףֶסֶּ כ
month ֹ שׁLֹ ח
more than ־ןִ מ and •ִ מ
moreover ףַ א
Moriah הָ יּQֹ מ
morning ֹ רzֹּב
mortar ֹ רֶ מֹ ח
Moses הֶשֹׁ מ
mother םֵ א P תוֹמִּ א
mother-in-law תוֹמָ ח
mountain רַ ה P םיQָ ה W. DET םיQָהֶ ה , רָהָ ה
mourning NOUN ֫ לֶבֵ א
mourning ADJ לֵבָ א
mouth הֶ פּ CST יִ פּ
move lightly Q שׂמר
moving things ֶ שֶׂ מֶ ר
much ב^ P םיִ בּ^
multiply Q הבר; HI ףסי
multitude בB ; ןוֹמָ ה
English-Hebrew Glossary G64
N
Nahash שָׁח( נ
Nahor רוֹח( נ
naked םוֹרָ ע ; םBיֵ ע
name םֵ שׁ P ומֵ שׁ ֹ תֹ
Naomi (‘pleasant one’) יִמֳע( נ
Nathan ןpת( נ
nation יוֹגּ
near בוֹר`
neck תוֹרָגּ\ַ גּ
Negeb ֫ בֶגf נ
neighbor ןֵכָ שׁ
nest ןt
new moon ֹ שׁLֹ ח
night ֫ הָל[יַ ל
nine ּ עַשֵׁ תּ F הָעְשִׁ תּ
ninety םיִעְשִׁ תּ
ninth יִעיִשְׁ תּ
no אv
Noah ͏ַ חֹ נ
Nod דוֹנ
nose ףַ א
not אv ְל; יִתְּלִ בּ ,יִ תְּ לִ ב
not (with commands) לַ א
not yet ֶ םjֶ ט
now הָ תַּ ע
number Q רפס; Q הנמ
nurse HI קני
O
Obed דֵ בוֹע
obey עמשׁ לוxְ בּ
observe Q ןיב
offense, crime, wrongdoing ֫ עַ שֶׁ פּ
official רַ שׂ P םיQָ שׂ
old ןtָ ז
on account of רוּבֲ ע (only as רוּבֲ עַ בּ)
on behalf of ַ דַ עַּב CST דַ עְ בּ
one דָחֶ א F תַ חַ א
only ; ק^ דיִח( י ; 7ַ א
only one דיִח( י
open Q חתפ
open ears Q חקפ
open eyes Q חקפ
opening ֶ ח{תֶּפ
opposite to ֶ דֶגֶ נ
or וֹא
ordain PI הנמ
Orpah הָ פּ\ָ ע
outcry ה`ָעְ צ
English-Hebrew Glossary G65
over לַ ע
overseer דיZָ פּ
overthrow הָ כֵ פֲ ה
overturn Q ךפה
owner ּ לַעַ בּ
ox ר`ָּב
P
pain ןוֹבָ צִּ ע ; ֶ בֶצֶ ע
palace לָכיֵ ה
pass away, perish עhוָ גּ ,דבא
pass over Q רבע
pasture Q הער
pasture הֶ ע\ִ מ
path ֹ ח^ֹ א
pay back PI םלשׁ
peace (greeting) םוֹלָ שׁ
people םַ ע ; יוֹגּ
perceive Q ןיב
perish Q דַבָא ,עhוָ גּ
persecute Q ףדר
pestilence ּ רֶבֶ דּ
Pharaoh הֹ ע\ַ פּ
Philistine יִ תְּ שִׁ לְ פּ
Philistines םיִ תְּ שִׁ לְ פּ
pick up Q טקל
pit רוֹבּ ; רֵ אְ בּ
place NOUN םוֹקָ מ P תוֹמxְ מ
place VB Q ןתנ; Q םושׂ , םישׂ ; HI גצי
place of feet תוֹלָ גּ\ַ מ
place of lying (down) בָכְּשִׁ מ
plague ּ רֶבֶ דּ
plain הָ עlִּב
plank ͏ַ חוּל P תוֹחֻ ל
plant Q עטנ
plate ͏ַ חוּל P תוֹחֻ ל
play Q קחשׂ
pleasant בוֹט
pleasure ֫ ץֶפֵ ח
pledge Q לבח
pluck Q רקע; Q ףרט
pollute PI ללח; HI ףנח
ponder HI לכשׂ
portent תֵ פוֹמ
portion ה`ְ לֶ ח ; ֵ קֶ לֵ ח
possession הָלֲחh נ
Potiphar רַ פיִטוֹפּ
pour (oil) HI קצי
pour out (blood) Q ךפשׁ
pour, pour out Q קצי
English-Hebrew Glossary G66
power ͏ַחֹ כּ
practice לָלֲעַ מ
praise PI ללה; HI הדי
pray HIT ללפ
pregnancy ןוֹי?ֵ ה (also ןוֹרֵ ה)
previously םיJנָפְ ל
priest ןֵהֹ כּ
prince רַ שׂ P םיQָ שׂ
proclaim Q ארק
proclamation הָאיQl
produce, yield הָ אוּבְ תּ
produce seed HI ערז
(unlawful) profit, gain ֫ עַצֶ בּ
prolong HI ךרא
property ,הf נlִ מ הָלֲחh נ
prophesy NI, HIT אבנ
prophet איִב( נ
prosper Q ולשׁ; Q חלצ
prostrate oneself HISHTAFEL הוח
proximity ֵ לֶצֵ א
prudence ֫ לֶכֵ שׂ
pull, drag, carry off Q 7שׁמ
pull up (tent pegs) Q עסנ
pure רוֹהָ ט
pursue Q ףדר
pursue ardently PI ףדר
put Q תישׁ; Q םושׂ , םישׂ
put an end to HI תבשׁ
R
Rachel לֵ ח?
raise HI םוק
Ramses סֵ סְ מְ ע^
reach Q עגנ
read aloud Q ארק
reap Q רצק
Rebekah ה`ְ בQ
rebuke, insult Q רַעָ גּ
receive Q חקל
recognize HI רכנ
redeem Q לאג
reeds ףוּס
refuse PI ןאמ
regard HI רכנ
regret NI םחנ
Rehoboam םָעְבַ ח\
reign NOUN תוּכְלַ מ
reign VB Q ךלמ
rejoice Q חמשׂ , חמשׂ
remain NI ראשׁ
English-Hebrew Glossary G67
remain over NI רתי
remember Q רכז
remove קחר
remove Q ףסא; HI רוס
rend Q ערק ; Q ףרט
report, rumor הָ בִּדּ
rescue ֵ עַשֵׁ י
resemble Q המד
resident alien רֵ גּ
resin תאֹכ[ נ
respond Q הנע
rest NOUN תָ בַּ שׁ
rest VB Q ͏ַחוּנ; Q תבשׁ
restrain PI שׁבח
return Q בושׁ
return (something) HI בושׁ
Reuben ןֵ בוּא\
reverence הָ א\J י
reward PI םלשׁ
right hand ןיִ מ( י
right side ןיִ מ( י
righteous קיִ דַּ צ
righteousness ה`Fְ צ ; ֶ קLֶ צ
rise Q םוק; Q חרז
road ֫ 7jּ L
rod ֫ ; טֶבֵ שׁ הֶטַּ מ
root up Q רקע
round district רָכִּ כּ
royal power תוּכְלַ מ
royalty תוּכְלַ מ
rule NOUN הָכָלְמַ מ ; הָלָשְׁמֶ מ
rule VB Q הדר; Q לשׁמ
run Q ץוּר
run-off ravine ַ לַחַ נ
rushes ףוּס
Ruth תוּר
S
sabbath תָ בַּ שׁ
sacred שׁוֹד`
sacredness ֹ שׁLֹ ק
sacrifice Q, PI חבז
saddlebag רַ כּ
sailor Q ptcp לֵבֹ ח
salt ֫ חַלֶ מ
salvation ֵ עַשֵׁ י
Samuel לֵאוּמְ שׁ
sand לוֹח
sandal ַ לַעַ נ, DU ֫ םJיַלֲעh נ
Sarah ה?ָ שׂ
English-Hebrew Glossary G68
Sarai י?ָ שׂ
Saul לוּאָ שׁ
save HI עשׂי
say Q רמא
scroll ֵ רֶפֵ ס
sea םוֹהְ תּ ; ם( י
Sea of Reeds (‘Red Sea’) ־ ףוּס םh י
sea-monster ןיִנַּ תּ
second יJ נֵ שׁ
secrecy ֵ רwתֵ ס ; טאָ ל , טָ ל
see Q האר
see! הֵ נִּ ה ; ןֵ ה
seed ֶ ע^ֶ ז
seek Q שׁרד; PI שׁקב
seek refuge Q הסח
seize HI קזח
self ֫ שֶׁפf נ
sell Q רכמ
sell grain HI רבשׁ
send Q חלשׁ
send far away PI קחר
Sennacherib ביQֵח[נַ ס
sensible םוּרָ ע
separate Q דרפ; HI לדב
separate (something) HI דרפ
sepulchre ֶ רֶבֶ ק
serpent ןיִנַּ תּ ; שָׁח( נ
servant ֶ֫ דֶ בֶ ע
serve Q דבע
set Q ןתנ; Q תישׁ; Q םושׂ , םישׂ ; HI גצי
set down ͏ַחוּנ
set on fire HI תצי
set out Q עסנ
set up HI ןוכ
set up, cause to stand דיִמֱעֶ ה (HI דמע)
set, place, establish גיִ צִּ ה (HI גצי)
settle Q ןכשׁ
settle (tr.), set, cause to kesit ביִ שׁוֹה (HI בַשׁ( י)
seven ֫ עַבֶ שׁ F הָעְבִ שׁ
seven-fold ּ םJיַ תָּעְבִ שׁ
seventh יִעיִבְ שׁ
seventy םיִעְבִ שׁ
sew together Q רפת
Shaddai יַ דַּ שׁ
shape Q רצי
share ֵ קֶ לֵ ח
shatter PI רבשׁ
she איִ ה
sheaf הָ מֻּלֲ א
Sheba ֫ עַבֶ שׁ
English-Hebrew Glossary G69
Shechem םֶכְ שׁ
shed (blood) Q ךפשׁ
sheep ןאֹ צ
Shem םֵ שׁ
Sheol לוֹאְ שׁ
shepherd NOUN Q PTCP הֶ עB
shepherd VB Q הער
Shiloh הvִ שׁ
Shinar (Babylonia) רָ ע[ נִ שׁ
shine HI רוא
shoe ֫ ַ םJ יַלֲעhנ לַעַ נ
shoot (arrows) Q, HI הרי
shore הָפָ שׂ
shorten PI, HI רצק
show HI האר
show experience HI חלצ
show favor Q ןנח
show hostility Q ררצ
show oneself NI האר
show quietness HI טקשׁ
shrewd םוּרָ ע
side, edge ֫ רֶ בֵ ע
sign תֵ פוֹמ ; תוֹא
Silah הָלִּ צ
silver ֫ ףֶסֶּ כ
sin NOUN תאָ טַּ ח ; הָאָטֲ ח ; אְ טֵ ח
sin VB Q אטח
Sinai יhניִ ס
sin-offering תאָ טַּ ח
sister תוֹחָ א P תוֹיָחֲ א
sister-in-law הָמָב[ י, NIS ֫ תֶמֶב[ י
sit Q בשׁי
six שֵׁ שׁ F הָ שִּׁ שׁ
sixth יִ שִּׁ שׁ
sixty םיִּ שִׁ שׁ
skin רוֹע
skip about Q דקר
slaughter Q, PI חבז; Q טחשׁ
slay Q גרה
slippery קָ לָ ח
small ; ריִעָ צ , ןָט` הָ נַּטl ;ןֹט`
smite HI הכנ
smooth קָ לָ ח
snake שָׁח(נ
snatch away HI לצנ
so ןֵ כּ ; הֹ כּ
so that (result) ֫ ןַ עַמְ ל
so that not (negative purpose) ןֶ פּ
Sodom םKְ ס
sojourn Q רוג
English-Hebrew Glossary G70
solitary דיִח( י
solitude דַ בּ (see דַבְ ל)
Solomon הֹמלְ שׁ
son ןֵּב P םיJ נָ בּ
song ה?יִ שׁ
sound םיִמָ תּ ; לוֹק
south ֫ בֶגf נ
sow seed Q ערז
speak PI רבד
species ןיִ מ
speech ֫ רֶמֵ א
spirit, wind ͏ַחוּר
spoil PI, HI טחשׁ
spread NI ץרפ ; HI עצי
spring up Q חמצ
sprout Q חמצ
staff הֶטַּ מ P תוֹטַּ מ
stallion סוּס
stand Q דמע
stand up Q םוק
star בָכוֹכּ
station oneself NI בצנ; HIT בַצ( י
statute ־קָ ח , קֹ ח (with suffix, יִ קֻּ ח , }lָ ח )
steal Q בנג
steal away PI בנג
steer רַ פּ
step ֫ םַ עַ פּ
steppe הָ ב?ֲ ע
still דוֹע
stolen item הָבiנְ גּ
stone ֶ ןֶבֶ א P םיJנָבֲ א
store רָצוֹא
storehouse רָצוֹא
storm Q רעס; PI רעס
stranger רֵ גּ
strength דֹאְ מ ; ͏ַחֹ כּ ; ַ לJ יַ ח
strengthen HI קזח
strengthen (something) PI ץמא
stretch out Q הטנ
strife ןוֹדָ מ P םיJנFְ מ , םיJנוֹדְ מ , and םיJ נ( וoִ מ
strike Q עגנ; HI הכנ
subdue Q שׁבכ
suck Q קני
suckle HI קני
sun ֫ שֶׁ מֶ שׁ
sunset ֫ בjֶ ע
supplied by ןָט`
support Q ןמא
support oneself NI ןעשׁ
surely 7ַ א
English-Hebrew Glossary G71
surround Q בבס
survivor דיQָ שׂ
swarm Q ץרשׁ
swarm (of flies) בBָ ע
swarmers ֫ ץjֶ שׁ
swarming things ֫ ץjֶ שׁ
swear (an oath) NI עבשׁ
sweat הָעֵ ז
sword ֫ תוֹב?ֲח ,בjֶ ח
T
tabernacle ןָ כְּשִׁ מ
tablet ͏ַ חוּל P תוֹחֻ ל
take Q חקל
take one's stand HIT בַצ( י
take one's stand NI בצנ
take pleasure in Q דמח
take possession Q שׁרי
take vengeance Q םקנ
Tarshish שׁיִ שׁ\ַ תּ
teach לכשׂ; PI דמל; HI ןיב
tear Q ערק; Q ףרט
teem Q ץרשׁ
tell PI רפס
temple לָכיֵ ה
temporary abode, place of sojourning רוּגָ מ
ten ֶ רֶשֶׂ ע F ה?ָשֲׂ ע
tend Q הער
tent ֹ לֶ הֹ א
tenth יQיִ שֲׂ ע
teraphim (a kind of idol, a means of
divination) P םיִ פ?ְ תּ
territory ֵ קֶ לֵ ח ; לוּבְ גּ
terror הָ א\J י
testimony תוּדֵ ע
that יִ כּ ; איִ ה ; אוּה ; רֶשֲׁ א
the •͏ַ ה
there םָ שׁ
there are not ־ןיֵ א , ֫ ןJיַ א
there is שׁi י
there is not ־ןיֵ א , ֫ ןJיַ א
therefore ןֵכָ ל
these ֫ הֶ לֵּ א
they ֫ הָ נֵּה/ןֵ ה ; ֵ הָ מֵּה/םֵ ה
thing רָבָ דּ
think Q בשׁח
third generation, the (those belonging to)
םיִשֵּׁלִ שׁ
thirty, thirtieth םיִ שׁvְ שׁ
this תאֹ ז
English-Hebrew Glossary G72
this הֶ ז
thistles רַ דּ\ַ דּ
thorn-bush ץוֹק
thorns ץוֹק
those ֫ הָ נֵּה/ןֵ ה ; ֵ הָ מֵּה/םֵ ה
though יִ כּ
thousand ֶ֫ ףֶלֶ א
three שׁvָ שׁ F הָ שׁvְ שׁ
threshing floor ֫ ןjֹ גּ
throne אֵּסִ כּ
throw Q, HI הרי; HI ךלשׂ ; HI לוּט
thrust out Q שׁרג
thus ןֵ כּ ; הֹ כּ
time ֫ םַ עַ פּ ; תֵ ע ; ֑ ןָמְ ז
to ָ֫ ה ; ͏ְ ל ; ־לֶ א (suffixed on nouns)
to where? ָ ה( נָ א
today םוֹיַּ ה
towards ה ֫ ָ (suffixed on nouns)
toil ןוֹבָ צִּ ע ; ֶ בֶצֶ ע
tongue ןוֹשָׁ ל P שְׁ ל תוֹנֹ
torrent (valley) ַ לַחַ נ
touch Q עגנ
towards ־לֶ א
trader Q PTCP רחס
transgression ןוָֹ ע
tread Q ךרד
treasure רָצוֹא
treasury רָצוֹא
tree ץֵ ע
tribe ֫ ; טֶבֵ שׁ הֶטַּ מ
trust Q חטב
truth תֶמֱ א
tumult הָמוּהְ מ
tunic ֫ תfנֹתֻּ כּ , ֫ תfנֹתּ ְ כ
turn HI הטנ
turn about Q בבס
turn aside Q רוס
turn back Q בושׁ
twenty םיQְשֶׂ ע
twist PI לבח
two םJ יַ תְּ שׁ cst יֵ תְּ שׁ ; ַ םJ יַנְ שׁ
U
unclean אֵמָ ט
uncover, reveal Q הלג
under ּ תַחַ תּ
understand HI ןיב
understanding ה( ניִ בּ
underworld לוֹאְ שׁ
until דַ ע
English-Hebrew Glossary G73
unto דַ ע
upon לַ ע
upper thigh, side 7M( י
upwards ַ לַעַ מ (only ֫ הָלְעַ מ)
use the right hand HI ןמי
used to introduce direct speech רֹמאֵ ל
utensil יִלְ כּ P םיִלֵ כּ
utterance (always CST) םֻא[ נ
utterly mock HI קחשׂ
V
vainly ם`יM
valley ֫ , קֶ מֵ ע הָ עlִּ ב
valor ַ לJ יַ ח
vessel יִלְ כּ P םיִלֵ כּ
vexation ֫ סַעַ כּ
vineyard ּ םjֶ כּ
violence סָ מָ ח
vision הֶא\ַ מ
visit Q דקפ
voice לוֹק
vulture ֶ רֶשֶׁ נ
W X Y Z
wadi ַ לַחַ נ
wages ּ תjֹכְּשַׂ מ
wail Q דפס
wake early HI םכשׁ
walk Q ךלה; Q ךרד
wall הָמוֹח
wander Q העת
war הָמָחְלִ מ
watch NOUN ֶ תjֶמְשִׁ מ
watch VB Q רצנ
water NOUN ַ םJיַ מ
water VB HI הקשׁ
water-trough ֫ טַ ה^
way ֫ 7jּ L ; ֫ ח^ֹ א
we ֫ וּנְחhנֲ א , ֫ וּנְחh נ
wealth דוֹבָ כּ ; ַ לJ יַ ח
wean Q לַמָ גּ
wear Q שׁבל
weep Q הכב
weight רָכִּ כּ
well רוֹבּ ; רֵ אְ בּ
well-being םוֹלָ שׁ
what? הָ מ
when יִ כּ ; רֶשֲׁאַ כּ
when? י{תָ מ
where? ָ ה( נָ א ; הֵ יַּ א ; יֵ א
English-Hebrew Glossary G74
which • רֶשֲׁ א ; ͏ֶ שׁ
while דַ ע
who • רֶשֲׁ א ; ͏ֶ שׁ
who? יִ מ
why? ͏ַ עוּדַּ מ ; ָ הָּמָ ל , הָמָ ל
wicked עָ שׁ?
wide בָ ח?
wield Q שׂפת
wife הָּשִׁ א P םיִשׁ( נ
wilderness רָ בּoִ מ
wine ַ ןJ יַ י
wing ֫ תוֹפ(נְכּ םJיַפ(נְ כּ ף(נָ כּ
wipe away Q החמ
wise םָכָ ח F הָמָכֲ ח
with םִ ע (W. ENCL. PRN. יִ מִּ ע, etc.); ͏ְ בּ ; ־תֶ א תֵ א
with me יbָמִּ ע
witness דֵ ע
woman הָ שִּׁ א, P םיִשׁ( נ
women םיִשׁ( נ; see הָ שִּׁ א
wonder תֵ פוֹמ
wood םיִ צֵ ע
word רָבָ דּ ; ֫ רֶמֵ א
work NOUN ֫ לַעֹ פּ ; הֶשֲׂעַ מ ; הָכאָלְ מ
work VB Q דבע
would that וּל
wound הָכַּ מ
write Q בתכ
writhe PI לבח
year הh נָ שׁ P םיJ נָ שׁ
years old (idiom. for X years old) ־ ה( נָ שׁ ןֶ בּ
yes ןֵ כּ
yet דוֹע
Yhwh (personal name of God of Israel) הוהי
you MS הָתַּ א; MP םֶ תַּ א; FS ְתַּ א; FP ֫ ה( נֵ תַּ א , ןֶתַּ א
young ריִעָ צ
young boy ֫ רַעh נ
young bull רַ פּ
young girl ה?ֲעh נ
Zilpah הָ פְּלִ ז
Zion ןוֹיִ צ

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