Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

1. Name of Property
historic other (indicate preferred name)

Inventory No. 31-45

Wheaton-Glenmont Police Station Montgomery County Police Station, 4th District

2. Location
street and number city, town county

2300 Randolph Road Silver Spring Montgomery
(give names and mailing addresses of all owners)

not for publication vicinity

3. Owner of Property
name street and number city, town

Montgomery County EOB 101 Monroe Street Rockville
state telephone


zip code


4. Location of Legal Description
courthouse, registry of deeds, etc. city, town

Montgomery County
tax map JQ13

liber 2545 folio 324 tax parcel P641 tax ID number 13-00971702


5. Primary Location of Additional Data
Contributing Resource in National Register District Contributing Resource in Local Historic District Determined Eligible for the National Register/Maryland Register Determined Ineligible for the National Register/Maryland Register Recorded by HABS/HAER Historic Structure Report or Research Report at MHT Other:

6. Classification
X district building(s) structure site object

X public private both

Current Function
agriculture commerce/trade defense domestic education funerary government health care industry landscape recreation/culture religion social transportation work in progress unknown vacant/not in use other:

Resource Count
Contributing 2 Noncontributing buildings sites structures objects Total



Number of Contributing Resources previously listed in the Inventory

7. Description
X excellent good fair deteriorated ruins altered

Inventory No. 31-45

Prepare both a one paragraph summary and a comprehensive description of the resource and its various elements as it exists today.

Summary The Wheaton-Glenmont Police Station is a Colonial Revival complex built in two stages. The earliest is the westernmost, cruciform section built in 1959. The station was expanded to the east in 1968 with a compatible, hip-roofed section. The complex features traditional details including denticulated cornices, brick laid in American bond course, molded brick surrounds, and double hung sash windows. Description The Wheaton-Glenmont Police Station (1959; 1968) is located near the intersection of Randolph Road and Georgia Avenue. (Figures 1 and 2) The parcel (P641) is approximately 1.83 acres (79,585 sq. ft.). The main building is a cruciform cross-gable section built in 1959. The structure faces north, with a long wing extending to the west. (Figures 3-11) To its east is a flat-roofed, two-story section with parapet that connects to a two-story hip roofed section, constructed in 1968. The complex is built into the slope of land so that it is mainly one story on the north, and two stories on the south. Walls have brick facing laid in five-course American bond. The roof is covered with asphalt shingles. Windows are replacement vinyl units, with double hung sash. The gable-front main entrance faces north onto Randolph Road. The front façade has a white, denticulated wooden cornice that returns over quoins that form stylized pilasters at both corners. Centered below is an oversize, brick doorframe set in raised relief from the surrounding brick wall, and finished with shaped corners. Original wood double doors are lit by an 8x2 light transom. Double hung sash windows flank the doorway. The flat-roofed section to the east has a parapet punctuated by decorative metal panels, which rise above a denticulated cornice. Entrance is through the easternmost bay. Windows at basement and first levels have flat lintels with radiating voussoirs and molded brick sills. In the southwest corner of the parcel is a two-bay, side-gable garage that dates from 1959.1 (Figure 12) Next to it is a small side-gable outbuilding with matching rooftop ventilator. The 60-car parking lot is original to the complex. In 1993, the operating systems of the building were renovated, including HVAC, electrical and lighting. In 2003-2005, the interior was renovated, including asbestos abatement, sprinkler system installation, and network wiring. Interior non-load bearing walls were removed. Halls, stairs, elevator, and restroom facilities retain their original size and configuration. Original 8 over 12 sash windows on the main block and 12 over 12 on the east section were replaced with vinyl double-hung sash with sandwich muntins. A wheelchair ramp installed at the main north entrance is visually compatible with the complex.


A period news account describes the 20 by 40 foot garage, and 60-car parking lot. Washington Post, November 17, 1959.

8. Significance
1600-1699 1700-1799 1800-1899

Inventory No. 31-45 Check and justify below
economics education engineering entertainment/ recreation ethnic heritage exploration/ settlement health/medicine industry invention landscape architecture law literature maritime history military performing arts philosophy

Areas of Significance
agriculture archeology

X architecture
art commerce communications

X politics/government
religion science social history transportation other:

X 1900-1999

X community planning

Specific dates Construction dates Evaluation for: National Register


Bagley-Soulé & Associates

1959 (original station); 1968 (east wing)

Maryland Register

not evaluated

Prepare a one-paragraph summary statement of significance addressing applicable criteria, followed by a narrative discussion of the history of the resource and its context. (For compliance projects, complete evaluation on a DOE Form – see manual.)

Summary The Glenmont police station is the oldest extant police station building in Montgomery County. It was the first county structure built to exclusively house police facilities. The brick Colonial Revival style building, designed in 1958 by BagleySoulé & Associates architects, reflects a civic image that draws on the traditional architecture of colonial Maryland. In addition, the building is the only surviving example of four Colonial Revival office buildings that county government agencies constructed in this era--the lone extant representative of the period of Colonial Revival civic buildings. Subsequent police stations built in Bethesda (1962), Silver Spring (1962), and Rockville (1963), were modernist in design. Site History In 1958, Montgomery County acquired the initial parcel of land, located along Glenmont-Colesville Road, now known as Randolph Road.2 The fire station to the immediate west had been constructed in 1953. Over the course of less than a decade, the Glenmont area had become a suburban haven of several hundred single family houses, starting with Glenmont Forest, in 1949, followed by Glenmont Village and Glenmont Hills (1949), and Glenmont Knolls (1952). When it opened, the police station facility featured a large classroom, four detention cells, a four-stall pistol range, 20 x 40-foot garage, and 60-car parking lot. The station was staffed by 52 officers, four desk clerks, and three committing magistrates, and served a population of 70,000 in a 100-square mile district. The Glenmont Station served residents in a district bounded to the south by Plyers Mill Road, to the west by Rock Creek, and included Wheaton Triangle, Viers Mill Road, Colesville, and Olney.3

2 3

Montgomery County acquired a parcel of 5,455 sq ft from Contee Sand & Gravel, October 28, 1958. Deed 2545:324. Washington Post, November 21, 1959.

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form
Name Wheaton-Glenmont Police Station Continuation Sheet
Number 8 Page 1

Inventory No. 31-45

The architectural firm Bagley-Soulé Associates of Chevy Chase designed the police station. In contrast to the modern design of the Glenmont Arcade, the police station, like the fire station, was designed in conservative revivalism to be compatible with the traditional housing that characterized the region.4 The Glenmont police station opened November 21, 1959. (Figures 19 and 20) Dedication ceremonies were scheduled soon thereafter, while the building and grounds received finishing touches. As early as 1955, residents had called for a police substation to serve the Glenmont community. When the station opened in 1959, it was the first purpose-built police station in the county, and the fourth district police station to have operated.5 Police Stations and the County Police Force In 1922, the Maryland General Assembly created the County Police Department, at the request of the county commissioners. Before that time, law enforcement was up to deputy sheriffs who were paid on a fee basis.6 The Police Department in 1922 consisted of 1 chief and 5 officers who were stationed at the Rockville Courthouse, now known as the Red Brick Courthouse. (Figures 14 and 21) Each officer was assigned a motorcycle for transport. Most crimes in the 1920s, when the county was still largely rural, were thefts of farm products (chicken, turkey, cattle, produce). Occasional crimes of more excitement were chasing bootleggers, in this era of Prohibition.7 In 1927, police districts were changed with the creation of Eastern Suburban District and Western Suburban Districts. The change came about with the establishment of the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission and reorganization of aspects of the county government. A new law was passed at that time which specified locations for Silver Spring and Bethesda stations, and allocated space for headquarters offices for the first time—locating them in the basement of the courthouse. The new stations were located in new county office buildings constructed in Silver Spring and Bethesda. The police force was expanded by 15 officers. All positions were subject to appointment or dismissal by vote of the County Commissioners. In 1931, the headquarters moved into the new courthouse (now the Grey Courthouse), where it remained until 1954. The new county office buildings, which contained the police stations, were located at either end of the planned EastWest Highway. The County Office Building for the Western Suburban District was a stone, Classical Revival building, at 7359 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, (Figure 16) completed in 1928 (since demolished). The structure included People’s Court, county government services, detectives, and uniform police officers. The same year, the County Office Building
Charles Beckler Soulé listed “Wheaton Police Station” among his projects, with the design date of 1953. American Architects Directory, 1962. 5 Washington Post, March 31, 1955; November 17, 1959. 6 Hiebert and MacMaster, p277. There were six deputy sheriffs by 1922, Chapter 259 was the act which empowered county commissioners to establish a county police department. Cited in Alexis, p33. 7 Donald E. Brooks and Charles A. Federline, A Worthy Innovation: History of the Montgomery County Police, pp 8-10.

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form
Name Wheaton-Glenmont Police Station Continuation Sheet
Number 8 Page 2

Inventory No. 31-45

for the Eastern Suburban District was completed (since demolished), it being a brick, Classical Revival building, at 8528 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring. (Figure 15) With the repeal of Prohibition, bootlegging was no longer a major factor in the 1930s, yet armed robberies, as one officer recalled, increased at a disturbing pace. The next major change in the police force occurred in the 1940s. At the urging of the Montgomery County Civic Federation, the county commissioners funded a study of county government. The resulting Brookings Institute report of 1941 called for an expanded police force, among other things. The County increased its Police Department by 16 officers. The first two-way radios were installed in 1943. The main transmitter was in the Rockville headquarters, with receivers in 35 patrol cars. All officers were placed under the county personnel merit system in 1946 except for the police chief who was appointed politically.8 The year 1955 was a watershed year in the professionalism of the police department. Col James J. McAuliffe rose through the ranks to become police chief--the first chief to come under the merit system rather than being a political appointment. A countywide accident prevention program was established to address rising traffic issues in the county. For the first time, accident types and locations were analyzed in order to reduce causes of accidents. By this time, headquarters had been moved to the new County Office Building on Perry Street, and there were 65 patrol cars and eight motorcycles assigned to the police department.9 (Figures 22 and 23) Increased suburban growth, particularly in the Wheaton area, led to pressure for a new police station. Officers were burdened by an increased workload, and by 1955, residents were calling for a new station in Glenmont.10 In 1959, the Wheaton-Glenmont District police station opened. Rooted in the past with its Colonial Revival architecture, the building stood at the cusp of a modern police department. It was the first facility in Montgomery County built solely for police services. The other four extant stations, in Rockville, Silver Spring, and Bethesda, were all located in county government office buildings. The Colonial Revival style building followed the traditional styling of earlier county office buildings in Silver Spring and Bethesda, as well as the M-NCPPC’s office building at Trinity Place, Silver Spring (now demolished). Only with developments and changes in the 1960s did the county police department become a modern department, according to historian and former Police Chief Donald E. Brooks. These changes included a new communication system with centralized emergency number, high frequency radio channels and an Emergency Operating Center. In this era, three new stations were built in Bethesda, Silver Spring, and Rockville. In Bethesda, the old county office building was
8 9

Hiebert and MacMaster, pp 314-15. The Accident Prevention program included a file system coordinated with a county map on which pins denoted accident types and locations. Though crude, it was a first step in reducing numbers of traffic accidents. Montgomery Sentinel, April 1955. “History of the Department,” Montgomery County Department of Police, Annual Report, 2006. 10 Washington Post, March 31, 1955. Brooks and Federline, p. 39.

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form
Name Wheaton-Glenmont Police Station Continuation Sheet
Number 8 Page 3

Inventory No. 31-45

torn down and replaced by the purpose-built Bethesda District Station (1962), 7359 Wisconsin Avenue. In Silver Spring, a new site was selected at 801 Sligo Avenue for the Silver Spring District Station (1962). In Rockville, the district station was moved out of the headquarters office and housed in a new Rockville District Police Station (1963), at 1451 Seven Locks Road. (Figures 24-26) Each of these three facilities was designed in a modern architectural style, signaling a break with the past, and an eye to the future.11 Today, the County is divided into six police districts: Rockville, Bethesda, Silver Spring, Wheaton, Germantown, and Montgomery Village. (Figure 13) The Germantown station, at 2000 Aircraft Drive, was built in 1980. (Figure 27) In 2001, the 6th District station opened, located at 45 W. Watkins Mill Road, Montgomery Village. A police academy, later named the Public Services and Training Academy, was built in 1973 at Darnestown and Travilah Roads. The Department Headquarters, which have been located for decades at 2350 Research Boulevard, in an office park, are in the process of moving to the former National Geographic Building, at 100 Edison Park Drive. The Police Department in 2012 is comprised of over 1,100 sworn officers assisted by 500 support personnel.12 Colonial Revival Colonial Revival style was a popular choice for public buildings starting in the second quarter of the 20th century. On a national level, the architectural style became prevalent in an era when Americans were preoccupied with the American past and colonial roots. Colonial Revival was heavily publicized in popular culture with the restoration of Colonial Williamsburg. Immediately following World War II, the style achieved a new popularity as it became associated with American patriotism. In Montgomery County, where the persistence of tradition was especially strong, Colonial Revival was the preferred choice for civic and commercial buildings through the 1950s. By the 1960s, modern architecture had taken hold and International Style buildings became popular. In the early- and mid-20th century, Montgomery County underwent tremendous change. Following World War I, a population increase brought increased subdivisions. In 1927, the State of Maryland created the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission. The same year, two new political regions were created: Eastern and Western Suburban Districts. A series of new government office buildings were constructed, designed in the Colonial Revival style chosen to represent the civic image for the county’s new government organization The Eastern Suburban District building, and the Western Suburban District building, the first government buildings constructed solely for the purpose of governing Montgomery County, were both constructed in 1927, and both designed in Colonial Revival style. 13 (Figures 15 and 16) Two years later, M-NCPPC chose Colonial Revival style for its Silver Spring

Brooks and Federline, pp44+. 13 County offices in Rockville were located in the Courthouse until the County Office Building was constructed.

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form
Name Wheaton-Glenmont Police Station Continuation Sheet
Number 8 Page 4

Inventory No. 31-45

Office Building (1929), located next to the Eastern Suburban District building. (Figures 17 and 18) M-NCPPC’s Office Building was a brick cross gabled building, like the Wheaton-Glenmont Police Station, and it too derived its architectural interest from the entrance façade, oversize entrances, and articulated wood trim.14 The Wheaton-Glenmont Police Station is the earliest remaining police station and the only one of Colonial Revival design popular in the second quarter of the century. The County Office Building in Rockville (Ronald Senseman, architect, 1952) signaled a change in government architecture that occurred over the subsequent decade. It was designed in the modernist International-influenced style, which bore no references to classical or early American architecture. Police stations built after 1960 (Bethesda, Silver Spring, Rockville, Germantown) were also designed in modernist styles, representing a look toward the future and heralding a new era of modern government. Bagley-Soulé Associates The Wheaton-Glenmont Police Staiton was designed by Bagley- Soulé Associates, architects. Charles Beckler Soulé and Marion Leroy Bagley formed a partnership in 1958. While Marion Bagley’s commissions in this era were largely apartment complexes and shopping centers, Charles Soulé designed public service buildings. Soulé lists the “Wheaton Police Station” as his design from 1953, though the building wasn’t constructed until 1959. Soulé also listed the Bethesda Fire Station (1956) as his design. The Bethesda-Chevy Chase Chamber of Commerce awarded him first prize in architecture, in 1957. Soule was honored in 1974 with the appointment as Fellow in the American Institute of Architects. 15 A native of Evanston, Illinois, Charles Soulé received his Bachelors of Architecture from Cornell University in 1942. He moved to the Washington, DC, area and was a designer for Louis Justement before starting his own firm, Soulé & Donnally, in 1952. Bagley was born in Nebraska and attended University of Nebraska and University of Pennsylvania. He had a partnership with Dan Kirkhuff (1933-1941) and then a solo practice (1942-1958) before striking up a partnership with Marion Bagley. Soule and Bagley’s architectural firm was located at 8555 Connecticut Avenue, in the Chevy Chase Lake Shopping Center which the firm designed. While Soule lived nearby in Bethesda, Bagley took up residence on a farm in Comus. Bagley died in 1990 and was buried at Monocacy Cemetery in Beallsville.16

The two suburban County Office are illustrated in Donald E. Brooks, A Worthy Innovation, 1987. Discussion of Colonial Revival county government buildings in Karin M.E. Alexis, “Government Architecture in Montgomery County, Maryland,” 1988. 15 American Architects Directory, 1962; 1970. AIA Archives. 16 American Architects Directory.


9. Major Bibliographical References
See continuation sheet.

Inventory No. 31-45

10. Geographical Data
Acreage of surveyed property Acreage of historical setting Quadrangle name 1.83 acres Quadrangle scale:

Verbal boundary description and justification

11. Form Prepared by
name/title organization street & number city or town

Clare Lise Kelly
M-NCPPC Montgomery County Planning Dept 8787 Georgia Avenue Silver Spring date telephone state October 2012 301-563-3402 MD

The Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties was officially created by an Act of the Maryland Legislature to be found in the Annotated Code of Maryland, Article 41, Section 181 KA, 1974 supplement. The survey and inventory are being prepared for information and record purposes only and do not constitute any infringement of individual property rights. return to: Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Department of Planning 100 Community Place Crownsville, MD 21032-2023 410-514-7600

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form
Name Wheaton-Glenmont Police Station Continuation Sheet
Number 8 Page 1

Inventory No. 31-45

BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexis, Karin M.E. “Government Architecture in Montgomery County, Maryland: First Half of the 20th Century,” Montgomery County HPC and Maryland Historical Trust, 1988. Brooks, Donald E. and Charles A. Federline. A Worthy Innovation: A History of the Montgomery County Police, 19221987. Montgomery County Government, Dept of Police, 1988. Bruder, Anne, Maryland State Highway Administration. “Glenmont Commercial and Civic District,” M-31-30. Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form, 2001. Goggin, George. “County Police Department: 34 Years ‘On the Beat’”, Montgomery Sentinel, April 1955. Hiebert, Ray E. and Richard K. MacMaster, A Grateful Remembrance: the Story of Montgomery County, Maryland. Montgomery County Government, 1976. Koyl, George (Ed.). American Architects Directory. American Institute of Architects. New York, NY: R. R. Bowker Co, 1962; 1970. Lachlin, Teresa B. Rockville’s Recent Past. Rockville, Md: Peerless Rockville, 2012. McCoy, Jerry A. and Silver Spring Historical Society, Historic Silver Spring, Arcadia Publishing, 2005. Montgomery County Department of Police, “History of the Department,” 2006 Annual Report, p.3. Montgomery County Department of Police, Montgomery County’s Finest, 1922-2001, Turner Publishing Company, 2001. Montgomery County Land Records, deeds. Montgomery Sentinel, news articles. Ossont, Greg. Deputy Director, Planning and Development, Department of General Services, Montgomery County. History of construction and alterations to Wheaton-Glenmont Station building, October 9, 2012 email. Washington Post Archives.

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