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Abhas Mitra

Theoretical Astrophysics Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400085, India In a recent preprint, gr-qc/0511123, Dadhich has given a brief yet beautiful exposition on some of the research works by Prof. A.K. Raychaudhuri. Here Dadhich highlights the fact that the apparently self-evident assumption of occurrence of trapped surfaces may not be realized atleast in some specic cosmological models though no general proof for non-occurrence of trapped surfaces exists in the cosmological context. However, Dadhich added, without sucient justication, that trapped surfaces should occur for collapse of isolated bodies. We point out that actually trapped surfaces do not occur even for collapse of spherically symmetric isolated bodies. Further unlike the cosmological case, for isolated bodies, an exact proof for generic non-occurrence of trapped surfaces is available. Thus for isolated bodies, the above referred apparently self-evident assumption fails much more acutely than in cosmology. Many recent astrophysical observations tend to corroborate the fact trapped surfaces do not occur for isolated bodies. Two recent specic papers (PRD) are cited to show that when radiative non-diispative collapse can prevent formation of trapped surfaces.

INTRODUCTION

THE PROOF

In a recent preprint entitled Derivation of the Raychaudhuri Equation[1], Dadhich has presented a lucid and insightful rederivation of the celebrated Raychaudhuri Equation. Dadich also briey summarizes the recent works of Prof. Raychoudhuri which considered specic examples/criteria of non-singular cosmologies. In recent times, the rst example of non-singular cosmologies came in 1990[2] which involved cylindrical geometry. As Dadhich emphasizes, these non-singular cosmological models imply non-occurrence of trapped surfaces contrary to the crucial assumption behind singularity theorems. It may be emphasized here, that, though there is no general proof for non-occurrence of trapped surfaces in cosmological context; the singularity in the standard Friedmann universe may not necessarily imply past trapped surface because it could be an artifact of assumed maximal symmetry in the model. During this discussion, Dadhich, nonethess, writes that This assumption is quite justiable for the case of collapse of an isolated body. It may be mentioned that the idea of trapped surfaces appeared to be self-evident both for cosmology and isolated bodies till 1990 though in hindsight it may appear to be not so now for cosmological context. In the following, we would show that though the idea of formation of trapped surfaces appears to be justiable for isolated bodies, actually, the situation here is atleast as misleading as it was in cosmology prior to 1990. This will be evident from the brief derivation presented below.

Any spherically symmetric spacetime may be expressed as ds2 = g00 dt2 + grr dr2 R2 (d2 + sin2 d2 ) (1)

where is polar, is azimuth coordinate, and R = R(r, t) is the Circumference coordinate. To start with, r, t may be considered as arbitrary radial and time coordinates. R is also called areal or surface coordinate and is a scalar. Further, R happens to be the physically observable Luminosity Distance (in a static universe). Any spherically symmetric spacetime may be viewed as embedded with R = f ixed markers against the background of which the uid or the test particle moves. For the specic case of the interior spacetime of a spherically symmertical uid, we consider r and t as the comoving coordinates. For instance a marker r = r1 signies a certain mass shell of the uid containing xed number of baryons and remains xed by denition. At a certain comoving time t = t1 , the surface area of this 2 shell is 4R1 (t) and R1 is decreasing while r1 stays xed. This is the viewpoint for a comoving observer something like that of the driver of a car who always nds the speed of the car to be zero w.r.t. to him. However there could be milestones and xed speedometers on the road who can nd the car to be moving. Similarly, the uid moves w.r.t. the background grid of R = f ixed markers. For radial motion with d = d = 0, the metric becomes ds2 = g00 dt2 (1 x2 ) where the auxiliary parameter grr dr x= g00 dt (2)

(3)

2 Eq.(1) may be rewritten as (1 x2 ) = 1 ds2 g00 dt2 (4) Further for the metric signature chosen here ds2 0 for all material particles or photons. Then it follows that the LHS of Eq. (14) is always positive. So must then be the RHS of the same Eq. and which implies that 2M (r, t) 1 R (16)

Suppose an arbitrary roadside marker at a xed R is observing the uid motion as the uid passes by it. If we intend to nd the parameter x for such a R = constant marker, i.e, a roadside milestone at xed R, we will have, dR(r, t) = 0 = Rdt + R dr (5)

where an overdot denotes a partial derivative w.r.t. t and a prime denotes a partial derivative w.r.t. r. Therefore, at a xed R, we obtain, R dr = dt R and the corresponding x is grr dr grr R x = xc = = g00 dt g00 R Using Eqs.(3), we also have, (1 x2 ) = c Now let us dene[3] R = grr R U= g00 so that Eqs. (3) and (5) yield xc = U ; U = xc (11) (9) 1 ds2 g00 dt2 (8) (6)

Since the choice of the R = f ixed marker is arbitrary (0 < R < Ri , where Ri is the initial radius), the above result is a general one. This shows, in a most general fashion, that trapped surfaces are not formed in spherical collapse or expansion of isolated bodies.

IMPLICATIONS IN BRIEF

(7)

(10)

As is well known, the gravitational mass of the collapsing (or expanding) uid is dened through the equation[3] 2 = 1 + U 2 2M (r, t) R (12)

By using Eqs.(8) and (9) in the foregoing Eq., we have R ds2 2M (r, t) =1 grr g00 dt2 R

2

(14)

Recall that the determinant of the metric tensor is always negative: g = R4 sin2 g00 grr 0, so that we must always have grr g00 0 (15)

If trapped surfaces are not formed then there is no guarantee that collapse results in a singularity. However, if one would insist that massive objects must collapse indenitely because of existence of Chandrasekhar mass or Oppenheimer- Volko mass, (MOV ) i.e., if one would envisage R 0, Eq.(16) would demand that the gravitational mass of the nal singular state is M = 0. Immediately, the question would arise, then what is the nature of those compact objects with masses M > MOV found in many X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei? Although this small note is meant to show only non-occurrence of trapped surfaces for isolated bodies (Eq.[16]), we will make few comments with regard to the question posed above. Both Chandrasekhar mass and O-V mass refer to cold degenerate compact objects at temperature T 0. On the other hand, if the compact object is composed of hot matter with immense radiation pressure, then they could be of arbitrary high mass like the ctitious Supermassive Stars. Dadhich writes that From the study of stellar structure we know that a suciently massive body could, as its nuclear fuel exhausts, ultimately undergo indenite collapse and therefore reaching the trapped surface limit. The above statement ignores the fact that even if there would be no nuclear fuel, a self-gravitating uid generates fresh source of internal energy and pressure by combination of Virial Theorem and Global Energy Conservation. This is the reason stellar mass proto stars and supermassive primordial clouds can survive millions of years without support of any nuclear burning. It is because of this eect, in reality, there cannot be any gravitational collapse without dissipation and heat/radiation transport. However general relativists more often than not ignore such physical aspects and instead consider textbook adiabatic collapse. In such a case, M (r, t) either increases or remains xed (at the boundary) and one happily obtains trapped surfaces. In fact Govender & Dadhich found that in some models of String Theories, gravitational collapse necessarily generates radiation[4]. In clas-

3 sical GR too, same is true provided we properly incorporate physics in the problem. For dissipative collapse, M (r, t) would decrease with R for all r and Eq.(16) must be obeyed. Recently, Goswami & Joshi[5] used the already known idea that loss of mass energy should prevent formation of trapped surfaces: The collapsing star radiates away most of its matter as the process of gravitational collapse evolves, so as to avoid the formation of trapped surfaces and spacetime singularity However, the treatment of Goswami & Joshi[5] is physically inconsistent because they do not consider any radiation transport or dissipation at all! They unphysically and articially simulate decrease of M (r, t) by considering an adiabatic collapse with a negative pressure. On the other hand, there are genuine examples of nonoccurrence of trapped surfaces in the context of continued dissipative collapse in which radiation pressure and energy density could grow unhindered. In brief, Santos & Herrea[6] rst showed that eect of radiation pressure can not only stop the collapse but might even caused a bounce. And now, Herrera, Prisco & Barreto[7] have numerically shown that collapse (U < 0) of massive stars might turn into a bounce (U > 0) because of growth of radiation pressure in realistic dissipative collapse. Before bounce (U > 0 would occur, one must have a transition state with U = 0. From Eq.(12) such a state corresponds to 2 = 1 2M (r, t) R (17)

CONCLUSION

Collapse of isolated bodies is necessarily dissipative and in order that the worldlines of the collapsing uid remains non-spacelike, atleast for non-charged objects, it is necessary that trapped surfaces are not formed. However, in principle, an apparent horizon, R(r, t) = 2M (r, t) might form as R 0. But if one would work with the unphysical assumption of radiationless adiabatic collapse one would obtain trapped surfaces at nite M and R. The radiation mentioned here refers to emission of neutrinos and photons and not Gravitational Radiation (since we are considering spherically symmetric evolution). In the absense of trapped surfaces, there would not be any nite mass (uncharged) BH. There is already observational evidence that the so-called BH Candidates found in many X-ray binaries have strong intrinsic magnetic elds in lieu of any Event Horizon[8]. Very recently, there is evidence that the compact object in the most well studied quasar Q0957+561 has similar properties[9].

Since 2 0, one nds 2M (r, t)/R 1, which implies occurrence of Eq.(16). If the collapse is reversed now, surely, there would not be any trapped surface. So, there is an explicit example where radiation pressure can prevent formation of trapped surface. Eq.(16) nevertheless holds true irrespective of existence specic examples.

Electronic address: amitra@apsara.barc.ernet.in; N. Dadhich, gr-qc/0511123 (2005) J.M.M. Senovilla, Phys. Rev. Lett., 64, 2219 (1990). C.W. Misner, Phys. Rev. 137 (5B), B1360 (1965) M. Govender & N. Dadhich (hep-th/0109086) 5) R. Goswami & P.S. Joshi (gr-qc/0504019) L. Herrera & N.O. Santos, Phys. Rev. D, 70, 084004 (2004) (gr-qc/0410014) [7] L. Herrerea, A.D. Prisco & W. Barreto, Phys. Rev. D (in press) (gr-qc/0512032) [8] S. Robertson, & D. Leiter, Astrophys. J. 565, 447 (2002) (astro-ph/0102381), Astrophys. J. 569, L203 (2003) (astro-ph/0310078), Robertson, S. & Leiter, D. Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 350, 1391 (2004) (astro-ph/0402445), [9] R. Schild, D. Leiter, & S. Robertson, Astronomical J., (submitted, 2005) (astro-ph/0505518).

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