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Using LPS in Close-Range Photogrammetry Workflow for Image Ortho-Rectification

Abstract Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS) is part of the ERDAS Imagine 2011 suite. It is an aerial photogrammetry software, but it can also be used for close range photogrammetry proposes. LPS was used in Santa Maria church of Scaria, Intelvi project for the orthophoto production of the vault system. It can be used also for image orientation, as it is a full suite, but in the case of this thesis the orientation was performed with Photomodeler Scanner 2012 (PM) due to the high level of complexity of the object in question and the accuracy requirements. A lot of Ground Control Points need to be measured, therefore and automatic solution was needed, which LPS couldnt offer. The following guidelines are a walkthrough for the image ortho- rectification.

In ERDAS Imagine 2011 go to Toolbox tab and select LPS. From File menu create a new Block File with the appropriate name.

In the window that pops up (Model Setup) choose the type of camera and click Ok. In this case it is a digital one.

Both horizontal and vertical units are set in meters. Keep it like that and set the projection to Unknown, as this is not an aerial photogrammetry project to have a global reference system. Then click Next.

The rotation system, the angle units and the photo direction are by default set like in the snapshot. Keep it like this and insert an Average Flying Height measured on the software used for the image orientation (PM).

Click New Camera and add the .cam file of the camera used. You can either load or add this information manually.

The images are distortion-free so the last tab should be like this:

Finally, import the Exterior Orientation Parameters file exported from PM (.ascii or .dat file).

The following window will show up. Check that the units are correct and click Ok.

In the Import Options window you can now see the preview of the EO parameters. Click Ok.

Now all the images are loaded. Notice the columns.

Click on the Int. (Interior) column. Add the pixel size using the camera info from PM. Y dir=W in format/ W in image X dir=H in format/ H in image Check Apply to all active Frames, in order to be done for all images. Click Next.

In the Exterior Orientation tab you can see all the parameters that were imported. Check Set Status and choose from the dropdown menu Fixed. Click Next and do that for every photo. Then click Ok.

Now you can start the ortho-rectification procedure. Go to menu Process>Ortho Rectification>Resampling. Tab General Select the DTM source, in this case a DEM (DSM). The Output Cell Sizes are equal to the size of the pixel of the orthophoto. Here it is 2 mm. Round the ULX and ULY in the 2nd decimal digit (nearest and bigger). It has also to be a divided exactly with the pixel size of the orthophoto (so in this case we need an even number). Then click Align Pixels so that its done for every image.

Tab Advanced In this tab you can choose the resampling method that you want to use. You can also change the Overlap Threshold. For example you can make it less than 30% so the program uses more pictures.