ID #1288386 Bag ID V 13th February 2012 Sergeant Adam Dalgliesh Northeast Valley Police Station Dear Sergeant Dalgliesh

, The bag of bones Mr Montana provided contained nine bones, eight of which were human, possibly belonging to a minimum two individuals, one female and one male, both adult.

The bones found are as follows: an occipital and temporal bone, both from the skull of a female, a cervical vertebra, a fibula, a clavicle, a hipbone, a metacarpal from the “pinky” finger, and a calcaneus, as well as an unidentifiable non-human bone. All except the occipital bone had varying degrees of post-mortem damage due to abrasion.

Characteristics on the occipital and temporal bone, such as a gracile nuchal crest, lead me to estimate that these two bones were from a female body. The clavicle is significantly smaller relative to the fibula and hipbone, and thus might belong to the same female body. If so, aging using the lack of sphenooccipital epiphyseal fusion and the complete fusion of the clavicle lead to an age estimation of 18 to 25 years of age.

The hipbone and fibula are both similar in size and thus might belong to the same male body. The hipbone displays characteristics typical of a male, such as a lack of ventral arc and a larger acetabulum. Because both were fully fused, this male was most likely an adult. The non-human bone’s flat and broad shape did not match the morphology of any human bone, and its lack of epiphyseal fusion, characteristic of a subadult, making the bone too big to be a metatarsal of an infant.

Sincerely, ID #1288386

WORD COUNT: 248.

characterized by its sagittally flat and coronally broad shape that does not fit the morphology of any human bone. and the bone is too big to belong to an infant. however. 2. the subject with the bone must have been young. interosseuous crest positioned anteriorly Sternal end medially. The closest human bone it resembled is a metatarsal. lateral and medial Calcaneus Right processes posteroinferiorly. calcaneal tuber posteriorly With aid from The Human Bone Manual (see Reference List). Nonhuman bones  One of the bones was non-human. vertebral body is saddle-shaped Fibula Right Lateral malleolus is lateral and distal. mastoid process laterally. bows anteriorly medially Pubic symphysis medially. Clavicle Left Innominate Right 1 . very robust spinous process projecting posteriorly at a slightly inferior angle. concave inferior surface Fibular tubercle laterally. must be human) Temporal Right Zygomatic arch anteriorly. Bag ID V 1. ilium superoposteriorly. Identification and Siding of Human Bones Bone Identification Occipital Side Not applicable Rationale Foramen magnum positioned inferiorly and slightly anteriorly for upright positioning of the head (thus. nonarticular side of base faces medially. rectangular proximal Metacarpal – M5 Right base. because it lacks epiphyseal fusion on the proximal end of the bone.ID #1288386. smoother surface superiorly. away from MC4. ischium inferiorly Round articular head. squamosal suture superiorly Lateral vertebral foramen characteristic of Vertebra – C7 Not applicable cervical vertebrae.

both exposing rough cancellous bone Minor abrasion on the sternal anterior surface Clavicle Excellent and the lateral end.ID #1288386. small exposure of rough cancellous bone Calcaneus Very good 2 . all exposing rough cancellous bone  Fibula Good  Shaft in excellent condition Major abrasion on lateral malleolus and on the medial side of the head. both exposing rough cancellous bone  Minor abrasion on anterosuperior iliac spine. 3) inferior/superior spinous processes. more medium abrasion on superomedial side Innominate Good    Metacarpal – M5 Excellent Major abrasion of iliac tuberosity Slight abrasion on lateral side of pubic symphysis All exposure of rough cancellous bone Description of damage Distal base. 2) Vertebra – C7 Very good inferior articular facets. Post-mortem damage Bone Occipital Temporal Bone condition Excellent Excellent Undamaged Undamaged Minor abrasion on: 1) Lateral processes. posterior side has very slight abrasion and exposure of rough cancellous bone  Very slight abrasion on superior view of calcaneal tuber and lateral superior side of calcaneus. Bag ID V 3.

0 – 30. 2005) Temporal Minimal expression of mastoid process (White and Folkens. similar in size Size 3 . Identifying characteristics for sex and age estimation. height estimation Bones not listed are irrelevant for aging and sexing Bone Occipital  Sex Gracile nuchal line (White and Folkens.5 – 19.0 – 25. 1994)   Measures 335mm Relative to articulated skeleton. 2005) Estimation: ♀   Age Unfused sphenooccipital synchondrosis (age of fusion 18.0) (Scheuer and Black. similar in size Clavicle  Fully fused (age of fusion 18. 2000)  Relative to articulated skeleton. 2000)  Relative to articulated skeleton.0) (Scheuer and Black.0) (White and Folkens.5 – 23.0 – 25. 2005) Estimation: ♀ Vertebra – C7  Fully fused (age of fusion 18.0) (Scheuer and Black. significantly smaller Innominate   Narrow greater sciatic notch Lack of ventral arc  Fully fused (age of fusion 16. Bag ID V 4.ID #1288386.5) (Buikstra and Ubelaker. 2000) Fibula  Fully fused (age of fusion 14.

so not a child).. the trapezius and the sternocleidomastoid). and both the fibula and innominate were of relatively similar size. all were adult. 4 . both adults. characteristics of a female skeleton. Male skeletons are often have larger or wider features than their female counterparts (White and Folkens.g. The nuchal crest found on the occipital bone and the mastoid process found on the temporal bone were fairly gracile. From the characteristics of those listed in the table above. these attachment features are more robust in men. as synostosis takes place between 18 and 25 years of age. such as in the size of the acetabulum being larger in males to fit the generally greater size of a male’s femur head. as men often have larger muscles than women. The innominate had features all belonging to that of a male skeleton.ID #1288386. The size of the bones was compared to a fully articulated skeleton. Differences between males and females in the innominate can usually be attributed to childbearing in females or the pure size of bones in males versus females. The nuchal crest and the mastoid process both serve as attachment sites for muscles (e. whereas the clavicle was significantly smaller (though fused. Bag ID V  Medially fairly flat. The epiphyseal fusion of almost all the bones except the sphenooccipital synchondrosis hints that regardless of the number of bodies. 2005). most likely both sexes were represented in the bone bag. and blunt ischiopubic ramus    Straight subpubic concavity Almost vertical angle of eversion Greater size of acetabulum Estimation: ♂ All sex estimations from The Human Bone Manual (see Reference List). broad.

and size of the bones briefed in Section 4. and based on the hipbone’s characteristics. I would estimate that there were a minimum of two persons found. Based on size. signifying cartilage damage and osteoarthritis in the vertebrae. The occipital and temporal bones display generally female characteristics. vertebra. the clavicle being fully fused confines this age range to 18 to 25 years of age. sex these two bones as male. occipital. I would match the fibula and innominate together. smaller body – perhaps that of a female. and calcaneus are harder to sex and thus match. whereas the fibula and innominate are of the same size. Bag ID V 5. 5 . 2005). however. possibly belonging to a different.62m was made based off the length of the fibula using the Human Bone Manual (White and Folkens. Rationale for the Female: The clavicle is significantly smaller relative to the complete articulated skeleton. and temporal belonging to the female. 6. Rationale for the Male: The fibula and innominate. A height estimation of 1.ID #1288386. the clavicle is completely fused. Number of persons Based on the summary of the age. are of similar size relative to the model and are both fully fused. with the clavicle. and the innominate and fibula belonging to the male. sex. and though synostosis occurs between 18 and 25 years of age. The metacarpal. Miscellaneous unusual features The C7 vertebra found had osteophytes along the vertebral body. WORD COUNT: 1000. as explained above.

White.ID #1288386. J. San Diego: Academic Press. 1994. Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Scheuer. Burlington: Elsevier Academic Press. and Ubelaker. 2005. P. The Human Bone Manual. 6 . S. Developmental Juvenile Osteology. Fayetteville: Arkansas Archaeological Survey Press. Bag ID V Reference List Buikstra. and Folkens. T. and Black. D. L. 2000.

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