ACCESSION NUMBER

)

&
(CATEGORY)

P
.x *

Add res s by

Dr. George E. M u e l l e r . Associate Administrator f o r Planned Space Flight National A e r o n a u t i c s and Space Administration
Introduction to the Gemini Summary Conference Houston, T e x a s
,'

GOOD MORNIPL'G.

T H E GEMINI PROGRAIV! I S OVER.

TODAY AND

TOMORROW YOU WILL BE P R I V I L E G E D TO HEAR A REPORT SU&DI_P,RIZIPJG

THE PROGRF33 BY MANY O F THOSE TWO iM.Z-i.DE I T A SUCCESS.

IT G I V E S

ME GENUINE PLEASURE TO IPJTRODUCE THIS CONFE19ENCE WITH A FEW
REf.PL2I~R.KSOF MY OFU'N.

I TWINY\ I T S I G N I F I C A N T THAT I EACK CASE, TIIE FRESENN
'I'ATIOi\l I.\IILL BC I4ADE BY AN ACTUAL P A R T I C I P A N T WHOSE PRESEXCE

HERE PROVIUES A CROSS SECTION O F VWAT I XAVE CALLED THE
GEE.ITNI TEA2.I.

AS I S TRUE: I N ANY UNDERTAKING O F THIS MAGNITUDE,

INVOL'JING PIANY D I V E R S E O R G A N I Z A T I O N S AND L I T E R A L L Y TEOUSAMDS O F PEOPLE, A V I T A L ELEMENT O F G E M I N I ' S S U C C E S S MAY BE TRACED

TO TEPJllTORK.

I N THE P U R E S T D E F I N I T I O N O F TRE V70RD, KI-IEREIN

INDIVXDUAZ INTERESTS AXD O P I N I O N S ARE SUBORDINATE TO " T H E
UNITY AND E F F I C I E N C Y O F THE GROUP, THE G E M I N I TEAM ZAS TRULY
EXCELLED

YOU HAVE HEARD MUCH, I M SUFG3, OF GEMINI: ACHIEVEL'IEMTS 4

AND YOU WILL HEAR THEM AGAIPJ IN GREATER DEPTH DURING T H I S
CONFERETGCE.

BY WAY O F INTRODUCTION, AND TO SET THE .STAGE

1.

FOR THOSE P A P E R S THAT WILL FOLLOW, 7: WOULD L I K E TO SPEND A FEW MOMENTS A S S E S S I N G THE ACHIEVEMENTS I N THE CONTEXT

O F THE GOALS O F THE NATIONAL MANNED SPACE F L I G H T PROGFW4.
ONLY I N T H I S WAY I S I T P O S S I B L E T O EVALUATE TEfE S I G N I F I CANCE O F G E M I N I ACCOMPLISHMENTS. THE G E M I N I PROGRAPI WAS UNDERTAKEN FOR THE PURPOSE O F ADVANCING UNITED S T A T E S MANNED S P A C E F L I G H T C A P A B I L I T I E S DURING THE P E R I O D BETWEEN MERCURY AND APOLLO.
SIMPLY

STATED, G E M I N I ' S O E J E C T I V E S WERE T O CONDUCT THE DEVELOPMENT AND T E S T PROGRAN NECESSARY TO:
O F LONG DURATION SPACE P L I G H T

DEMONSTRATE THE F E A S I B I L I T Y

--

FOR AT L E A S T THAT P E R I O D

REQUIRED T O COMPLETE A LUNAR LANDING MISSION; P E R F E C T TIiE TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES FOR ACHIEVING RENDEZVOUS AXD DOCKING O F TWO SPACECRAFT I N O R B I T ; ACHIEVE P R E C I S E L Y CONTROLLED REENTRY AND LANDING C A P A B I L I T Y ; E S T A B L I S H CAPAB I L I T Y I N EXTRA-VEIIICULAR A C T I V I T Y ; ACHIEVE THE L E S S OBVIOUS, BUT NO LESS S I G N I F I C A N T , F L I G H T AND GROUND CREW P R O F I C I E N C Y I N i W N E D SPACE F L I G H T . OUR VERY SUCCESSFUL F L I G E T PROGRAM

2 HAS PROVIDED V I V I D DEMONSTRATION O F OUR ACHIEVEMENTS I4 EACH

O F THESE O B J E C T I V E AREAS.

.-

THE LONG DURATION F L I G H T O B J E C T I V E O F G E M I N I WAS
ACHIEVED W I T H THE SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION O F G E M I N I V I 1 IT? DECEMBER 1 9 6 5 . DURATION FOLLOWING THE PROGRESSIVE BUILD-UP OF FLIGHT

--

FOUR DAYS W I T H G E M I N I I V , E I G H T W I T H G E X I N I V

2.

AND FOURTEEN W I T H G E M I N I V I 1

--- WE

HAVE REMOVED ALL DOUBTS,

AND THERE WERE MANY, 0 F . T H E C A P A B I L I T Y O F OUR F L I G H T CREWS AND SPACECRAFT TO FUNCTION S A T I S F A C T O R I L Y F O R A P E R I O D EQUAL TO THAT NEEDED T O REACH THE LUNAR SURFACE A E D RETURN. FURTHER, T H I S ASPECT O F G E M I N I PROVIDES HIGH CONFIDENCE I N F L I G H T CREW A B I L I T Y TO PERFORM S A T I S F A C T O R I L Y ON MUCH LONGER M I S S I O N S . THE LONG DURATION F L I G H T S HAVE ALSO G I V E N

U S GREATER I N S I G H T I N T O AND A P P R E C I A T I O N O F THE V I T A L ROLE PLAYED BY THE ASTRONAUTS, THE VALUE O F F L E X I B I L I T Y I N M I S S I O N PLANNING AND EXECUTION, AND THE EXCELLENT C A P A B I L I T Y O F OUR MANNED S P A C E F L I G H T CONTROL SYSTEM.
AS ORIGINALLY CONCEIVED, THE G E M I N I PRGG-W.I CALLED

FOR COMPLETION O F THE LONG DURATIOfJ F L I G H T S WITH G E M I N I V I 1 AND, AS YOU KNOW, T H I S WAS ACCOMPLISHED ON SCHEDULE. ONE O F OUR MORE DRAMATIC ACHIEVEMENTS HAS BEEN THE SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPNENT O F A VARIETY O F TECENIQUES FOR THE IN-ORBIT RENDEZVOUS O F TWO MANNED SPACECRAFT. A S YOU ARE

PERHAPS AWARE,

THE PREPARATION FOR THIS MOST COMPLEX FACET

O F G E M I N I M I S S I O N S WAS MORE T I M E CONSUMING THAN ANY OTHER. THAT I T WAS PERFORMED W I T H SUCH P E R F E C T I O N I S A D I S T I N C T T R I B U T E TO THOSE 6?HO MADE I T P O S S I B L E

--

THE SPACECRAFT

AND LAUNCH VEHICLE DEVELOPERS AND BUILDERS, THE CHECKOUT AND LAUNCH TEAMS, THE F L I G H T CREWS AND T H E I R T R A I N I N G SUPPORT, THE M I S S I O f J PLAKNING AND M I S S I O N CONTROL P E O P L E

--

3.

THE G E M I N I TEALY. THE A B I L I T Y TO ACCOMPLISH A RENDEZVOUS I N SPACE I S FUNDWiENTAL TO THE SUCCESS O F APOLLO, AND, RENDEZVOUS WAS A PRIMARY M I S S I O N O B J E C T I V E ON EACH O F THE M I S S I O N S AFTER G E M I N I V I I . N I N E RENDEZVOUS WERE COMPLETED AND

SEVEN D I F F E R E N T RENDEZVOUS MODES OR TECHNIQUES WERE EMPLOYED. N I N E P I F F E R E N T DOCKINGS O F A SPACECRAFT W I T H ELEVEN D I F F E R E N T ASTRO-

A TARGET V E H I C L E WERE ACHIEVED.

NAUTS GAINED RENDEZVOUS EXPERIENCE I N T H I S MOST IMPORTANT OBJECTIVE. SEVERAL O F THE RENDEZVOUS MERE DESIGNED TO

SIMULATE SOME FACET O F AN APOLLO RENDEZVOUS REQUIREMENT. THE P R I N C I P A L FOCUS O F THE KENDEZVOUS A C T I V I T I E S WAS, HOWEVER, DESIGNED TO V E R I F Y THEORETICAL DETERDIINATIONS 'GEFIINI DEVELOPED A BROAD BASE O F

OVER A WIDE SPECTRUM.

KNO'WLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE I N O R B I T A L RENDEZVOUS AND T H I S BASE WILL PAY GENEROUS DIVIDENDS I N YEARS TO COME.

A RELATED ACCOMPLISHMENT O F SINGULAR IMPORTANCE TO
FUTURE: MANNED S P A C E F L I G H T PROGRAMS k7AS THE EXPERIENCE GAINED I N PERFORKING DOCKED MANEUVERS USING THE AGENA TARGET VEH1CLE"S PROPULSION SYSTEM. THIS IS A STRIKING

EXAMPLE O F G E M I N I ' S P I O N E E R I N G A C T I V I T I E S

--

THE: ASSEMBLY

AND MANEUVERING O F TWO O R B I T I N G SPACE V E H I C L E S . OUR F I R S T ATTEMPT AT EVA WAS SUCCESSFUL, OR S O WE THOUGHT, AND ALTHOUGH WE ENCOUNTERED D I F F I C U L T I E S WITH

4.

EVA DURING G E M I N I I X , X, AND X I , THE O B J E C T I V E WAS ACHIEVED WIT€I RESOUNDING SUCCESS ON G E M I N I X I I . THIS

I N I T S E L F I S I N D I C A T I V E O F THE G E M I N I PROGRAM I N THAT LESSONS LEARNED DURING THE F L I G H T PROGRllitl I E R E VIGOROUSLY A P P L I E D TO SUBSEQUENT M I S S I O N S . G E M I N I X I 1 WAS, BUZZ A L D R I N ' S EVA ON

INDEED, THE RESULT O F ALL WE HAD LEARNED

ON THE E A R L I E R EVA M I S S I O N S . THE F I R S T WNDEZVOUS AND DOCKING M I S S I O N , G E M I N I V I , WHILE B E I N G TEMPORARILY THWARTED BY THE TARGET VEHICLE F A I L U R E , WAS ACCOMPLISHED I N LARGE PART WITH GREAT SUCCESS DURING
THE GEMINI

vrI/vr

m s s I o N JUST

OVER A YEAR AGO.

HOW B E T T E R , ALSO, TO DEMONSTRATE THE OPERATIONAL P R O F I C I E N C Y
ACHIEVED BY THE PROGRAM. THE TERC.9 OPERATIONAL P R O F I C I E N C Y

AS A P P L I E D TO GEMINI ACHIEVEMENTS MEANS FAR MORE T H A N ' J U S T THE ACCELERATION O F PRODUCTION RATES AND COMPRESSING O F LAUNCH SCHEDULES. I N A D D I T I O N AND PERHAPS l'*IORE IMPORTANTLY,

I T MEANS THE A S I L I T Y TO FESPOND TO THE UNEXPECTED, TO PREPARE AND EXECUTE ALTERNATE AND CONTINGENCY PLANS, TO MAINTAIN F L E X I B I L I T Y WHILE NOT SLACKENING THE DRIVE TOWARD THE O B J E C T I V E . T I M E AND AGAIN GEr?lINI RESPONDED TO SUCH

A S I T U A T I O N I N A FIANNER THAT CAN ONLY BE DESCRIBED A S
OUTSTANDING. AT T H I S P O I N T I WOULD L I K E T O COMMENT B R I E F L Y ON WHAT THE G E M I N I ACCOEIPLISHMENTS MEAN I N TERMS O F VALUE TO OTHER

5.

PROGRAMS.

THERE I S ALMOST NO FACET O F GEMINI THAT DOES ASIDE

NOT CONTRIBUTE I N SOME WAY TO THE APOLLO PROGRAiY.

FROM THE ACTUAL PROOF T E S T I N G O F S'JCH ITEMS AS THE XANNED SPACE F L I G H T CONTROL CENTER, THE MANNED SPACE F L I G H T COMMUNICATIONS NET, THE DEVELOPMENT AND P E R F E C T I O N

.

O F RECOVERY TECHNIQUES, ASTRONAUT T R A I N I N G AND MANY OTHERS WHICH APPLY DIRECTLY , THE G E M I N I PR.OGRAM HAS PROVIDED U S W I T H GREAT CONFIDENCE I N OUR A B I L I T Y TO ACCOMPLISH THE APOLLO PROGRAPI O B J E C T I V E S BEFORE: THE END OF T H I S DECADE. THE APOLLO TASK I S MUCH E A S I E R

NOW DUE TO THE OUTSTANDING PERFORMANCE AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
O F THE " G E M I N I TEAM". S I M I L A R L Y , THE APOLLO A P P L I C A T I O N S PROGRAM HAS BEEN I N S P I R E D I N LARGE PART BY THE G E M I N I EXPERIMENTS PROGm'4 WHICH HAS , I B E L I E V E , SPARKED THE IMAGINATION O F THE S C I E N T I F I C COIZP.IUNITY. I N A D D I T I O N TO THE CONTRIBUTIONS

TO APOLLO HAPDWARE DEVELOPMENT WHICH PROVIDE THE B A S I S FOR AAP, k?E HAVE DISCOVERED, OR RATHER PROVED, THAT MAN I N SPACE CAN SERVE MANY EXTREMELY USEFUL AND IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS.

I RATHER D I S L I K E REFERRING TO THESE A S
I T I S MORE ACCURATE,

"TECHNOLOGICAL FALLOUT."

I T H I N K , TO

'

I D E N T I F Y THEM AS ACCOMPLISHMENTS

--

DELIBERATELY SOUGHT

AND ACHIEVED BY THE COMBINED HARD LABOR O F I A N Y THOUSANDS O F PEOPLE

--

SOME O F FJHOM WILL REVIEW T H E I R WORK W I T H YOU

6.

DURING THE NEXT TWO DAYS. THE MANNED O R B I T I N G LABORATORY PROGPAM, UNDERTAKEN BY THE DEPARTMENT O F DEFENSE FOR THE PURPOSE O F A P P L Y I N G MANNED SPACE F L I G H T TECHNOLOGY TO NATIONAL DEFENSE, MAKING S I G N I F I C A N T USE O F G E M I N I ACCONPLISHMENTS.
IS

I WOULD

LIKE TO CONSIDER T H I S AS A P A R T I A L REPAYMENT FOR THE
MARVELOUS SUPPORT THAT W I N NASA E CONTINUE T O R E C E I V E FROM THE DOD. RECEIVED AND OUR SUCCESS I S I N NO

SMALL MEASURE DUE TO THE D I R E C T P A R T I C I P A T I O N O F THE DOD I N ALL PHASES O F THE MANNED SPACE F L I G H T PROGRAM. THIS

SUPPORT HAS BEEN AND WILL CONTINUE TO R E INVALUABLE. THE COMBINED GOVEFrJMElST/I N D U S TRY/UN I V E R S I T S TEAN THAT MAKES U P THE MANNEC SPACE F L I G E T PROGRAM TOTALS ABOUT 2 4 0 , 0 0 0 PEOPLE.
' I N ADDITION,

THOUSANDS MORE ARE

EMPLOYED I N NASA UNMANNED SPACE E F F O R T S , PROGRAMS O F DOD, THE DEPARTMENT O F COMMERCE, THE ATOMIC ENERGY COPLMISSION AND OTHER AGENCIES INVOLVED I N OUR TOTAL NATIONAL SPACE ENDEAVORS. KNOWLEDGE, I T I S THESE PEOPLE

--

ACQUIRING NEW S C I E N T I F I C

DEVELOPING NEW TECHNIQUES, WORKING ON NEW

PROBLEMS, WITH GOALS EVER ENLARGED BY THE MAGNITUDE O F T H E I R TASK

--

THAT FOP14 T E E L I V I N G , GROWING C A P A R I L I T Y O F

T H I S NATION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION.

FOR THE LAST QUARTER CENTURY, T H I S NATION HAS BEEN
.

E X P E R I E N C I N G A TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION.

COOPERATIVE

7 .

E F F O R T S ON THE PART O F THE GOVERPJMENT, THE U N I V E R S I T I E S , THE S C I E N T I F I C COZ@\rlUNITY AND INDUSTRY HAS BEEN THE P R I M E MOVER. T H I S COOPERATION BAS G I V E N US TREMENDOUS CAPA-

B I L I T Y FOR TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT WHICH I S AVAILABLE AND W I L L CONTINUE TO GROW TO MEET NATIONAL XEQUIREMENTS O F THE FUTURE. THE INFLUENCE O F OUR TECH-

NOLOGICAL PROGRESS AND PROWESS I S AND HAS BEEN A D E C I D I N G FACTOR I N K E E P I N G THE PEACE. MAKE NO MISTAKE

--

PRE-EMINENCE

I N THIS F I E L D I S AN IMPORTANT INSTRUMENT I N INTERNATIONAL

RELATIONS, AND VITALLY INFLUENCES OUR DEALINGS WITH OTHER NATIONS INVOLVING PEACE AND FREEDOM I N THE WORLD. WE CAN

NEXTIlER WISH AWAY NOR AFFORD TO IGNORE P O L I T I C A L R E A L I T I E S
'

WHICH -MAKE THE C A P A B I L I T Y TO EXPLORE SPACE A MATTER O F S T R A T E G I C IMPORTANCE AS WELL AS A CHALLENGE TO MAN'S S C I E N T I F I C AND ENGINEERING INGENUITY. WE CAN NO MORE

AFFORD T O FALTER I N SPACE THAN WE CAN I N ANY EARTHLY P U R S U I T I N WHICH THE S E C U R I T Y AND FUTURE O F OUR NATION A N D THE WORLD DEPEND. THE S P A C E EFFORT I S REALLY A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMEKT COMPETITION

--

A COMPETITION FOR TECHNOLOGICAL PRE-EMINENCE

WHICH BOTH DEMANDS AND CREATES THE QUEST FOR EXCELLENCE. THE MERCURY PROGRAM WHICH L A I D THE GROUND WORK FOR G E M I N I AND THE REST O F T H I S N A T I O N ' S MANNED SPACE F L I G H T A C T I V I T Y APPEARS AT T H I S P O I N T RELATIVELY MODEST. HOWEVER,

8.

I T S ACCOMPLISHMENTS A T THE TIME. WE=

AS S I G N I F I C A N T TO

NATIONAL O B J E C T I V E S AS THOSE O F G E M I N I ARE TODAY AND THOSE THAT ARE PLANNED FOR APOLLO I N THE YEARS AHEAD. THAT T H E S E P R O G W i S HAVE BEEN AND W I L L 3 E CONDUCTED

I N COMPLETE OPENNESS WITH AN INTERNATIONAL, REAL-TIME
AUDIENCE MAKES THEM ALL THE MORE E F F E C T I V E . THE DEGREE

O F P E R F E C T I O N ACHIEVED I S EVEN MORE MEANINGFUL I-IAVING
BEEN ACHIEVED I N T H I S ENVIRONMENT. I T IS A DISTINCT EACH

HONOR &ID P R I V I L E G E TO BE A PART O F T H I S REPORT.

PERSON INVOLVED CAN TAKE RICHLY DESERVED P R I D E I N WHAT HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED, FOUNDATION, WE MUST NOW, USING T H I S A S ' A
TIlE AMERICAN P U E L I C

CONTINUE TO ADVANCE.

WILL NOT PER.lIT OTHERWISE NOT PERMIT OTHERWISE. THANK YOU.

--

OR BETTER YET, HISTORY WILL

9.

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