Front and Center

Mainstreaming Gender in Climate Change Responses

Irish-fe N. Aguilar Social Development Officer (GAD) Poverty Reduction, Gender, and Social Development
The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Overview of Training Course
• Organized by International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and Gender Works • 19-30 March 2012, Siem Reap • Modules 1 & 2: Understanding Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation, and Gender Issues and Climate Change • Module 3: Field work to 2 project areas

This way to….

Ampil Peam Village, (Agricultural Community) Manifestation of CC: Increase in occurrence and level of floods Effect: Loss of crops (source of income and food) and shelter, limits resources, and increase illness

Kampong Pluk Commune (Fishing Community) Manifestation of CC: Extended Dry Season Effect: Less fish (less income), limits mobility (access to basic services – clinics/schools)

Gender Roles in the Community
Agricultural Community Reproductive

Women Child care and housework, vegetable garden
? (reduce dependency on firewood and chemical fertilizer)

Gather/chop firewood for cooking
Agricultural activities ? (reduce dependency on firewood and chemical fertilizer)

Productive Environmental*

Fishing Community Reproductive
Productive Environmental*

Shared childcare and housework
Catch and sell fish Protect mangroves

Shared childcare and housework
Catch and sell fish Protect mangroves

Effects of CC on Gender Roles
Men Women
Farming Community: Floods - Loss of crops (loss of income and source of food, limits resources, increase illness in family)
Coping Strategy Look for other source of income (e.g. tuktuk driver) (includes out-migration)

Limited resources directed to buying food, medicine etc. ; Take on farm responsibilities left by men; Increase work burden
Farmer field school for women: agricultural and non-agricultural skills (emphasis on the use of organic fertilizer)

Project intervention in the community

Fishing Community: Less fish (loss of income and source of food) Coping Strategy Fish longer and farther and find other source of income (includes out-migration) Increase work burden: childcare and housework plus other income-generating activity (sell labor) Women paid to pick up garbage

Project intervention in the community

Lessons from the field: 1. CC is likely to exacerbate the existing gender disparity in the community. 2. Gender analysis is important in any intervention.

So why put women front and center?
• Severely affected but limited coping ability. • They are part of the solution. • It can be an opportunity to empower women. • International instruments mandate: equal treatment , secure fair and equitable. distribution of benefits, ensure women’s participation in decision-making.

Opportunities for Gender Responsive Strategies in CC
• Mitigation – participation of women in REDD negotiations; role of women in management of local resources; and consumption of energy. • Adaptation – use of gender-sensitive tools (CRiSTAL, CVCA); translating successful measures in policies.

Opportunities for Gender Responsive Strategies in CC
• Technology Development – access to “soft” (e.g. insurance schemes) and “hard” (e.g. irrigation systems, seeds, etc)
• Financing – ensure access to funds and NAPA; include sexdisaggregated indicators and conduct gender impact assessment of adaptation and mitigation strategies.

Opportunities for ADB: GM in CC
Projects – climate-proofing livelihoods and access to basic services Policy – highlight gender dimensions of CC in national instruments through projects and TAs involving policy support (NAPA) Capacity Development – build gender mainstreaming capacity of line agencies to complement National Women’s Machineries Knowledge Products – develop gender responsive measures to address CC

Thank you.

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