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Transformer maintenance: To protect transformer from failures the following preventive maintenance shall be conducted in transformers and its

protective devices. Periodic maintenance like dust clearance, oil change if required, silica gel replacements to be done for prolonged life. Circuit breakers/Fuses on MV and LV sides should be in good working condition. Stain removers shall be used to keep contacts intact. All phases should have balanced current. Incoming voltage to the transformer to be checked and kept at optimum level by adjusting voltage from source. During winter the tap changers shall be kept at lower level to avoid humming of transformers Any loose connections should be attended immediately as this may cause fire in long run. In solid grounded system the MV fuses will blow when there is earth fault in the transformer. Whereas if the source has resistance grounded system then the fuses normally wont blow as the fault current with the time characteristic may not be enough to blow the fuses.This will cause the feeder to trip and the identifying the fault will be a difficult task.Hence fuses with proper current time characteristics to be selected so that the fuses/breakers will open. Sometimes for a fault in LV side MV side fuses will blow as the MV/LV fuses are not properly coordinated. Normally fuses are meant for short circuit currents and not for over current. While transporting a transformer due to the shaking of transformer gas may be formed inside the tank and the transformer may fail when energized. Hence pressure valve should be released before energization. After energization of a new transformer it should be run under no load for few hours to check its performance then it shall be loaded. Basic insulation level(BIL) shall be selected at a higher level in lightning prone areas. The MV/LV cable on the bushings should not be heavy on the bushings and damage the bushing in the long run.Proper support to hold the cables should be provided so that the weight of the cable is not transferred onto the bushing. If motors connected with direct online starters are connected to a transformer, proper diversity factor should be considered as the starting current shall exceed 4 times the running current.