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VSRD-MAP, Vol. 2 (1), 2012, 9-16

RESEARCH ARTICLE RESEARCH ARTICLE

Comparison of Performance of Two Leaf Spring Steels Used For Light Passenger Vehicle
1

Dakshraj Kothari*, 2Rajendra Prasad Sahu and 3Rajesh Satankar

ABSTRACT
This paper describes static and fatigue life analysis of to conventional leaf springs made of respectively SUP 9 & EN 45. These springs are comparing for maximum stress, deflection and stiffness as well as fatigue life. The CAD models are prepared in CATIA and analyzed by using ANSYS 12.1. Computer algorithm using C++ language has been used in calculating maximum stress, deflection and stiffness. Calculated results are comparing with FEA result. SUP 9 springs has lower value of maximum stress, deflection and stiffness in compare to EN45 spring. Predicted fatigue life of SUP 9 spring is higher than EN45 spring. Although, market price is much lower than Sup 9 spring. Keywords: Fatigue Life, C++ Language, leaf Spring, Static Analysis.

1. INTRODUCTION
In order to conserve natural resources and economic, energy, weight reduction has been the main focus of automobile manufactures. In the present scenario weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction on better material. Design specialization and better manufacturing process.[1] Leaf spring should absorb vertical vibration and impacts due to load irregularities by means of variation in the spring deflection show that potential energy is stored in spring as strain energy and then release slowly so, increasing energy stored capability of a leaf spring insure a more complaint suspension system.[2] The large vehicle needs a good suspension system that can be delivered a good ride and handling. At the same time that component need to be light weight and had an excellent of fatigue life.[3, 4] Most of researches focused on improving fatigue resistance by shoot penning process, making the nucleation
____________________________ 1,2

Research Scholar, 3Assistant Professor, 1,2,3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jabalpur Engineering College, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA. *Correspondence : dask.kothari6@gmail.com

Dakshraj Kothari et al / VSRD International Journal of Mechanical, Auto. & Prod. Engg. Vol. 2 (1), 2012

and propagation of fatigue cracks difficult. Few publication, which are listed in references attempted predictions of fatigue life from stress approach model.[5] The fatigue durability testing of the mechanical structure is performed extensively in all industries as one of the part in design process. In the real application, the fatigue loading services such as stresses on a car wheel, bending moment on stub axle of a car, stresses on rear axle passenger car etc.[6]
Flowchart of computer algorithm for design of leaf spring
Start

Input c1, c2, P, L, T, W, E, n

a =[max]/(Factor of safty)

=[(6PL)/(nWT2 )

a >=

max =(C2PL3)/ (EWT3)

=PL3 /(3EI)

max >=

K=P/
Stop

2. MATERIALS
The materials SUP 9 steel (equal grade5160 steel) behavior characteristics related to spring performance are first determined. The effect of component processing on these characteristics is then documented followed by a demonstration of the application of these concepts to component fatigue life. Of particulars concern in fatigue problems is the tendency for material properties to change as a result of cyclic deformation. These circumstances require the determinations cyclic stress strain relation for fatigue analysis.[7] Many industries are manufactured steel leaf spring by EN 45 material; these materials are widely used for production of parabolic leaf spring and conventional multi leaf spring. Leaf spring absorbed the vertical vibrations, shocks and bumps loads (induced due to road irregularities) by means of spring deflection, so that the potential energy stored in the leaf spring and then relieved slowly[8]. Ability to store and absorb more amount of strain energy insures the comfortable suspension system.

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Dakshraj Kothari et al / VSRD International Journal of Mechanical, Auto. & Prod. Engg. Vol. 2 (1), 2012

3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (11)


SUP 9 Materials %C 0.50/0.60 %Si 0.15/0.35 % Mn 0.65/0.95 %S&P 0.035 %Cr 0.65/0.95

EN 45 Materials %C 0.50/0.60 %Si 1.50/2.00 %Mn 0.70/1.00 %S 0.050 %P 0.050

Design Parameter Of Steel Leaf Spring : Two leaf steel spring use in this work includes : total length (eye to eye) ,990 mm; arc height of axle seat (camber), 127 mm; width of leaves, 50.8mm (SUP9 material) & 50mm (EN 45 material); thickness of leaves 10mm, full bump loading 3250 N. even though the leaf spring is simply supported at the end. Stress Analysis Of Steel Leaf Spring Using Analytical and FEA Parameters Load, N Maximum stress (Mpa) Maximum deflection, (mm) Maximum stiffness, (N/mm) Analytical SUP 9 EN 45 3250 3250 950 960 116.53 116.49 27.88 27.90 FEA SUP 9 3250 915 121 26.85 EN 45 3250 1004 127.01 25.58

4. CAD MODELING
CAD Modeling any project is one of the most time consuming process. This model drawing can not shoot directly from the sketch finite element model. Finite element software will consider shape, whatever is made in CAD model the model of multi leaf spring structures also includes many complicated parts, which are difficult to make by any of other CAD modeling as well as finite element software. The complete leaf spring structure performed by using CATIA V5R16 model of leaf spring consists of total three parts which are assembled together in an assembly design to make a complete spring model.
3250 3000 2750 2500 2250

Load(N)

2000 1750 1500 1250 1000 750 500 250 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Sup9 material En45 material (analytical method)

Deflection(mm)

Fig. 1 : Load Deflection Curve for SUP 9 Materials and EN 45 Materials (Analytically Method)

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Dakshraj Kothari et al / VSRD International Journal of Mechanical, Auto. & Prod. Engg. Vol. 2 (1), 2012

950 Sup9 material 855 760 En45 material (analytical method)

Stress MPa

665 570 475 380 285 190 95 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Spring Length(mm)

Fig. 2 : Variation of Stress of SUPS 9 Material And EN 45 Material (Analytical Method)


1045 950 855 760 En45 material FEM En45 material Anlytical

Stress MPa

665 570 475 380 285 190 95 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Spring Length(mm)

Fig. 3 : EN 45 Material Comparison of Two Methods (FEA & Analytical)

950 855 760 Sup9 material Analytical Sup9 material FEA

Stress MPa

665 570 475 380 285 190 95 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Spring Length(mm)

Fig. 4 : SUP9 Material Comparisons of Two Methods (FEA & Analytical)

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Dakshraj Kothari et al / VSRD International Journal of Mechanical, Auto. & Prod. Engg. Vol. 2 (1), 2012

The Material Properties of SUP 9 steel Properties Ultimate tensile strength, Su (Mpa) Modulus of elasticity, E (Gpa) Fatigue strength coefficient, f (Mpa) Fatigue strength exponent, b Fatigue ductility coeffient ,f Fatigue ductility exponent,c 1537 207 2063 -0.08 9.56 -1.05

The Material Properties of EN 45 steel Properties Ultimate tensile strength, Su (Mpa) Modulus of elasticity, E (Gpa) Fatigue strength coefficient, f (Mpa) Fatigue strength exponent, b Fatigue ductility coeffient ,f Fatigue ductility exponent,c 621 204 948 -0.092 0.26 -0.445

5. FATIGUE LIFE
The main factors that contribute fatigue failure include number of load cycles analytically, range of stress and mean stress experiments in each load cycle and presence of local stress concentration. Testing of leaf spring using the regular procedure consumes a lot of time. Hence SAE [9] suggests a procedure for accelerated which give quick result, particularly for steel leaf spring. The result of the accelerated tests can be extra plotted to get the actual fatigue life under normal fatigue life conditions. Following the procedure out lined by the references
[9, 10]

6. ANALYSIS USING ANSYS


The CAD model of leaf spring now imported into ANSYS 12.1 the boundary conditions and material properties are specified as for the standards used in the practical application. The material used for the leaf spring for analysis is structure steel, which have approximately similar isotropic behavior and properties as compared to SUP 9 and EN 45.

7. BOUNDARY CONDITION
Model of parabolic spring was partition into small region for easier mashing process method is used patch conforming method the boundary condition was set according to rear static load which is the front eye was allowing on a rotational at y axis and rear eye was constrained in y and z translation and x and z rotations alloying free x translation and y rotation. Contact from main to helper leaf also been defined helper leaf was constant 2nd degree of freedom to represent the clip that holds that to spring together. Finally vertical load was applied at the center of the leaf spring.

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Dakshraj Kothari et al / VSRD International Journal of Mechanical, Auto. & Prod. Engg. Vol. 2 (1), 2012

SUP 9

EN 45

SUP 9

EN 45

FATIGUE LIFE

EN 45

8. CONCLUSION
These work involves and comparison of conventional SUP9 and EN45 material leaf spring under static loading conditions the model is preferred of in CATIA and then analysis is perform through computer programming in C++and ANSYS 12.1 from the result obtained it will be concluded that. 1. Variation of 3.82% is observed in maximum stress among analytical and FEA values for SUP9 material. 2. Variation of 4.38% is observed in maximum stress among analytical and FEA values for EN45 material.

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Dakshraj Kothari et al / VSRD International Journal of Mechanical, Auto. & Prod. Engg. Vol. 2 (1), 2012

3.

Variation of 3.69% is observed in maximum deflection among analytical and FEA values for SUP9 material.

4.

Variation of 8.28% is observed in maximum deflection among analytical and FEA values for EN45 material.

5.

Similarly variation of 3.83% is observed in maximum stiffness among analytical and FEA values for SUP9 material.

6.

Similarly variation of 9.06% is observed in maximum stiffness among analytical and FEA values for EN45 material.

7.

It is found that value of maximum stress, maximum deflection, and stiffness are higher for EN45 material leaf spring comparison to SUP9 material leaf spring.

8.

As for as compare to economically leaf spring EN45 material are better than SUP9 material.

9. FUTURE SCOPE
(a) (b) (c) Experimental work. Harmonic analysis with finding and compression of first five natural frequencies. Variable amplitude load.

10. REFERENCES
[1] Gulur Siddaramanna Shiva Shankar, Sambagam Vijayarangan Mono Composite leaf spring for Light Weight Vehicle Design, End Joint Analysis and Testing Journal-ISSN 1392-1320 MATERIAL SCIENCE(MEDZIAGOTYRA) Vol12. NO 3 2006 [2] M Senthil Kumar And Vijayarangan Static analysis and fatigue life prediction of steel and composite leaf spring for light passenger vehicles Journal of scientific and Industries Research vol 66,February 2007,pp 128-134 [3] F.N.Ahmad Refngah,S.Abdullah,and A Jalar ,L.B.,Chua Life Assessment of a parabolic Spring Under Cyclic Strain Loading European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.28 No.3 (2009), pp.351-363 [4] M Senthil Kumar ,S Vijayarangan Analytical and Experimental Studies on Fatigue Life Prediction of Steel and Composite Multi-leaf Spring for Light Passenger Vehicles Using Life Data Analysis JournalISSN 1392-1320 MATERIALS SCIENCE (MEDZIAGOTYRA) Vol.13, No. 2.2007 [5] M.L Aggarwal V.P.Agrawal, R.A.Khan A stress approach model for predictions of fatigue life by shot penning of EN45A spring steel .International Journal of Fatigue 28 (2006) 18451853 [6] S.Abdullah,C.K.E.Niz Wan and M.Z.Nuaw A Study of Fatigue Data Editing using the Short-Time Fourier Transform(STFT) Journal-American Journal of applied Sciences 6(4):565-575,2009 ISSN 1546-9239 [7] R. W. Landgraf and R. C. Francis, Material and Processing Effects on Fatigue Performance of Leaf Springs. Congress and Exposition Cobo Hall, Detroit February 26-March 2, 1979

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Dakshraj Kothari et al / VSRD International Journal of Mechanical, Auto. & Prod. Engg. Vol. 2 (1), 2012

[8] M. M. Patunkar1, D. R. Dolas2 Modelling and Analysis of Composite Leaf Spring under the Static Load Condition by using FEA International Journal of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Volume 1 Issue 12011 [9] Design and application of leaf spring, in Spring Design Manual, HS- 778, AE-11 (Society of Automotive Engineer) 1990. [10] ANSYS 7.1 (ANSYS Inc, New York) 1997. [11] British & Japanese standard specifications steel hand book.

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