# Mathematics

Kolej Yayasan Melaka
Mathematics – Revision Chapter 1: Approximation and Errors
Student Name: _________________________ Student ID: _______________________ Class: F.4 Date: 1/29/2009

Part 1: Multiple choice Questions
1 Round off 60 750 correct to 2 significant figures. A. B. C. D. 2 61 60 800 60 700 61 000

Round off 0.003 009 68 correct to 3 significant figures. A. B. C. D. 0.003 0.003 00 0.003 01 0.003 010

3

Round off 0.000 618 453 correct to 4 significant figures. A. B. C. D. 0.001 0.000 6 0.000 618 5 0.618 4

4

How many significant figures are there in 700.00? A. B. C. D. 1 2 3 5

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5 How many significant figures are there in 68 000? A. B. C. D. 6 2 4 5 Cannot be determined.

How many ‘0’s are significant figures in 0.005 017 0? A. B. C. D. 1 2 3 4

7

In the following, whose number of significant figures is different from the others? A. B. C. D. 0.004 08 0.048 0 0.48 4.08

8

The most significant figure in 3.072 9 is A. B. C. D. 0. 2. 3. 7.

9

240.000 53 is rounded off to 240.000 whose number of significant figures is A. B. C. D. 2. 3. 4. 5.

10

When rounding off 81 729.65, which of the following cannot be an answer? A. B. C. D. 81 730 81 730 81 730 81 730 (cor. to 1 d. p.) (cor. to the nearest ten) (cor. to 4 sig. fig.) (cor. to 5 sig. fig.)

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11

410 300 000 = A. B. C. D. 4.103 × 105 4.1 × 108 4.103 × 108 4.103 × 109

12

0.000 003 75 = A. B. C. D. 3.75 × 106 3.75 × 108 3.75 × 10−5 3.75 × 10−6

13

7.068 × 106 = A. B. C. D. 424.08 7 068 000 70 680 000 7 068 000 000

14

1.302 × 10−5 = A. B. C. D. −130 200 0.130 20 0.000 013 02 0.000 001 302

15

If the weight of Vincent is 63.0 kg (correct to the nearest 0.1 kg), the range of his actual weight is A. B. C. D. 62.99 kg to 63.01 kg. 62.95 kg to 63.05 kg. 62.9 kg to 63.1 kg. 62.5 kg to 63.5 kg.

16

The length of a line segment is 20.8 m. Which of the following is the range of its actual length? A. B. C. 20.75 cm − 20.85 cm 20.755 cm − 20.855 cm 20.79 cm − 20.81 cm

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D. 17 20.795 cm − 20.805 cm

The weight of a rock is 56.0 g. Find the maximum absolute error. A. B. C. D. 0.05 g 0.1 g 0.25 g 0.5 g

18

The weight of a pill is 0.56 g (correct to the nearest 0.01 g). Find the maximum absolute error. 1 A. 112 1 B. 56 25 C. % 28 11 D. 1 % 14 There is 3.2 L (correct to the nearest 0.1 L) of petrol in a bottle. Find the maximum percentage error. A. B. C. D. 1.562 5 % 0.05 L 1 64 1.6 %

19

20

Calculate 17.36 + 31.71 and round off the result correct to 3 significant figures. A. B. C. D. 49.0 49.07 49.1 50.0

21

Calculate 2.05 × 0.010 6 and round off the result correct to 2 significant figures. A. B. C. D. 0.02 0.021 0.022 0.023

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22

Round off each of the numbers in the following expression correct to 3 significant figures and then find the answer. 6.544 9 − 3.995 3 = 0.012 66 A. B. C. D. 200 201 212.5 254

23

Which of the following measurements is the most accurate? A. B. C. D. 0.022 000 0 km 22.000 m 2 200.0 cm 22 000 mm

24

0.004 852 × 1013 = A. B. C. D. 48 520 000 000 4 852 000 000 485 200 000 48 520 000

25

5.37 × 105 − 6.8 × 103 = A. B. C. D. 5.3 × 105 5.32 × 105 5.302 × 105 5.302 × 103

26

3.437 × 106 + 2.43 × 107 = A. B. C. D. 2.773 7 × 106 3.68 × 106 2.773 7 × 107 3.68 × 107

27

( 3.34 × 10−6 ) × ( 5.6 × 103 ) =

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A. B. C. D. 28 1.870 4 × 10−4 1.870 4 × 10−3 1.870 4× 10−2 1.870 4 × 10−1

( 8.96 × 10−6 ) ÷ ( 2.8 × 10−2 ) = A. B. C. D. 3.2 × 10−8 3.2 × 10−4 3.2 × 10−3 3.2 × 103

29

The length of a side of a square is measured to be 3 cm (correct to the nearest cm). What is the maximum possible area of the square? A. B. C. D. 9 cm2 9.302 5 cm2 9.61 cm2 12.25 cm2

30

A student uses a ruler with a scale in 1 mm to measure the length of a pen. If the percentage error is 1%, how long is the pen? A. B. C. D. 0.005 mm 0.01 mm 50 mm 100 mm

31

The speed of light is about 18 000 000 000 m/min. How far can light run in 1 hour 23 minutes 32 seconds? A. B. C. D. 1.503 6 × 1011 m 8.556 × 1011 m 1.503 6 × 1012 m 9.021 6 × 1013 m

End

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1 D

2

C

3

C

4

D

5

D

6

B

7

C

8

C

9

D

10

A

11

C

12

D

13

B

14

C

15

B

16

A

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17

A

18

A

19

A

20

C

21

C

22

A

23

A

24

A

25

C

26

C

27

C

28

B

29

D

30

C

31

C

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Part 2: Conventional Questions
1 Round off the following numbers correct to 4 significant figures. (a) (b) (c) 2 328 569 417 038 25 702

Round off the following numbers correct to 3 significant figures. (a) (b) (c) 729.384 63.521 8.409

3

Round off the following numbers correct to 2 significant figures. (a) (b) (c) 0.135 7 7.464 6 0.803 3

4

Round off the following numbers correct to 3 significant figures. (a) (b) (c) 12.725 49 0.010 304 8.425 63

5

Round off the following numbers correct to 4 significant figures. (a) (b) (c) 250 714 9.080 7 0.004 069 8

6

Round off 3 446.193 7 correct to (a) (b) (c) the nearest integer, 3 d.p., 5 sig. fig.

7

State the number of significant figures in each of the following numbers. (a) (b) (c) 0.003 9 0.003 06 7.040 5

8

State the number of significant figures in each of the following numbers.

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(a) (b) (c) 9 28.000 0.000 306 000 497 200 (cor. to the nearest hundred)

Compete the following table. Number 3.458 49 0.400 4 Correct to 1 sig. fig. Correct to 2 sig. fig. Correct to 3 sig. fig.

10

Express the following in scientific notation. (a) (b) (c) 13 000 8 634 000 706 010 000

11

Express the following in scientific notation. (a) (b) (c) 0.012 3 0.000 013 45 0.000 140

12

Express the following in integers or decimals. (a) (b) (c) 2.43 × 105 7.601 × 10−3 4.080 × 10−2

13

The number of registered voters in a district is 73 569. Round off this figure correct to (a) (b) 3 sig. fig., 4 sig. fig.

14

The weight of a gold coin is 4.805 g. Round off this figure correct to (a) (b) 1 sig. fig., 3 sig. fig.

15

The melting point of iron is 1 535°C. Round off this figure correct to (a) (b) 2 sig. fig., 3 sig. fig.

16

Express each of the following fractions as a decimal number correct to 2 significant figures.

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1 8 22 7 22 as a decimal number correct to 7

(a) (b)

17

Express (a) (b)

4 sig. fig., 7 sig. fig.

18

Calculate the following expressions and round off the answers correct to 2 significant figures. (a) (b) 113 ÷ [4.8 × (5 + 19) − 113.2] 0.025 + 9.85 − 6.89 + 12.4

19

Calculate the following expressions and round off the answers correct to 2 significant figures. 1 4 8 (a) (1 − ) × ÷ 16 45 9 24 5 7 (b) ×( + ) 41 9 12 The capacity of a cup is 250.4 cm3. (a) (b) Round off this figure correct to 3 significant figures. 1 The water in the cup occupies of the capacity. Find the volume of water correct to 2 3 significant figures.

20

21

Two copper rods are 13.96 cm and 29.17 cm long. Now join them together. Find the length of the new copper rod correct to (a) (b) the nearest cm, 3 sig. fig.

22

Simplify the following and express the results in scientific notation. (a) (b) (3 × 105) × (6.28 × 103) (4.2 × 10−3) ÷ (2.1 × 10−5)

23

Simplify the following and express the results in scientific notation. (a) (b) (9.9 × 107) ÷ (1.1 × 104) 2.52 × 10−5 − 7.8 × 10−6

24

Simplify the following and express the results in scientific notation.

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(a) (b) 25 6.4 × 1010 − 2.73 × 108 8 × 10−4 + 5.2 × 10−5

True and false Determine whether each of the following statements is true (T) or false (F). Absolute error (a) Relative error = ( ) True error (b) (c) (d) Percentage error = Relative error × 100% The maximum absolute error of 26.4 kg is 0.05 kg. The percentage error is always less than 100%. ( ( ( ) ) )

26

The weight of a boy is 40 kg. If the maximum percentage error is 5%, find the maximum absolute error.

27

Mandy estimates that she can get 81 marks in her Chinese test. The actual result she gets is 3 marks higher than her estimation. Find the relative error of her estimation.

28

Dick estimates that there are 42 fish in an aquarium. After counting, he finds that there are 48 fish. Find the percentage error of Dick.

29

The weight of a piece of meat is measured to be 890 g (correct to the nearest 10 g). Find the maximum percentage error correct to 2 significant figures.

30

The radius of the Sun is about 696 000 000 m. Suppose the Sun is a sphere. Find its surface area. (Give the answer correct to 3 sig. fig. and express it in scientific notation.)

31

The weight of an orange is 200 g (correct to the nearest 10 g). Find (a) (b) (c) the maximum absolute error, the maximum relative error, the maximum percentage error.

32

The exchange rate of Australian dollar to Hong Kong dollar is A\$1 = HK\$5.238. (a) (b) If John imports some wool which costs A\$3 000, how much Hong Kong dollars should he pay for the wool? How much Australian dollars can HK\$1 be changed to? (Give the answers correct to 3 sig. fig.)

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33 In a trip, Michael rides 1 200 m in 35 minutes and then walks 1 200 m in 50 minutes. On the average, (a) (b) how far does he go in an hour? how far does he go in a minute?

(Give the answers correct to 4 sig. fig.) 34 Find the sizes of (a) (b) an exterior angle, an interior angle

of a regular 11-sided polygon. (Give the answers correct to 3 sig. fig.) 35 Four interior angles of a pentagon are 106.57°, 81.20°, 98.77° and 122.64°. Find the fifth interior angle correct to (a) (b) (c) 36 1 d.p., the nearest degree, 2 sig. fig.

Let p = 57 000 000 and q = 2 000 000. Express the following in scientific notation. (a) (b) (c) p and q, pq, p + q. Convert 109 hours to days and round off the result correct to the nearest day. If Mike told his teacher that he spent 5 days (correct to the nearest day) on studying last month, (i) (ii) how many hours at least did Mike study last month? how many hours at most did Mike study last month?

37

(a) (b)

38

The populations of Hong Kong in 1990 and 1991 were 5 704 500 and 5 754 700 respectively. Suppose the percentage change in the population of Hong Kong remains unchanged each year. (a) (b) (c) Find the percentage increase in the population of Hong Kong from 1990 to 1991. Calculate the population of Hong Kong in each of the years 1988 to 1998. (Give the answers correct to the nearest integer.) The population of Hong Kong was 5 709 812 in 1996. Find the percentage error in the

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population of Hong Kong in 1996 found in (b). (Give the answer correct to 2 sig. fig.) 39 The length and the width of a rectangle are measured to be 3.9 cm and 4.4 cm respectively. If the actual dimensions are 4 cm × 4.5 cm, find the percentage errors of the following. (a) (b) (c) 40 The width The length The area

John uses a ruler to measure a parallelogram with base 28 cm and height 12 cm. The base and height measured by him are 30 cm and 10 cm respectively. (a) (b) (c) Find the absolute error of the base. Find the relative error of the height. John uses his measurements to calculate the area of the parallelogram. Find the percentage error of the area correct to 3 sig. fig.

41

A bottle with a capacity of 720 mL (correct to 2 sig. fig.) is filled with orange juice. (a) (b) How many small glasses with a capacity of 55 mL (correct to the nearest mL) can be filled at most? How many large glasses with a capacity of 100 mL (correct to the nearest 10 mL) can be filled at least?

End

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1
(a) (b) (c) 328 569 = 328 600 417 038 = 417 000 25 702 = 25 700 (cor. to 4 sig. fig.) (cor. to 4 sig. fig.) (cor. to 4 sig. fig.)

2

(a) (b) (c)

729.384 = 729 63.521 = 63.5 8.409 = 8.41

(cor. to 3 sig. fig.) (cor. to 3 sig. fig.) (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

3

(a) (b) (c)

0.135 7 = 0.14 7.464 6 = 7.5 0.803 3 = 0.80

(cor. to 2 sig. fig.) (cor. to 2 sig. fig.) (cor. to 2 sig. fig.)

4

(a) (b) (c)

12.725 49 = 12.7 0.010 304 = 0.010 3 8.425 63 = 8.43

(cor. to 3 sig. fig.) (cor. to 3 sig. fig.) (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

5

(a) (b) (c)

250 714 = 250 700 9.080 7 = 9.081 0.004 069 8 = 0.004 070

(cor. to 4 sig. fig.) (cor. to 4 sig. fig.) (cor. to 4 sig. fig.)

6

(a) (b) (c)

3 446.193 7 = 3 446 3 446.193 7 = 3 446.194 3 446.193 7 = 3 446.2

(cor. to the nearest integer) (cor. to 3 d.p.) (cor. to 5 sig. fig.)

7

(a) (b) (c)

There are 2 sig. fig. in 0.003 9. There are 3 sig. fig. in 0.003 06. There are 5 sig. fig. in 7.040 5.

8

(a) (b) (c)

There are 5 sig. fig. in 28.000. There are 6 sig. fig. in 0.003 306 000. There are 4 sig. fig. in 497 200 (cor. to the nearest hundred).

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Mathematics 9

Number 3.458 49 0.400 4

Correct to 1 sig. fig. 3 0.4

Correct to 2 sig. fig. 3.5 0.40

Correct to 3 sig. fig. 3.46 0.400

10

(a) (b) (c)

13 000 = 1.3 × 104 8 634 000 = 8.634 × 106 706 010 000 = 7.060 1 × 108 0.012 3 = 1.23 × 10−2 0.000 013 45 = 1.345 × 10−5 0.000 140 = 1.40 × 10−4 2.43 × 105 = 243 000 7.601 × 10−3 = 0.007 601 4.080 × 10−2 = 0.040 80

11

(a) (b) (c)

12

(a) (b) (c)

13

(a)

The number of registered voters = 73 569 = 73 600 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(b)

The number of registered voters = 73 569 = 73 570 (cor. to 4 sig. fig.)

14

(a)

Weight of the gold coin = 4.805 g = 5 g (cor. to 1 sig. fig.)

(b)

Weight of the gold coin = 4.805 g = 4.81 g (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

15

(a)

Melting point of iron = 1 535°C = 1 500°C (cor. to 2 sig. fig.)

(b)

Melting point of iron = 1 535°C = 1 540°C (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

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(a) 1 = 0.125 8 = 0.13 (cor. to 2 sig. fig.) 22 = 3.142 8… 7 = 3.14 (cor. to 2 sig. fig.)

(b)

17

(a) (b)

22 = 3.143 (cor. to 4 sig. fig.) 7 22 = 3.142 857 (cor. to 7 sig. fig.) 7

18

(a)

113 ÷ [4.8 × (5 + 19) − 113.2] = 56.5 = 57 (cor. to 2 sig. fig.)

(b)

0.025 + 9.85 − 6.89 + 12.4 = 15.385 = 15 (cor. to 2 sig. fig.)

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(a)

(b)

1 4 8 (1 − ) × ÷ = 0.093 75 45 9 16 = 0.094 (cor. to 2 sig. fig.) 24 5 7 ) = 0.666 6… ×( + 41 9 12 = 0.67 (cor. to 2 sig. fig.)

20

(a)

Capacity of the cup = 250.4 cm3 = 250 cm3 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.) 1 Volume of water = 250.4 × cm3 3 = 83.466… cm3 = 83 cm3 (cor. to 2 sig. fig.)

(b)

21

(a)

Length of the new copper rod = (13.96 + 29.17) cm = 43.13 cm = 43 cm (cor. to the nearest cm)

(b)

Length of the new copper rod = 43.13 cm = 43.1 cm (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

22

(a) (b)

(3 × 105) × (6.28 × 103) = 1.884 × 109 (4.2 × 10−3) ÷ (2.1 × 10−5) = 2 × 102

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(a) (b) (9.9 × 107) ÷ (1.1 × 104) = 9 × 103 2.52 × 10−5 − 7.8 × 10−6 = 1.74 × 10−5 6.4 × 1010 − 2.73 × 108 = 6.372 7 × 1010 8 × 10−4 + 5.2 × 10−5 = 8.52 × 10−4

24

(a) (b)

25

(a) (b) (c) (d)

T T T F Maximum absolute error 100% = 5% × 40 kg

26

Maximum absolute error = 2 kg
3 1 = 81 27 6 × 100% 48

27 28

Relative error =

Percentage error =

= 12.5%

29

Maximum percentage error =

5 × 100% 890

= 0.56%

30

Surface area = 4π × (6.96 × 108)2 m2 = 6.09 × 1018 m2

31

(a) (b) (c)

Maximum absolute error =

10 g =5g 2 5 Maximum relative error = = 0.025 200 Maximum percentage error = 0.025 × 100% = 2.5%

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Mathematics 32
(a) Cost of the wool = A\$3 000 = HK\$(3 000 ×5.238) = HK\$15 714 = HK\$15 700 (b) HK\$1 = A\$ 1 5.238 (cor. to 3 sig. fig)

= A\$0.190 9… = A\$0.191 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.) 1 200 +1 200 m 35 +50 60 60 = 2 400 × m 85 = 1 694.117…m = 1 694 m (b) (cor. to 4 sig. fig.) 1 200 +1 200 Average distance in a minute = m 35 +50 2 400 = m 85 = 28.235…m = 28.24 m (cor. to 4 sig. fig.)

33

(a)

Average distance in an hour =

34

(a)

Exterior angle of a regular 11-sided polygon 360° = (ext. ∠ of a regular polgon) 11 = 32.727 2…° = 32.7° (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(b)

Interior angle of a regular 11-sided polygon = 180° − 32.727 2…° = 147.272 7…° = 147° (cor. to 3 sig. fig.) (adj. ∠s on st. line)

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Mathematics 35
(a) Sum of interior angles of a pentagon = ( 5 − 2 ) × 180° = 540° The fifth interior angle = 540° − 106.57° − 81.20°− 98.77° − 122.64° = 130.82° = 130.8° (b) The fifth interior angle = 130.82° = 131° (c) (cor. to the nearest degree) (cor. to 1 d.p.)

The fifth interior angle = 130.82° = 130° (cor. to 2 sig. fig.)

36

(a)

p = 57 000 000 = 5.7 × 107 q = 2 000 000 = 2 × 106

(b)

pq = (5.7 × 107) × (2 × 106) = (5.7 × 2) × 107+6 = 11.4 × 1013 = 1.14 × 1014

(c)

p + q = 5.7 × 107+ 2 × 106 = 5.7 × 107+ 0.2 × 107 = 5.9 × 107

37

(a)

109 h =

109 days 24 13 =4 days 24 = 5 days (cor. to the nearest day) 1 Lower limit of studying time = (5 − × days = 4.5 days 1) 2 24 ∴Minimum studying time = 4.5 × h = 108 h 1 Upper limit of studying time = (5 + × days = 5.5 days 1) 2 24 ∴Maximum studying time = 5.5 × h = 132 h

(b)

(i)

(ii)

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Mathematics 38
(a) Percentage increase in the population of Hong Kong from 1990 to 1991 = 5 754 700 − 500 5 704 100% × 5 704 500

= 0.88% (b) (The following answers are correct to the nearest integer.) Year 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 (c) Percentage error = 6 012 402 − 812 5 709 100% × 5 709 812 Population 5 605 410 5 654 738 5 704 500 5 754 700 5 805 341 5 856 428 5 907 965 5 959 955 6 012 402 6 065 311 6 118 686

= 5.3% to 2 sig. fig.) (cor.

39

(a) (b) (c)

Percentage error in the width = Percentage error in the length = Percentage error in the area =

4.5 −4.4 2 ×100%= 2 % 4. 5 9 4 −3.9 ×100%= 2.5% 4

4 ×4.5 −3.9 ×4.4 ×100% 4 ×4.5 18 −17.16 = ×100% 18 2 =4 % 3

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Mathematics 40
(a) (b) (c) Absolute error of the base = 30 cm − 28 cm = 2 cm Relative error of the height = 12 −10 1 = 12 6

Actual area = 28 × 12 cm2 = 336 cm2 Area calculated from his measurements = 30 × 10 cm2 = 300 cm2 336 −300 × 100% 336

Percentage error of the area =

= 10.7% (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

41

(a)

1 10) × mL = 725 mL 2 1 Lower limit of the capacity of a small glass = (55 −× mL = 54.5 mL 1) 2
Upper limit of the capacity of the bottle = (720 + Maximum number of small glasses filled = 725 ÷ 54.5 ∴ 13 ≈ 1 Lower limit of the capacity of the bottle = (720 −× mL = 715 mL 10) 2 1 Upper limit of the capacity of a large glass = (100 + × mL = 105 mL 10) 2 Minimum number of large glasses filled = 715 ÷ 105 ∴ 6 ≈

(b)

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