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Analyzing Video for Classroom Use

Content Analysis

Kasey Fernandez Nan Ketpura-Ching Marie Sack Marisa Yamada

ETEC 613 Dr. Peter Leong Spring 2012

Instructional goal
Teachers are increasingly integrating multimedia into the classroom. The use of videos has been proven to promote student engagement and bring lessons to life while supplementing content presented in the classroom. The presentation of verbal and visual cues with integrated dialogue or narration is an effective way to teach visual learners. A video clip can engage both sides of the brain: while the left side processes dialogue and plot, the right side processes visual images, relationships and melodies (Berk 2009). Berk further argues that multimedia auditory/verbal and visual/pictorial stimuli increase memory, comprehension, understanding, and deeper learning than either stimulus by itself. There are increasing amounts of educational multimedia available on the Internet through YouTube, TeacherTube, TEDtalk, and Khan Academy amongst others. According to Tina Barseghian in Five Reasons Why YouTube Rocks the Classroom, teachers using YouTube videos can inspire, gain greater access to students, promote global connection, customize videos online without expensive software, and create a choose-your-own adventure type video quiz for students (Barseghian 2011). Although these video website resources offer a plethora of video clips at a teachers fingertips, it is still difficult for a teacher to find the perfect educational video for a specific lesson due to many factors the teacher must consider when choosing a video for content. The instruction goal is high school teacher will determine which video would be appropriate for sharing in a class. The instruction will cover three categories to determine an appropriate tutorial video for class : 1) credibility, 2) content, and 3) age-appropriateness. In the first category, the learner will be able to identify a video, then determine the credibility of the source and its author. In doing so, teachers will pick videos only from sources and authors that present valid information. In the second category, the learner will be able to analyze the content for accuracy, correlation to curriculum, and discriminate any content that is graphic in nature. The course content should be defined with clear objectives (see EL3) prior to this step. In the third and final category, the learner will determine the age-appropriateness of the video against the target grade level. At the end of this instruction, the learner will have gained the needed steps to analyze and determine an appropriate video to share with their students in a class.

Sources:
Berk, R. A. (2009). Multimedia teaching with video clips: TV, movies, YouTube, and mtvU in the college classroom. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 5(1), 121. Barseghian, T. (2011, Sept 8). General format. Retrieved from http://mindshift.kqed.org/2011/09/five-reasons-why-youtube-rocks-the-classroom/

Target Audience
The target audience for this instruction are high school teachers. To be an effective high school teacher, one must find ways to integrate technology and multimedia to enhance their students engagement and learning. The intended audience should know their students and their students interests well. Some experienced teachers are still using VHS or DVD to deliver video content to their students. This instruction will help teachers find video clips that are meaningful and better engage their students. The instruction will be broken down step-by-step with text and supplemented with screenshots and pictures to facilitate understanding of material. The teachers will be recruited primarily from schools in Honolulu on Oahu as well as from schools in Kauai through e-mail. The high school teachers should have a college degree with an undergraduate degree at the minimum. The targeted audience of teachers should be motivated to learn how to better integrate technology and, in this case, multimedia into their curriculum. These high school teachers should have basic computer knowledge, be able to navigate through websites and identify URLs for videos. The teachers are male and female, range between the ages of 23 to 65, are of various ethnicities, and come from a broad range of socio-economic backgrounds. They are assumed to be in good health and have the ability to participate in the activities laid out in the instructions. The target audiences learning styles also vary between Visual, Aural, Verbal, Physical, Logical, Social, and Solitary as outlined in Gardners Multiple Intelligences.

Instructional Analysis
The terminal objective is for the learner to be able to determine which video would be appropriate for sharing with students in a class. To reach this objective, the learner must master a set of skills shown in the hierarchy chart below. The entry-level behaviors (brown boxes located below the dotted line) are very basic skills assumed to be previously mastered by the learner and will not be included in the instructions. The entry level behaviors for this instruction are established to facilitate efficiency of instruction. There will not be enough time to instruct basic computer skills or how to find videos on the Internet. Teachers should also know their school policy regarding video use as it would be outlined in their Faculty Handbook. Furthermore, each school tends to differ in their policy. For example, some allow YouTube and others not; its important for teachers to know what sites they can and cannot use prior to going through this instruction. Similarly, teachers should know the objectives for the course they plan on sharing videos from this instruction. With a specific lesson and content in mind, the instruction will be more effective for the teachers to apply in their own classroom. The subordinate skills (orange boxes) are concrete or defined concepts. The sub-skills (blue boxes) are basic behaviors, each with an individual performance objective. The sub-skills must be met before major steps or rules (green boxes) are to be mastered. The culmination of all of these skills will result in the ability of the high school teacher to determine the credibility, content, and ageappropriateness of the video for sharing with their students.

Hierarchy Chart

Performance Objectives Skill EL1 EL2


EL3

Performance Objectives

Know school policy regarding videos. Find videos on the Internet.


Know course learning objectives.

Identify source of video.

Given a set of Internet videos, the high school teacher will be able to correctly identify the source of the videos. Given the source of the video, the high school teacher will be able to determine the credibility of the source. Given a set of Internet videos, the high school teacher will be able to correctly identify the author of the videos. Given the author's information, the high school teacher will be able to determine the author's credibility. Given the information about the source and author, the high school teacher will be able to determine the credibility of the video. Given a set of videos, the high school teacher will be able to examine video content accuracy. Given a set of videos, the high school teacher will be able to determine correlation of video content to the course learning objectives. Given a set of videos, the high school teacher will be able to recognize images that are disturbing.

Analyze credibility of source.


Identify the author of the video.

Analyze credibility of the author. Determine credibility of video.

Analyze accuracy of content.

Match video content to course learning objectives. Identify disturbing images and select against them.

Determine appropriate content of video.

Given information about the accuracy of video content, how well the content match course learning objectives, and appropriate video images, the high school teacher will be able to determine video content appropriateness. Given a set of videos, the high school teacher will be able to determine the grade level of the videos. Given a set of videos and course learning objectives, the high school teacher will be able to determine the age appropriateness of the video. Given a set of videos, the high school teacher will be able to determine which video would be appropriate for sharing on a class web page. The video will contain accurate pertinent curriculum content and is age appropriate.

10

Identify grade level of the video.


Determine ageappropriateness of video.

11

12

The high school teacher will be able to determine which video would be appropriate for sharing in a class.

Sequence and Clustering of Objectives Cluster I. Reliability of video Objectives 1. Identify source of video (TeacherTube, YouTube, Khan Academy, etc). 2. Analyze credibility of source. 3. Identify the author of the video. 4. Analyze credibility of the author. 5. Determine credibility of video. 6. Analyze accuracy of content. 7. Analyze correlation of video to course learning objectives. 8. Discriminate against disturbing images. 9. Determine appropriate content of video. 10. Identify grade level of the video. 11. Determine age-appropriateness of video. 13. The high school teacher will be able to determine which video would be appropriate for sharing in a class. Time 30 minutes

II. Appropriate content of video

30 minutes

III. Age appropriateness of video IV. Terminal Goal

20 minutes

30 minutes

Criterion Reference Test #6 SKILL: Analyze accuracy of content OBJECTIVE: Given a set of videos, the high school teacher will be able to examine video content accuracy. CONTENT PRESENTATION Information Presentation: When reviewing videos in order to determine which would be appropriate for sharing in a classroom environment, teachers must consider the accuracy of the content presented in the video. If you are already an expert on the given area, this may be easy for you, but you may still need to do some research. The following is a checklist of things that you should consider when screening a new video for accuracy: Does the video agree with what you already know about the subject? Is there anything that seems unsettling about the video that you may disagree with? (If so research the topic to make sure that the video has the facts straight.) Is there any evidence supported facts stated in the video? If you find something that is questionable, but still think that the video is valuable would your administration support your choice to show the video? Is the video overly biased or opinionated? Examples: The following are descriptions and screenshots of videos that are considered to have accurate or factual content:

The above video was pulled directly from Discovery Education. According to the websites description the video, Demonstrates how restriction enzymes and gel electrophoresis are used to manipulate DNA in genetic engineering experiments. Simulates bacterial transformation and explores gene therapy as a potential treatment for people with cystic fibrosis. The video is very factual and strays away from opinion.

The above image is a screenshot from a Khan Academy video entitled, Electoral College. The video is full with facts and the site provides a transcript that goes along with the video that makes it easy for teachers to read carefully to ensure that all of the facts are credible. The video is more informative than opinionated. Non-Examples: The following are descriptions and screenshots of videos that are considered to be inaccurate, questionable or overly biased:

The above video is entitled, God and DNA and the author is potholer54. The video was found on Youtube. It is considered a non-example because although it does describe a bit about how DNA works and includes a few facts it is extremely biased and talks a lot about religion. It is more of an opinion based movie than a factual movie and there are lots of other videos that explain how DNA works that would be a better choice for classroom viewing.

This is a video found on Youtube entitled, Our Electoral College by mobtelevision. It does include some facts but it is very biased and can potentially teach students that their vote does not make a difference which is a negative message. Also, instead of giving direct facts about specific states the authors made up numbers in order to present the concept. Actual statistics are what teachers should look for when analyzing content.

Pretest & Embedded

Which of the following video descriptions is both accurate and unbiased: a. A video describing the origins of the universe from a religious standpoint. b. A video explaining the possible origins of the universe explained by subject matter experts and explained with data. c. A video that describes that the universe was created 3000 years ago. d. A video about the origins of the universe that tries to persuade the viewer that the world was created exactly 2 billion years ago without providing any facts or evidence for the claim. a. Incorrect. This video may include factual information, but it is biased. b. Correct. c. Incorrect.There is evidence and history that proves that the universe is older than 3000 years. d. Incorrect. Although the author may be presenting what they believe to be factual, there is not enough evidence to support their claim. Which of the following video descriptions is both accurate and unbiased? a. A video from the viewpoint of a Vietnamese soldier who fought in the Vietnam War. b. A video from the viewpoint of an American soldier who fought in the Vietnam War. c. A video containing images from the Vietnam War. *d. A video describing the dates and events of both sides in the Vietnam War.

Feedback

Posttest

#7 SKILL: Match video content to course learning objectives. OBJECTIVE: Given a set of videos, the high school teacher will be able to match video content to course learning objectives. CONTENT PRESENTATION Information Presentation: Before sharing a video on a class website, it is wise to determine the purpose of sharing the video. The best way to do this is to determine how the video relates to the course or class

learning objectives. First, identify which standards or course objectives directly correlate with the video. In order to do this you must first have a clear understanding of your courses objectives or standards. It is helpful to keep a list of these objectives in order to refer to them throughout the semester. Many high school teachers include this list in their class syllabus or curriculum map, while others have the list given to them by the school. The Common Core standards have been adopted by many schools across the US. You can explore the Math and English Language Arts standards at the website http://www.corestandards.org/. Once you have your list of course objectives handy you must chose which objective(s) you would like to focus on. After reading the objective thoroughly, you can view the video or read a synopsis in order to determine whether or not the video is appropriate for the specified objective. Consider the following: Does the video teach the material specified in the objective? Is the video missing some information important to achieving the objective? If the video is missing some important information do you have access to resources that you can use to supplement the video in order to encourage complete understanding of the objective? Examples: The following screenshots and descriptions would be appropriate for reaching the following learning objective in a Pre-Algebra class - Identify which quadrant the point (x,y) is located in.

Non-Examples: The following screenshots and descriptions would NOT be appropriate for reaching the following learning objective in a Pre-Algebra class - Identify which quadrant the point (x,y) is located in. The learning objective of this non-examples video is graphing linear equations using the intercepts method.

Pretest & Embedded

Which of the following screenshot and video description would meet the Algebra 1 learning objective - Solve direct variation problems. A.

*B.

C.

D.

Feedback

A. Incorrect. *B. Correct. C. Incorrect. D. Incorrect. expressions.

This video lesson is solving percent problems This video lesson is solving direct variations problems. This video lesson is solving multiple steps equations. This video lesson is evaluating variables and

Posttest

Which of the following screen shot and video description would meet the Algebra 1 learning objective - Solve absolute value inequalities. A.

B.

C.

*D.

#8 SKILL: Discriminate against disturbing images OBJECTIVE: Given a set of videos, the high school teacher will be able to recognize images that are disturbing. CONTENT PRESENTATION Information Presentation: Unlike movies, web presented videos do not have a standard rating system. Therefore it is important for the teacher to rate the appropriateness of the video themselves. Disturbing images may cloud a students memory, making it difficult to remember other important parts of a video. Also, some parents are very protective of what their children watch, so it is important to be sensitive of this matter. Some level of disturbance may be necessary in order to properly teach certain subjects, but it is crucial to know when to draw the line. At times, a disclaimer may be appropriate to warn students and parents of a potentially disturbing image. If you find a video that is disturbing but that you feel is perfect for the curriculum, consider sending home a notice to parents and students regarding the nature of the video and your reasoning behind showing the video. This way, they can choose whether or not they would like to expose themselves to disturbing media. When reviewing a video for sharing on a web page consider the following when determining the level of disturbance: Are my students mature enough to watch this video? Is the video overly graphic in nature? Are there some students or parents that may find it offensive? If there are some disturbing images, is it necessary to bear in order to reach the objective? Is there a less disturbing video that would be more appropriate to share? Does the administration support the sharing of this type of video? Examples: The following screen shot and descriptions is a video that would be appropriate for sharing on a class web page due to the mild nature:

Non-Examples: The following screenshot and descriptions is a video that would NOT be appropriate for sharing in a class due to the disturbing nature:

Pretest & Embedded

Which of the following screenshot and video description would have disturbing images for a high school biology student. A.

B.

C.

*D.

Feedback

A. Incorrect - The graphic in the video is not disturbing. B. Incorrect - The graphic in the video is not disturbing. C. Incorrect - The graphic in the video is not disturbing. *D. Correct - The graphic in the video is too explicit.

Posttest

Which of the following screenshot and video description would have

disturbing images for a high school biology student. A.

*B.

C.

D.

#9 SKILL: Determine appropriate content of video OBJECTIVE: Given information about the accuracy of video content, how well the content match course learning objectives, and appropriate video images, the high school teacher will be able to determine video content appropriateness. CONTENT PRESENTATION Information Presentation: To determine if the content of the video is appropriate the following must be considered: Is the content accurate overall? Is the video relevant to the course learning objectives overall? Are the images appropriate overall? The following are examples and non-examples of video descriptions that have appropriate content. Examples: The following is a screenshot and descriptions of a video that has accurate content, match course learning objectives and has appropriate images for teaching high school human anatomy.

Non-Examples: The following is a screenshot and descriptions of a video that does NOT
have accurate content, does NOT match course learning objectives and has inappropriate images

for teaching photosynthesis.

Pretest & Embedded

For an Algebra 1 math class about solving for a variable, which of the following video descriptions is accurate, match course learning objectives and has appropriate images: A. A video that shows the example: What is 5% of 30, and shows the steps that lead to the answer of 20. *B. A video that shows the example: Solve 2x + y = 4 for y and shows the steps that lead to the answer of y = 4 - 2x. C. A video that shows the example: Solve 2x + y = 4 for y and shows the steps that lead to the answer of x = 4 - 2y. D. A video that shows the example: Solve |2x -1| = 7 and shows the steps that lead to the answer of x = 4 or x = -3.

Feedback

A. Incorrect. This is a percent problem and not a solving for a variable problem. The answer to the problem is also incorrect. The images are appropriate. *B. Correct. This is a solving for a variable problem with a correct answer. The images are appropriate. C. Incorrect. This is a solving for a variable problem, but the answer is not correct. The images are appropriate. D. Incorrect. This is an absolute value equality problem with the

correct answer, but it is not a solving for a variable problem. The images are appropriate.

Posttest

For an art history class on the topic of the Rosetta Stone, which of the following video descriptions is accurate, correlates to course learning objectives and has appropriate images for the topic: A. A video that describes the similarities and differences in the languages of the Phoenicians, Persians, and Greeks. B. A video that describes the love lives of ancient Greeks and Egyptians. *C. A video that describes the three languages stating the same exact thing found on the Rosetta Stone, two of which finally helped break the code of Egyptian hieroglyphics: Ancient Greek and demotic (the Egyptian common language). D. A video about the three languages scribed on the Rosetta Stone possibly hiding a secret alien code.

Preinstructional, Assessment, and Follow-Through Activities


PRE-INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES Motivation (Gagnes event #1): To elicit interest in the learning module high school

teachers are presented with excellent Internet educational videos in each subject area. A discussion of the teachers' opinion about the videos and the procedures used to find them will then follow to enhance interest.
Objectives (Gagnes event #2, #3, #4): The objective of this instructional module is to

provide high school teachers with a systematic algorithm for determining content appropriateness of the videos for sharing in a class. To stimulate interest and to get teachers opinions on what they think , non-example videos will be shown. Directly after, teachers will be asked if the content of the video is appropriate for viewing in a classroom setting and the reasons why or why not in order to stimulate recall and gauge preknowledge. Critical factors for teachers to consider are accuracy of the content, video content match with course learning objectives and appropriate images. Following the teachers' input on the non-example, the instructors will demonstrate how to critique the same video based on the criteria mentioned.
ASSESSMENT Pretest (Gagnes event #6 & #7): A multiple choice test will be given to high school

teachers before instruction to measure and evaluate the teacher's skills in searching for videos on the Internet, knowledge about course learning objectives, and school policy regarding video usage.
Practice Tests (Gagnes #6 & #7): Multiple choice practice test items will be included after

each learning objective to provide high school teachers with corrective feedback and to promote retention and comprehension.
Posttest (Gagnes event #7 & #8): A final multiple choice test will be given to high school

teachers after each learning objective to insures understanding of concepts and to identify any need for improvement in instructions.
FOLLOW-THROUGH ACTIVITIES

Memory Aids (Gagnes event #5): Posters of video images including highlights of key concepts will be made available for the high school teachers to use as reference throughout the instruction. Teachers will also be given a "Video Content Appropriateness Checklist" of criteria necessary to determine video content appropriateness for classroom use (see Appendix A). Transfer (Gagnes event #9): High school teachers will search the Internet for two content appropriate videos that have content accuracy, correlation to course learning objectives and appropriate images to be used in their current classrooms and share them with their instructors.

Appendix A Video Content Appropriateness Checklist


Course learning objective ___________________________________ Use this video YES / NO Name of Video _______________________________________ Video URL __________________________________________ Evaluative Questions Yes No N/A

I. Determine Video Content Accuracy Are the information in the video correct? Are there credible support for the information presented in the video? II. Determine How Well Video Content Match Course Learning Objectives Does the video teach the material specified in the course learning objectives? Will my students be able to understand the level of complexity of the content in the video? III. Determine Video Image Appropriateness Is the video overly graphic in nature? Are there some students or parents that may find the video offensive? Comments: