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# ER 2152 Pressure Calibration of a Differential Pressure Transmitter Lab Instructions

SEAL COVE CAMPUS

2007

## ______________________ ______________________ ___________

OBJECTIVE: To bench calibrate a DP Transmitter to a given range of pressure. To experimentally determine the Transmitters Minimum Span

DISCUSSION:
Differential Pressure Transmitter. The electronic differential pressure transmitter is a device that incorporates a differential pressure sensor and an electronics package. Its purpose is to measure a range of pressures and then convert the pressure into a standard proportional electronic signal i.e. 4 to 20 madc. The pressure-sensing device is often a capacitive cell as in this lab. Read your text / notes for an explanation of this and other pressure sensors which may be used. The Transmitters DP cell has two ports, one is marked H for high pressure the other is marked L for low pressure. The L (low) port is often left vented to atmosphere with the H (high) port connected to the process pressure under measure. The D/P cell is a differential pressure sensing device, that is, there must be a change in the pressure across the cell for there to be a change in the proportional madc signal transmitted by the transmitters electronics package. It must be noted that a change in the D/P across the cell can be either caused by a change in the pressure applied to the High side of the cell as compared to the Low side of the cell or vise versa. In this laboratory experiment the student will use a configuration where a variable process pressure is applied to the High side of the cell and is compared to, or measured against, atmospheric pressure at 0 PSIG (pounds per square inch (gauge)) or 14.7 PSIA (pounds per square inch (absolute)) applied to the Low side of the cell. For example if a process pressure with an expected range of 10 PSIG to 30 PSIG is to be measured and converted to a standard signal range of 4 to
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20 madc, then the low side of the transmitter is vented to atmosphere at all times throughout the experiment. The differential pressure experienced by the transmitters cell will be: URV (upper range value) minus LRV (lower range value) (150 inches W.C. 0 inches W.C.) for a range of 150 inches W.C. In many cases the low port of the transmitter will not be vented to atmosphere but will be connected into the process at some pressure other than atmospheric and is beyond the scope of this laboratory experiment. The differential pressure applied across the D/P cell deforms a diaphragm, this diaphragm is a common plate of a dual capacitive cell. In this way a variable differential pressure causes a proportional change in the capacitance of the cell which is sensed in an electronic circuit, that when applied to the transmitter electronics is converted to a proportional madc signal. The minimum and maximum D/P, which can be applied to the cell, is a function of the manufacturing parameters for that device, and like all sensitive measuring instruments can be destroyed through incorrect applications or practices. Therefore the manufactures manual should be consulted for this transmitter to discern the correct magnitudes of pressure that can safely applied to this device. The Transmitters output must be calibrated to obtain a zero percent (4 madc) to 100 percent (20 madc) output proportional the D/P transmitters zero percent to 100 percent range of input pressures. In other words calibration of the transmitter is required to make the transmitters percent input equal to the transmitters percent output. This is accomplished by adjusting screws located and clearly marked as ZERO and SPAN on the transmitters outer casing. Under no circumstances adjust or turn any other screws on the Transmitter. Differing configurations of the Zero and Range adjustment are to be found from manufacturer to manufacturer.

Equipment:
Process Station Rosemount 1151DP4Exxxxxxx Transmitter 24 Vdc Power Supply 250 Ohm Resistor Hand Pump Electronic Manometer Fluke Multi-Meter Calibration screwdriver (Standard Flat) Associated tubing and wiring

PROCEDURE:
1. Have your Instructor provide you with a Rosemount 1151DP4ETransmitter then determine the Transmitters' Range, Span, and Maximum working pressure (MWP), from the manufacturers manual, or located on the tag attached to the device. Transmitter make and Model # ________________________________ Transmitter Range ___________ Transmitter Span ___________ Transmitter MWP ____________ 2. Draw below a connection diagram showing the calibration devices and wiring with polarity indication you will use for your bench calibration circuit. A bench calibration is a procedure where the device is calibrated at a calibration bench using calibration devices to simulate the process, rather than calibrating the device in the field using the actual process itself as the input means. Refer to your previous notes or as drawn on the board. You will hand in the diagram with your lab.

PI

MANOMETER or GAGE

1 5 Volt

250 ohm

D/P PUMP

Reference or Vent

## POWER SUPPLY (PS1)

Calibration Diagram
3. Make certain you connect 24Vdc only to the circuit, as well ensure that the positive terminal of the 24Vdc power supply is connected to the positive terminal on the transmitter. You must include a 250-Ohm resistor in this serried circuit. Connect a hand pump with the vent screw open, to a pneumatic tee fitting. Connect one of the remaining two ports of the tee to the High side of the transmitter and leave the Low side of the transmitter vented to atmosphere. Connect the remaining open port on the tee to a 200-inch electronic manometer and zero the manometer. Contact your Instructor if you are unsure of this procedure.

Once you have connected your calibration circuit, electric, pneumatic and calibration devices contact your Instructor to inspect your Calibration setup before you apply power to the cct. 4. For each device you calibrate in any Laboratory exercise you are required to fill out and pass in a calibration sheet.

Calibration testing and documentation is very important in the Instrumentation occupation and plant safety.

This information vital for a number of reasons some are: The device must operate with a high degree of accuracy and precision and be repeatable in its data reporting over long periods of time, An error in this device will lead to unsafe conditions within the plant system that may result in catastrophic life threatening conditions. Testing and documenting performance with calibration sheets is one standard used to ensure reliability and builds a history for that device.

Important:

You must perform the AS FOUND check Prior to each and any calibration.

If you calibrate the device before first testing and recording the AS FOUND data, the history of the devices performance data will be lost. 5. The range of values you will use for this transmitter will be that as you had recorded in step number 1, use this range of values to fill out your Calibration Report As Found and AS LEFT sections directly across from the INPUT engineering units rows only, not in the output rows. Be sure to indicate the correct engineering units, in this case inches of W.C., that is, inches of water column pressure. Notice that the data from step 1 has two numerical values, the LRV and URV, see the preliminary discussion for the meaning of these terms. The LRV is the numerical value you place under both 0 percent columns and the URV is the numerical value you place under the 100 percent column. All other intervening i.e. 25%, 50% and 75%, valves you are to compute and fill in under the appropriate columns and rows for the five point calibration check. Almost all calibration devices used in industrial settings have the data points checked both upscale and downscale so to provide data as to
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the devices agreement between rising values of pressure and falling values of pressure. This gives indication of the devices Dead Band and Hysteresis. 6. Power up the circuit and close off the vent on the hand pump, pressurize the High side of the transmitter to your first data point. In the case that the first data point is 0 psig (atmospheric) then leaving the pump vented will be the first data point. Read and record the current value of the transmitters output on your Calibration Report under the first 0 percent column of the OUTPUT row in the AS FOUND section of the report. Raise the pressure input to the next value and repeat the process of documentation. Continue with this process until you have filled out all the data fields in the AS FOUND section of the calibration report. To Calibrate this transmitter to the values of the range you indicated in step # 1, read carefully through the following discussion. The Transmitters zero percent, (LRV), is to be calibrated to the manufacturers stated LRV, and the Transmitters span is to be calibrated to the manufacturers stated (URV). Locate the manufacturers instruction manual and with it locate the transmitters ZERO and SPAN adjustment screws sometimes called Zero and Range adjustment screws. This Lab specifies using the 1151DP4ERosemount Transmitter, its ZERO and SPAN adjustment screw is located on the external housing. Note that these screws each connect to a variable resistance (potentiometer) and can be turned indefinitely. That is the potentiometer is of a type that once fully adjusted clockwise or counter clockwise the screw may continue to turn without further varying the resistance for either direction. The potentiometer has a maximum of 20 turns between minimum and maximum resistance therefore turning the ZERO or SPAN screws clockwise or counter-clockwise for 20 turns will cause the potentiometer to be at either maximum or minimum. 9. Turn the ZERO and SPAN screws both 20 turns clockwise. Next turn both screws 10 turns counter clockwise to approximately adjust the potentiometer to the mid resistance point (50%).
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Next you will apply the 0% (LRV) pressure to the transmitters High side, in the case of this Lab this will be 0 inches W.C. and with the vent screw on the hand pump still in the open position and the Transmitters low side vented we are assured there is no differential pressure acting across the transmitters DP cell. Adjust the zero screw on the transmitter while observing the ammeter to cause the indication to be 4.00 madc, this is the transmitters LRV output. The acceptable margin or error for this lab exercise is 0.1 percent. Calculate below this error in the appropriate engineering units for both input and output values. Acceptable margin of error for units of input = ___________

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Acceptable margin of error for units of output = ___________ 12. Close the vent screw on the hand pump, the pressure indicated by the manometer may jump to 1 inch W.C., if so loosen the vent plug once again to see if the pressure falls back to 0 inches W.C. This condition is normal, a value of I inch WC is an extremely low pressure and can be caused by the closing of the vent valve on the hand pump. Operate the hand pump while observing the manometer indication to cause the pressure applied to the High side of the transmitter to increase to the 100 percent value (URV) indicated in step one and under the 100% column of the calibration reports AS FOUND and AS LEFT INPUT sections. Adjust the SPAN screw while observing the ammeters current indication to cause the ammeter to indicate 20 madc which is the 100% (URV) output value signal for the transmitter. Re check the zero % calibration, you will find that it no longer is correct, this is due to the interaction between the zero and span adjustments, and re adjustment of the 0% calibration point (LRV) will throw off the 100% calibration point (URV). It will be necessary to repeat steps 12 and 13 many times, each recalibration will result is a diminishing amount of error until the 0%
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through to 100% input to the transmitter (pressure) exactly equals the transmitters 0 % through 100 % output (4 to 20 madc current). A correctly calibrated device can be described as one where the % input equals the % output for all values between 0 and 100 percent. 15. Once you are satisfied with your calibration have your Instructor verify your work, then proceed to fill out the AS LEFT data in your calibration report. Power down your circuit and return all equipment and supplies to their correct places. Answer all questions and turn in your calibration report with this Laboratory exercise.

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