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# International Journal of Engineering Research and Development

## e-ISSN: 2278-067X, p-ISSN : 2278-800X, www.ijerd.com

Volume 4, Issue 10 (November 2012), PP. 58-61
58
On L
1
-Convergence of Cosine Sums
Nawneet Hooda
Department of Mathematics, DCR University of Sci & Tech, Murthal(131039), India.

Abstract:- A necessary and sufficient condition for L
1_
convergence of a modified trigonometric sum has been
obtained which generalizes a result of Kumari and Ram. A result of Fomin follows as a corollary of our
result.

Keywords:- Modified cosine sum, class F
p

I. INTRODUCTION
Let S
n
(x) denote the partial sum of the cosine series
(1.1) (a
0
/2) +

=1 k
a
k
cos kx ,
and let f(x) = lim
n
S
n
(x), if it exists. The convergence of the series (1.1) in the metric space L, has been studied by
various authors under different conditions on the coefficients a
k
.

Theorem A . If {a
k
} is convex (A
2
a
k
> 0 , for every k) null sequence, then the cosine series (1.1) is the Fourier series of
its sum f, and
||S
n
(x) f(x)|| = o(1) , if and only if a
n
log n = o(1), n .
Kolmogorov extended the definition of convex null sequence. A sequence {a
k
} is said to be quasi-convex if a
k
= o(1), k
, and the series

=1 k
k | A
2
a
k
| < .
Theorem B. If {a
k
} is a quasi-convex null sequence, then the cosine series (1.1) is the Fourier series of its sum f, and
||S
n
(x) f(x)|| = o(1) , if and only if a
n
log n = o(1), n .

Sidon generalized the concept of convex (quasi-convex) null sequence. We say a sequence {a
k
} belongs to the class S, if
there exists a monotonically decreasing sequence {A
k
} such that E A
k
< , and |A a
k
| s A
k
, for every k.
A quasi-convex null sequence satisfies the class S if we take A
n
=

=n m
| A
2
a
m
| .

Theorem C. Let {a
k
} belong to the class S. Then the cosine series (1.1) is the Fourier series of its sum f and
||S
n
(x) f(x)| = o(1), if and only if a
n
log n = o(1), n .
Fomin generalized Teljakovskis Theorem by introducing a new class F
p
. A null sequence {a
k
} belongs to the class F
p
,
if for some 1 < p s 2, we have

=

=
|
.
|

\
|
A
n
k
p
n k
p
k
n a
1
1
< .

and proved that F
p
c BV , where BV denotes the class of bounded variation and

if {a
k
} c F
p
, then f c L
1
(o, t) and

A
1
1
k
p
k
p
a k < .

Theorem D . Let {a
k
} satisfy the conditions of F
p ,
then the cosine series (1.1) is the Fourier series of its sum f and
||S
n
(x) f(x)|| = o(1) if and only if a
n
log n = o(1), n .
Kumari and Ram introduced a new modified trigonometric cosine sum

2000 AMS Mathematics Subject Classification : 42A20, 42A32

On L
1
-Convergence of Cosine Sums
59
(1.2) f
n
(x) = (a
0
/2) +

= =
n
k j
n
k 1
A(a
j
/j) k cos kx ,

and proved

Theorem E. Let the sequence {a
k
} satisfy the conditions of the class S.
If a
n
log n = o(1), n , then ||f(x) f
n
(x)|| = o(1), n .
In this paper, we generalize Theorem E by obtaining a necessary and sufficient condition for the convergence of
the limit of (1.2) in the metric space L by taking {a
k
} in the class F
p
. We also deduce Fomins Theorem D as a corollary
from our result.

II. LEMMA
We require the following Lemma for the proof of our result:

Lemma 1. If D
n
(x),D
n
(x) and F
n
(x) denote Dirichlet, conjugate Dirichlet and Fejrs kernel respectively, then F
n
(x) =
D
n
(x)

(1/n+1)D'
n
(x) .

III. MAIN RESULT
Theorem 1. Let {a
k
} belong to the class F
p
. Then
||f(x) f
n
(x)|| = o(1) if and only if a
n
log n = o(1), n.

Proof. Application of Lemma 1 and summation by parts give
(3.1) f
n
(x)

=
2
a
0
+
=
n
1 k

=
n
k j
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
j
a
j
k cos kx

= S
n
(x) |
.
|

\
|
+
+
1
1
n
a
n
D'
n
(x)

= S
n
(x) a
n+1
D
n
(x) + a
n+1
F
n
(x)

=

=
n
k 0
Aa
k
D
k
(x) + a
n+1
F
n
(x)

Since D
n
(x) = O(1/x
2
) and a
n
0 as n, lim
n
f
n
(x) exists and
f(x) = lim
n
f
n
(x). Now,
(3.2)
}
t
0
|f
n
(x) f(x)| dx =
}
n
1
0
|f
n
(x) f(x) | dx +
}
t
n
1
|f
n
(x) f(x)| dx.

For the first integral of right hand side of (3.2),we have

}
n
1
0
|f
n
(x) f(x) | dx s
}
n
1
0
|o
n
(x) f(x)|dx +
}
n
1
0
|f
n
(x) o
n
(x)|dx,

where o
n
(x) is the Fejr sum of S
n
(x), and

}
n
1
0
|o
n
(x) f(x)|dx = O(||o
n
(x) f(x)|| ) , n .

From (3.1), we get

f
n
(x) o
n
(x) = a
n+1
F
n
(x) +
|
.
|

\
|
+1
1
n

=
A
n
k
k k
x D a k
1
) ( -
|
.
|

\
|
+1
1
n

=
n
k
k k
x D a
1
) (

On L
1
-Convergence of Cosine Sums
60
Therefore,

}
n
1
0
|f
n
(x) o
n
(x)| dx s (t/2) a
n+1
+
|
.
|

\
|
+1
1
n

}
=
A
n
k
n
k k
x D a k
1
1
0
) ( dx
+
|
.
|

\
|
+1
1
n

}
=
n
k
n
k k
x D a
1
1
0
) ( dx

or
}
n
1
0
|f
n
(x) o
n
(x)| dx =O
(

A
|
.
|

\
|

=
n
k
k
a k
1
n
1
, n .

Hence, for the first integral in (3.2) we have

}
n
1
0
|f
n
(x) f(x)| dx = O ( ) ) ( ) ( x f x
n
o + O
(

A
|
.
|

\
|

=
n
k
k
a k
1
n
1
, n .

For the second integral of right hand side of (3.2), we have

(3.3)
}
t
n
1
|f
n
(x) f(x)| dx s
}
t
n
1
|a
n+1
F
n
(x)| dx +
}
t
n
1
|

+ = 1 n k
Aa
k
D
k
(x)| dx

s
}
t
0
|a
n+1
F
n
(x)|dx +
}
t
n
1
|

+ = 1 n k
Aa
k
D
k
(x)| dx

= (t/2)a
n+1
+
}
t
n
1
|

+ = 1 n k
Aa
k
D
k
(x)| dx .

Combining all these estimates as in , we obtain

}
t
0
|f
n
(x) f(x)|dx = O |
.
|

\
|
A + A +

+ =

= 1
1
1
) ( ) (
n k
p
k
p
n
k
k n
a k a k x f x o

= o(1) , n .

This completes the proof of our result.
Corollary. If {a
k
} belongs to F
p
, then
||S
n
(x) f(x)|| = o(1) if and only if a
n
log n = o(1), n .
Proof . We have

}
t
0
| f(x) S
n
(x) | dx =
}
t
0
| f(x) f
n
(x) + f
n
(x) S
n
(x) | dx
s
}
t
0
| f(x) f
n
(x) |dx +
}
t
0
| f
n
(x) S
n
(x) |dx
s
}
t
0
| f(x) f
n
(x) |dx +
}
t
0
|a
n+1
D
n
(x)|dx +
}
t
t
|a
n+1
K
n
(x) |dx
and
On L
1
-Convergence of Cosine Sums
61

}
t
0
| a
n+1
D
n
(x) |dx s
}
t
0
| f
n
(x)S
n
(x) |dx +
}
t
t
| a
n+1
K
n
(x) | dx

}
t
0
| f(x) S
n
(x) |dx +
}
t
t
| a
n+1
K
n
(x) |dx .
Since
}
t
t
| D
n
(x) |dx behave like log n for large values of nand

}

t
0
) ( ) ( x f x f
n
dx=0 by our theorem for n , the
corollary follows.

REFERENCES
. N.K.Bari A Treatise on trigonometric series (London : Pregamon Press) Vol.1,Vol. II (1964).
. G.A .Fomin,On linear methods for summing Fourier series, Mat. Sb., 66 (107) (1964) 114152.
. N.Hooda and B.Ram, Convergence of certain modified cosine sum, Indian J. Math,44(1)(2002),41-46.
. A.N.Kolmogorov. Sur I' ordre de grandeur des coefficients de la serie de Fourier-lebesque, Bull. Acad. Polan. Sci.
Ser. Sci. Math., Astronom Phys., (1923) 83-86.
. S.Kumari and B.Ram L
1
-convergence of a modified cosine sum, Indiaj J. pure appl. Math., 19 (1988) 1101-1104.
. S.Sidon,Hinreichende be dingeingen fur den Fourier-character einer trigonometris
. S. A. Teljakovski, A sufficient condition for Sidon for the integrability of trigonometric series, Mat. Zametki, 14
(1973), 317-328.
. W.H.Young. On the Fourier series of bounded functions, Proc. London Math. Soc., 12 (1913), 41-70.