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War on Syria:
Gateway to WWIII
Tony Cartalucci Nile Bowie

2012

War on Syria:
Gateway to WWIII Copyright Tony Cartalucci & Nile Bowie 2012 All rights reserved Nove !er 2012

Ta!le o" Contents
Author’s Note ........................................................................................................................... 5 Chapter 1: The Architecture of Insurgency .................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Perception anage!ent an" Psycho#ogica# Warfare................................................15

Chapter $: The Prospect of %egiona# War .................................................................... 21 Conc#usion.............................................................................................................................. $&

Author’s Note
Than# you "or reading $War on Syria: Gateway to WWIII.” %our interest and attention is highly appreciated !y the authors o" this !oo#& The purpose o" this docu ent is to provide an accurate historical record o" the con"lict in Syria& This was a challenging tas#' na ely !ecause ( was approached to create this pro)ect while the con"lict was still ongoing& The individuals involved in this pro)ect "ound it necessary to co pile our various articles and conclusions into one de"initive product and' !ecause the "ighting in Syria has not ceased' it is necessary to produce e*panded editions in the "uture& This !oo# is !ased on the articles and research o" Tony Cartalucci' an independent )ournalist and editor o" Land Destroyer e!ort !ased in Bang#o#' Thailand& +y role in this !oo# was to e*pand these articles and co pile the into a coherent narrative' a di""icult tas# "or any writer& (nevita!ly' uch o" y research appears within these pages to give readers the ost in,depth' "or ulated' and critical account o" events in Syria we can o""er& A"ter co piling the chapters' -ric .raitser' a New %or# City,!ased )ournalist and editor o" Sto!I"!erialis".co"# contri!uted !y editing and proo"reading the te*t& ( wor#ed "or three onths out o" y apart ent in /uala 0u pur' +alaysia to produce this docu ent& The authors o" this !oo# hope that this pro)ect encourages others to "orge ties with li#e, inded people "ro around the world' and constructively colla!orate to !ring attention to co pelling issues and in)ustices& This !oo# isn1t e*actly !edside reading' !ut it inevita!ly contains very i portant analysis and in"or ation that needs to !e ore !roadly e*posed& (t is written in such a way that ay initially con"use readers who are un"a iliar with the na es' locations' and events we cite& 2ur !est e""orts have !een ade to a#e this in"or ation as accessi!le and well de"ined as possi!le& 2pponents and critics o" this in"or ation will dis iss our research and conclusions' and "a iliarly !rand us $conspiracy theorists3 or apologists o" the Syrian govern ent& The a#ers o" this !oo# do not endorse any political party or organi4ation' nor do we receive "unding "or this wor# "ro anyone& These conclusions are our own' and ulti ately' we !elieve in the pri acy o" national sovereignty' respect "or international law' and the right o" the Syrian people to decide their own political "uture without such a "uture !eing i posed on the & 2nce again' than# you "or reading this !oo# and we hope this in"or ation i proves your understanding o" the situation& This wor# is dedicated to those innocents who su""ered unti ely deaths in Syria and elsewhere& Nile Bowie $u%ust 2&# 2012

Chapter 1: The Architecture of Insurgency
'T(ere is anot(er ty!e o) war)are*new in its intensity# ancient in its ori%in*war +y %uerrillas# su+,ersi,es# insur%ents# assassins- war +y a"+us( instead o) +y co"+at# +y in)iltration instead o) a%%ression# see.in% ,ictory +y erodin% and e/(austin% t(e ene"y instead o) en%a%in% (i". It !reys on unrest.” 'ohn (. )enne"y
01t( 2resident o) t(e 3nited States

Several onths o" political tur oil in Tunisia triggered the series o" events re"erred to as the $Ara! Spring'3 which then engul"ed several countries in North A"rica& A ong those who too# to the streets intending to peace"ully de onstrate' were local dissidents that received training' "unding and aterial assistance "ro "oreign powers through organi4ations "unded largely !y the 5S State .epart ent& As these ove ents garnered the attention o" the international edia' unveri"ied reports o" e*cessive govern ent violence were used to tarnish the i age o" national govern ents in the region& +edia enterprises such as $l45a6eera and 789 News did their part to condition pu!lic opinion in an e""ort to !uild support "or Western, sanctioned opposition groups& .issident "orces would later openly receive ar s and aterial assistance "ro a!road' in order to wage insurrectionary guerilla war"are against the governing authorities o" those countries& 2ne o" the organi4ations involved in recruiting' training' and supporting youth activists ahead o" the $Ara! Spring3 was descri!ed in an April 2011 New :or. Ti"es article&1 The organi4ation' +ove ents&org' or Alliance o" %outh +ove ents' would later !e descri!ed ad itting to 5S "unding and involve ent in the $Ara! Spring3 uprisings& The article i plicates 6reedo 7ouse' the National -ndow ent "or .e ocracy' and two o" its satellite organi4ations' the (nternational 8epu!lican (nstitute' and the National .e ocratic (nstitute' in recruiting' training' and supporting the unrest starting as early as 2009& While the New :or. Ti"es article doesn1t ention the organi4ation !y na e' it lin#s to an o""icial 5S State .epart ent announce ent titled' $Announce ent on Alliance o" %outh +ove ents Su it'3 that ost certainly does&2 The Alliance o" %outh +ove ents is a corporate,sponsored $coup college3 o" sorts' training activists to su!vert and topple govern ents on the 5S State .epart ent1s !ehal"& 2n 6e!ruary 2:th' 2011' the 5S,!ased Broo#ings (nstitution issued a report titled' $0i!ya1s Test o" the New (nternational 2rder'3 which argued in "avor o" intervention in 0i!ya' descri!ing the underta#ing as $a test that the international co unity has to pass&3 6ailure to do so would' in the words o" Broo#ings .oha Center .irector Sal an Shai#h' $sha#e "urther the "aith o" the people1s region in the e erging international order and the pri acy o" international law&3 Succeeding would' as the 1 5&S& ;roups 7elped Nurture Ara! 5prisings' The New %or# Ti es' April 1<' 2011 2 Announce ent on Alliance o" %outh +ove ents Su
2009 it' A erica&;ov Archive' Nove !er 20'

report states' $de onstra!ly draw a line in the sand to deter other Ara! autocrats who resort to attac#ing their people rather than dialogue and genuine re"or s&3 By re"or s' Broo#ings is re"erring to 0i!ya1s integration into the $international syste '3 where protectionist econo ic policies would !e pushed aside to allow "oreign govern ents and ultinational corporations to usurp the countries1 sovereignty and vast natural resources&= The govern ent o" +ua ar ;adda"i had !een accused o" using targeted airstri#es against gatherings o" unar ed de onstrators' as cited !y a concentrated strea o" unveri"ied activist testi ony' alleging the perpetration o" state,sponsored cri es against hu anity& (n late +arch 2011' "ollowing the passage o" 5N 8esolution 1>?= which andated the en"orce ent o" a no,"ly,4one over 0i!ya' NAT2 launched a !o !ing ca paign in support o" 0i!ya1s ar ed re!els' under the auspices o" $protecting civilians&3 6or er 6rench @resident Nicholas Sar#o4y would echo Broo#ings1 senti ents' stating: ;,ery ruler s(ould understand# and es!ecially e,ery $ra+ ruler s(ould understand t(at t(e reaction o) t(e international co""unity and o) ;uro!e will )ro" t(is "o"ent on eac( ti"e +e t(e sa"e: we will +e on t(e side o) !eace)ul !rotesters w(o "ust not +e re!ressed wit( ,iolence.< The 5nited Nations passed 8esolution 1>?= a id the "irst reports o" insurrectionary violence in the southern Syrian city o" .araa& While the ainstrea edia portrayed ar ed re!els instigating violence against Syrian security "orces as $peace"ul protestors'3 5S Senator Aoe 0ie!er an would threaten Syria with "oreign ilitary intervention& (n .araa' protesters torched the Ba1ath @arty headBuarters and destroyed cars par#ed along the street' while two protesters were reportedly #illed as they atte pted to set a!la4e another govern ent !uilding in the city o" 0ata#ia& (t is di""icult to understand how any responsi!le govern ent should !e e*pected to allow "oreign,"unded o!s to co it widespread arson and vandalis with the e*pressed goal o" re oving the standing govern ent "ro power& 5ndou!tedly' the violence e*hi!ited !y the protesters was designed to intentionally provo#e Syrian security "orces atte pting to aintain order& 7owever e*cessively or appropriately the Syrian security "orces reacted to the violence' the ainstrea edia and Western politicians atte pted to leverage legiti acy away "ro .a ascus' citing the violence as the )usti"ication "or @resident Bashar al,Assad to step aside& .istur!ingly' the continued perpetuation o" violence and disorder has !een attri!uted to hired provocateurs' which are o"ten e ployed to #ill protesters and security "orces ali#e' creating an internationally sensationali4ed !lood!ath' designed to escalate !oth the protests and international pressure on the state& An article pu!lished !y The Sydney <ornin% =erald entitled' $Blood!ath New Threat to Assad3 stated that the insta!ility in southern Syria has le"t the regi e $staggering&3 Additionally' it invited $stern3 criticis "ro 5S @resident Barac# 2!a a stating: = 0i!ya1s Test o" the New (nternational 2rder' Broo#ings (nstitution' 6e!ruary 2:' 2011 < Sar#o4y warns Ara! rulers a!out 0i!ya precedent' -u2!server' +arch 2C' 2011

Instead o) listenin% to t(eir own !eo!le# 2resident $ssad is +la"in% outsiders w(ile see.in% Iranian assistance in re!ressin% Syria>s citi6ens t(rou%( t(e sa"e +rutal tactics t(at (a,e +een used +y (is Iranian allies.C While the Syrian govern ent initially credited $ar ed groups3 and roo"top snipers with co itting acts o" violence against protestors and security "orces' reports !y outlets such as $l45a6eera relied solely on anony ous accounts o" the opposition' who have continued to push the o""icial narrative o" an unprovo#ed govern ent crac#down on Syria1s civilian population& $l45a6eera1s article' $DNine #illed1 at Syria "uneral processions'3 included testi ony "ro one o" their correspondents on the ground who stated: ?2eo!le "arc(in% on an o,er!ass@ were "et wit( a (ail o) %un)ire# "any !eo!le certainly wounded directly in )ront o) us# cars turned around# and I can tell you it was an incredi+ly c(aotic scene# and it see"s as t(ou%( !retty "uc( e,eryone down (ere in t(e sout(ern !art o) t(e country is now carryin% wea!ons. It is unclear w(o was )irin% at w(o"# t(at>s !art o) t(e con)usion ... +ut clearly a ,ery ,iolent incident now +ein% carried out (ere in t(e sout( o) t(e country.: Though cryptic' this description see ed to corro!orate the Syrian govern ent1s assertion that they weren1t the only ones with guns& As reports o" ystery gun en and roo"top snipers continued to e erge' events that un"olded hal"way around the world in Thailand shared identical patterns with the state,sponsored desta!ili4ation !eing underta#en in southern Syria& 2n April 10th' 2010' the Thai ilitary atte pted to disperse red,shirted supporters o" !illionaire teleco unications tycoon and e*iled political leader Tha#sin Shinawatra at Bang#o#1s $.e ocracy +onu ent3& The ilitary e ployed the use o" water cannons and ru!!er !ullets when a group o" un#nown gun en intervened with a co !ination o" grenade attac#s and sniper "ire that #illed the Thai ilitary1s Colonel 8o #lao and si* other soldiers& Troops i ediately "ell !ac# in disarray' while protesters were divided in con"usion and adulation& The ystery gun en weaved through the protesters "iring sporadically at Thai troops who returned "ire& (n total' 2= died& While the protesters were entirely unaware o" the ga !it' it is unli#ely that even the security guards #new o" the i pending attac#' as any i ediately rushed in to protect "allen soldiers "ro aggressive protesters' while gun !attles continued elsewhere& (t was Buite clear that a highly trained' well prepared third party was involved' and unli#e in Syria where "ew "oreigners venture and "ewer ca eras see to !e sending !ac# "ootage' !oth "oreign and do estic' a ateur and pro"essional "ootage caught the elee on tape& (nitial !lan#et denials !y protest leaders Buic#ly !eca e piece eal con"essions as "ootage o" these $ en in !lac#3 "iltered out& (nternational spo#es an "or the protesters' Sean Boonpracong' told euters that ele ents o" the ar y were with their ove ent' including the !lac#,clad ystery gun en that too#

C Blood!ath New Threat to Assad' The Sydney +orning 7erald' April 2=' 2011 : DNine #illed1 at Syria "uneral processions' Al,Aa4eera' April 2=' 2011

part in the April 10th !lood!ath&? 7e stated' $They are a secret unit within the ar y that disagrees with what1s going on& Without the ' the !lac#,clad en' there would have !een a whole lot ore deaths and in)uries&3 The suspected leader o" these gun en' renegade general /hattiya Sawasdipol' #nown as $Seh .aeng'3 "urther da ned earlier denials !y ad itting to co anding =00 ar ed en trained "or DDclose encounters'11 ar ed with +?> grenade launchers' !e"ore withdrawing his co ent in later interviews&9 6ro April 10th' until the widespread arson that ar#ed the end o" the protests on +ay 1>th' daily and nightly gun !attles' grenade attac#s' and sniper "ire would clai the lives o" >1 people& This included > soldiers and police' a wo an #illed !y an +?> grenade attac#' and at least one protester who died o" s o#e inhalation while looting a !uilding lit !y "ellow protesters& The re aining 90 deaths included )ournalists' !ystanders' edical wor#ers' and protesters caught in the cross"ire& To e*plain why such a !lood!ath was necessary' Sean Boonpracong' a"ter ad itting the ystery gun en were wor#ing on his ove ent1s !ehal"' gave another !reathta#ing con"ession in an April 2<th interview& When as#ed why protest leaders had turned down a govern ent o""er to hold "resh elections in > onths' he responded !y saying that' a"ter the April 10th incident' they "elt Thai @ri e +inister A!hisit Ee))a)iva1s hands were $tainted with !lood3 and that it would !e !est i" the Thai @arlia ent was dissolved& 7e continued !y stating the protest1s de ands had changed to i ediate dissolution as well as @ri e +inister A!hisit1s leaving the country& Tragic events in Thailand provide a vivid e*a ple F co plete with !ra4en ad issions F o" how $ ystery gun en3 "or hire were used to "o ent grotesBue spectacles used to distort realities in "avor o" opposition groups supported "ro a!road& Their violence serves two purposes' to create enough chaos and !loodshed to "orce a govern ent to step down' or to )usti"y escalating anger and violence a ongst the unsuspecting regular ran# and "ile protesters& (n the Syrian conte*t' reports o" ystery gun en and $death sBuads3 escalated the situation dra atically' at the e*pense o" thousands o" civilian causalities& 8eports issued !y (ran1s $l4$la" Ara!ic 0anguage News Networ# descri!ed how snipers lin#ed to Saudi Ara!ia and the A erican C(A were operating in Syria to purpose"ully assassinate protesters in order to e*pand unrest& The reports descri!e a otorcycle driver delivering a sniper to a !uilding !e"ore speeding o""& 2nce in position' the sniper "ires on protesters& Syrian security "orces surround the !uilding and a shootout allegedly ta#es place& The te*t concludes stating that the sniper is in)ured and ta#en to a hospital& $l4$la"1s report and "ootage would corro!orate !oth govern ent and eyewitness accounts cited !y international edia' stating that $snipers on roo"tops3 were shooting at protesters& While $rights activists3 assu e the snipers are security "orces' the govern ent aintains that gun en have opened "ire on protesters and security "orces ali#e& A CNN report "ro April 2011 cited a Syrian o""icial who stated that' $an un#nown Dar ed group on roo"tops shot at protesters and security "orces&3 > Activists ? 8ed eans stop' and anger' in vi!rant Thai protest' 8euters' April 2010 9 D8ed Co
ander1 saw hi sel" as Thai Willia Wallace' The Age' +ay 1>' 2010

> 8eports o" "uneral' police shootings raise tensions in Syria' CNN' April 0C' 2011

said they !elieve the people on the roo"tops were snipers "ro security "orces !ut have put "orth no evidence !eyond $witness accounts&3 China1s 9in(uaNet reported ultiple incidents across Syria where ar ed gangs had clashed with security "orces #illing e !ers on !oth sides& 2ne attac# clai ed the lives o" 9 !ystanders& 2""icial state edia in Syria presented evidence that groups had !een caught with non, Syrian S(+ cards in their phones along with eBuip ent used to stage acts o" violence&10 An April 2011 2p,-d released !y the Broo#ings (nstitution titled' $(n Syria' Assad +ust -*it the Stage'3 descri!es how the cycle o" violence initiated !y $ ysterious gun en$ targeting "unerals is cited as the line Assad had crossed , which now reBuires his departure "ro power& The article states: Wit( t(e cycle o) e,er4increasin% !rotests "et +y re%i"e ,iolence and t(en "ore )unerals intensi)yin% in all areas o) t(e country# it is ti"e )or $ssad# t(e A=a"let> o) t(e $ra+ world# to consider (is )uture. It is ti"e )or (i" and t(ose w(o in)luence (i" a+road to searc( )or a swi)t and orderly e/it.11 By late April' NAT2 continued to en"orce a no,"ly 4one over 0i!ya while conducting air stri#es in support o" the ilitant opposition& As was the case with 7osni +u!ara# and +ua ar ;adda"i !e"ore hi ' 5S Senators Aohn +cCain' 0indsey ;raha ' and Aoe 0ie!er an issued a )oint state ent declaring that that Bashar al, Assad had $lost the legiti acy to re ain in power in Syria&3 They continued !y stating: at(er t(an (ed%in% our +ets or "a.in% e/cuses )or t(e $ssad re%i"e# it is ti"e )or t(e 3nited States# to%et(er wit( our allies in ;uro!e and around t(e world# to ali%n oursel,es uneBui,ocally wit( t(e Syrian !eo!le in t(eir !eace)ul de"and )or a de"ocratic %o,ern"ent.12 The 5S Senators1 state ents re ain uneBuivocally dishonest' as +cCain and ;raha are !oth e !ers o" the (nternational 8epu!lican (nstitute' an organi4ation openly i plicated !y the New :or. Ti"es in "unding opposition groups who too# part in the $Ara! Spring&3 0i#ewise' 0ie!er an is a e !er o" the Neo,Conservative lo!!ying "ir deceptively na ed the $6oundation "or .e"ense o" .e ocracies G6..H'3 which "eatures a host o" @ro)ect "or a New A erican Century G@NACH signatories including Willia /ristol' 8ichard @erle' Aa es Woolsey' and @aula .o!rians#y' as well as Council on 6oreign 8elations e !ers' Newt ;ingrich and Charles /rautha er& While e !ers o" the A erican political esta!lish ent readily denounce "oreign govern ents "or their general non,acBuiescence' the su!stantial support given to political opposition groups has wor#ed to "o ent civil unrest and en"la e do estic tensions in target nations around the world&

10 +o!ile @hones 5sing non,Syrian S(+ Cards' SANA News Agency' April 2=' 2011 11 (n Syria' Assad +ust -*it the Stage' Broo#ings (nstitution' April 2?' 2011 12 2!a a 5nder @ressure to Call "or Syrian 0eader1s 2uster' 62I News' April 2>' 2011

Washington had see ingly reached a consensus regarding the need "or regi e change in Syria and' !y 2011' it !eca e clear that they were willing to e ploy their long,standing connections to (sla ist networ#s such as the +usli Brotherhood' to !olster opposition "orces and leverage control away "ro .a ascus& The Was(in%ton 2ost reports that' since 200C' !oth the Bush and 2!a a ad inistrations contri!uted "unding to Syrian opposition groups a""iliated with the +usli Brotherhood& The article cites how the ca paign to provide support to anti,govern ent groups in Syria transcended two presidential ad inistrations: T(e 3.S. "oney )or Syrian o!!osition )i%ures +e%an )lowin% under 2resident Geor%e W. Bus( a)ter (e e))ecti,ely )ro6e !olitical ties wit( Da"ascus in 2001. T(e )inancial +ac.in% (as continued under 2resident 8+a"a# e,en as (is ad"inistration sou%(t to re+uild relations wit( $ssad. Syrian aut(orities 'would undou+tedly ,iew any 3.S. )unds %oin% to ille%al !olitical %rou!s as tanta"ount to su!!ortin% re%i"e c(an%e#” read an $!ril 200C ca+le si%ned +y t(e to!4ran.in% 3.S. di!lo"at in Da"ascus at t(e ti"e. '$ reassess"ent o) current 3.S.4s!onsored !ro%ra""in% t(at su!!orts anti4?%o,ern"ent@ )actions# +ot( inside and outside Syria# "ay !ro,e !roducti,e#” t(e ca+le said. ;d%ar DasBue6# a State De!art"ent s!o.es"an# said t(e <iddle ;ast 2artners(i! Initiati,e (as allocated EF.1 "illion )or Syrian !ro%ra"s since 2001. $ ca+le )ro" t(e e"+assy in Da"ascus# (owe,er# !e%%ed a "uc( (i%(er total * a+out E12 "illion * +etween 2001 and 2010. T(e ca+les re!ort !ersistent )ears a"on% 3.S. di!lo"ats t(at Syrian state security a%ents (ad unco,ered t(e "oney trail )ro" Was(in%ton. 1= (n 2002' then 5S 5nder Secretary o" State Aohn Bolton' would add Syria to the growing $A*is o" -vil&3 (t would !e later revealed that Bolton1s threats against Syria would ani"est the selves as covert "unding and support "or opposition groups inside o" Syria& (n an April 2011 $72 report' +ichael @osner' the Assistant 5S Secretary o" State "or .e ocracy' 7u an 8ights and 0a!or' stated that the $5S govern ent has !udgeted JC0 illion in the last two years to develop new technologies to help activists protect the selves "ro arrest and prosecution !y authoritarian govern ents&3 The report went on to e*plain that the 5S $organi4ed training sessions "or C'000 activists in di""erent parts o" the world& A session held in the +iddle -ast a!out si* wee#s ago gathered activists "ro Tunisia' -gypt' Syria and 0e!anon who returned to their countries with the ai o" training their colleagues there&3 @osner would add' $They went !ac# and there1s a ripple e""ect&3 That ripple e""ect' o" course' descri!es the course o" events that led to Syria1s internal political crisis escalating into an anarchic sectarian war& 1< %ears o" covert support to Syrian opposition groups "ro the 5S State .epart ent re ains signi"icant' especially considering that recipients were reportedly a""iliated with the Syrian +usli Brotherhood' a group that has historically atte pted ultiple uprisings since the 1>:01s and long conde ned Syria1s inority Alawi,Shia groups as heretics& Glo+al 2ost1s article titled' $6ree Syrian Ar y plagued !y division'$ con"ir s that seg ents o" the ilitants !attling Syrian security "orces are !eing 1= 5&S& secretly !ac#ed Syrian opposition groups' ca!les released !y Wi#i0ea#s show' The Washington @ost' April 19' 2011 1< 5S trains activists to evade security "orces' A6@' April 9' 2011

drawn "ro the Brotherhoods1 ran#s& The +usli Brotherhood is an organi4ation al ost as o nipresent as +(: or the C(A and coincidentally is wor#ing in tande with other 5S,"unded $youth activists3 across the region&1C The +usli Brotherhood1s history in Syria goes !ac# decades& According to a Brandeis 5niversity pu!lication titled' $The Syrian +usli Brotherhood and the Asad 8egi e'$ in 1>?> the Brotherhood' also called the $(#hwan'3 attac#ed and assacred =2 Syrian ilitary cadets& This was part o" a larger ca paign o" violence conducted !y the Brotherhood that also included assassination atte pts against the Syrian president& The escalating ca paign o" violence was the pri ary i petus "or their cornering and destruction at the hands o" the Syrian ilitary in the city o" 7a ah in 1>92& A"ter their de"eat' any e !ers "led Syria and esta!lished operations in 0ondon&1: While corporate edia outlets and govern ent press releases accused the Syrian govern ent o" #illing civilians' do estic Syrian press reported the presence o" ar ed terrorist groups' !randishing up,to,date A erican and (sraeli weapons' roa ing the .a ascene countryside co itting !lind acts o" terror !y setting o"" e*plosive devices and #idnapping civilians& The original Ara! 0eague 2!server +ission to Syria report conducted "ro .ece !er 2<th' 2011 to Aanuary 19th' 2012 con"ir s the allegations o" Syrian state edia&1? The contents o" the report were largely overloo#ed !y the ainstrea edia a"ter Katar disputed its "indings' the only nation to do so in the Ara! 0eague1s +inisterial Co ittee& The report unwaveringly concluded that the Syrian govern ent was not conducting a ca paign o" repression against peace"ul protestors& 6urther ore' the report credits ar ed gangs with the !o !ing o" civilian !uses' trains carrying diesel oil' police !uses' and the !o !ing o" !ridges and pipelines& .uring an interview with Ara! 0eague o!server Ah ed +anaL' he conde ns the Ara! 0eague "or its "ailure to ac#nowledge the o!servers1 "indings' stating: T(e $ra+ Lea%ue is entirely discredited +y +uryin% t(e re!ort o) its own o+ser,ers> "ission and its a!!eal to t(e Security Council. It "issed t(e o!!ortunity to !artici!ate in t(e settle"ent o) t(e Syrian a))air. $ll it can o))er in t(e )uture will +e wort(less. 19 Since late April 2011' the Syrian govern ent !egan "reBuently issuing reports o" ysterious gun en who were opening "ire on protesters and security "orces "ro roo"tops& While the Western ainstrea edia atte pted to dis iss these "reBuently cited reports as groundless Syrian propaganda' the rising death toll o" govern ent troops certainly could not !e attri!uted to $unar ed civilians& By early +arch 2011' ultiple reports sur"aced accusing NAT2 o" training re!el "ighters in 1C 6ree Syrian Ar y plagued !y division' ;lo!al @ost' +arch 10' 2012 1: The Syrian +usli Brotherhood and the Asad 8egi e' Brandeis 5niversity' .ece !er 2010 1? 8eport o" Ara! 0eague 2!server +ission' 0eague o" Ara! States' Aanurary 2?' 2012 19 The o!server Ah ed +anaL $The Ara! 0eague has !uried the o!servers report on Syria'3 Nawaat' 6e!ruary 09' 2012

0i!ya and using un ar#ed aircra"ts to transport ar ed "ighters to air !ases in Tur#ey to assist the 6ree Syrian Ar y& The ;/a"iner reports: T(e )i%(ters are +ein% recruited )ro" t(e ,arious Li+yan "ilitias# w(ic( )ou%(t t(e Gadda)i re%i"e. $+out &#000 (a,e ,olunteered to )i%(t wit( anti4$ssad )orces# acce!tin% t(e o))er o) E1#000 si%nin% +onus# in addition to a "ont(ly wa%e o) E&10 G !aid )or# accordin% to so"e uncon)ir"ed re!orts in )res(ly !rinted Acris!> +rand new $"erican E100 dollar +ills# leadin% so"e to +elie,e t(at t(is is 3S ta/!ayer )unds +ein% used (ere. 3!on landin% in Tur.ey# t(e Li+yan )i%(ters and t(e ar"s s(i!"ents are o))loaded )ro" t(e !lanes and t(en loaded on truc.s to 7ree Syrian $r"y +ases# "ost o) w(ic( are located in t(e Is.enderun re%ion o) Tur.ey on t(e +order o) nort(western Syria. T(ey recei,e "ilitary trainin% )ro" Western# Tur.is( and $ra+ ar"y instructors# as well as ci,ilian security consultants and e/4s!ecial )orces trainers )ro" t(e 3S# Britain# 7rance# Italy# Saudi $ra+ia# 5ordan and Hatar. 1> (n $0i!ya1s new rulers o""er weapons to Syrian re!els'3 The Tele%ra!( reported that e !ers o" the 0i!yan National Transition Council et with e !ers o" the Syrian National Council to o""er oney' training and weapons to Syrian re!el "ighters&20 According to 0i!yan ilitary sources' A!dulha#i Belhad)' head o" the Tripoli +ilitary Council and the "or er leader o" the ilitant 0i!yan (sla ic 6ighting ;roup G5S State .epart ent listed Terrorist 2rgani4ation M29H' et with 6ree Syrian Ar y leaders in (stan!ul' on the orders o" +usta"a A!dul Aalil' @resident o" the National Transition Council& Belhad)' who had "ought with the Tali!an against 5S troops in A"ghanistan' was captured !y the C(A in +alaysia in 200= and e*tradited to 0i!ya where +ua ar ;adda"i had hi i prisoned& Studies conducted !y the Co !ating Terroris Center at the 5S +ilitary Acade y at West @oint analy4ing "oreign ilitants who ca e to (raB to "ight A erican and coalition "orces conclude that 0i!ya provided the highest nu !er o" "oreign "ighters per capita& 21 The vast a)ority o" "ighters ca e "ro .ernah' a town a!out 200 # east o" Bengha4i' in which an (sla ic e irate was declared when the re!ellion against ;adda"i started& 0i!yan re!el leader A!dulha#i Belhad) would also ad it that "ighters "ro his 0i!yan (sla ic 6ighting ;roup were the second,largest !rigade o" "oreign "ighters in (raB& The Iris( Ti"es would report that +ahdi al,7arati' a deputy chie" o" the 0i!yan +ilitary Council' had resigned "ro his duties in Tripoli to oversee the 6ree Syrian Ar y&22 This vast !ody o" docu ented evidence and ad issions show the direct connection !etween the Western,!ac#ed ilitant "orces that were tas#ed with toppling the ;adda"i regi e' and those wor#ing toward the sa e outco e in Syria& 1> 5S helping to train and ar (sla ic ercenaries to "ight in Syria' The -*a iner' +arch >' 2012 20 0i!ya1s new rulers o""er weapons to Syrian re!els' The Telegraph' Nove !er 2C' 2011 21 Al,Ka1iada1s 6oreign 6ighters in (raB' Co !ating Terroris Center At West @oint' .ece !er 1>'
200?

22 0i!yan,(rish co 2cto!er 11' 2011

ander resigns as deputy head o" Tripoli

ilitary council' The (rish Ti es'

As Syrian state TE !roadcasted reports showing sei4ed weapons stoc#piles and con"essions !y terrorists descri!ing how they o!tained ar s "ro "oreign sources' Western edia entirely dis issed the reports and continued to under ine the legiti acy o" the Syrian state edia& Within the pages o" the $s(arB $l4$wsat newspaper G!ased in 0ondon and "unded !y Saudi Ara!iaH' 7illary Clinton )oined Barac# 2!a a' Nicholas Sar#o4y' and .avid Ca eron in the unusual trend o" Western political leaders writing newspaper editorials in an atte pt to rein"orce the ever,changing' contradictory o""icial narrative o" events in Syria& Clinton1s article entitled' $There is no going !ac# in Syria'3 states: I) 2resident $ssad +elie,es t(at t(e !rotests are t(e wor. o) )orei%n insti%ators 44 as (is %o,ern"ent (as clai"ed 44 (e is wron%. It is true t(at so"e Syrian soldiers (a,e +een .illed# and we re%ret t(e loss o) t(ose li,es too. But t(e ,ast "aIority o) casualties (a,e +een unar"ed ci,ilians.2= Clinton1s own ad ission that Syrian soldiers have died indicates that indeed' ar ed individuals were a ongst the protesters& -*traordinarily' Clinton anages to !oth con"ir and deny the violent nature o" the protests !y stating that while Syrian troops have died' the vast a)ority o" the deaths Gaccording to unveri"ied reports !y the protesters the selvesH were $unar ed civilians&3 Throughout 7illary Clinton1s lengthy diatri!e' she "ailed to even once conde n the violence she hinted at a ongst the opposition& Articles such as the C(ristian Science <onitor1s $7as Syria1s peace"ul uprising turned into an insurrectionN$ atte pted to spin increasing reports o" Syrian re!el groups co itting violence in an e""ort to negate the insurrectionary nature o" the Syrian con"lict since its origins in .araa&2< The article suggested that the Syrian govern ent is un)usti"ia!ly using violence against its own people and has thus' $!rought it on the selves3 in regard to the increasing violence e*ercised !y the ilitant opposition& Syria1s o!ili4ation o" entire ar ored divisions and ilitary aircra"t would not !e necessary i" protesters were erely carrying placards and chanting slogans& (n Aune 2011' 6rance would ad it to violating the ter s o" 5N 8esolution 1>?= !y ar ing 0i!ya1s re!els' who were re"erred to as $peace"ul protestors3 until the esta!lish ent o" the no,"ly 4one' "ro which point they were lent additional weapons when it !eca e clear they could not ta#e the country !y the selves& By late Auly 2011' violence continued uni peded in Syria as supporters o" the re!el "ighters' perpetuating the ongoing unrest' would de"end their actions !y clai ing that protesters were erely de"ending the selves against a genocidal govern ent' even as ainstrea outlets such as S.y News report that a Syrian ar y assault in 7a ah $pro pted opposition gun en to "ire achine guns and set police stations on "ire&3 Tur#ey clai ed it sei4ed a Syrian ship allegedly carrying weapons' declaring its intentions to en"orce an $ar s e !argo3 on the state "or its $!rutal crac#down on the country1s uprising&3 Tur#ey1s @ri e +inister' 8ecep Tayyip -rdoOan' stated that Tur#ey was $coordinating its e""orts3 with Washington in its !id to pressure Syrian 2= 2p,-d: $There (s No ;oing Bac# in Syria'3 5&S .epart ent o" State 2""icial Blog' Aune 1?' 2011 2< 7as Syria1s peace"ul uprising turned into an insurrectionN' Christian Science +onitor' Aune >'
2011

president Bashar al,Assad to resign !y en"orcing a strict regi e o" sanctions against the nation&2C While the Tur#ish state conde ns the alleged reports o" state violence co itted !y the Syrian govern ent' An#ara itsel" has !een waging a decades,long ca paign o" violence against its own ar ed uprising in predo inately /urdish areas !ordering Syria' (raB' and (ran& (n "act' at one point' the 5S allowed Tur#ish tan#s to cross into A erican,occupied (raB to attac# villages suspected o" har!oring ar ed /urdish separatists in 2009' irroring the very tactics -rdoOan has conde ned Syria "or allegedly using& The Guardian reported in a 2009 article' $(raB de ands Tur#ey withdraw "ro !order con"lict with /urds'3 that the con"lict had !een raging since 1>9< and had cost the lives o" <0'000 people&2: While Tur#ey1s @ri e +inister lectured neigh!oring Syria on its !id to crush "oreign,"unded' ar ed ilitants atte pting to overthrow the Assad govern ent' the Tur#ish govern ent was preparing to aug ent its co pli ent o" (sraeli drones with a deploy ent o" 5S @redator drones on its soil to co !at /urdish ilitants operating within its territory& The $ssociated 2ress reported in an article titled' $Tur#ey: 5S li#ely to deploy @redator drones'3 that Tur#ey was $pressing "or the drones in an escalating war against /urdish re!els&3 Tur#ey' in addition to deploying drones and rolling tan#s into towns suspected o" har!oring ilitants' has also stra"ed suspected re!el strongholds with airstri#es and conducted sweeping nationwide ass arrests& (n other words' Tur#ey has historically co itted the sa e aggressive acts that Syria was accused o" co itting in its e""ort to overco e insurgent violence directed at the state and civilians&2? $"nesty International' =u"an i%(ts Watc(' and a yriad o" disingenuous hu an rights advocate groups re ained predicta!ly silent regarding Tur#ey1s actions' even as An#ara unilaterally crossed !orders in pursuit o" ilitants' an egregious transgression against its neigh!ors1 sovereignty& ;roups such as 6reedo 7ouse' e!orters Wit(out Borders' and (nternational 6ederation "or 7u an 8ights G6(.7H' all o" which receive "unding "ro the 5S State .epart ent and Wall Street "inanciers such as ;eorge Soros' de onstrate the way in which these conde nations are selectively applied& Syrian /urds have allegedly participated in the uprising against the Assad govern ent' "urther e*panding the irony o" Tur#ey1s intrusions into Syria1s do estic a""airs& The 5erusale" 2ost also reported that /urdish $activists3 living a!road' convened in -urope to call on Syria1s /urdish inority to )oin the uprising& 29 The /urds have !een the historical pro*y o" choice "or Western powers and their client states to desta!ili4e and harass target nations throughout the +iddle -ast with a 2C Syrian Civilians D/illed (n Tan# Attac#1' S#y News' Auly =1' 2011 2: (raB de ands Tur#ey withdraw "ro !order con"lict with /urds' The ;uardian' 6e!ruary 29'
2009

2? Tur#ey: 5S li#ely to deploy @redator drones' Associated @ress' Septe !er 2<' 2011 29 Syrian /urds unite a id onslaught' The Aerusale @ost' Septe !er :' 2011

certain degree o" $plausi!le denia!ility&3 By early Septe !er 2011' $l45a6eera Ga networ# "unded !y the govern ent o" Katar' a nation i plicated in providing ar s to the Syrian oppositionH laid to rest the "a!le that Syria1s protesters are $peace"ul' pro, de ocracy de onstrators'3 !y ad itting that they were ar ed and responsi!le "or the urder o" over ?00 e !ers o" Syria1s security "orces in a "eature titled' $Syria: The revolution will !e weaponised&3 .espite ad itting that hundreds o" Syria1s security "orces died during onths o" in"ighting with re!el "orces' $l45a6eera>s article isrepresented the situation !y clai ing that' $only now'3 were protesters thin#ing a!out ar ing the selves and that the Syrian ilitaries1 heavy losses were the result o" isolated' ar ed opposition groups&2> (t is through this purpose"ully distorted lens that calls "or ilitary intervention would continually !e ade& A"ter onths o" denying the e*istence o" insurrectionary ele ents within the Syrian opposition' the 5S,!ased Council on 6oreign 8elations issued reports con"ir ing that' not only were the $protesters3 ar ed' !ut that re!el "orces on the ground collectively "or ed a resistance ar y o" 1C'000 "ighters& The C68 clai ed this $6ree Syrian Ar y3 was reBuesting weapons and air support' despite docu ented reports o" weapons !eing s uggled past Syria1s !orders "ro "oreign, supporters' ost nota!ly' Tur#ey' 0e!anon' (srael' and 0i!ya&=0 C681s report then goes on to e*plore the options availa!le to NAT2 "or "acilitating $regi e change'3 including the use o" $overhead surveillance assets' logistical ena!lers' peace#eepers' ar ed drones' co !at aircra"t' ground troops'3 and $s uggled weapons&3 The clai s o" a large' ar ed ilitant "orce operating inside o" Syria directly contradicted the West1s concurrent narrative that Syria1s ilitary is running ra pant and #illing de"enseless civilians& With an ar y o" $1C'000 de"ectors3 atte pting to sei4e the nation !y "orce' with the help o" "oreign oney' weapons' and diplo atic support' one "inds it di""icult to !elieve the Syrian govern ent would instead !e spending its ti e conducting assacres& 7rance2& reported that Syria1s +usli Brotherhood would clai responsi!ility "or two suicide !o !ings in .a ascus that #illed << people in .ece !er 2011' citing an o""icial ad ission on the group1s we!site: 8ne o) our ,ictorious Sunni +ri%ades was a+le to tar%et t(e state security +uildin% in J)ar Suse( in t(e (eart o) t(e 8"ayyad ca!ital Da"ascus in a success)ul o!eration carried out +y )our o) our .a"i.a6es drawn )ro" t(e +est o) our %lorious "en# lea,in% "any dead and wounded )ro" t(e ran.s o) t(e $ssad %an%s. =1 (n 6e!ruary 2012' !oth 8ussia and China e*ercised their in"luence in the 5nited Nations Security Council !y vetoing a resolution to intervene in Syria on grounds that doing so would co prise Syrian national sovereignty' pro pting "iery rhetoric "ro representatives o" the 5nited States& 5S A !assador to the 5nited Nations' Susan 8ice' called the veto $disgusting and sha e"ul'3 while 5S Secretary o" State 7illary Clinton la ented' $What happened yesterday at the 5nited Nations was a 2> Syria: The revolution will !e weaponised' Al,Aa4eera' Septe !er 2=' 2011 =0 Syria: +ilitary (ntervention A 0a Carte' Council on 6oreign 8elations' Nove !er 29' 2011 =1 Thousands )oin Syrian "uneral cere ony' @ressTE' .ece !er 2<' 2012

travesty&3 The opposition Syrian National Council said it held +oscow and Bei)ing $responsi!le "or the escalating acts o" #illing and genocideP it considers this an irresponsi!le step that is tanta ount to a license to #ill with i punity&3 =2 == The diplo atic divergence that had un"olded at the 5nited Nations would lead to the "or ation o" the $6riends o" Syria3 group' a id calls !y "or er 6rench @resident Nicolas Sar#o4y to "or a $group o" li#e inded nations to coordinate assistance to the Syrian opposition'3 adding' $6rance is not giving up&3 =< 7istory is a star# re inder o" the disingenuous intent o" diplo atic support "ro @aris& Aust as the 6rench colonial ad inistration e ployed the use o" "oreign soldiers to s other those see#ing to a!olish the 6rench, andated protectorate' 7KdKration Syrienne# so too are the 6rench i plicated in ar ing and supporting "oreign "ighters against Syria& Aust as 6rench planes !o !ed .a ascus into su! ission while "or er @ri e +inister 6aris al,/houry argued the case "or Syrian independence !e"ore 5nited Nations in 1><C' 6rance has again shown its willingness to pro ote the idea o" ilitary intervention' using air superiority to pu el the Assad govern ent& -uropean govern ents would not !e the only political entities to withdraw support "ro the Syrian govern entP e erging "igures in the Ara! world would also capitulate to Western pressure& 0i#ewise' in Tunisia' the recently installed @resident +once" +ar4ou#i Ghead o" the "oundation,"unded Tunisian 0eague "or 7u an 8ights' a recipient o" "unds directly "ro the 5S State .epart ent through the National -ndow ent "or .e ocracy and ;eorge Soros1 2pen Society (nstituteH withdrew Tunisia1s recognition o" the Syrian govern ent' pro pting the e*pulsion o" Syrian a !assadors "ro Tunis and its newly,instated allies in the region&=C (n 0i!ya' Washington1s support "or insurgent "orces continued una!ated' despite a growing census concerned with rouge (sla ist ele ents ta#ing part& (n an atte pt to address those concerns' 5S Senator Aohn +cCain visited 0i!ya prior to the "all o" ;adda"i to address crowds gathered outside Bengha4i1s historic courthouse and pledged J2C illion in "oreign assistance to the 0i!yan opposition' stating: I (a,e "et wit( t(ese +ra,e )i%(ters# and t(ey are not al4Haeda. To t(e contrary: T(ey are Li+yan !atriots w(o want to li+erate t(eir nation. We s(ould (el! t(e" do it. =:

=2 8ussia and China1s Syria veto Ddisgusting and sha e"ul1' says 5S' The ;uardian' 6e!ruary 0?'
2012

== Syria crisis: 7illary Clinton calls 5N veto Dtravesty'1 BBC' 6e!ruary 0C' 2012 =< 8ussia and China Bloc# 5&N& Action on Crisis in Syria' The New %or# Ti es' 6e!ruary 0<' 2012 =C Tunisia $to withdraw recognition3 o" Syria govern ent' 8euters' 6e!ruary <' 2012 =: STAT-+-NT B% S-NAT28 +cCA(N (N B-N;7AQ(' 0(B%A' 5nited States Senator Aohn +cCain' April 22' 2011

By +arch 2012' the very sa e Bengha4i courthouse "lew the !lac# "lags o" Al Kaeda&=? +cCain atte pted to deceive the world in the pursuit o" supporting operatives o" 5S State .epart ent,listed terrorist organi4ations' ilitants "ro the eastern region1s 0i!yan (sla ic 6ighting ;roup G0(6;H' who "ought in !oth A"ghanistan and (raB against A erican "orces& +cCain would not only rhetorically support terrorists' !ut also provide the with aterial support including weapons' "unds' training' and air support in direct violation o" 5SC R 2==>A & 2==>B' $providing aterial support or resources to designated "oreign terrorist organi4ations&3 +cCain1s organi4ation' the (nternational 8epu!lican (nstitute G(8(H' was entioned !y na e in the New %or# Ti es "or contri!uting support to opposition ele ents throughout the Ara! world' prior to the events o" the $Ara! Spring&3 (n an April 2011 article pu!lished !y the New %or# Ti es titled' $5&S& ;roups 7elped Nurture Ara! 5prisings'3 it was stated: $ nu"+er o) t(e %rou!s and indi,iduals directly in,ol,ed in t(e re,olts and re)or"s swee!in% t(e re%ion# includin% t(e $!ril L :out( <o,e"ent in ;%y!t# t(e Ba(rain Center )or =u"an i%(ts and %rass4roots acti,ists li.e ;ntsar Had(i# a yout( leader in :e"en# recei,ed trainin% and )inancin% )ro" %rou!s li.e t(e International e!u+lican Institute# t(e National De"ocratic Institute and 7reedo" =ouse# a non!ro)it (u"an ri%(ts or%ani6ation +ased in Was(in%ton.=9 While o""icials in +oscow voiced their severe agitation with Washington1s re"usal to provide legal guarantees that A erica1s anti,!allistic issile syste proposed "or construction in -astern -urope would not !e used to target 8ussia' +cCain taunted heads o" state o" in !oth 8ussia and China at the height o" unrest in North A"rica !y clai ing: I would +e a little less coc.y in t(e Jre"lin wit( "y JGB cronies today i) I were Dladi"ir 2utin. I would +e a little less secure in t(e seaside resort o) 2resident =u and a )ew "en w(o %o,ern and decide t(e )ate o) 1.0 +illion !eo!le.=> +cCain1s (8( would !e instru ental in generating dou!t regarding the validity o" 8ussia1s presidential elections !y "unding several 5S,!ac#ed N;2s' particularly ;202S' an independent electoral co ission see#ing to $e*pose voting irregularities'3 a id widespread criticis "ro 8ussian law a#ers and o!server groups& ;eorgy 6yodorov' chie" e*ecutive o" 8ussian o!server association Civil Control stated: T(ey (a,e a clear desta+ili6in% tactic- t(ey are care)ully conditionin% t(e !u+lic to (ear so"e A+rea.in%> news o) election )raud. T(e "edia will (a,e a )ield day ta!in% t(e ensuin% clas(es +etween !ro4Jre"lin and nationalist yout( +ein% dis!ersed +y s!ecial !olice. T(is .ind o) )oota%e would dilute any re"ainin% trust in ussian elections. <0 =? Bengha4i: A Sea o" Al,Kaeda 6lags' National 8eview 2nline' Nove !er 0C' 2011 =9 5&S& ;roups 7elped Nurture Ara! 5prisings' The New %or# Ti es' April 1<' 2011 => +cCain: -gypt 8evolution Will 7ave 8ipple -""ect Across the ;lo!e' 62I News' 6e!ruary 1='
2011

+cCain1s role in the atte pted desta!ili4ation o" 8ussia would pale in co parison to his !ellicose rhetoric on Syria' where he has ta#en every opportunity to call "or assisting Syrian opposition "ighters !y suggesting the use o" "orce against .a ascus& +cCain would call "or 5S airstri#es on Syria' pro oting the use o" A erica1s ilitary while !eing una!le to cite any credi!le or i inent threat to 5S territorial security' a see ingly punisha!le o""ense or' at ini u ' a sign o" ental insta!ility and grounds "or dis issing the ageing Senator& 0i#e +cCain' 0i!ya1s newly appointed @ri e +inister' "or er @etroleu (nstitute chair an A!durrahi el,/ei!' would "latly deny allegations !y 8ussian 5N A !assador Eitaly Chur#in that 0i!ya was directly "unding' training' and ar ing ilitants in Syria& -l,/ei!1s denial stands in direct contradiction o" reports li#e the Tele%ra!(1s $0eading 0i!yan (sla ist et Syrian Ar y 2pposition ;roup'3 where it was reported' $the new 0i!yan authorities had o""ered oney and weapons to the growing insurgency against Bashar al,Assad&3 <1 .uring tal#s with 0i!ya1s el,/ei!' 5S Secretary o" State 7illary Clinton would ad it that the 5S was organi4ing the Syrian opposition into a "ront si ilar to what the 5S and NAT2 had asse !led in 0i!ya !e"ore co encing onths o" NAT2 !o !ard ent' leading to devastating sieges o" the cities o" Tripoli' Bani Walid' and Sirte& Clinton would conclude: 5ust t(in.# t(is ti"e last year# t(e 3nited States was wor.in% to +uild an international coalition o) su!!ort )or t(e Li+yan !eo!le# and today# we are !roud to continue t(at su!!ort as t(e !eo!le o) Li+ya +uild a new de"ocracy t(at will +rin% a+out !eace and !ros!erity# and !rotect t(e ri%(ts and di%nity o) e,ery citi6en. <2 Clinton1s co ents would "ollow widespread reports "ro 0i!ya indicating that re!els involved in the savage assassination o" +ua ar ;adda"i were now persecuting igrant wor#ers "ro Chad and Niger' as well as dar#,s#inned 0i!yans in a ca paign o" racial violence sweeping the country& 2n a visit to 0i!ya in late August 2011' 6or er 5S Congress an Walter 6auntroy clai ed to have witnessed 6rench and .anish Special 6orces stor ing s all villages late at night' !eheading and #illing !oth re!els and loyalists' reports state: T(e re+els told 7auntroy t(ey (ad +een told +y t(e ;uro!ean )orces to stay inside. $ccordin% to 7auntroy# t(e ;uro!ean )orces would tell t(e re+els# ALoo. at w(at you did.> In ot(er words# t(e 7renc( and Danis( were orderin% t(e +o"+in%s and .illin%s# and %i,in% credit to t(e re+els.<= 6ollowing NAT21s intervention into 0i!ya' the nation would !e plunged into perpetual violence and social division as warring tri!es and ilitias sought to usurp control over territory' thus carving the once uni"ied 0i!ya into a yriad o" "ie"do s <0 Eoters1 rights group inciting $2range 8evolution3N 8iaNovosti' Nove !er 19' 2011 <1 0eading 0i!yan (sla ist et 6ree Syrian Ar y opposition group' Nove !er 2?' 2011 <2 8e ar#s With @ri e +inister -l#ei! A"ter Their +eeting' 5&S& .epart ent o" State' +arch 9'
2012

<= -*,Congress an 6eared .ead in 0i!ya' 8eturns 7o e' New A erica +edia' Septe !er 1<' 2011

under the watch o" the unsta!le National Transition Council in Tripoli& BBC1s $0i!ya ilitia Dterrorises1 pro,;adda"i town o" Tawargha'3 reported that an entire town once populated with =0'000 residents would !e a!andoned' due to terrorist ilitias targeting ;adda"i loyalists&<< (n +arch 2012' distur!ing video "ootage would sur"ace' depicting Ara! 0i!yan re!els "orce,"eeding green 0i!ya "lags Grepresenting the period o" ;adda"i1s ruleH to captured A"rican 0i!yan civilians' while the captors could !e heard shouting' $eat your "lag' you dog&3 Such realities are devoid o" Clinton1s vision o" $rights and dignity "or every citi4en'3 a star# precursor to events that would "ollow in Syria& <C By +arch 1:' 2012' euters would report in their article' $Tur#ey considers !u""er 4one along Syria !order'3 that $Tur#ey is considering setting up a !u""er 4one inside Syria to tac#le a growing "low o" re"ugees "leeing the con"lict there&3 <: The proposed !u""er 4one would have indeed !een on Syrian soil' reBuiring an ar ed Tur#ish presence to aintain it& Tur#ey' a nation that has carried out syste atic ca paigns o" violence against the /urd inority within and !eyond its own !orders "or decades' and still denies the Ar enian genocide o" the early 1>001s' is the least Buali"ied candidate in or around the +iddle -ast to clai $hu anitarian concerns3 as )usti"ication "or any geopolitical aneuver& An#ara' with its a !itions o" regional hege ony' would continue leading e""orts to "unnel NAT2 resources into the hands o" ilitants wor#ing to desta!ili4e Syria and overthrow its govern ent& 2n +arch 19' 2012' triple suicide !o !ings targeting govern ent !uildings would rip through a Christian neigh!orhood in the Syrian capital o" .a ascus' #illing an esti ated 2? civilians& The $ustralian would report in its article' $Bo !s in Syria as Saudis Dsend ar s to re!els1'3 that Saudi Ara!ia Gthe recipient o" signi"icant a ounts o" ilitary "unding "ro the 5nited StatesH had !egun shipping ar s to the Syrian opposition' $Saudi ilitary eBuip ent is on its way to Aordan to ar the 6ree Syrian Ar y'3 Buoting an Ara! diplo at&<? A si*,point peace plan cra"ted !y /o"i Annan Ga close a""iliate o" ;eorge Soros' Q!igniew Br4e4ins#i' (sraeli @resident Shi on @eres' -gypt1s +oha ed -lBaradei' 8ichard Ar itage and /enneth Adel anH would !e put into e""ect in 6e!ruary 2012' calling "or a cease,"ire !etween re!el and govern ent "orces& @u!lications released in +arch 2012 !y The Broo#ings (nstitution' a corporate, "unded 5S thin#,tan# noted "or in"luencing A erican "oreign policy' provides "urther insight into the nature o" Washington1s o!)ectives in Syria& Broo#ings1 +iddle -ast +e o titled $Saving Syria: Assessing 2ptions "or 8egi e Change'3 would docu ent ad issions that Syria1s re!els were cooperating with Al Kaeda and carrying out an increasing a ount o" sectarian violence' and how /o"i Annan1s peace plan would !e << 0i!ya ilitia Dterrorises1 pro,;adda"i town o" Tawargha' BBC' 2cto!er =1' 2011 <C 0i!yan re!els "orce !lac# A"ricans to eat "lags in cage' The Telegraph' +arch 0C' 2012 <: Tur#ey considers !u""er 4one along Syria !order' ABC' +arch 1?' 2012 <? Bo !s in Syria as Saudis Dsend ar s to re!els1' The Australian' +arch 1>' 2012

used in an atte pt to esta!lish an occupied $sa"e haven3 on Syrian territory' where "urther attac#s could !e launched&<9 Broo#ings1 +e o would eticulously theori4e a!out ways to overthrow the Assad govern ent' including the use o" crippling econo ic sanctions to "urther incite unrest and the leveraging o" hu an rights a!uses to aggressively intervene in Syria: Wor.in% wit( its $ra+# re%ional# and Western !artners# Was(in%ton can !us( )or a "ore e))ecti,e (u"anitarian res!onse and !a,e t(e way )or "ore a%%ressi,e inter,ention o!tions to to!!le $ssad. Broo#ings would attri!ute heavy !udget restraints and a pu!lic wary o" "ighting wars overseas to Washington1s strategy o" leading "ro !ehind' !y continually pressuring neigh!oring countries li#e Aordan and Tur#ey to provide support "or the ilitant Syrian opposition: Israel could !osture )orces on or near t(e Golan =ei%(ts and# in so doin%# "i%(t di,ert re%i"e )orces )ro" su!!ressin% t(e o!!osition. T(is !osture "ay conIure )ears in t(e $sad re%i"e o) a "ulti4)ront war# !articularly i) Tur.ey is willin% to do t(e sa"e on its +order and i) t(e Syrian o!!osition is +ein% )ed a steady diet o) ar"s and trainin%. T(ese allies would (a,e to !ro,ide secure +ases )or t(e o!!osition on Syria>s +orders# !rotected +y t(eir own ar"ed )orces. T(eir "ilitaries could do "uc( o) t(e ar"in% and trainin%# in conIunction wit( t(e 3nited States. $rea intelli%ence ser,ices# !er(a!s includin% Israel>s# could also wor. +e(ind t(e scenes to under"ine $sad>s re%i"e and +olster t(e o!!osition. The Broo#ings +e o highlights Washington1s co it ent to overthrowing the Syrian govern ent using the ost cost,e""ective eans possi!le& While 7illary Clinton and others paid lip service to supporting the cease"ire proposed !y the Annan @lan' the report would state in re"erence to ar ing the re!els: $lternati,ely# t(e 3nited States "i%(t calculate t(at it is still wort(w(ile to !in down t(e $sad re%i"e and +leed it# .ee!in% a re%ional ad,ersary wea.# w(ile a,oidin% t(e costs o) direct inter,ention. T(e (o!e is t(at t(e 3nited States could )i%(t a Aclean> war )ro" 10#000 )eet and lea,e t(e dirty wor. on t(e %round to t(e 7ree Syrian $r"y# !er(a!s e,en o+,iatin% a "assi,e co""it"ent to IraB4style nation4+uildin%. The o!scure docu ent released !y the Broo#ings (nstitution serves as a testa ent to the underlying politici4ation o" the $8esponsi!ility to @rotect3 in Syria' as atrocities would !e orchestrated as a prete*t to protect civilians' to warrant toppling the Syrian govern ent and "urthering Washington1s geopolitical o!)ectives in the region& As the unrest in Syria continued' it !eca e increasingly ore di""icult to deny the West1s intentional desta!ili4ation o" Syria !y perpetuating e*tensive !loodshed through radical ilitant groups operating on Syria1s !orders' as well as within Syria itsel"& (n late +arch' +ichael -& 217anlon' .irector o" 8esearch and Senior 6ellow at 6oreign @olicy and e !er o" ;eneral .avid @etraeus1s -*ternal Advisory Board at the Central (ntelligence Agency would author an 2p,-d titled' $What Are 2ur +ilitary 2ptions in SyriaN$ proposing several contingency options to suit Syria1s geopolitical predisposition' as 5S,!ac#ed uprisings' ar ed ilitants' and <9 Saving Syria: Assessing 2ptions "or 8egi e Change' Broo#ings (nstitution' +arch 1C' 2012

sanctions had all already !een set in otion to no avail' leaving only overt ilitary options on the ta!le&<> The ilitary easures 217anlon envisions to achieve the overthrow o" Syria1s govern ent include: S A puniti*e na*a# or air operation to encourage a coup against Assa" that would right"ully !e considered an outright act o" war' designed to co pletely cut o"" Syria' including its illions o" civilians' "ro i porting or e*porting anything& 217anlon1s article also proposes airstri#es designed to psychologically sha#e Assad1s allies and panic the into de"ecting and instead' $share power3 with the 5S,!ac#ed opposition& S A +roa"er ,a#-ans.#i-e ca!paign to he#p "epose Assa". By this' 217anlon is re"erring to a ca paign si ilar to that which !e"ell 0i!ya' with the editorial "ocus on the Bal#ans' due to its place in historical hindsight and nu erous atte pts to rewrite its historical outco e as $"avora!le&3 -vo#ing the NAT2,led operation that had )ust un"olded in 0i!ya' co plete with the destruction o" several a)or cities' would !e a star# re inder to potential de"ectors in Syria o" the cost that co es with allowing a nation to !e su!)ected to NAT2,led international intervention& That cost would !e the plunging o" Syria into perpetual division' insta!ility' violence' and an uncertain political "uture& / The creation of a safe 0one for Syrian ci*i#ians !ears stri#ing si ilarity to what Tur#ey has !een elected to create' with such a 4one !eing e*ploited as a !ase "ro which increasing hostilities could !e conducted' as suggested !y the Broo#ings (nstitution' which stated: $n alternati,e is )or di!lo"atic e))orts to )ocus )irst on (ow to end t(e ,iolence and (ow to %ain (u"anitarian access# as is +ein% done under $nnan>s leaders(i!. T(is "ay lead to t(e creation o) sa)e4(a,ens and (u"anitarian corridors# w(ic( would (a,e to +e +ac.ed +y li"ited "ilitary !ower. T(is would# o) course# )all s(ort o) 3.S. %oals )or Syria and could !reser,e $sad in !ower. 7ro" t(at startin% !oint# (owe,er# it is !ossi+le t(at a +road coalition wit( t(e a!!ro!riate international "andate could add )urt(er coerci,e action to its e))orts. 217anlon indirectly ad its that this option ay only !e acco plished as a result o" the success"ul applications o" one or !oth o" the a!ove entioned options& 217anlon did not write these options "or the consideration o" the @entagon' !ut instead' "or Western pundits and edia outlets that used e*tortion against Syria1s esta!lish ent' preying on the "ear o" Assad1s political allies and those across Syria1s !usiness co unity who had stood !ehind their nation1s govern ent& Syria1s opposition had !een entirely dependent on "oreign "ighters' "oreign ar s' "oreign "unds' and an international consensus that allowed such "oreign resources to continue "lowing to the una!ated& While the alternative edia reported on a!uses co itted !y the Syrian re!els since the start o" the uprising' =u"an i%(ts Watc( G78WH would issue reports co ending the opposition a"ter twelve onths o" "ighting& 78W1s +arch 2012 report titled' $Syria: Ar ed 2pposition ;roups Co itting A!uses'3 would detail how Syria1s ar ed opposition conducted a syste atic ca paign o" #idnapping' torture' and ass urder& C0 While the report atte pts to "ocus ainly on atrocities carried out against security "orces and <> What Are 2ur +ilitary 2ptions in SyriaN' The New 8epu!lic' +arch 1>' 2012

govern ent supporters' the states:

ention o" civilian victi s is

ade as well& The report

$+uses include .idna!!in%# detention# and torture o) security )orce "e"+ers# %o,ern"ent su!!orters# and !eo!le identi)ied as "e"+ers o) !ro4%o,ern"ent "ilitias# called s(a+ee(a. =u"an i%(ts Watc( (as also recei,ed re!orts o) e/ecutions +y ar"ed o!!osition %rou!s o) security )orce "e"+ers and ci,ilians. =u"an i%(ts Watc( also e/!ressed concern a+out 7S$ ?7ree Syrian $r"y@ .idna!!in%s o) Iranian nationals# so"e o) w(o" t(e %rou! (as con)ir"ed are ci,ilians. = W1s report descri!es the Syrian opposition1s practice o" rounding up suspects and #illing the without trial' generally on the grounds o" con"essions coerced through torture& 2ther e*ecutions are si ply carried out as reprisals with no apparent o""ense !eyond suspected a""iliations !eing cited& The report indicates that Syria1s ilitant opposition groups' li#e the NAT2,!ac#ed re!els in 0i!ya' were lawless' unprincipled' sectarian e*tre ists' who were !eing ar#eted as $de ocracy activists3 and $unar ed civilians3 in the Western ainstrea edia& 6ro the early stages o" Syria1s unrest' the alternative edia would cover the tactics o" syste atic violence used !y the opposition' "ro vandalis and arson' to sniper and !o ! attac#s and ar ed insurrectionary ca paigns o" violence& The "indings o" Gand reactions toH the =u"an i%(ts Watc( report were uted' with ost edia outlets electing to downplay' spin' or o!"uscate the true i plications o" the war cri es !eing carried out !y Syria1s opposition , war cri es which i plicated NAT2' led !y the 5S' 5/' 6rance' and Tur#ey' as well as their pro*y $Ara! 0eague'3 in !ac#ing torturers' #idnappers' and ass urderers in their ca paign to topple the Syrian govern ent& By early April 2012' the $6riends o" Syria3 group et in neigh!oring Tur#ey to devise a ethod to rear and redeploy ilitant re!el "ighters' while de anding Syrian troops !e withdrawn "ro cities recaptured "ro re!el "orces& +ore speci"ically' BBC reported in their article titled' $Syria crisis de!ated at (stan!ul tal#s'3 that ways were !eing $e*plored3 to $step up pressure on the Syrian regi e and !olster the opposition&3 The report also a#es ention o" calls to ar the opposition' and o""ers to pay salaries to re!el "ighters in an e""ort to entice Syrian ilitary o""icers to de"ect&C1 While +oscow and Bei)ing received harsh criticis and accusations o" !eing co plicit with the !loodshed in Syria "ollowing their veto at the 5NSC' the $6riends o" Syria3 would openly call "or putting pressure on a govern ent atte pting to restore order across the country' while $!olstering3 and ar ing the opposition& While allied nations provided "unding and supplies to indiscri inate re!el "ighters' Western leaders hypocritically clai ed the oral high ground !y e phasi4ing their $responsi!ility to protect3 unar ed civilians !eing #illed in the ensuing cross"ire& The 200C 5N initiative' the $8esponsi!ility to @rotect G82@H3 doctrine "ollows that i" a nation is incapa!le o" providing protection "or its own population' it relinBuishes its sovereignty to direct intervention !y the $international co unity&3 .espite the o!vious inconsistencies !etween the alleged narrative and the realities un"olding on the ground in 0i!ya onths earlier' NAT2 evo#ed the 82@ C0 Syria: Ar ed 2pposition ;roups Co C1 (stan!ul su
itting A!uses' 7u an 8ights Watch' +arch 20' 2012

it tries to increase pressure on Syria' BBC' April 1' 2012

doctrine and !egan its ilitary intervention to $protect civilians&3 6ar "ro providing assistance to civilians' NAT2 provided air support "or re!el assaults' intelligence and special operations assistance to re!el ilitary units' and carried out the syste atic targeting o" ;adda"i1s political inner circle' which included !o !ing the ho es o" ;adda"i1s "a ily' #illing his children and his grandchildren in NAT2 airstri#es& Allied nations granted diplo atic support to govern ents led !y e*iled 0i!yan politicians and acade ics' in e*change "or lucrative contracts with the new govern ent once ;adda"i1s regi e was toppled& The 5nited /ingdo !udgeted JC00 illion on NAT21s intervention in 0i!ya& 7owever' according to the 5/ .epart ent o" Trade and (nvest ent' contracts to re!uild the nation in areas varying "ro healthcare and education to electricity and water supplies' were valued at upwards o" J=00 !illion over a 10,year period&C2 (ntervention in 0i!ya was ade pro"ita!le not only !y redevelop ent contracts' !ut also !y the opportunity to gain greater access to 0i!ya1s vast natural resources& 8eports issued !y the 5S 2""ice o" the .irector o" National (ntelligence warn o" an international "resh water de"icit !y 20=0' a#ing 0i!ya1s Nu!ian Sandstone ABui"er Syste ' the world1s largest #nown "ossil water aBui"er syste ' a vital and highly strategic dispensary "or e*erting control over A"rica1s water reserves&C= 0i!ya !oasts the largest proven oil reserves in A"rica and the "i"th largest in the world with ?:&< !illion !arrels as o" 2010&C< The NTC declined !usiness opportunities to countries opposed to NAT21s interpretation o" its andate to $protect civilians3' countries such as ;er any&CC Several !illion dollars worth o" construction and ar s contracts !etween 8ussia and ;adda"i1s govern ent were also su!)ect to revaluation&C: .elegations o" the Western,supported National Transition Council et in 0ondon to hold tal#s with top !usiness e*ecutives on the $ assive opportunity to re!uild 0i!ya'3 while o""icials allegedly pro ised the 6rench oil "ir Total up to =CT o" all oil contracts in e*change "or political support& -ric .enece' director and "ounder o" the 6rench Center "or (ntelligence Studies' added: W(en I was in Li+ya a )ew wee.s a%o# I tried to e/!lain to t(e NTC t(at t(ey will (a,e to !ay wit( t(e "oney we are %oin% to send t(e" +ac. )ro" t(e a"ounts )ro6en in t(e Western +an.s# t(ey are !er)ectly conscious o) w(at is %oin% to (a!!en. T(ey are %oin% to %i,e +ac. a lot o) "oney to 7rance# Great Britain and all t(e senior N$T8 countries w(ic( (ad +een in,ol,ed in t(is o!eration.C? C2 +a#e oney' a#e war: 5/ pro"its "ro 0i!ya ess' 8ussia Today' Nove !er 11' 2011 C= ;lo!al Dwater war1 threat !y 20=0 , 5S intelligence' 8ussia Today' +arch 22' 2012 C< B@ Statistical 8eview o" World -nergy' British @etroleu ' Aune 2011 CC 8uin & 8e!uild: War"are worth J=00!ln 0i!ya wind"all' 8ussia Today' Nove !er 1C' 2011 C: ;adda"i de ise leads to Buestions over contracts' 8ussia Today' 2cto!er 20' 2011 C? D0i!yan oil contracts , not the whole story1' 8ussia Today' Septe !er 1:' 2011

Clearly' NAT2 ade a cruel oc#ery o" the $8esponsi!ility to @rotect3 doctrine' using it to visit catastrophic horrors upon the 0i!yan people' overturning a uni"ied national govern ent and plunging the entire nation into division and chaos& .espite the "ailure o" NAT21s operation in 0i!ya' calls "or i ple enting the 82@ odel in Syria were ade !y the allied nations that too# part in toppling ;adda"i& 6ro the very !eginning o" diplo atic e""orts to de"use the Syrian crisis' 5S policy a#ers ad itted that /o"i Annan1s $peace ission3 in Syria was nothing ore than a ruse to preserve NAT21s pro*y "orces "ro total destruction !y creating $sa"e havens3 "ro which they would operate' prolonging the !loodshed while pressure ounted on the Syrian regi e internationally& An April >th' 2012 posting on NAT21s o""icial $$lliance News Blo%$ titled' $5S Dalready co itted to helping Assad "all1'3 would con"ir the 5nited States1 co it ent to the overthrow o" Syria1s govern ent' stating that the 5S is $already co itted to helping U@resident Bashar al,AssadV "all'3 !ut is $ erely loo#ing "or the least violent' lowest cost way to get there&3 C9 The article "ully disclosed that the 5S had !een eBuipping the so,called $6ree Syrian Ar y3 "urther ad itting that the /o"i Annan !ro#ered $peace deal3 was erely a ploy eant to lay the "oundation "or regi e change' stating: I) t(e !ace o) t(e .illin% slows# t(at could +uy ti"e: ti"e )or econo"ic sanctions to under"ine t(e re%i"e# ti"e to caIole ussia to switc( sides and (el! !ull t(e ru% out )ro" $ssad# +ut also ti"e )or t(e o!!osition and its new ar"y to or%ani6e t(e"sel,es into a "ore e))ecti,e )orce. Co pounding their cri inality was the "act that' instead o" ta#ing advantage o" a cease"ire to !ro#er a peace deal and !egin reconciliation' NAT2 o""icially endorsed using the lull in "ighting to prepare the ne*t round o" opposition,"ueled violence' which they the selves were "ully prepared to "und and ar & NAT2 would ad it that ilitary intervention is not a atter o" $i"3 !ut a atter o" $when3 depending on a predeter ined nu !er o" o!)ectives that ust !e achieved "irst& These include the Syrian opposition getting !etter organi4ed' assurances that ilitary aid wouldn1t "all into the hands o" $radical (sla ists'3 and "or Tur#ey' )ust as Broo#ings (nstitution1s docu ents previously stated' $to esta!lish sa"e havens "or the opposition along its !order with Syria&3 (n late April 2012' /o"i Annan1s $peace plan3' though pu!licly endorsed' was "ully re)ected !y !oth the Syrian re!els and their Western and Ara! 0eague !ac#ers who would continue openly pledging cash' weapons' and support "or re!els who continued "ighting& euters reported in' $5N see#s Syria nod "or a)or aid operation'3 that the 5N was see#ing to !ring in $aid wor#ers3 and open o""ices all across Syria in order to carry out what they called a $ a)or hu anitarian operation&3 C> (n "ull violation o" the proposed cease"ire' the Western edia would instead accuse the Syrian govern ent o" "ailing to eet its o!ligations& Neo,Conservative led thin# tan#s li#e the 7enry Aac#son Society G7ASH' would accuse the Syrian govern ent o" $serially violating3 the ter s o" the 5N proposed $peace deal&3 $l45a6eera regular' +ichael Weiss o" 7AS' openly ad its that $diplo atic options3 were erely !eing C9 5S Dalready co
itted to helping Assad "all'1 Atlantic Council' April 0>' 2012

C> 5N see#s Syria nod "or a)or aid operation' 8euters' April 20' 2012

peddled to satis"y pu!lic opinion and that ulti ately NAT2 will act unilaterally' outside o" the 5N' to ilitarily intervene& As the West continued to "uel the violence and pressure "or the approval o" $hu anitarian access3 inside Syria' ilitary intervention would routinely !e proposed to co !at what will !e clai ed to !e Syrian govern ent $!elligerence&3 2n a nearly daily !asis' the Syrian opposition continued carrying out vicious attac#s not only on security "orces' !ut a terrorist !o !ing ca paign across Syria that #illed and ai ed scores o" civilians& While the Syrian opposition clai ed it lac#s the a!ility to carry out such attac#s' its ilitants would !e e*posed as very well ar ed with personnel sheltered in NAT2 e !er Tur#ey' its leadership sheltered in Washington and 0ondon' and their "ighters wielding not only an endless supply o" s all ar s' !ut roc#et propelled grenades' ortars' issiles' and even tan#s& The Syrian govern ent clai ed that it had docu ented a long list o" cease"ire violations !y the re!els , a list that would !e con"ir ed daily in headlines "ro across the !iased Western edia' still atte pting to depict the violence as one,sided& Three onths a"ter (raBi Al Kaeda leader Ay an al,Qawahri called on +usli s "ro across the Ara! World to o!ili4e and support the 6ree Syrian Ar y !y encouraging the use o" "oreign "ighters and roadside !o !ing tactics' euters would pu!lish an article titled $2utgunned Syria re!els a#e shi"t to !o !s'3 which included ad issions "ro the re!els the selves that they were !ehind the spate o" !o !ings ravaging Syria&:0 :1 Western press and Syrian opposition leaders had previously clai ed that these !o !ings were $"alse "lag3 attac#s carried out !y the Syrian govern ent to under ine the re!els1 legiti acy&:2 euters> article concedes that while the 6SA o""icially is $upholding3 the 5N truce' its "ighters have outright re)ected it and are indeed openly in violation o" the cease"ire& The report also con"ir ed Syrian @resident Bashar al,Assad1s state ent that his security "orces were "ighting ar ed ilitants , not protesters and civilians , in security operations across Syria !e"ore the 5N cease"ire ca e into e""ect& The reports states: Since t(e ar"y routed t(e" )ro" t(eir stron%(olds in cities# so"e re+els said t(ey reali6ed t(at e,en in %uerrilla street +attles t(ey could not +eat $ssad>s tan.s or artillery. T(e Syrian Li+eration $r"y>s s!o.es"an Hde"ati said (is %rou!>s )i%(ters were now )ocusin% "ost o) t(eir attention on A"anu)acturin% )acilities> )or +o"+s. ':ou are %oin% to start seein% an escalation as we i"!ro,e our tec(niBues o) +o"+4"a.in% and deli,ery.” As the Syrian re!els resorted to indiscri inate terrorist tactics' an e*plosion in the city o" 7a a in late April #illed ?0 people' devastating uch o" a city !loc#& euters Buoted one re!el "ighter as saying' $We are starting to get s arter a!out tactics and use !o !s !ecause people are )ust too poor and we don1t have enough ri"les' it is )ust no atch "or the ar y' so we are trying to "ocus on the ways we can :0 0eader o" Al Kaeda calls on +usli s to help Syrian re!els' 6o* News' 6e!ruary 12' 2012 :1 2utgunned Syria re!els a#e shi"t to !o !s' 8euters' April =0' 2012 :2 Syrian opposition suspects regi e !ehind !o !ings' CTE News' +arch 1?' 2012

"ight&3 euters atte pted to allay the "ears o" its readers !y clai ing that the re!els they interviewed insisted that' $unli#e al Kaeda' their !o !s were ai ed at ilitary' and never civilian' targets&3 @arado*ically' however' the euters story revealed that the re!el !o !ing ca paign was !eing carried out !y $Sunni insurgents3 who learned their !o !ing s#ills "ro "ighting 5S troops in neigh!oring (raB , or in other words' the very $al Kaeda3 the re!els clai they are not li#e& A $Syrian 0i!eration Ar y3 spo#es an also ad itted that his "ighters were operating $ anu"acturing "acilities3 "or !o !s& While the BBC originally reported that the Syrian govern ent indiscri inately "ired a $SC5. issile3 at the city o" 7a a' reports later sur"aced that in "act' the e*plosion was caused !y ishap at a re!el !o !, a#ing "acility& := While Syria1s re!els have !een noted as terrorists' !oth "oreign and do estic' since early 2011 !y the alternative edia' ainstrea edia outlets con"ir ed that Syrian re!els were anu"acturing and indiscri inately deploying e*plosive devices nationwide over a year a"ter the initial reports sur"aced& The Western press atte pted to o!"uscate this "act "or as long as possi!le' irrepara!ly under ining their legiti acy in the process& The 5N would !egin to ad it that indeed' the Syrian re!els were in violation o" the cease"ire' only as the violence ran de onstratively ra pant and out o" control' with ar s' "unding' eBuip ent' training' and political support "or the re!els "ro the $6riends o" Syria3 cadre including the 5S' 5/' 6rance' Saudi Ara!ia' and Katar&:< 2n +ay >th' the Broo#ings (nstitution predicta!ly declared the Annan $peace deal3 a "ailure and that the ti e to $stretch3 Syria1s ilitary to the !rea#ing point through e*panded "oreign,!ac#ed unrest had co e& (n an article titled' $Annan1s +ission ( possi!le: Why is everyone pretending that the 5&N& plan in Syria has a prayer o" succeedingN$ Broo#ings1 .oha Center director Sal an Shai#h depicted the cease"ire1s "ailure as solely the result o" the Syrian govern ent1s !elligerence and !rutality' while entioning nothing o" the Syrian opposition1s docu ented' and even ad itted' atrocities' stating: W(ile t(e international co""unity continues to )ocus on $nnan>s e))orts# it is un+elie,a+le t(at $ssad and (is re%i"e are still not seen as international !aria(s. T(e Syrian %o,ern"ent (as lied to t(e international co""unity at e,ery turn. W(en will t(e world reali6e t(at any atte"!t to ne%otiate wit( $ssad is utterly )utileM T(e $ssad re%i"e (as so )ar success)ully e"!loyed a strate%y o) +uyin% ti"e# a%reein% to t(e $nnan !lan w(ile doin% e,eryt(in% it can to under"ine it. <eanw(ile# t(e international co""unity (as !layed into $ssad>s (ands +y +uyin% into t(e )anci)ul lo%ic t(at t(e introduction o) unar"ed 3.N. o+ser,ers will esta+lis( cal" inside Syria and "oderate t(e re%i"e>s +e(a,ior. :C And' while portraying the Syrian govern ent as irrationally carrying out a ca paign o" !rutality against the Syrian people' Shai#h ad itted that the $6ree Syrian Ar y3 was operating ilitarily out o" Tur#ey and that the Syrian National := Syria: +assive e*plosion in 7a a D#ills ?01' BBC' April 2:' 2012 :< 5N: Both sides in Syria are violating the truce' CBS News' +ay 1' 2012 :C Annan1s +ission ( possi!le' 6oreign @olicy' +ay 9' 2012

Council GSNCH represents "oreign har!ored and in"luenced leadership& While Shai#h portrayed Syria1s inorities as $on the sideline'3 he declined to e*plain why they had not )oined the "oreign,driven unrest& (n reality' these inority groups were the hardest hit !y re!el atrocities' including Syria1s large Christian co unities& Christians in Syria have !een su!)ected to what should !e descri!ed as $ethnic cleansing'3 not !y Syrian security "orces' !ut !y NAT2,!ac#ed death sBuads under the !anner o" the $6ree Syrian Ar y&3 The Los $n%eles Ti"es reported in their article' $Syria Christians "ear li"e a"ter Assad'3 how Syria1s Christian co unity "ears the e ergence o" what they descri!e as $a new dictatorship !y the Sunni +usli a)ority&3 :: Shai#h1s article also revealed another truth with the clai that $opposition leaders inside and outside the country do not have the resources to unite their ran#s alone&3 Surely' any opposition group that represents the vast a)ority o" the Syrian people' as the do inant narrative o" the ainstrea edia clai s' would not have trou!le "inding the resources inside o" Syria $alone&3 .espite Shai#h1s insistence to a!andon diplo atic atte pts to de"use the situation in "avor o" openly toppling Assad' the unrest in Syria has !een undenia!ly driven !y a "oreign,!ac#ed violent inority and carried out !y a co !ination o" violent Sunni,e*tre ists "ro Syria and any "oreign "ighters !rought in "ro a!road& +any o" Syria1s less ac#nowledged opposition groups' such as the National Coordination Co ittee' a coalition o" le"t, leaning political parties staunchly opposed to "oreign intervention' who represent Syria1s internal opposition Gas opposed to the (stan!ul,!ased Syrian National CouncilH' "ind the $6ree Syrian Ar y1s3 colla!oration with "oreigners $unaccepta!le&:? By late April 2012' it !eca e clear that NAT2 and its pro*ies1 e""orts to topple the Syrian govern ent were "ailing' pri arily !ecause the ove ent1s se i,covert "oreign !ac#ing was still not enough to turn the tide& The Broo#ings (nstitution called "or ore overt !ac#ing o" the Syrian opposition , not e*cluding "oreign ilitary intervention , while the ainstrea edia continued "ra ing the violence as one, sided when' in reality' the $6ree Syrian Ar y3 was conducting a vicious ca paign o" terrorist violence' even atte pting to attac# a convoy consisting o" /o"i Annan1s 5N onitors' leaving Syrian security "orces with no choice !ut to continue "ighting to restore order&:9 6ollowing the incident' 6rance ine*plica!ly !la ed the Syrian govern ent "or not providing adeBuate security to the 5N onitors' a"ter a year o" conde ning the govern ent "or atte pting to restore order in the "ace o" the very ilitant violence "ro which the attac#s resulted& A concerted e""ort was !eing ade !y outside "orces to sa!otage the 5N peace plan in every shape' "or ' and anner' especially through increased violence and particularly in cross,!order incidents to help !uild support "or NAT2,!ac#ed' Tur#ey,led incursions into Syria to carve out $sa"e havens&3 6ro there' a steady strea o" weapons and "ighters "ro around the :: Syria Christians "ear li"e a"ter Assad' 0os Angeles Ti es' +arch ?' 2012 :? $6ree Syrian Ar y1s3 colla!oration with "oreigners' 8(A Novosti' April 2:' 2012 :9 Bo ! hits Syrian ar y truc# escorting 5N tea ' Al,Aa4eera' +ay 10' 2012

world would !e "unneled in' in an atte pt to' as Broo#ings1s Shai#h puts it' $stretch3 Syria1s "orces to the !rea#ing point& 5N onitors were continually targeted and attac#ed' narrowly escaping roadside !o !s that continued to roc# .a ascus' as the opposition and edia again tea ed up to disavow any responsi!ility& Aust as the re!els ad itted to euters' the !o !ings in .a ascus targeted a govern ent intelligence !uilding' the very sort o" target the re!els clai ed they were loo#ing "or& The idealistic co ents ade to euters !y re!els o" $only targeting ilitary "orces3 "ell "lat' when Syria1s ilitary "orces atte pted to aintain order in populated civilian areas& Bo !s targeting a ilitary convoy or a govern ent !uilding are )ust as li#ely to #ill and ai civilians' as they are govern ent troops& This is why there are strict' internationally,recogni4ed prohi!itions on using i provised e*plosives' !oo!y,traps' and car !o !s o"" the !attle"ield and in populated areas , and why people who ignore such prohi!itions are called $terrorists&3 euters ad its that re!els are $channeling3 outside donations into $!etter aterials3 leading to $ ore sophisticated !o !s'3 and that the re!els are "ighting "or a cause $that has widespread support Ua ongV Sunni Ara! states and the West&3 What euters "ails to ention is what support' i" any' the re!els have do estically' !eyond e*tre ist Sunnis' and how that support will !e a""ected !y "illing the streets with "oreign,"unded' indiscri inate terror and carnage& (n early +ay 2012' the @entagon itsel" ad itted that Al Kaeda is present in Syria as reports sur"aced indicating that "oreign "ighters' weapons' and cash were "lowing over Syria1s !orders' creating an eruption o" violence in northern 0e!anon& (ndigenous 0e!anese "actions "aced o"" against each other along sectarian divisions' with initial in"or ation indicating that e*tre ist groups !ac#ed !y the 5S' (srael' and Saudi Ara!ia were "ighting "actions connected to 7e4!ollah& -*tre ist leaders across the atte pted to "ra e the violence as $Sunni verses Shi1a'3 a ploy 7e4!ollah leader 7assan Nasrallah warned against in 200? as docu ented !y )ournalist Sey our 7ersh: Nasralla( accused t(e Bus( $d"inistration o) wor.in% wit( Israel to deli+erately insti%ate A)itna#> an $ra+ic word t(at is used to "ean insurrection and )ra%"entation wit(in Isla". 'In "y o!inion# t(ere is a (u%e ca"!ai%n t(rou%( t(e "edia t(rou%(out t(e world to !ut eac( side u! a%ainst t(e ot(er#” (e said. 'I +elie,e t(at all t(is is +ein% run +y $"erican and Israeli intelli%ence.” N=e did not !ro,ide any s!eci)ic e,idence )or t(is.O =e said t(at t(e 3.S. war in IraB (ad increased sectarian tensions# +ut ar%ued t(at =e6+olla( (ad tried to !re,ent t(e" )ro" s!readin% into Le+anon. NSunni4S(iite con)rontations increased# alon% wit( ,iolence# in t(e wee.s a)ter we tal.ed.O :> Eiolence raged in and around 0e!anon1s northern port city o" Tripoli& While !eing depicted as chaos $spilling over3 "ro Syria Gwith !oth sides identi"ying as either supporters or opponents o" the neigh!oring Syrian govern entH' it is clear that the violence there was indigenous' sectarian in nature' and directly related to the larger con"lict envisioned !y 7assan Nasrallah& This prevailing $sectarian3 aspect reveals what has !een stated !y geopolitical analysts since the !eginning o" unrest in Syria , that the violence was driven not !y $pro,de ocratic3 aspirations' !ut !y sectarian violence e*ploited "or the sole purpose o" advancing the agenda o" "oreign eddlers , :> The 8edirection' The New %or#er' +arch C' 200?

sectarian violence that has now ani"ested itsel" in attac#s on Christians' .ru4e' and Alawites' as well as oderate Sunnis across Syria in the idst o" this so,called $de ocratic revolution&3 By +ay 2012' the involve ent o" the 5nited States' Saudi Ara!ia' Katar' and other ;ul" States in supplying weapons' cash' and logistical support to terrorist "orces in Syria was "urther con"ir ed !y the Was(in%ton 2ost' in their article' $Syrian re!els get in"lu* o" ar s with gul" neigh!ors1 oney' 5&S& coordination&3 The Was(in%ton 2ost not only ad itted the involve ent o" "oreign powers provo#ing unrest in Syria' !ut con"ir ed the clai s ade !y Syrian @resident Bashar al,Assad' that Syria1s historically violent +usli Brotherhood is also directly ar ing and "unding contingents o" e*tre ists co itting acts o" terror across Syria' particularly in areas that had !een portrayed as centers o" $pro,de ocracy3 protests& ?0 These $"lashpoints3' which had !een rac#ed !y violence depicted as $repression3 !y Syrian troops' were now ad itted !y the Washington @ost to !e areas where $ aterial is !eing stoc#piled&3 These included the "lashpoint city o" (dli! on the Tur#ish,Syrian !order' in the su!ur!s o" .a ascus' and along Syria1s !order with 0e!anon where weapons' supplies' and cash provided !y the 5S and Saudi Ara!ia were used to perpetuate the increased violence in Syria in the idst o" a cease"ire the West has atte pted to disingenuously use to de"a e the Syrian govern ent& (n the idst o" a 5N cease"ire' the ilitant Syrian re!el "orces continued to do everything possi!le to ha per the govern ent1s a!ility to restore order' while continuing their ca paign with new weapons' in another atte pt at violent "oreign,!ac#ed regi e change in areas controlled !y Syria1s /urds F a group that had largely re ained out o" the predo inately "oreign,!ac#ed con"lict: T(e e))ect o) t(e new ar"s a!!eared e,ident in <onday>s clas( +etween o!!osition and %o,ern"ent )orces o,er control o) t(e re+el4(eld city o) astan# near =o"s. T(e Britain4+ased Syrian 8+ser,atory )or =u"an i%(ts said re+el )orces w(o o,erran a %o,ern"ent +ase (ad .illed 20 Syrian soldiers. @arado*ically' the 5S and ;ul" states continued "unneling weapons and other "or s o" aterial support to the Syrian re!els' even a"ter the @entagon ad itted Al Kaeda presence in Syria&?1 This ca e a"ter terrorist groups clai ed responsi!ility "or a series o" !o !ings that have #illed ostly civilians& (n the idst o" an ad itted atte pt to increase violence and chaos' the Was(in%ton 2ost also declared that NAT2, e !er Tur#ey would !e pressured to invo#e Article (E o" the NAT2 Charter' allowing NAT2 to ilitarily intervene to $stop3 violence that outside "orces are openly credited with "o enting& 5nli#e previous con"licts' the 5S ad ission is not a whispered o!"uscation o" the their intentions' !ut an open declaration o" intent to provo#e a war o" aggression , a Nure !erg o""ense "or all involved& 7ere' we see direct parallels !etween Adol" 7itler1s Septe !er 1>=9 ca paign o" desta!ili4ation in C4echoslova#ia' and NAT21s atte pts to desta!ili4e Syria& ?0 Syrian re!els get in"lu* o" ar

s with gul" neigh!ors1

oney' 5&S& coordination' The Washington @ost' +ay 1C'

2012

?1 Al Kaeda1s War "or Syria' The Wall Street Aournal' Auly 2:' 2012

The 5nited Nations re ained ine*plica!ly silent over revelations that the 5nited States' Saudi Ara!ia' and other ;ul" states' were directly responsi!le "or ar ing ilitants in Syria in direct violation o" a 5N,!ro#ered cease"ire& Additionally' the 5S openly threatened to ar /urdish ilitants in Syria to $rise up3 against the govern ent& While in reality this constitutes a greater threat to neigh!oring Tur#ey' and perhaps an atte pt to otivate An#ara to ta#e a ore aggressive stance against Syria' the threat o" purpose"ully inciting ore violence in a con"lict that has allegedly clai ed $20'000 lives3' see s not only grossly irresponsi!le' !ut a violation o" international peace&?2 As clashes !ro#e out in neigh!oring 0e!anon along the 0e!anese,Syrian !order' )ournalist Sey our 7ersh e*posed a )oint 5S,(sraeli,Saudi operation to create a violent (sla ist,"ront and direct it at 7e4!ollah in 0e!anon' @resident Bashar al,Assad in Syria' and at the (ranian govern ent years earlier& 7ersh1s 200? article $The 8edirection'3 would report the "act that these e*tre ist ele ents' used as pro*ies !y outside "orces' had direct ties to Al Kaeda' with any o" the ilitants having either participated in "ighting 5S troops in (raB and A"ghanistan' or a""iliations with groups that did: In 2001# accordin% to a re!ort +y t(e 3.S.4+ased International Crisis Grou!# Saad =ariri# t(e Sunni "aIority leader o) t(e Le+anese !arlia"ent and t(e son o) t(e slain )or"er 2ri"e <inister*Saad in(erited "ore t(an )our +illion dollars a)ter (is )at(er>s assassination*!aid )orty4ei%(t t(ousand dollars in +ail )or )our "e"+ers o) an Isla"ic "ilitant %rou! )ro" Dinniye(. T(e "en (ad +een arrested w(ile tryin% to esta+lis( an Isla"ic "ini4state in nort(ern Le+anon. T(e Crisis Grou! noted t(at "any o) t(e "ilitants (ad trained in al4Haeda ca"!s in $)%(anistan. $ccordin% to t(e Crisis Grou! re!ort# Saad =ariri later used (is !arlia"entary "aIority to o+tain a"nesty )or twenty4two o) t(e Dinniye( Isla"ists# as well as )or se,en "ilitants sus!ected o) !lottin% to +o"+ t(e Italian and 3.rainian e"+assies in Beirut# t(e !re,ious year. N=e also arran%ed a !ardon )or Sa"ir Gea%ea# a <aronite C(ristian "ilitia leader# w(o (ad +een con,icted o) )our !olitical "urders# includin% t(e assassination# in 1CPF# o) 2ri"e <inister as(id Jara"i.O =ariri descri+ed (is actions to re!orters as (u"anitarian. In an inter,iew in Beirut# a senior o))icial in t(e Siniora %o,ern"ent ac.nowled%ed t(at t(ere were Sunni Ii(adists o!eratin% inside Le+anon. 'We (a,e a li+eral attitude t(at allows $l Haeda ty!es to (a,e a !resence (ere#” (e said. =e related t(is to concerns t(at Iran or Syria "i%(t decide to turn Le+anon into a 't(eatre o) con)lict.” Saad 7ariri' "or er pri e inister o" 0e!anon' is ad ittedly a co,conspirator in 5S,(sraeli,Saudi designs to desta!ili4e with ilitant e*tre ists and violently overthrow the Syrian govern ent& While 7ariri "eigns anti,(sraeli senti ent and a#es pu!lic calls "or 0e!anese to re"rain "ro sectarian violence' he was the pri ary "acilitator o" e*tre ists crossing over into Syria' and their creating chaos in the streets o" 0e!anon& A 2010 report issued !y the 6ortune C00,"unded (nternational Crisis ;roup descri!es in detail 7ariri1s deep ties' and indeed dependence' on the West&?= The report also ade ention o" e*tensive 5S "unding ?2 Syria death toll hits 20'000: N;2' 6inancial 8eview' Auly 2>' 2012 ?= 0e!anon1s @olitics: The Sunni Co
unity and 7ariri1s 6uture Current' (nternational Crisis ;roup' +ay 2:'

2010

!ehind 7ariri1s "action' then led !y 6ouad Siniora' aug enting the creation o" ilitant "orces: T(e 3nited States (as also %i,en clandestine su!!ort to t(e Siniora %o,ern"ent# accordin% to t(e )or"er senior intelli%ence o))icial and t(e 3.S. %o,ern"ent consultant. 'We are in a !ro%ra" to en(ance t(e Sunni ca!a+ility to resist S(iite in)luence# and we>re s!readin% t(e "oney around as "uc( as we can#” t(e )or"er senior intelli%ence o))icial said. T(e !ro+le" was t(at suc( "oney Aalways %ets in "ore !oc.ets t(an you t(in. it will#> (e said. 'In t(is !rocess# we>re )inancin% a lot o) +ad %uys wit( so"e serious !otential unintended conseBuences. We don>t (a,e t(e a+ility to deter"ine and %et !ay ,ouc(ers si%ned +y t(e !eo!le we li.e and a,oid t(e !eo!le we don>t li.e. It>s a ,ery (i%(4ris. ,enture.” $"erican# ;uro!ean# and $ra+ o))icials I s!o.e to told "e t(at t(e Siniora %o,ern"ent and its allies (ad allowed so"e aid to end u! in t(e (ands o) e"er%in% Sunni radical %rou!s in nort(ern Le+anon# t(e Be.aa Dalley# and around 2alestinian re)u%ee ca"!s in t(e sout(. T(ese %rou!s# t(ou%( s"all# are seen as a +u))er to =e6+olla(- at t(e sa"e ti"e# t(eir ideolo%ical ties are wit( $l Haeda. CNN reported that $anti,Assad clerics3 have !een shot !y 0e!anese soldiers$ and' )ust as was seen during the assassination o" 8a"ic 7ariri' de agogues and outside "orces atte pted to draw Sunni +usli s into a con"lict with Shi1as& ?< A strategy o" tension was used to divide the 0e!anese people into a deadly con"lict irroring the sectarian' not $de ocracy'3 driven unrest ravaging Syria& With Saad 7ariri' the 5S' and Saudi Ara!ia overtly wor#ing to under ine Syrian sta!ility' it appears that all o" the designs descri!ed !y Sey our 7ersh in 200? were now co ing to "ruition& Western edia1s reportage o" violence in 0e!anon would create a disingenuous depiction o" it !eing $spilt over3 "ro Syria' eant to portray a general sense o" chaos consu ing the region& (n actuality' it is a pre editated desta!ili4ation dependent on "ostering violence !etween Sunni and Shi1a +usli s' )ust as was purpose"ully done in (raB to !al# an e""ective Sunni,Shi1a alliance that achieved initial success "ighting a "oreign occupation led !y the 5S starting in 200=& 7ariri portends that his alliance with the 5S' (srael' and the Saudis is si ply an atte pt to protect $Sunnis3 "ro a $Shi1a threat&3 As e pires have done all throughout history' 7ariri1s invitation "ro the West to eddle in his own nation1s a""airs has opened the door to the destruction and dis e !er ent o" not only his ene ies' !ut inevita!ly his own ove ent as well& .espite a current 5N cease"ire the West has continuously !erated the Syrian govern ent "or violating' reports issued !y corporate thin# tan#s such as the Broo#ings1 (nstitute have continually called "or using the cease"ire to reorgani4e and rear terrorist pro*ies& As a conseBuence o" that policy' the ne*t round o" destructive violence in Syria shoo# and distur!ed the world& 2n +ay 2C' 2012' 109 people were !rutally urdered' including =< wo en and <> children in two opposition,controlled villages in the 7oula district' northwest o" 7o s& The victi s showed signs o" !eing #illed at close range' while any had their throats slit and showed signs o" !eing e*ecuted at point,!lan# range& While the Syrian govern ent ?< Soldiers shoot anti,Assad clerics in 0e!anon' triggering "resh violence' CNN' +ay 21' 2012

reported that al,Kaeda terrorist groups were responsi!le "or the #illings in an atte pt to su!vert the peace plan' 5N investigators proposed that govern ent,hired Alawite ilitias #nown as $Sha!iha3 were responsi!le "or the #illing& (nitial reports issued !y Western edia organi4ations had clai ed that Syrian govern ent shelling was responsi!le "or the >0 $con"ir ed3 deaths !y 5N onitors who later arrived on the scene& 7owever' con"licting reports "ro across ;ul" State edia clai the deaths' particularly those o" children' were caused !y $#nives3 and other short,range weapons& ( ages !roadcasted !y !oth the opposition and the Syrian govern ent1s SANA News networ# showed slain "a ilies laying dead within intact structures' the result o" a co !ination o" !rutality including close range s all ar s "ire and !laded weapons as clai ed !y ;ul" State networ#s& ?C SANA News argues that terrorist groups co itted the atrocities' as it consistently aintained throughout the duration o" the unrest& The West and its allies however' have presented con"licting' and ever,shi"ting narratives to o!"uscate the increasingly depraved atrocities co itted !y their own pro*y re!el "orces& 6or er British intelligence o""icer Alastair Croo#e co ented on the nature o" the attac#s' and how they were not characteristic o" the cultural region to which Syria !elongs' suggesting that the assacre had its tactical and ideological roots in the (raB war: T(is ty!e o) .illin%# +e(eadin%s# slittin% o) t(roats No) c(ildren tooO# and o) t(is "utilation o) +odies# (as +een a c(aracteristic not o) Le,antine Isla"# not o) Syria# not o) Le+anon# +ut w(at (a!!ened in t(e $n+ar !ro,ince o) IraB. $nd so it see"s to !oint ,ery "uc( in t(e direction o) %rou!s t(at (a,e +een associated wit( t(e war in IraB a%ainst t(e 3nited States w(o (a,e !er(a!s returned to Syria# or !er(a!s IraBis w(o (a,e co"e u! )ro" $n+ar to ta.e !art in it. I t(in. t(e attac. is "ore close to <usa+ al4 QarBawi ?w(o declared an all out war on S(ia in IraB@# t(an al4Haeda as we .now it# in t(e sense t(at QarBawi and IraB %a,e +irt( to t(is ,ery stron%# +i%oted# anti4S(ia# anti4 Iranian r(etoric. <uc( o) t(at ca"e into Syria w(en )i%(ters )ro" $n+ar returned to t(eir (o"es around =o"s and =a"a. So yes# we>re tal.in% a+out al4Haeda li.e %rou!s t(at are at t(e ,ery end o) t(e s!ectru" o) t(e o!!osition. T(ey "ay +e a "inority in ter"s o) t(e nu"+ers o) t(e o,erall o!!osition# +ut t(ey are de)inin% t(e war. ?: Be"ore 5N onitors even arrived in 7oula' the 5S' 5/' and 6rance were already calling "or the $international co unity3 to ove against the Syrian govern ent& Western ainstrea edia sources reported that ilitant e*tre ists' aterial assistance and high,end weapons had !een "reely "lowing "or onths in the 7oula region' close to the near!y 0e!anese !order& 6rench 6oreign +inister 0aurent 6a!ius urged "or ore support to !e given to the Syrian opposition' who were now long e*posed as e ploying terrorist tactics' including indiscri inate !o !ings and' according to !oth the 5N and =u"an i%(ts Watc(' the #idnapping' torture' and urder o" civilians&?? Al ost i ediately a"ter 5N onitors arrived in 7oula' Syria' ?C New +assacres !y al,Kaeda,lin#ed Terrorist ;roups against 6a ilies in al,Shu ariyeh and Taldo in 7o s Countryside' SANA News' +ay 2:' 2012 ?: @oint!lan# assacre: +assive "allout "ro 7oula #illings' 8ussia Today' +ay 2>' 2012 ?? 6rance' 5&/& 5rge Support "or Syrian 2pposition' Bloo !erg' +ay 2:' 2012

the so,called $6ree Syrian Ar y3 o""icially declared that it would a!andon the 5N peace plan' as predicted !y Western thin#,tan#s such as the Broo#ings (nstitution' who called "or the ending o" the 5N $cease"ire$ and the reco encing o" violence to overthrow the Syrian govern ent& 5/ 6oreign 2""ice inister Alistair Burt would state: We are a!!alled at w(at a!!ears to +e credi+le re!orts t(at t(e Syrian re%i"e (as +een res!onsi+le )or t(e deat(s o) C2 ci,ilians in =oula# includin% 02 c(ildren. T(e 3N =ead o) <ission (as +een a+le to con)ir" t(e nu"+ers and also t(at artillery tan. s(ells (a,e +een used. I) t(is is t(e case t(en it>s an act o) !ure# na.ed sa,a%ery and we conde"n it in t(e "ost stron%est !ossi+le ter"s &?9 -vents in 7oula lead Western states to e*pel Syrian diplo ats and on Aune 1st' the 5nited Nations 7u an 8ights Council voted to conde n Syria' calling "or an international cri inal inBuiry into the events& Western edia has largely relied on uncon"ir ed opposition accounts crediting Sha!iha pro,govern ent Alawite ilitias with carrying out assacres across Syria as a result o" the Assad govern ent $!rainwashing the ilitia into !elieving the Sunni a)ority was their ene y'3 as reported !y The Telegraph (n early Aune&?> .uring a speech in the Syrian parlia ent' Assad called the attac#s in 7oula $a!o ina!le'3 stating: T(is crisis is not an internal crisis. It is an e/ternal war carried out +y internal ele"ents# i) we wor. to%et(er- I con)ir" t(at t(e end to t(is situation is near. W(at (a!!ened in =oula... and w(at we descri+ed as u%ly and a+o"ina+le "assacres# or true "onstrosities 4 e,en "onsters do not !er!etrate w(at we (a,e seen. We are not )acin% a !olitical !ro+le" +ecause i) we were# t(is !arty would !ut )ort( a !olitical !ro%ra". W(at we are )acin% is an atte"!t to sow sectarian stri)e and t(e tool o) t(is is terroris"# t(e issue is terroris". We are )acin% a real war wa%ed )ro" t(e outside# and will continue )ir"ly con)rontin% terroris"# lea,in% t(e door o!en )or t(ose w(o want to return. I ur%e t(ose w(o are still (esitant to do so# to ta.e t(is ste!. T(e state will not ta.e re,en%e&90 8ainer 7er ann' a +iddle -ast correspondent o" the ;er an newspaper 7ran.)urter $ll%e"eine Qeitun% pu!lished an alternative account o" the events in 7oula' alleging that e*tre ist anti,Assad Sunni ilitants carried out the assacre' targeting pro,govern ent Alawi and Shia inorities stating: $)ter 7riday !rayers on <ay 21 "ore t(an F00 %un"en or%ani6ed in t(ree %rou!s under t(e leaders(i! o) $+durra66aB Tlass and :a(ya :usu)# co"in% )ro" astan# Ja)r La(a and $.ra+a# and attac.ed t(ree ar"y c(ec.!oints near Taldou. T(e re+els# w(o were su!erior in nu"+ers# and t(e N"ostly also SunniO soldiers )ou%(t a +loody +attle in w(ic( two do6en soldiers# "ost o) t(e" conscri!ts# were .illed. Durin% and a)ter t(e )i%(tin%# re+els su!!orted +y residents o) Taldou wi!ed out t(e entire )a"ilies o) Sayyid and $+darra66aB. T(ey (ad re)used to Ioin t(e o!!osition. T(ose .illed were al"ost ?9 5/ conde ns Dpure na#ed savagery1 o" 7oula #illings' The Telegraph' +ay 2?' 2012 ?> The Sha!iha: (nside Assad1s death sBuads' The Telegraph' Aune 02' 2012 90 Assad says 7oula #illings onstrous' sees end to crisis' 8euters' Aune =' 2012

e/clusi,ely )ro" )a"ilies +elon%in% to =oula>s $lawi and S(ia "inorities. 8,er C0R o) =oula>s !o!ulation is Sunni. Se,eral do6en "e"+ers o) a )a"ily were slau%(tered# w(ic( (ad con,erted )ro" Sunni to S(ia Isla". <e"+ers o) t(e S(o"aliya# an $lawi )a"ily# were also .illed# as was t(e )a"ily o) a Sunni "e"+er o) t(e Syrian !arlia"ent w(o is re%arded as a colla+orator. I""ediately )ollowin% t(e "assacre# t(e !er!etrators are su!!osed to (a,e )il"ed t(eir ,icti"s and t(en !resented t(e" as Sunni ,icti"s in ,ideos !osted on t(e internet. 91 The report issued !y 7ran.)urter $ll%e"eine Qeitun% is entirely plausi!le' considering that the =u"an i%(ts Watc( report on Syria1s opposition docu ented the outstanding cases o" violence conducted largely on sectarian grounds' otivated !y anti,Shi1a and anti,Alawite senti ents' with cited a!uses co itted !y ilitant Sala"ist groups and e !ers o" the opposition 6ree Syrian Ar y& Although 5N o!servers ad itted they were una!le to deter ine the perpetrators o" the 7oula assacre with no "ir evidence to inculpate the Syrian govern ent' 5N chie" Ban /i, oon declared that the Assad govern ent had lost its legiti acy' channeling calls !y @resident Bara# 2!a a' 5S Secretary o" State 7illary Clinton and British @ri e +inister .avid Ca eron "or Assad to step down& Western nations continued oving ahead with their calls "or $action3 against the Assad regi e and continued to conde n the Syrian govern ent' which according to the activists they are allegedly citing' were not even responsi!le "or the assacre& (n late Auly 2012' reports issued !y the ;er an 6ederal (ntelligence Service GBN.H con"ir ed that al Kaeda has carried out $a!out >0 terrorist attac#s3 in Syria !etween late .ece !er 2011 and early Auly 2012' including involve ent in the +ay 2Cth 7oula assacre& 92 8eports o" #illings were "ra ed to "it a pre,deter ined conclusion' in line with the "oreign policy o!)ectives o" Western capitals !y i plicating the Assad regi e in orchestrating violence in order to !uild popular support "or aggressively toppling the Syrian govern ent& 8ussian 6oreign +inister Sergey 0avrov has recently accused e*ternal "orces o" inciting violence !y providing ar s and aterial assistance to ilitant opposition "orces' stating' $They want the international co unity to !e "illed with indignation and start a "ull,!lown intervention in Syria&3 9= 6ollowing the #illings' 5S Treasury Secretary Ti othy ;eithner called on the world to e*ert $ a*i u "inancial pressure3 on Assad1s govern ent through strong sanctions that $can help hasten the day the Assad regi e relinBuishes power'3 while assuring that the 5S would support the use o" "orce against Syria as authori4ed under Chapter ? o" the 5nited Nations charter&9< 2ne can only i agine the international outcry should the Syrian 91 A!er als +assa#er in Syrien' 6ran#"urter Allge eine Qeitung' Aune 0?' 2012 92 ;er an intel&: Kaeda !ehind terror in Syria' @ressTE' Auly 2:' 2012 9= Annan plan Donly chance "or peace1 !ut stalled !y intervention supporters , 0avrov' 8ussia Today' Aune 0>'

2012

9< ;eithner warns Syria o" 5N action' as Clinton heads to (stan!ul to tal# strategy with allies' C?0 News' Aune 0:' 2012

govern ent have declared it was a!andoning the 5N,!ro#ered $cease,"ire3 and resolved to dealing with its opponents in the $only language they understand' violence3 F as stated !y representatives o" the 6ree Syrian Ar y& 7owever' the Syrian govern ent did not a!andon the cease"ire' and would continue to host hundreds o" 5N onitors& (nstead' it was the opposition a#ing such clai s , clai s that would continually go unchallenged !y the so,called $international co unity&3 The events o" 7oula could !e co pared to what un"olded in the su er o" 1>=>' when the Na4i "orces' eager to portray the selves as hapless victi s to )usti"y acts o" ilitary aggression' staged a !order incident intended to "alsely i plicate neigh!oring @oland& A"ter staging !order incidents involving ;er an troops attac#ing their own radio station to "ra e @oland "or unwarranted aggression' 7itler ordered the Na4i invasion o" @oland& (ronically enough' it is the 5nited States1 own 7olocaust +e orial +useu that not only gives us an account o" these events' !ut an entire lesson regarding $.eceiving the @u!lic:3 T(rou%(out t(e Second World War# Na6i !ro!a%andists dis%uised "ilitary a%%ression ai"ed at territorial conBuest as ri%(teous and necessary acts o) sel)4 de)ense. T(ey cast Ger"any as a ,icti" or !otential ,icti" o) )orei%n a%%ressors# as a !eace4lo,in% nation )orced to ta.e u! ar"s to !rotect its !o!ulace or de)end ;uro!ean ci,ili6ation a%ainst Co""unis". T(e war ai"s !ro)essed at eac( sta%e o) t(e (ostilities al"ost always dis%uised actual Na6i intentions o) territorial e/!ansion and racial war)are. T(is was !ro!a%anda o) dece!tion# desi%ned to )ool or "isdirect t(e !o!ulations in Ger"any# Ger"an4occu!ied lands# and t(e neutral countries. In su""er o) 1C0C# as =itler and (is aides )inali6ed !lans )or t(e in,asion o) 2oland# t(e !u+lic "ood in Ger"any was tense and )ear)ul. Ger"ans were e"+oldened +y t(e recent dra"atic e/tension o) Ger"any>s +orders into nei%(+orin% $ustria and C6ec(oslo,a.ia wit(out (a,in% )ired a s(ot- +ut t(ey did not line t(e streets callin% )or war# as t(e %eneration o) 1C1& (ad done. Be)ore t(e Ger"an attac. on 2oland on Se!te"+er 1# 1C0C# t(e Na6i re%i"e launc(ed an a%%ressi,e "edia ca"!ai%n to +uild !u+lic su!!ort )or a war t(at )ew Ger"ans desired. To !resent t(e in,asion as a "orally Iusti)ia+le# de)ensi,e action# t(e Ger"an !ress !layed u! '2olis( atrocities#” re)errin% to real or alle%ed discri"ination and !(ysical ,iolence directed a%ainst et(nic Ger"ans residin% in 2oland. De!lorin% 2olis( Awar"on%erin%> and Ac(au,inis"#> t(e !ress also attac.ed t(e Britis( )or encoura%in% war +y !ro"isin% to de)end 2oland in t(e e,ent o) Ger"an in,asion. T(e Na6i re%i"e e,en sta%ed a +order incident desi%ned to "a.e it a!!ear t(at 2oland initiated (ostilities wit( Ger"any. 8n $u%ust 01# 1C0C# SS "en dressed in 2olis( ar"y uni)or"s Aattac.ed> a Ger"an radio station at Gleiwit6 NGliwiceO. T(e ne/t day# =itler announced to t(e Ger"an nation and t(e world (is decision to send troo!s into 2oland in res!onse to 2olis( Aincursions> into t(e eic(. T(e Na6i 2arty eic( 2ress 8))ice instructed t(e !ress to a,oid t(e use o) t(e word Awar>. T(ey were to re!ort t(at Ger"an troo!s (ad si"!ly +eaten +ac. 2olis( attac.s# a tactic desi%ned to de)ine Ger"any as t(e ,icti" o) a%%ression. T(e onus o) res!onsi+ility )or declarin% war would +e le)t to t(e Britis( and 7renc(.9C 9C .eceiving the @u!lic' 5nited States 7olocaust +e orial +useu ' +ay 11' 2011

6ro Eene4uela to Thailand' Western,!ac#ed opposition groups have historically !een "ound to trigger unrest' and use it as cover to assassinate civilians and e !ers o" their own ove ents' only to then !la e it on the targeted govern ent in order to e*acer!ate the con"lict until a critical ass is reached and that govern ent is toppled& The 7oula assacre shares identical characteristics with other engineered atrocities around the world' si ply on a larger scale' involving ilitants ost li#ely not a""iliated with local 6SA "ighters or the Syrian govern ent' !ut "oreign ele ents )ust as the Syrian govern ent has clai ed& (n a distur!ing prelude to the sectarian e*tre is sown in Syria' Aournalist Trish Schuh would interview Qiad A!del Nour' in 200C& Nour' a corporate,"inancier and "ounder o" $Blac#haw# @artners$ as well as chair an o" the Neo,Conservative run $5nited States Co ittee "or a 6ree 0e!anon'3 has consorted with "ellow co ittee e !ers including +orris A itay o" the Aewish (nstitute "or National Security A""airs' +ichael 8u!in o" the A erican -nterprise (nstitute' and @NAC signatories @aula .o!rians#y' Aa es Woolsey' 6ran# ;a""ney' and .aniel @ipes' "or years to "o ent the very !loodshed' insta!ility and atrocities that have un"olded in Syria: Bot( t(e Syrian and Le+anese re%i"es will +e c(an%ed4 w(et(er t(ey li.e it or not4 w(et(er it>s %oin% to +e a "ilitary cou! or so"et(in% elseS and we are wor.in% on it. We .now already e/actly w(o>s %oin% to +e t(e re!lace"ents. We>re wor.in% on it wit( t(e Bus( ad"inistration. T(ese %uys w(o ca"e to !ower# w(o rule +y !ower# can only +e re"o,ed +y !ower. T(is is <ac(ia,elli>s !ower %a"e. T(at>s (ow it is. T(is is (ow %eo!olitics * t(e war %a"es# !ower %a"es * wor.. I .now inside out (ow it wor.s# +ecause I co"e )ro" a )a"ily o) !oliticians )or t(e last L0 years. Loo.# I (a,e access to t(e to! classi)ied in)or"ation )ro" t(e CI$ )ro" all o,er t(e world. T(ey call "e# I ad,ise t(e". I .now e/actly w(at>s %oin% on. $nd t(is will (a!!en. T(is Bas(ar $l $ssad4;"il La(oud re%i"e is %oin% to %o w(et(er it>s true or not. W(en we went to IraB w(et(er t(ere were wea!ons o) "ass destruction or not# t(e .ey is * we won. $nd Sadda" is outT W(ate,er we want# will (a!!en. IranM We will not let Iran +eco"e a nuclear !ower. We>ll )ind a way- we>ll )ind an e/cuse 4 to %et rid o) Iran. $nd I don>t care w(at t(e e/cuse is. T(ere is no roo" )or ro%ue states in t(e world. W(et(er we lie a+out it# or in,ent so"et(in%# or we don>tS I don>t care. T(e end Iusti)ies t(e "eans. W(at>s ri%(tM <i%(t is ri%(t# "i%(t is ri%(t. T(at>s it. <i%(t is ri%(t. So Sadda" wanted to !ro,e to t(e w(ole world (e was stron%M Well# we>re stron%er4 (e>s outT =e>s )inis(ed. $nd Iran>s %oin% to +e )inis(ed and e,ery sin%le $ra+ re%i"e t(at>s li.e t(is will +e )inis(ed. Because t(ere is no roo" )or us ca!italists and "ulti4 nationalists in t(e world to o!erate wit( re%i"es li.e t(is. It>s all a+out "oney. $nd !ower. $nd wealt(S and de"ocracy (as to +e s!read around t(e world. T(ose w(o want to es!ouse %lo+ali6ation are %oin% to "a.e a lot o) "oney# +e (a!!y# t(eir )a"ilies will +e (a!!y. $nd t(ose w(o aren>t %oin% to !lay t(is %a"e are %oin% to +e crus(ed# w(et(er t(ey li.e it or notT 9: Schuh1s interview with A!del Nour pro"iles a cri inal ind not only psychologically and operationally capa!le o" engineering an event such as the 7oula 9: 6a#ing the Case Against Syria' Counterpunch' Nove !er 19' 200C

assacre' !ut a ind who possessed the intent and otive to do so& Nour1s distur!ing display o" egalo ania dovetails with the New :or.er1s 200? article' $The 8edirection'3 written !y )ournalist Sey our 7ersh' which docu ents how the 5nited States' (srael' and Saudi Ara!ia' along with A!del Nour1s 7ariri "action in 0e!anon' were preparing a regional ar y o" sectarian e*tre ists to desta!ili4e the Shi1a,led authorities & ad inistrations o" the +iddle -ast& 7ersh1s report included an interview with "or er,C(A agent 8o!ert Baer in 0e!anon who warned o" the need to protect Christians "ro a predicta!le onslaught !y 5S,(sraeli,Saudi,!ac#ed sectarian e*tre ists , an onslaught that would play out against Syria1s 10 percent Christian population& Not only did 5S' (sraeli' and Saudi conspirators purposely unleash sectarian e*tre ists inside o" Syria , they did so with the "ull #nowledge that atrocities li#e the one in 7oula' Syria would inevita!ly result& 6or decades' every nation across the Ara! World' "ro Algeria to +orocco' -gypt to Syria' have "ought against sectarian e*tre ists "ro organi4ations li#e the +usli Brotherhood and Al Kaeda& Algeria' "or e*a ple' "ought arduously against violent e*tre ists atte pting to overrun their secular society and target ethnic and religious inorities including Christians and even Sunni oderates F this period has co e to !e re"erred to as the $lost3 or $!lac# decade&3 Algeria "aced a ongst others' Al Kaeda in the (sla ic +aghre! GAK(+H' a 5S State .epart ent,listed terrorist organi4ation lin#ed directly to neigh!oring 0i!ya1s $0i!yan (sla ic 6ighting ;roup3 G0(6;H which was ar ed' trained' "unded' and politically !ac#ed !y NAT2 to overrun +ua ar ;adda"i& (n !oth -gypt and Syria' it was the +usli Brotherhood that had atte pted to overrun secular govern ents with violence' irroring e*actly what has un"olded during the Syrian uprising& Today' the Western press decries -gyptian and Syrian e""orts to he in these sectarian e*tre ists' particularly in Syria where the govern ent is accused o" $ assacring3 ar ed Brotherhood ilitants in 7a a in 1>92& The constitutions o" secular Ara! nations across Northern A"rica and the +iddle -ast' including the newly rewritten Syrian Constitution' have atte pted to e*clude sectarian political parties' especially those with $regional3 a""iliations to prevent the +usli Brotherhood and Al Kaeda a""iliated political ove ents "ro ever co ing !ac# to power&9? The Syrian re"erendu "or its new constitution' as well as elections held under this new constitution' would !e !oycotted !y the so,called $6ree Syrian Ar y3 and its political wing' speci"ically !ecause they are sectarian e*tre ists with regional a""iliations& The West would !ac# these !oycotts' calling the Syrian re"or s $laugha!le&3 Since at least 200?' the West' particularly the 5S' along with (srael and Saudi Ara!ia' atte pted to !uild up !oth the +usli Brotherhood and s aller' ar ed e*tre ist groups with direct ties to Al Kaeda' in order to directly target 0e!anon' Syria' and (ran& Begun under the Bush ad inistration and continuing sea lessly under 2!a a' the +usli Brotherhood was already descri!ed as !eing !ac#ed !y the 5S and (srael' who were "unneling support through the Saudis so as to not co pro ise the $credi!ility3 o" the so,called $(sla ic3 ove ent& Aournalist Sey our 7ersh reported that e !ers o" the 0e!anese Saad 7ariri cliBue' then led !y 6ouad Siniora' had !een the go,!etween "or 5S planners and the Syrian +usli Brotherhood& 7ersh reported that a supporter o" the 0e!anese 7ariri "action had et 9? Syrian elections !randed Da sha '1 BBC' +ay 0<' 2012

.ic# Cheney in Washington and relayed personally the i portance o" using the +usli Brotherhood in Syria in any ove against the ruling govern ent: ?Walid@ 5u"+latt t(en told "e t(at (e (ad "et wit( Dice42resident C(eney in Was(in%ton last )all to discuss# a"on% ot(er issues# t(e !ossi+ility o) under"inin% $ssad. =e and (is collea%ues ad,ised C(eney t(at# i) t(e 3nited States does try to "o,e a%ainst Syria# "e"+ers o) t(e Syrian <usli" Brot(er(ood would +e 't(e ones to tal. to#” 5u"+latt said. T(ere is e,idence t(at t(e $d"inistration>s redirection strate%y (as already +ene)itted t(e Brot(er(ood. T(e Syrian National Sal,ation 7ront is a coalition o) o!!osition %rou!s w(ose !rinci!al "e"+ers are a )action led +y $+dul =ali" J(adda"# a )or"er Syrian Dice42resident w(o de)ected in 2001# and t(e Brot(er(ood. $ )or"er (i%(4ran.in% C.I.$. o))icer told "e# 'T(e $"ericans (a,e !ro,ided +ot( !olitical and )inancial su!!ort. T(e Saudis are ta.in% t(e lead wit( )inancial su!!ort# +ut t(ere is $"erican in,ol,e"ent.” =e said t(at J(adda"# w(o now li,es in 2aris# was %ettin% "oney )ro" Saudi $ra+ia# wit( t(e .nowled%e o) t(e W(ite =ouse. NIn 2001# a dele%ation o) t(e 7ront>s "e"+ers "et wit( o))icials )ro" t(e National Security Council# accordin% to !ress re!orts.O $ )or"er W(ite =ouse o))icial told "e t(at t(e Saudis (ad !ro,ided "e"+ers o) t(e 7ront wit( tra,el docu"ents. (n +ay 2012' outlets such as euters reported that the Syrian ar o" the +usli Brotherhood has !een leading the 5S' (sraeli' and Saudi,!ac#ed sectarian violence that has !een ravaging Syria "or over a year: Wor.in% Buietly# t(e Brot(er(ood (as +een )inancin% 7ree Syrian $r"y de)ectors +ased in Tur.ey and c(annelin% "oney and su!!lies to Syria# re,i,in% t(eir +ase a"on% s"all Sunni )ar"ers and "iddle class Syrians# o!!osition sources say. 99 A Aune Cth 2012 Bloo"+er% op,ed titled' $Annan Should Tal# to @utin' Not Assad' to 6i* Syria'3 atte pted to indict +oscow and Bei)ing in sharing the !la e "or the carnage seen in the 7oula +assacre& The article conceded that the violence in Syria is sectarian&9> The words $de ocracy3 and $"reedo '3 that had !een disingenuously used since the !eginning o" the $Ara! Spring'3 would !e dropped altogether as the Western press threw its "ull weight !ehind the long,planned sectarian war that the 5S' (srael' and Saudi Ara!ia have !een cultivating "or years: W(at =oula indicates is t(at t(e sectarian ci,il war +etween Syria>s Sunnis and $lawites t(at t(e world (ad lon% )eared (as +e%un. $ssad>s clai" in a s!eec( 5une 0 t(at terrorists conducted t(e slau%(ter o) )ellow Sunnis to create an international outcry is lau%(a+le. $ny e,idence t(ere is su%%ests t(at t(e $lawite S(a+i(a "ilitia# wor.in% in tande" wit( t(e %o,ern"ent "ilitary# was res!onsi+le. While so e e !ers o" the Syrian govern ent1s security "orces ay have used e*cessive "orce when !attling opposition "ighters in residential neigh!orhoods' leading to unintended civilian deaths' it is under the govern ent o" Bashar al,Assad that Syria1s large populations o" ethnic and religious inorities' particularly Shi1a +usli s' oderate Sunnis' Christians' and .ru4e have !een protected "ro sectarian 99 Syria1s +usli Brotherhood rise "ro the ashes' 8euters' +ay 0:' 2012 9> Annan Should Tal# to @utin' Not Assad' to 6i* Syria' Bloo !erg' Aune 0<' 2012

onslaught perpetuated !y e*tre ists and re!el "ighters cultivated !y the West& Aournalist Sey our 7ersh1s 200? article $The 8edirection'3 would "oreshadow the very $sectarian civil war3 that Bloo"+er% openly insinuated: o+ert Baer# a )or"er lon%ti"e C.I.$. a%ent in Le+anon# (as +een a se,ere critic o) =e6+olla( and (as warned o) its lin.s to Iranian4s!onsored terroris". But now# (e told "e# 'we>,e %ot Sunni $ra+s !re!arin% )or cataclys"ic con)lict# and we will need so"e+ody to !rotect t(e C(ristians in Le+anon. It used to +e t(e 7renc( and t(e 3nited States w(o would do it# and now it>s %oin% to +e Nasralla( and t(e S(iites.” Bloo"+er% concluded that 8ussia ust withdraw support "or the Syrian govern ent' which has de onstra!ly wor#ed to protect !oth Syria1s secular society as well as its vast populations o" ethnic and religious inorities' in order to avert "urther !loodshed& Clearly' )ust as 8ussia withdrew support "ro the ;adda"i regi e in 0i!ya under "or er @resident . itry +edvedev' 8ussia1s withdrawal o" support "ro the Syrian govern ent under @resident Eladi ir @utin would not ar# the end o" violence& (nstead' it would erely ar# the end o" contested violence and the !eginning o" unchec#ed lawlessness' atrocities and widespread #illing !y sectarian e*tre ists "lush with Western cash' weapons' and political support& (n early Aune 2012' e !ers o" Syria1s Christian co unity !egan accusing the 6ree Syrian Ar y o" waging a sectarian war on Syria1s religious inorities& $%en6ia 7ides' an online in"or ation service "or (nternational @onti"ical +ission Societies would accurately corro!orate events on the ground !y reporting the testi ony o" Syria,!ased 6rench Bishop @hilip Tournyol Clos' stating: T(e !icture )or us is utter desolation: t(e c(urc( o) <ar ;lian is (al) destroyed and t(at o) 8ur Lady o) 2eace is still occu!ied +y t(e re+els. C(ristian (o"es are se,erely da"a%ed due to t(e )i%(tin% and co"!letely e"!tied o) t(eir in(a+itants# w(o )led wit(out ta.in% anyt(in%. T(e area o) =a"idie( is still s(elter to ar"ed %rou!s inde!endent o) eac( ot(er# (ea,ily ar"ed and +an.rolled +y Hatar and Saudi $ra+ia. $ll C(ristians N10P#000O (a,e )led to Da"ascus and Le+anon# w(ile ot(ers too. re)u%e in t(e surroundin% countryside. T(e ene"ies o) Syria (a,e enlisted so"e o) t(e <usli" Brot(er(ood in order to destroy t(e +rot(erly relations t(at traditionally e/isted +etween <usli"s and C(ristians: :et# to date# t(ey are not a+le to: t(ey (a,e !ro,o.ed a contrary reaction and t(e two co""unities are "ore united t(an +e)ore. T(e Syrian soldiers in )act# continue to )ace )orei%n )i%(ters# "ercenaries Li+yans# Le+anese "ilitants )ro" t(e Gul)# $)%(ans# Tur.s.>0 2n Aune ?th 2012' 5S A !assador to the 5N Susan 8ice declared that the West was prepared to $ta#e actions outside o" the Annan plan and the authority o" this U5N securityV council'3 to i ple ent regi e change in Syria in response to the 7oula assacre&>1 8ussian 6oreign +inister Sergey 0avrov repeated that his nation opposes any atte pt to intervene or level sanctions against Syria' accusing the West o" purpose"ully perpetuating violence in order to sa!otage peace e""orts and create a >0 The desolation o" 7o s and the war o" in"or ation $: the words o" a gree#,catholic Archi andrite' Agen4ia 6ides' Aune 0<' 2012 >1 5S ready to act on Syria outside 5NN 8ussia Today' +ay =1' 2012

pretense "or NAT2,en"orced regi e change 0avrov warned that $the way the Syrian crisis is resolved will play an i portant role in the world to orrowP whether the world will !e !ased on the 5N charter' or a place where ight a#es right&3 0avrov1s senti ents were echoed !y China' (ran' and South A erica1s A0BA nations' whose collective populations eBuate to over 1&C !illion people& 0avrov would a#e state ents during a live press con"erence' "ocusing on evidence contradicting the politically otivated coverage o" Syria1s con"lict !y the Western edia& 0avrov ela!orated 8ussia1s stance !y saying it would accept Syrian @resident Bashar al, Assad stepping down i"' and only i"' unconditional negotiations !egan' and !oth sides could co e to an agree ent independent o" "oreign in"luence& 2n Aune 10th' 2012' ussia Today issued a report titled' $Syrian re!els ai to use che ical weapons' !la e .a ascus'3 warning o" a possi!le plot !eing "o ented !y Syrian re!els inside NAT2 e !er Tur#ey&>2 The plot involves Syrian re!els deploying che ical weapons o!tained in 0i!ya against Syrian civilians' then !la ing the Syrian govern ent "or the ass casualty event& This' o" course' would provide the West the $casus !elli3 it has !een searching "or to circu vent the 5N Security Council and i ple ent its long,planned ca paign o" regi e change& As a conseBuence o" NAT21s operation in 0i!ya' uch o" ;adda"i1s arsenal o" ilitary weaponry had reportedly "allen into the hands o" re!el "ighters& Since then' 0i!ya1s ilitants' led !y co anders o" Al Kaeda1s 0i!yan (sla ic 6ighting ;roup G0(6;H' have ar ed sectarian e*tre ists across the Ara! World' "ro as "ar West as +ali' to as "ar -ast as Syria& Additionally' as a result o" NAT21s intervention in 0i!ya' the scattered ilitary1s e*tensive arsenal o" anti,aircra"t issiles has also "allen into the hands o" 0i!yan ilitants' to then !e proli"erated throughout 0(6;1s networ# o" a""iliates , all o" which are sectarian e*tre ists' any with direct ties to Al Kaeda& The Was(in%ton 2ost in their article' $0i!yan issiles on the loose'3 reported: Two )or"er CI$ counterterroris" o))icers told "e last wee. t(at tec(nicians recently re)ur+is(ed P00 o) t(ese "an4!orta+le air4de)ense syste"s N.nown as <$N2$DSO * so"e )or an $)rican Ii(adist %rou! called Bo.o =ara" t(at is o)ten seen as an ally o) al4Haeda * )or !ossi+le use a%ainst co""ercial Iets )lyin% into Ni%er# C(ad and !er(a!s Ni%eria.>= +ore than any other nation' the 5nited States has !een adept at deploying nuclear' !iological' and che ical weapons o" ass destruction against their ene ies , "ro nuclear !o !s upon Aapan' to depleted uraniu and white phosphorus upon (raB' to Agent 2range all across Eietna & (t stands to reason then' that these weapons would eventually end up in the hands o" the their pro*ies as well& 6or an opposition so transparently dishonest' which has already !een caught atte pting to "ra e the Syrian govern ent "or ass,casualty events and atrocities o" their own doing' it is at least plausi!le that ilitant re!el groups with the insidious otivations to use the against civilian populations could also !e capa!le o" deploying weapons o" ass destruction that are ore than within their eans o" o!taining& 2n Aune >2 Syrian re!els ai to use che ical weapons' !la e .a ascus F report' 8ussia Today' Aune 10'
2012

>= 0i!yan issiles on the loose' The Washington @ost' +ay >' 2012

1?th' 2012' the 5S was caught lying' regarding 8ussian gunships !eing shipped to Syria& (n the New :or. Ti"es1 $Copters in Syria +ay Not Be New' 5&S& 2""icials Say'3 a senior de"ense depart ent o""icial ad itted that' when 5S Secretary o" State 7illary Clinton ade her "raudulent clai regarding 8ussian weapon ship ents' she $put a little spin on it to put the 8ussians in a di""icult position&3 The New :or. Ti"es continued !y stating' $+rs& Clinton1s clai a!out the helicopters' ad inistration o""icials said' is part o" a calculated e""ort to raise the pressure on 8ussia to a!andon @resident Bashar al,Assad' its ain ally in the +iddle -ast&3 This !latant act o" deception and disin"or ation is indicative o" the ca paign o" "a!rication orchestrated !y the 5S State .epart ent' the British 6oreign 2""ice' and Western and ;ul" State news outlets around the world to de oni4e !oth the Syrian govern ent and its e*tensive allies around the world&>< 2n Aune 21' 2012' The New :or. Ti"es con"ir ed what alternative edia outlets and nu erous geopolitical analysts had !een reporting since the "irst onths o" the uprising in 2011' that outside "orces' including the A erican C(A' were supplying Syria1s re!els with weapons and aterial assistance "ro Southern Tur#ey& (n $C&(&A& Said to Aid in Steering Ar s to Syrian 2pposition'3 the New :or. Ti"es stated: $ s"all nu"+er o) C.I.$. o))icers are o!eratin% secretly in sout(ern Tur.ey# (el!in% allies decide w(ic( Syrian o!!osition )i%(ters across t(e +order will recei,e ar"s to )i%(t t(e Syrian %o,ern"ent# accordin% to $"erican o))icials and $ra+ intelli%ence o))icers. T(e wea!ons# includin% auto"atic ri)les# roc.et4!ro!elled %renades# a""unition and so"e antitan. wea!ons# are +ein% )unneled "ostly across t(e Tur.is( +order +y way o) a s(adowy networ. o) inter"ediaries includin% Syria>s <usli" Brot(er(ood and !aid )or +y Tur.ey# Saudi $ra+ia and Hatar# t(e o))icials said. T(e C.I.$. o))icers (a,e +een in sout(ern Tur.ey )or se,eral wee.s# in !art to (el! .ee! wea!ons out o) t(e (ands o) )i%(ters allied wit( $l Haeda or ot(er terrorist %rou!s# one senior $"erican o))icial said. T(e 8+a"a ad"inistration (as said it is not !ro,idin% ar"s to t(e re+els# +ut it (as also ac.nowled%ed t(at Syria>s nei%(+ors would do so. By (el!in% to ,et re+el %rou!s# $"erican intelli%ence o!erati,es in Tur.ey (o!e to learn "ore a+out a %rowin%# c(an%in% o!!osition networ. inside o) Syria and to esta+lis( new ties. AC.I.$. o))icers are t(ere and t(ey are tryin% to "a.e new sources and recruit !eo!le#> said one $ra+ intelli%ence o))icial w(o is +rie)ed re%ularly +y $"erican counter!arts. $"erican o))icials and retired C.I.$. o))icials said t(e ad"inistration was also wei%(in% additional assistance to re+els# li.e !ro,idin% satellite i"a%ery and ot(er detailed intelli%ence on Syrian troo! locations and "o,e"ents. T(e ad"inistration is also considerin% w(et(er to (el! t(e o!!osition set u! a rudi"entary intelli%ence ser,ice. But no decisions (a,e +een "ade on t(ose "easures or e,en "ore a%%ressi,e ste!s# li.e sendin% C.I.$. o))icers into Syria itsel)# t(ey said. >C 5ndenia!ly' the West' led !y the 5S and its ;ul" State pro*ies' had !een ar ing terrorists' particularly the +usli Brotherhood' while !erating the Syrian govern ent "or $violating3 a 5N, andated cease"ire and "or $"ailing to protect3 its population& The +usli Brotherhood has !een co !ated !y nations across the Ara! >< Copters in Syria +ay Not Be New' 5&S& 2""icials Say' The New %or# Ti es' Aune 1=' 2012 >C C&(&A& Said to Aid in Steering Ar s to Syrian 2pposition' The New %or# Ti es' Aune 21' 2012

World to ste the tide o" their sectarian e*tre is ' violence' and their targeted erosion o" secular nation,states& (ronically' the 5S' which has clai ed to !e "ighting the "orces o" sectarian e*tre is and $terroris 3 "or over a decade' has !een revealed as the pri ary ena!ler o" the ost violent and e*tre e terrorist organi4ations in the world& These include' in addition to the +usli Brotherhood' the 0i!yan (sla ic 6ighting ;roup G0(6;H in 0i!ya' Baloch terrorists in @a#istan' and the +u)ahideen,e,/halB G+-/H currently !ased in (raB and !eing used as pro*ies against (ran& -""orts to i pose an ar s e !argo on Syria is now revealed to !e one, sided' ai ed at giving re!els an advantage in the prolonged !lood!ath with the intent o" tipping the !alance in "avor o" Western pro*y,"orces' rather than ending the violence as soon as possi!le as clai ed !y the 5N' and in particular' /o"i Annan& .espite this' however' the so,called $6ree Syrian Ar y'3 according to the New :or. Ti"es' consists o" only 100 or so s all "or ations ade up o" $a hand"ul o" "ighters to a couple o" hundred co !atants'3 !etraying the narrative that the Syrian govern ent "aces a large popular uprising' and revealing that the $6ree Syrian Ar y3 is in "act a s all collection o" ercenaries' "oreign "ighters' and sectarian e*tre ists' ar ed' "unded' and directed !y "oreign interests solely to wrea# havoc within Syria& 6or the 5nited States to clai Syria has $"ailed3 to protect its population' while si ultaneously "ueling the very ar ed con"lict it clai s it is see#ing to end' is not only hypocrisy o" the highest order' !ut a cri e against world peace , punisha!le under the Nure !erg precedent& Additionally' TI<; +aga4ine1s Aune 2C' 2012 article $A War on Two 6ronts'3 descri!ed how the 5S State .epart ent !udgeted over J?2 illion to train ar ed dissidents in encryption' hac#ing' and producing viral videos: Was(in%ton (as said it will not acti,ely su!!ort t(e Syrian o!!osition in its +id to oust $ssad. 8))icially# t(e 3.S. says it a+ides +y t(e 3.N !rocess led +y Jo)i $nnan and does not condone ar"s sales to o!!osition %rou!s as lon% as t(ere are 3.N. 8+ser,ers in Syria. Ne,ert(eless# as 3.S. o))icials (a,e re,ealed to TI<;# t(e 8+a"a $d"inistration (as +een !ro,idin% "edia4tec(nolo%y trainin% and su!!ort to Syrian dissidents +y way o) s"all non!ro)its li.e t(e Institute )or War U 2eace e!ortin% and 7reedo" =ouse. Diral ,ideos o) alle%ed atrocities# li.e t(e )oota%e $+u G(assan !roduced# (a,e "ade $ssad one o) t(e "ost re,iled "en on t(e !lanet# (el!in% turn t(e $ra+ Lea%ue a%ainst (i" and e"+arrassin% (is )ew re"ainin% allies al"ost daily. 'I) t(e ?3.S.@ %o,ern"ent is in,ol,ed in Syria# t(e %o,ern"ent isn>t %oin% to ta.e direct res!onsi+ility )or it#” says Lawrence Lessi%# director o) =ar,ard>s ;d"ond 5. Sa)ra Center )or ;t(ics. 'T(e tools t(at you de!loy in Internet )reedo" inter)ere wit( tools de!loyed +y an e/istin% %o,ern"ent# and t(at can +e !ercei,ed as an act o) a%%ression.” T(e !ro%ra" actually +e%an )our years a%o wit( a di))erent tar%et: C(ina. In 200P# <ic(ael =orowit6# a lon%ti"e reli%ious4li+erty ad,ocate# went to (is )riend e!resentati,e 7ran. Wol)# a Dir%inia e!u+lican# and su%%ested settin% aside )unds to (el! 7alun Gon%# a reli%ious %rou! t(at BeiIin% (as la+eled a dan%erous cult. T(e "oney was su!!osed to (el! t(e dissident distri+ute so)tware to Iu"! C(ina>s "assi,e )irewall and or%ani6e online as well as co""unicate )reely wit( t(e outside world. Wol) succeeded in a!!ro!riatin% E11 "illion. But 3.S. di!lo"ats )eared t(at "o,e would derail relations wit( BeiIin%# and little "oney was s!ent. T(en in 200C G 10 Iranian !rotests and last year>s $ra+ S!rin% "ade Internet )reedo" a "uc( "ore )as(iona+le ter" in Was(in%ton. Con%ress soon )or.ed o,er an additional E1F "illion to State to s!end in t(e ne/t t(ree years. T(e "oney is s!ilt a"on% t(ree areas: education and trainin%- anony"i6ation# w(ic( "as.s users> identities# usually t(rou%( encry!tion-

and circu",ention tec(nolo%y# w(ic( allows users to o,erco"e %o,ern"ent censors so t(at t(eir wor. G and t(at o) re!ressi,e re%i"es G can +e see worldwide. >: (n !ra4en display o" hypocrisy' the 5nited States cha pioned $(nternet 6reedo 3 against $repressive regi es3 it sought to under ine and topple' while in 2012' 5S policy a#ers and representatives repeatedly authored and atte pted to pass controversial internet censorship !ills such as the Anti,Counter"eiting Trade Agree ent GACTAH' which would have a!olished all legal oversight involving the re oval internet content' allowing copyright holders to "orce (S@s to re ove aterial "ro the internet' so ething that would nor ally reBuire a court order' thus andating (S@s with legal lia!ilities i" they chose not to re ove content& Additionally under ACTA and si ilar regulatory proposals' internet users would !e cri inali4ed' !arred "ro accessing the (nternet and even i prisoned "or sharing copyrighted aterial& 5S senators Aoseph 0ie!er an and Aohn +cCain' !oth staunch supporters o" "oreign intervention in Syria' would issue S& 210C GCy!ersecurity ActH on 6e!ruary 1Cth' 2012 and S& 21C1 GSecure (TH on +arch 1th' 2012& 2n April 2:' 2012' the 5S 7ouse o" 8epresentatives passed the Cy!er (ntelligence Sharing and @rotection Act GC(S@AH F a law that would have star#ly detri ental i plications "or the internet as a ediu "or "ree speech i" signed into law !y 5S @resident Barac# 2!a a& While TI<; reports that the 5S govern ent1s initial target was indeed China F with J1C illion appropriated "or cy!er e""orts to support dissident activity against Bei)ing F it was Aoseph 0ie!er an hi sel" who "a ously stated: i%(t now C(ina# t(e %o,ern"ent# can disconnect !arts o) its Internet in case o) war and we need to (a,e t(at (ere too.>? TI<;1s report re"lects the see ingly li itless degree o" outside inter"erence in the Syrian con"lict' with "oreign entities atte pting to eticulously cultivate and shape every di ension o" the situation to the detri ent o" the legiti ate govern ent in Syria& TI<; additionally reported that the 2!a a ad inistration1s e*ecutive order i posing sanctions on any co pany $helping Syria or (ran co it hu an,rights a!uses3 would not include the A erican co panies that sold the Syrian govern ent the internet technology it uses to "ilter its internet services' the very services the 5S govern ent has allotted su!stantial pu!lic "unds towards to train dissidents to !ypass: $n on%oin% c(allen%e is t(at t(e )low o) so)tware %oes to +ot( sides. T(e re%i"e (as i"!orted tec(nolo%y )ro" t(e 3.S. to trac. !eo!le online. '$ lot o) t(ese tec(nolo%ies can +e used )or %reat %ood#> says Sasc(a <einrat(# w(o is leadin% t(e Internet4in4a4 suitcase !roIect# A+ut t(ey are also a 7austian +ar%ain.” T(e 8+a"a $d"inistration last "ont( issued an ;/ecuti,e 8rder i"!osin% sanctions on any co"!any (el!in% Syrian or Iran co""it (u"an4ri%(ts a+uses. Was(in%ton>s (i%(4tec( ca"!ai%n will not det(rone $ssad. But is (as %i,en Syrian dissidents a "easure o) con)idence as t(ey )ace t(e re%i"e>s ad,anta%e in )ire!ower. In t(e "ont(s since )inis(in% (is trainin%# $+u >: 7illary1s 0ittle Startup: 7ow the 5&S& (s 5sing Technology to Aid Syria1s 8e!els' TI<;# Aune 1='
2012

>? Cy!ersecurity +easures Will +andate ;overn ent $(. To#ens3 To 5se The (nternet' @rison @lanet' Aune 29' 2010

G(assan (as s(ot do6ens o) ,ideos. $s.ed w(et(er (is $J4&F or (is ,ideo ca"era is t(e "ore !ower)ul wea!on# $+u G(assan lau%(s. '<y $JT” (e says. =e !auses )or a )ew seconds. '$ctually i) t(ere is an Internet connection# "y ca"era is "ore !ower)ul.” (n late Aune 2012' a Tur#ish 6,< )et anu"actured !y the 5S and last used in a)or co !at operations in (raB to destroy air de"enses' penetrated Syrian airspace and was shot down !y Syrian security "orces& Tur#ey would clai its )et was $a ile into international waters3 !y the ti e it was shot down& The 6,< "ighter )et' the newest o" which are already around =0 years old' has a top speed o" +ach 2&2' or 1':00, ph W 2'C00,#ph& That eans in one inute it can travel 2: iles , or nearly one ile every 2 seconds& Any anti,aircra"t weapon "ired against Tur#ey1s ad ittedly $o"" course3 "ighter would have certainly !een "ired while the )et was well within Syrian airspace with the "ired ordnance air!orne and on course to intercepting the aircra"t !e"ore it traveled !ac# over international waters& Tur#ey1s clai o" !eing $a ile3 within international airspace ay see reasona!le to the average o!server' accusto ed to traveling at speeds where a ile is relatively "ar' !ut in ter s o" air co !at' a ile eBuates into seconds& That eans in one inute it can travel 2: iles , or nearly one ile every 2 seconds& -ven i" clai s !y Tur#ey are true that it had retreated to a $ ile3 over international waters when it was destroyed' that would ean it was over international waters "or a ere 2 seconds& This eans whatever ordnance Syria used was already "ired and air!orne in Syrian airspace !e"ore the aircra"t departed& Tur#ey' acutely aware o" the i ense tensions it has cultivated with neigh!oring Syria' e*ercised rec#lessness !y traveling so close to Syrian airspace& The casual o!server ay also !e unaware o" the role 5S,!uilt 6,<1s play in scouting out and neutrali4ing air de"ense syste s& .esignated $wild weasels'3 6,<1s had !een e*tensively used in the opening phases o" war against (raB in 1>>1' "lying 2'C>: sorties' "iring ore than 1'000 air,to,ground issiles' and destroying ore than 200 targets in a ca paign ai ed at destroying (raBi air de"enses& @erhaps relying on the ignorance o" their readership as to how speeds' tra)ectories' and weapons o" odern war"are wor#' the ainstrea press has atte pted to portray the downing o" the 6,< as a provocative act carried out entirely over international waters& (n reality' Tur#ey1s )et was "ired upon in Syrian airspace' !y its own account' as it was supposedly in $international space3 "or only one or two seconds !e"ore "inally !eing struc#& Syria clai s the entire event too# place over Syrian waters , a clai NAT2 has !een una!le to re"ute with anything ore su!stantial than ere rhetoric& >9 Tur#ey would push NAT2 to regard Syria1s actions as an attac# on the alliance' pro pting NAT2 to hold a eeting under Article < o" the alliance1s treaty' which allows a NAT2 e !er to reBuest a consultation i" it "eels a threat to its territorial integrity or security& Tur#ey would vow $proportionate3 retaliation "or its downed )et' pro pting Tur#ish @ri e +inister 8ecep -rdoOan' to pledge $all possi!le support to li!erate the Syrians "ro dictatorship3 o" Bashar al,Assad1s govern ent' o""ering support "or Syrian re!els' warning that any Syrian troops approaching Tur#ish !orders would !e considered a threat and dealt with as a ilitary target& 2n Aune 2?th' 2012' Tur#ey sent a heavily guarded convoy o" 1C long,distance guns and other ilitary vehicles to the Syrian !order' a id !elligerent threats o" >9 Syria says it shot down Tur#ish )et over Syrian waters' NBC News' Aune 22' 2012

retaliation' pro pting @resident Assad to ac#nowledge that his country was o""icially in a state o" war' and that winning would depend on crushing the ilitant opposition& As the situation on the Tur#ish,Syrian !order re ained tense while Tur#ish o""icials con"ir ed the deploy ent o" =0 anti,aircra"t !atteries' the Tur#ish .e"ense @rocure ent Agency announced its plans to see# a J< !illion contract "or a long, range air,de"ense issile syste &>> 2n Aune 29' 2012' two large !o ! e*plosions targeting a govern ent !uilding roc#ed .a ascus' pro pting @resident Assad to reassert the Syrian govern ent1s duty to $annihilate terrorists in any corner o" the country'3 adding: We will not acce!t any non4Syrian# non4national "odel# w(et(er it co"es )ro" +i% countries or )riendly countries. No one .nows (ow to sol,e Syria>s !ro+le"s as well as we do. /o"i Annan proposed a new Syrian solution' andating the creation o" a transitional national unity govern ent consisting o" !oth representatives o" Assad1s govern ent and e !ers o" the opposition to create a neutral !ac#drop "or transition F insinuating that Assad would not have a place in the new govern ent& 8ussia categorically opposed the idea that other countries should dictate the "uture o" Syria' insisting that the decision !e up to Syrians the selves& 8ussian 6oreign +inister Sergey 0avrov stated: We will not su!!ort and cannot su!!ort any "eddlin% )ro" outside or any i"!osition o) reci!es. T(is also concerns t(e )ate o) t(e !resident o) t(e country# Bas(ar al4$ssad. The possi!ility o" "oreign ilitary entities openly engaging in war"are against Syria re ains ever present' with Tur#ey the li#ely candidate to lead the charge against Assad i" the situation continues to deteriorate& With Tur#ey1s ostensi!le need to anne* regions o" northern Syria to esta!lish a series o" long proposed $hu anitarian corridors3 as the prete*t' a ilitary intervention ight !e a possi!ility& Whether or not the Syrian crisis is et with open "oreign ilitary intervention' it is i portant to point out that' !ecause o" the covertly trained' ar ed and "inanced lawless re!el "ighters' the Syrian people have already "elt the horrors o" war' in all its inane violence and un itigated stupidity& While /o"i Annan1s original @eace @lan F i" honestly i ple ented with !oth sides respecting the cease"ire F would have de"used the situation' it is Annan and the e !er nations o" NAT2 and the ;ul" Cooperation Council that disproportionately laid the !la e "or increasing violence solely on the Syrian govern ent' while those nations too# every easure possi!le to "urther en"la e the situation !y providing aterial assistance to sectarian e*tre ists& Considering the level o" su!version and deceit de onstrated !y "oreign powers operating in Syria' Bashar al,Assad1s a !itions to crush sectarian "ighters !y "orce ay well !e warranted& As with any other Western,!ac#ed uprisings operating under the cover o" $de ocratic3 )argon' the use o" violence' snipers' ercenaries' and other ar ed provocateurs is part o" a long esta!lished pattern o" national desta!ili4ation through the !arrel o" a gun& 5ndou!tedly' there will co e a ti e when those responsi!le individuals answer "or their cri es against the nation o" Syria' and its people& >> +issile shopping: Tur#ey to !uy long,range issile syste ' Aune 2>' 2012

N5uly 1st# 2012O

Perception

Chapter 2: anage!ent an" Psycho#ogica# Warfare

'T(e +usiness o) t(e Iournalist is to destroy t(e trut(# to lie outri%(t# to !er,ert# to ,ili)y# to )awn at t(e )eet o) "a""on# and to sell t(e country )or (is daily +read. :ou .now it and I .now it# and w(at )olly is t(is toastin% an inde!endent !ress. We are t(e tools and ,assals o) t(e ric( "en +e(ind t(e scenes. We are t(e Iu"!in% Iac.s# t(ey !ull t(e strin%s and we dance. 8ur talents# our !ossi+ilities and our li,es are all t(e !ro!erty o) ot(er "en. We are intellectual !rostitutes.” 'ohn S1inton
7or"er C(ie) o) Sta)) at T(e New :or. Ti"es

Throughout the Syrian crisis' the portrayal o" events on the ground !y various news edia outlets !eca e an e*tension o" the con"lict itsel" F a !attle"ield o" dia etrically opposed views vying "or legiti acy& Any reportage or analysis that diverted too "ar "ro the do inant narrative "ound no place in the Western ainstrea edia& State,sponsored -nglish language news agencies such as ussia Today' (ran1s 2ressTD' and nu erous other outlets "or independent research and analysis o""ered a di""erent interpretation o" events in Syria& To propagate their version o" reality' reputa!le ainstrea news outlets such as BBC' CNN' and $l4 5a6eera were largely reliant on Buestiona!le :ouTu+e video "ootage' social edia hearsay and ad ittedly uncon"ir ed reports "ro e !ers o" the opposition& Nu erous "actual inconsistencies and o""icial e*aggerations "ollowed' leading any to Buestion the do inant narrative and the news outlets disse inating it& While so e authentic "ootage "ro inside Syria sur"aced throughout the con"lict' other videos "eatured e !ers o" the opposition $staging3 acts o" violence in settings that rese !led ovie,sets' co plete with !andages and "a#e !lood& Shortly a"ter the start o" the uprising' (srael1s :net News pu!lished an article in late April 2011 citing clai s !y Syrian state edia that security "orces recovered !ottles o" !lood' o!ile phones using "oreign S(+ cards' positioning so"tware and digital ca eras containing "a!ricated videos depicting acts o" violence& 100 :net News dis issed the clai s as an act o" desperation "ro Assad1s regi e to downplay violence' !ut o""ered no evidence !eyond ore $activist witness accounts3& According to the report issued !y Syria1s S$N$ News' the phones and ca eras were carried !y e !ers o" an ar ed group responsi!le "or attac#ing ilitary personnel in the 8a#he al,7ira# area o" .araa: Grou! "e"+ers also carried clu+s# swords and "etal i"!le"ents t(at were used durin% !rotests a%ainst security )orces# in addition to +ottles )ull o) real +lood to +e used in )il"in% )a+ricated acts o) ,iolence and +ottles )illed wit( %asoline to start )ires.101 100 Syria: 8eports o" violence "a!ricated' %net News' April 2=' 2011 101 +o!ile @hones 5sing non,Syrian S(+ Cards and .igital Ca eras' SANA News' April 2=' 2011

While Syrian state edia reported nu erous cases o" re!el groups attac#ing ilitary locations and staging acts o" violence' the Western ainstrea edia cited ever,increasing casualty rates' relying on organi4ations !ased in the 5nited /ingdo & Both the Syrian 2!servatory "or 7u an 8ights GS278H and the Syrian 7u an 8ights +onitoring Centre Gthe latter having no we! presenceH co piled reports "ro $activists inside and outside the country'3 to produce the overwhel ing casualty reports cited !y ainstrea edia outlets& The 5nited States govern ent also "inancially supported Syrian Non,;overn ental 2rgani4ations GN;2sH that provided the 5nited Nations with its o""icial casualty rates through organi4ations such as the National -ndow ent "or .e ocracy and other institutions that receive "unding directly "ro the 5S Congress and State .epart ent& Nearly every Syrian hu an rights organi4ation whose "indings have !een ac#nowledged !y the ainstrea edia interloc# with see ingly !enign N;2s and civil society groups that receive "unding "ro corporations that actively inter"ace with $glo!al institutions'3 such as the (nternational +onetary 6und' World Ban#' the (nternational Cri inal Court' and the 5nited Nations& e!orters Wit(out Borders Ga recipient o" "unds "ro the National -ndow ent "or .e ocracyH released a +arch 2011 report titled' $Aournalists targeted !y govern ents desperate to control news'3 which cited the 0ondon,!ased Syrian 7u an 8ights +onitoring Centre' while =u"an i%(ts Watc( Ga recipient o" "unds "ro ;eorge Soros1 2pen Society (nstituteH cited the Washington,!ased .a ascus Center "or 7u an 8ights "or its pu!lished reports&102 2utlets such as the Wall Street 5ournal repeatedly ention 8adwan Qiadeh' a Washington,!ased Syrian opposition activist and director o" the .a ascus Center "or 7u an 8ights Studies&10= the Boston Glo+e in 2011 stated' $Activists said security "orces #illed at least 2: people and wounded hundreds'3 continuing' $Wissa Tari"' e*ecutive director o" (nsan' a Syrian hu an rights group' said he had interviewed young en tortured )ust days ago& 2ne o" the ' who had his "ingernails pulled out' had ta#en a lead in the protests yesterday in Baniyas&3 While the authenticity o" these reports re ains di""icult to con"ir ' the Boston Glo+e1s story can !e perceived as isleading' as Wissa Tari" and his (nsan organi4ation were not on the ground !earing witness to events in Baniyas' !ut !ased in Spain' operating as an $international non,govern ental organi4ation&3 The Guardian noted the di""iculties o" veri"ying reports in an April 2011 article' Buoting a =u"an i%(ts Watc( researcher onitoring Syria "ro Beirut' 0e!anon who said: We are recei,in% second (and in)or"ation )ro" Deraa t(at is Buite worryin% a+out +odies on t(e %round# "ore t(an 00 !eo!le .illed o,er t(e last two days# ca"!ai%ns o) arrests# +ut we are not a+le to con)ir" t(at. 10<

102 Aournalists Targeted By ;overn
2=' 2011

ents .esperate To Control The News' 8eporters Without Borders' +arch

10= Syria: Ar ed 2pposition ;roups Co

itting A!uses' 7u an 8ights Watch' +arch 20' 2012

10< Syria' 0i!ya and +iddle -ast unrest , Thursday 29 April 2011' The ;uardian' April 29' 2011

While it would !e unwise to dis iss all allegations o" e*cessive violence credited to Syrian security "orces' there are "ir grounds "or s#epticis with regard to reports o" govern ent,orchestrated assacres& Not only have such clai s !een "a!ricated in Syria' !ut also throughout the con"lict in 0i!ya in 2011& 5nveri"ied reports accusing +ua ar ;adda"i o" stra"ing peace"ul de onstrators with "ighter )ets and #illing ore than :'000 civilians were the !asis "or the 0i!yan Aa ahiriya govern ent1s e*pulsion "ro the 5N 7u an 8ights Council shortly !e"ore the 5N Security Council issued 8esolution 1>?=' which 2ne o" the ain sources "or these allegations was the 0i!yan 0eague "or 7u an 8ights' an organi4ation lin#ed to the (nternational 6ederation o" 7u an 8ights' the 6(.7 Ga recipient o" "unds "ro the 5S State .epart entH& 2n 6e!ruary 21st' 2011' the ;eneral Secretary o" the 0i!yan 0eague "or 7u an 8ights' .r& Soli an Bouchuiguir' initiated a petition in colla!oration with 5N Watch and the National -ndow ent "or .e ocracy' which was later signed !y over ?0 N;2s& 2n the 2Cth o" 6e!ruary 2011' .r& Soli an Bouchuiguir went to the 5N 7u an 8ights council in ;eneva to accuse the 0i!yan Aa ahiriya govern ent o" co itting cri es against hu anity and hiring over :'000 ercenaries to $pillage and #ill all civilians without distinction&3 6rench investigative )ournalist Aulien Teil1s 2011 docu entary "il ' $ T(e =u"anitarian War'3 reveals the tenuous "a!rications o" these allegations in an interview with .r& Soli an Bouchuiguir: Julien Teil: :ou descri+e a lot o) cri"e in Li+ya# )or e/a"!le on <arc( 1Ft(# you re!orted si/ t(ousand dead# twel,e t(ousand wounded# )i,e (undred "issin%# se,en (undred cases o) ra!e# and se,enty )i,e t(ousand re)u%ees. 8n <ay 01st# you re!orted ei%(teen t(ousand dead# )orty si/ t(ousand wounded# twenty ei%(t t(ousand "issin%# one t(ousand si/ (undred cases o) ra!e# and one (undred and )i)ty t(ousand re)u%ees. I) we %o to Li+ya# w(at would you ad,ise us to do in order to docu"ent all t(ose cri"esM Dr. Soliman Bouchuiguir: T(ere is no way. :ou .now# t(e Li+yan %o,ern"ent ne,er %i,es in)or"ation on (u"an ri%(ts# on !risons# !risoners# and !eo!le w(o (a,e +een .illed# on !eo!le +ein% .illedS so an esti"ation (as to +e done. $nd I did not %et t(is in)or"ation )ro" Iust anyone. I %ot t(at )ro" t(e Li+yan 2ri"e <inister# on t(e ot(er side# so o) t(e National Transitional Council. It>s t(e 2ri"e <inister# <isterS u(((S waitS I>ll tell you laterS It was <a("oud o) t(e War)alla( tri+eT =e>s t(e one t(at stated and %a,e t(ese nu"+ers. I used t(e"# +ut wit( so"e !recaution. At a press con"erence on Aune 29th' 2011' (nternational Cri inal Court prosecutor 0uis +oreno 2ca po responded to a Buestion regarding the evidence used !y the (CC to issue an arrest warrant "or +ua ar ;adda"i' Sai" Al (sla ' and A!dullah Al Senussi& 7e stated: I ad,ise you to read t(e a!!lication o) t(e !rosecutor>s o))ice# "any !a%es# I t(in. w(atS FF !a%es. We descri+e in detail t(e )acts# "ost o) it is !u+lic# and t(e Iud%es also decided and analy6ed t(e e,idence# so o) course# we are !rosecutors and Iud%es# so rely on )acts. So# we !ro,ed t(e cri"es# t(at>s w(at we did# we !resented t(e case to Iud%es# and )or a "ont( and ten days# t(e Iud%es )ro" t(ree di))erent continents "ade an inde!endent e,aluation and t(ey decided. +ost o" the docu ent re"erred to !y 2ca po was heavily redacted' withholding crucial pieces o" evidence "ro pu!lic scrutiny& @ages 1? to ?1 were redacted'

precisely the sections disclosing evidence and testi ony o" alleged atrocities co itted !y the 0i!yan Aa ahiriya govern ent& A ongst the pu!lic sources cited !y the prosecutor1s o""ice at the (CC' were 789 News articles' docu ents released !y the Central (ntelligence Agency' and press releases issued !y .r& Soli an Bouchuiguir1s 0i!yan 0eague "or 7u an 8ights' including a speech he gave at the 5N 7u an 8ights Council citing allegations given to hi !y the NTC1s then,@ri e +inister +ah oud Aa!ril& Julien Teil: T(e =u"an i%(ts Council# w(ere you %a,e your s!eec(# did not in,esti%ate t(e in)or"ation you !ro,ided +e)ore t(e 3N Security Council used t(e". =ow do you e/!lain t(e lac. o) in,esti%ation and testi"ony t(at led directly to a 3nited Nations esolutionM W(y is it t(at your s!eec( (ad suc( an i"!act and t(at t(e NG8 consortiu" you %at(ered succeeded in sei6in% t(e =u"an i%(ts Council so t(e Security Council %ot in,ol,ed and decided a resolutionM Dr. Soliman Bouchuiguir: I t(in. t(e decisi,e )act is t(at Gadda)i used t(e air )orce a%ainst (is own !eo!le# and I t(in. t(at o!ened t(e way )orS t(e use o) t(e air )orce a%ainst (is own !eo!le s(owed t(at (e was unsto!!a+le. In Ben%(a6i# "ore t(an t(ree (undred !eo!le died in two days G in two daysT <ore t(an t(ree (undred ,icti"sT $nd t(at was all on !a!er# e,en t(e na"es. Julien Teil: :es# +ut a+out t(e si/ t(ousand dead# twel,e t(ousand wounded# )i,e (undred "issin%# se,en (undred cases o) ra!e and se,enty )i,e t(ousand re)u%ees# can you %i,e us any e,idenceM Dr. Soliman Bouchuiguir: Now t(ere are one (undred and )i)ty t(ousand re)u%ees in Tunisia only. Go as. t(e Tunisian %o,ern"ent# it>s t(e Tunisian %o,ern"ent t(at stated t(atT Now t(ere are "ore t(an one (undred and )i)ty t(ousand Li+yans in Tunisia w(o )iled re)u%ee clai"s in Tunisia. Julien Teil: $+out t(e nu"+er o) !eo!le .illed# can you %i,e us any e,idenceM Dr. Soliman Bouchuiguir: SW(atM Julien Teil: $+out t(e nu"+er o) !eo!le .illed# can you %i,e us any e,idenceM Dr. Soliman Bouchuiguir: T(ere is no e,idence. W(at I can tell you is t(at t(ere is noS t(ere are no docu"ents 4 in $64Qawiya# ei%(teen t(ousand !eo!le died# were inIured or "issin%. ;i%(teen t(ousand !eo!leT In $64Qawiya onlyT 10C While $l45a6eera and BBC reported that the 0i!yan Aa ahiriya govern ent in"licted airstri#es on Bengha4i in an atte pt to Buell popular de onstrations' 8ussia1s ilitary released a report stating that 0i!ya was !eing onitored "ro space and no such attac#s actually too# place' suggesting that these events were "a!ricated entirely&10: .r& Soli an Bouchuiguir1s 0i!yan 0eague "or 7u an 8ights and ?0 other a""iliated N;2s sent letters to @resident 2!a a' -uropean 5nion 7igh 8epresentative Catherine Ashton' and the 5N Secretary,;eneral Ban,#i +oon' de anding international action against 0i!ya !y invo#ing the $8esponsi!ility to @rotect3 doctrine' allowing NAT2 to ilitarily intervene in 0i!ya& The evidence cited 10C The 7u anitarian War' Aulien Teil' 2011 10: $Airstri#es in 0i!ya did not ta#e place3 F 8ussian ilitary' 8ussia Today' +arch 01' 2011

!y 0i!yan 0eague "or 7u an 8ights has never !een veri"ied' nor has it !een ade availa!le "or pu!lic scrutiny !y the (nternational Cri inal Court F evidence that was "a!ricated and used as the !asis "or the National Transition Council to sei4e control o" 0i!ya in colla!oration with NAT2& Bouchuiguir conceded that these allegations were entirely reliant on the opposition National Transitional Council' particularly on the NTC1s "or er @ri e +inister +ah oud Aa!ril& Aa!ril was C-2 o" the international "ir 5Trac.' which o""ered personal training in co unications s#ills to Ara! and Southeast Asian political leaders !ac#ed !y the 5nited States and (srael& A pri ary client o" Aa!ril1s was Shei#h 7a ad !in,/hali"a Al Thani' the ruling - ir o" Katar and principle "inancier o" the $l45a6eera news networ#& Karadawi' host o" the progra $as(4 S(aria( wal4=ayat” N'S(aria( and Li)e”O on $l45a6eera1s Ara!ic language service is noted "or en"la ing divisions in the (sla ic World !y re"erring to Shi1as heretics' "or de anding support "or the 0i!yan re!els and "or issuing a "atwa against +ua ar ;adda"i' calling "or his e*ecution: ...To t(e o))icers and t(e soldiers w(o are a+le to .ill <ua""ar Gadda)i# to w(oe,er a"on% t(e" is a+le to s(oot (i" wit( a +ullet and to )ree t(e country and ?God>s@ ser,ants )ro" (i"# I issue t(is )atwa Nu)tVO: Do itT 10? 109 (t was during the $Ara! Spring3 uprisings that Wadah /han"ar dra atically shi"ted $l45a6eera1s editorial policy in a ove that 6rench )ournalist Thierry +eyssan called a co plete loss o" the channels credi!ility' so ething that $too# 1C years to !uild and only : onths to lose&3 (n his Septe !er 2011 article' $Wadah /han"ar' Al,Aa4eera and the triu ph o" televised propaganda'3 +eyssan stated: Durin% t(e )irst (al) o) 2011# t(e Hatari c(annel +eca"e t(e !re)erred instru"ent )or !ro4Western !ro!a%anda: it went to %reat len%t(s to o+scure t(e anti4i"!erialist and anti4Qionist as!ect o) t(e $ra+ re,olutions and# in eac( country# it !ic.ed t(e actors it intended to su!!ort and t(ose it decided to de!recate. Not sur!risin%ly# it su!!orted t(e .in% o) Ba(rain# a student o) <a("oud 5i+ril# w(o (ad (is !eo!le %unned down# w(ile $l45a6eera>s s!iritual counsellor# S(ei.( al4Haradawi# was callin% )or a 5i(ad o,er t(e air a%ainst al4Gadda)i and al4$ssad# )alsely accusin% t(e" o) "urderin% t(eir own !eo!le. T(e con,ersion o) $l45a6eera into a !ro!a%anda tool )or t(e recolonisation o) Li+ya was not ac(ie,ed wit(out t(e .nowled%e o) t(e e"ir o) Hatar# +ut indeed under (is leaders(i!. T(e Gul) Coo!eration Council was t(e )irst to call )or an ar"ed inter,ention in Li+ya- Hatar was t(e )irst $ra+ country to Ioin t(e Contact Grou!. =e )unneled wea!ons to t(e Li+yan 're+els” +e)ore sendin% in (is own %round troo!s# es!ecially durin% t(e Battle o) Tri!oli. In e/c(an%e# (e o+tained t(e !ri,ile%e o) controllin% all t(e oil trade on +e(al) o) t(e National Transitional Council. 10> 10? The @olitics o" Sects' Al,Ahra ' Septe !er 2C' 2009 109 The "atwa o" Shay#h %Xsu" al,KaradYwZ against ;adda"i' 7art"ord Se inary' +arch 1C' 2011 10> Wadah /han"ar' Al,Aa4eera and the triu ph o" televised propaganda' Septe !er 2:' 2011

With +ah oud Aa!ril at the hel o" the o""icially recogni4ed re!el govern ent o" 0i!ya' replicas were !uilt o" Tripoli1s ;reen SBuare and Ba!,el,A4i4ia in Al,Aa4eera1s studios in .oha' where "a!ricated "ootage was !roadcasted depicting re!els capturing Tripoli' a "ull three days !e"ore the event actually occurred a id heavy !o !ard ents "ro NAT2 in support o" the ar ed re!els& Although 0i!yan state edia issued reports warning o" video "a!rication several days !e"ore the act was carried out' the plan was i ple ented nonetheless& This ela!orate psychological war"are operation was intended to di inish loyalty and pu!lic con"idence in Tripoli and throughout the country& Throughout the con"lict in 0i!ya' the ar ed "orces o" the 0i!yan Aa ahiriya govern ent were re"erred to as pro,;adda"i ercenaries& These accusations' repeated !y ultiple news agencies' were !ased on the assertion' repeated ad nauseu"' that ;adda"i hired several thousand A"rican ercenaries who were reportedly #illing civilians and using rape as a weapon& 2n 6e!ruary 22nd' 2011' 7rance2& interviewed the @resident o" $"nesty International 7rance' ;enevieve ;arrigos' where she clai ed that 0i!yan Aa ahiriya govern ent e ployed the use o" "oreign "ighters' stating: 8n 7riday and Saturday# we recei,ed in)or"ation t(at )orei%n "ercenaries could +e )i%(tin% a"on% t(e Gadda)i )orces sent a%ainst t(ose !rotestors in order to accelerate t(e !rocess o) o!!ression. 6ive onths a"ter her appearance on 6rance2<' Aulien Teil interviewed ;arrigos' only to "ind that her position had co pletely changed on the atter: Julien Teil: $"nesty International>s ad,isor Donatella o,era was in Li+ya )or t(ree "ont(s. S(e o+ser,ed t(e i"!rison"ent o) ca!tured Li+yan ci,ilians and )orei%ners +y t(e National Transitional Council# w(o !resented t(ese detainees as )orei%n "ercenaries. W(at can you tell us a+out t(atM Genevieve Garrigos: Since t(e +e%innin% o) t(e de!loy"ent o) anti4Gadda)i troo!s# t(ere were ru"ors o) "ercenary )orces actin% on +e(al) o) Gadda)i# yet our in,esti%ators w(o arri,ed in "id47e+ruary and de!arted in late 5une esta+lis(ed t(at only a s"all nu"+er o) !eo!le were incarcerated wit(out c(ar%es. $ctually# t(ose ru"ors "ostly accused dar. colored !eo!le or +lac. !eo!le G t(ey could (a,e +een Li+yans# since Li+yans li,in% in t(e Sout( o) t(e country don>t necessarily (a,e $ra+ )eatures. T(is created a .ind o) )ear and /eno!(o+ia# w(ic( led to +eatin%# "istreat"ent and a )ew i"!rison"ents. But today# we (a,e to ad"it t(at we (a,e no e,idence Gadda)i e"!loyed "ercenary )orces. Julien Teil: :our collea%ue re!orted t(at s(e didn>t witness any "ercenaries# and t(at t(is was an un,eri)ied story s!read +y t(e "edia. Can you con)ir" (er assertionsM Genevieve Garrigos: $+solutelyT Donatella>s wor. G and t(is is w(y we sent in,esti%ators in early G was to ,eri)y i) we actually )ound "ercenaries# and we didn>t. 7or instance# s(e Buotes a youn% $l%erian# w(ose +oss (ad to testi)y (e wor.ed in a +a.ery +ecause (e was sus!ected to +e a "ercenary. Currently# we (a,e no si%n or e,idence to corro+orate t(ese ru"ors.110 The circulation o" "alse reports o" +ua ar ;adda"i e ploying A"rican ercenary "ighters indeed en"la ed "eelings o" *enopho!ia a ong 0i!ya1s re!els' 110 The 7u anitarian War' Aulien Teil' 2011

leading to the widespread persecution' detain ent' and urder o" dar#,s#inned 0i!yans' as well as igrant wor#ers "ro Niger and Chad&111 The propagation o" such unsu!stantiated clai s provided the necessary prete*t "or "oreign intervention in 0i!ya& This ilitary and edia ca paign was achieved through the colla!oration o" institutions such as the 5N and (CC' in partnership with corporate,owned news edia outlets and a yriad o" civil society groups' ost o" which receive "inancial assistance "ro the 5S State .epart ent& (t is through these distorted lenses that the Syrian con"lict ust !e interpreted& Wall Street and 0ondon1s edia achine eagerly churned out headlines li#e BBC1s Nove !er 2011 article' $Syria security "orces Dco it cri es against hu anity'13 announcing the conclusions o" a 5N 7u an 8ights Council report regarding the ongoing violence in Syria&112 .espite the "act that personnel and )ournalists "ro over 200 international edia institutions have !een allowed to enter Syria legally since the out!rea# o" the crisis' the BBC article clai s' $the investigation tea e !ers say they were denied entry into Syria itsel"'3 and that the entirety o" their $evidence3 was garnered solely "ro interviews with $22= victi s' witnesses and also ar y de"ectors to investigate alleged hu an rights violations&3 BBC1s article raises i ediate suspicion over the veracity o" the report' as $victi s' witnesses' and de"ectors'3 interviewed outside o" Syria constitutes ore hearsay than evidence' !y groups o" people with a vested interest in negatively portraying the Syrian govern ent& The Nove !er 2011 5N 7u an 8ights Council report on Syria descri!es e*actly $how3 the te*t was co piled& The section titled $+ethods o" Wor#'3 descri!es the Buestiona!le eans o" aggregating evidence "or the report' de onstrating an i ense con"lict o" interest !ehind the 5N1s predeter ined conclusion F that Syria is guilty o" $cri es against hu anity3 and that the 5N Security Council ust act Ge phasis addedH: C. Methods of work F. 7irst4(and in)or"ation was collected t(rou%( inter,iews wit( ,icti"s and witnesses o) e,ents in t(e Syrian $ra+ e!u+lic. The interviewing process egan in Geneva on 2L Se!te"+er 2011. 8,erall# 220 ,icti"s andWor witnesses# includin% !ersonnel w(o de)ected )ro" t(e "ilitary and t(e security )orces# were inter,iewed. P. ! pu lic call was made to all interested persons and organi"ations to su mit relevant information and documentation t(at would (el! t(e co""ission i"!le"ent its "andate. It (eld "eetin%s wit( <e"+er States )ro" all re%ional %rou!s# re%ional or%ani6ations# includin% t(e Lea%ue o) $ra+ States and t(e 8r%ani6ation o) Isla"ic Coo!eration# non$ governmental organi"ations# human rights defenders# %ournalists and e&perts. e!orts# sc(olarly analyses and "edia accounts# as well as audio and ,isual "aterial# were also duly considered. C. The information collected is stored in a secure data ase governed ' (nited )ations rules on confidentialit'.

111 0i!ya: Stop Ar!itrary Arrests o" Blac# A"ricans' 7u an 8ights Watch' Septe !er <' 2011 112 Syria security "orces Dco
it cri es against hu anity'1 BBC' Nove !er 29' 2011

10. T(e !rotection o) ,icti"s and witnesses lies at t(e (eart o) t(e "et(odolo%y o) (u"an ri%(ts in,esti%ations. W(ile t(e collected in)or"ation re"ains con)idential# t(e co""ission is dee!ly concerned a+out t(e !ossi+ility o) re!risals a%ainst indi,iduals w(o coo!erated wit( it# and a%ainst t(eir relati,es in t(e Syrian $ra+ e!u+lic. It is also concerned a+out t(e !rotection o) t(ose indi,iduals w(o o!enly s!o.e to t(e "edia in an atte"!t to counter t(e news +loc.ade i"!osed +y t(e Go,ern"ent. 11= The 5N78C report would also state that it received no cooperation "ro the Syrian govern ent' ostensi!ly veri"ying grievances that the pu!lication is !ut a one, sided e*ercise to provide the worst possi!le i age o" the Syrian govern ent' as told !y the Syrian opposition& The inclusion o" non,govern ental organi4ations raises i ediate concerns' especially considering that the report is entirely negligent in listing any o" these contri!uting N;2s' who are ore than li#ely espousing the do inant narrative cha pioned !y the National -ndow ent "or .e ocracy' ;eorge Soros1 2pen Society (nstitute' and their nu erous o" su!sidiaries& The ter $alleged3 is used throughout the report in various "or s' "urther illustrating the tenuous nature o" the 5N 7u an 8ights Council1s $evidence'3 while all o" the testi ony' those who supplied it' and apparently the N;2s involved in co piling the 5N report are e*pectedly #ept $con"idential&3 The 5S National -ndow ent "or .e ocracy1s )ournal' De"ocracy Di%est ' in their August 2011 article titled' $Syrian ilitary Dstrained1' as Clinton eets opposition activists'3 noted several N;2s reporting hu an rights a!uses in Syria' citing the 0ondon,!ased Syrian 2!servatory "or 7u an 8ights' along with the Washington,!ased .a ascus Center "or 7u an 8ights& 11< Syrian 2!servatory "or 7u an 8ights head' 8a i A!delrah an' et directly with British 6oreign +inister Willia 7ague' who si ilarly coddled 0i!yan opposition leaders in 0ondon while playing a #ey role in pro oting the NAT2 attac# on 0i!ya& Aust as in 0i!ya' where $hu an rights activists3 have now ad itted to "a!ricating evidence used !y the (nternational Cri inal Court and the 5nited Nations' the $evidence3 "ro Syria re ains $con"idential'3 and thus' i possi!le to con"ir & The Syrian 2!servatory "or 7u an 8ights serves as one o" the e*clusive sources o" evidence o" hu an rights violations in Syria' although the 2!servatory itsel" "ails to pu!lish its "inancial state ents or the !ac#grounds o" those that constitute its e !ership& Throughout the crisis in Syria' news agencies such as $72# $2# CNN# <SNBC# CBS# BBC# and any o" the largest Western newspapers cited the 2!servatory' creating an i pression o" a sprawling organi4ation with hundreds o" e !ers wor#ing on the ground' docu enting evidence in Syria with photographs and video' while coordinating with "oreign press to transparently and o!)ectively $o!serve3 the $hu an rights3 conditions in Syria' as well as de onstrate their ethodologies& A .ece !er 2011 euters piece titled' $Coventry , an unli#ely ho e to pro inent Syria activist$ provides "urther insight in the 2!servatory and its operator' 8a i A!delrah an:

11= 5N 7u an 8ights Council 8eport on Syria' 5nited Nations' Nove !er 2011 11< Syrian ilitary Dstrained1' as Clinton eets opposition activists' .e ocracy .igest' August 02'
2011

Wit( only a )ew (ours slee!# a !(one %lued to (is ear and anot(er two rin%in%# t(e )ast4tal.in% director o) ar%ua+ly Syria>s "ost (i%(4!ro)ile (u"an ri%(ts %rou! is a ,ery +usy "an. '$re t(ere clas(esM =ow did (e dieM $(# (e was s(ot#” said a"i $+dulra("an into a !(one# t(e tal. o) %un)ire and deat( incon%ruous wit( (is two +edroo" terraced (o"e in Co,entry# )ro" w(ere (e runs t(e Syrian 8+ser,atory )or =u"an i%(ts. W(en (e isn>t )ieldin% calls )ro" international "edia# $+dulra("an is a )ew "inutes down t(e road at (is clot(es s(o!# w(ic( (e runs wit( (is wi)e. Cited +y ,irtually e,ery "aIor news outlet since an u!risin% a%ainst t(e iron rule o) Syrian 2resident Bas(ar al4$ssad +e%an in <arc(# t(e o+ser,atory (as +een a .ey source o) news on t(e e,ents in Syria. Surrounded +y t(e tra!!in%s o) )a"ily li)e 44 a %litter4 s!an%led card "ade +y (is youn% dau%(ter# a "on.ey doll wit( 'Best Dad” on its +elly 44 $+dulra("an sits wit( a la!to! and !(ones and !ieces to%et(er accounts o) con)lict and ri%(ts a+uses +e)ore u!loadin% news to t(e internet. 11C A!dulrah an ad its that he "led Syria over 10 years ago and has lived in Britain ever since' and will not return until $al,Assad goes&3 The opportunity "or i propriety see s al ost inevita!le "or a an who openly !erates a govern ent long targeted "or $regi e change3 !y the very country he currently resides in' and whose ethod o" reportage involves du!ious phone,calls' which re ain di""icult "or anyone to veri"y& When A!dulrah an isn1t receiving phone calls "ro "ellow opposition e !ers in Syria or passing on his less,than,reputa!le in"or ation to the Western press' he has !een seen slin#ing in and out o" the British 6oreign 2""ice to eet directly with 6oreign Secretary Willia 7ague , who also openly see#s the re oval o" Syrian @resident' Bashar al,Assad& ;iven the lac# o" credi!ility and the o!vious disadvantage o" !eing nearly ='000 iles away "ro the alleged su!)ect o" his $o!servations'3 A!dulrah an is a co pro ised source o" in"or ation "or any outside o!server see#ing credi!le in"or ation on the con"lict in Syria' one who has every reason to twist reality to suit his ad ittedly politically, otivated agenda o" toppling the govern ent in .a ascus& Throughout the con"lict in Syria' outlets such as BBC and CNN e !raced -nglish spea#ing opposition activists on the ground in Syria' ost pro inently British, Syrian dual national .anny .aye or $Syrian .anny&3 .aye clai ed to have aspirations to )oin the 6ree Syrian Ar y' and o"ten called "or the i ple entation o" a no "ly 4one' pleading "or the 5nited States' (srael' and NAT2 to conduct airstri#es against Syrian air !ases&11: .aye 1s credi!ility plu eted when "ootage lea#ed o" hi staging sounds o" gun"ire and e*hi!iting rela*ed !ehavior o"" ca era' !e"ore going into character "or a hysterical $casualty report3 during an interview with Anderson Cooper o" CNN& Cooper atte pted to vindicate .aye on his progra ' insisting that networ#s li#e CNN were "orced to rely on activist edia that $cannot !e independently con"ir ed'3 despite the "act that .aye displayed great di""iculty ver!ally atte pting to e*onerate hi sel" a"ter lea#ed "ootage showed hi as#ing' $.id you tell hi to get the gun"ire readyN3 2n air' .aye nervously stated' $( don1t #now how they got it' this is all private' we should have' this has all !een deleted' we 11C Coventry , an unli#ely ho e to pro inent Syria activist' 8euters' August 12' 2011 11: Syria: 0i"e 5nder 6ire' CNN' 6e!ruary 12' 2012

have to delete all this stu""'3 while Cooper co pletely "ailed to address what was essentially an open ad ission o" "a!rication& A ina A!dallah Arra" al 2 ari' a les!ian Syrian activist calling "or increased political and personal "reedo s' was at one point a pro inent -nglish language !logger& 2 ari1s popular !log' $A ;ay ;irl (n .a ascus'3 received attention "ro ainstrea edia outlets such as the Guardian' who a""ir ed that the !log was $increasingly popular a"ter capturing the i agination o" the Syrian opposition as the protest ove ent struggled in the "ace o" the govern ent crac#down&3 (n a +ay 2011 article titled' $A ;ay ;irl in .a ascus !eco es a heroine o" the Syrian revolt'3 the Guardian wrote: S(e is !er(a!s an unli.ely (ero o) re,olt in a conser,ati,e country. 7e"ale# %ay and (al)4$"erican# $"ina $+dulla( is ca!turin% t(e i"a%ination o) t(e Syrian o!!osition wit( a +lo% t(at (as s(ot to !ro"inence as t(e !rotest "o,e"ent stru%%les in t(e )ace o) a +rutal %o,ern"ent crac.down. =er +lo% really too. o)) two wee.s a%o wit( a !ost entitled <y 7at(er t(e =ero# a "o,in% account o) (ow (er )at(er )aced down two security a%ents w(o ca"e to arrest (er# accusin% (er o) +ein% a Sala)ist and a )orei%n a%ent. $+dulla(>s )a"ily is well4connected G s(e (as relati,es in t(e %o,ern"ent and t(e <usli" Brot(er(ood w(o" s(e !re)ers not to na"e G and s(e says +ein% !olitically acti,e was a 'natural t(in%”. '3n)ortunately# )or "ost o) "y li)e +ein% aware o) Syrian !olitics "eans si"!ly o+ser,in% and only co""entin% !ri,ately.” T(at c(an%ed w(en !rotests +ro.e out and $+dulla( Ioined t(e"# +lo%%in% a+out (er e/!eriences. 'Tear%as was lo++ed at us. I saw !eo!le ,o"itin% )ro" t(e %as as I co,ered "y own "out( and nose and "y eyes +urned#” s(e wrote a)ter one de"onstration. 'I a" sure I wasn>t t(e only one to note t(at# i) t(is +eco"es standard !ractice# a niBa+ is a ,ery !ractical t(in% to wear in )uture.” 11? Syrian security "orces a!ducted 2 ari in 2011 during the uprising' pro pting an international outcry "ro 0;BT co unities and the international edia& DA ;ay ;irl in .a ascus1 Blogger /idnapped at ;unpoint in Syria' accusing Syrian state security services and Ba1ath @arty ilitia o" the a!duction' while the 5S State .epart ent showed concern&119 A id a ca paign o" international conde nation o" 2 ari1s aduction' a <0 year,old A erican writer To +ac+aster ad itted that the $inspiring hero o" the Syrian revolution3 was in "act an ela!orate "ictional character he concocted& While entirely "ictional clai s o" $A ina Arra" al 2 ari3 !eing a!ducted !y Syrian security "orces were given credi!ility !y the Western edia' si ilar hysterics were cast over reports o" 19,year,old' Qaina! al,7osni who was allegedly "ound !eheaded and utilated $apparently !y Syrian security agents'3 while in custody a"ter !eing $detained !y security agents to pressure her activist !rother to turn hi sel" in'3 as cited in a dra atic report in the =u))in%ton 2ost &11> The report ade every atte pt to 11? A ;ay ;irl in .a ascus !eco es a heroine o" the Syrian revolt' The ;uardian' +ay :' 2011 119 DA ;ay ;irl in .a ascus1 Blogger /idnapped at ;unpoint in Syria' 62I News' Aune 0?' 2011 11> Syria: Qaina! Al 7osni Believed To Be /illed (n Custody' Septe !er 2=' 2011

e phasi4e the Syrian1s govern ent1s role in her #illing' stating' $the Assad "a ily has #ept an iron grip on power in Syria "or ore than <0 years !y !rutally crushing every sign o" dissent&3 7owever' days later' Qaina! al,7osni resur"aced' alive and well' on a Syrian State TE !roadcast& The =u))in%ton 2ost1s "ollow,up' $Qaina! Al,7osni' Wo an 8eported Beheaded' Allegedly Appears 2n TE'3 states: $ wo"an a!!eared on Syrian state tele,ision Wednesday clai"in% t(at s(e is t(e youn% Syrian w(o was widely re!orted to (a,e +een +e(eaded and "utilated +y security a%ents w(ile in custody last "ont(. T(e station said t(e inter,iew was intended to discredit )orei%n '"edia )a+rications.” In t(e state tele,ision inter,iew# a +lac.4clad youn% wo"an w(o identi)ied (ersel) as Qaina+ al4=osni said s(e (ad run away )ro" (er )a"ily (o"e in late 5uly +ecause (er +rot(ers alle%edly a+used (er. S(e said (er )a"ily did not .now t(at s(e was ali,e and s(e as.ed (er "ot(er )or )or%i,eness. 'I a" ,ery "uc( ali,e and I (a,e o!ted to tell t(e trut( +ecause I a" !lannin% to %et "arried in t(e )uture and (a,e .ids w(o I want to +e re%istered#” s(e said. 120 +edia outlets irresponsi!ly distorted legiti ate concerns regarding ho ose*uals and wo en in con"lict,torn areas o" Syria in an atte pt to !aselessly de oni4e the Assad govern ent in step with the 5S State .epart ent and its vast sta!le o" edia and intelligence assets& (n the conte*t o" the 2011 0i!yan uprising' Western edia outlets hysterically reported that +ua ar ;adda"i personally ordered the raping o" hundreds o" wo en' an unveri"ied clai that senior 5S o""icials such as A !assador Susan 8ice asserted to leverage in support o" 5N 8esolution 1>?=: T(e re!orted cri"es and (u"an ri%(ts ,iolations o) t(e Gadda)i re%i"e are aw)ul enou%( as t(ey are t(at one (as to wonder w(y anyone would need to in,ent stories# suc( as t(at o) Gadda)i>s troo!s# wit( erections !owered +y Dia%ra# %oin% on a ra!e s!ree. 2er(a!s it was !eddled +ecause it>s t(e .ind o) story t(at 'ca!tures t(e i"a%ination o) trau"ati6ed !u+lics'. T(is story was ta.en so seriously t(at so"e !eo!le started writin% to 2)i6er to %et it to sto! sellin% Dia%ra to Li+ya# since its !roduct was alle%edly +ein% used as a wea!on o) war. 2eo!le w(o ot(erwise s(ould .now +etter# set out to deli+erately "isin)or" t(e international !u+lic. T(e Dia%ra story was )irst disse"inated +y $l 5a6eera# in colla+oration wit( its re+el !artners# )a,oured +y t(e Hatari re%i"e t(at )unds $l 5a6eera. It was t(en redistri+uted +y al"ost all ot(er "aIor Western news "edia. Luis <oreno48ca"!o# C(ie) 2rosecutor o) t(e International Cri"inal Court# a!!eared +e)ore t(e world "edia to say t(at t(ere was 'e,idence” t(at Gadda)i distri+uted Dia%ra to (is troo!s in order 'to en(ance t(e !ossi+ility to ra!e' and t(at Gadda)i ordered t(e ra!e o) (undreds o) wo"en. <oreno4 8ca"!o insisted: 'We are %ettin% in)or"ation t(at Gadda)i (i"sel) decided to ra!e' and t(at 'we (a,e in)or"ation t(at t(ere was a !olicy to ra!e in Li+ya t(ose w(o were a%ainst t(e %o,ern"ent”. =e also e/clai"ed t(at Dia%ra is 'li.e a "ac(ete#” and t(at 'Dia%ra is a tool o) "assi,e ra!e'. In a startlin% declaration to t(e 3N Security Council# 3.S. $"+assador Susan ice also asserted t(at Gadda)i was su!!lyin% (is troo!s wit( Dia%ra to encoura%e "ass ra!e. S(e o))ered no e,idence w(atsoe,er to +ac. u! (er clai". Indeed# 3.S. "ilitary 120 Qaina! Al,7osni' Wo an 8eported Beheaded' Allegedly Appears 2n TE' 2cto!er 0C' 2011

and intelli%ence sources )latly contradicted ice# tellin% NBC News t(at 't(ere is no e,idence t(at Li+yan "ilitary )orces are +ein% %i,en Dia%ra and en%a%in% in syste"atic ra!e a%ainst wo"en in re+el areas.” By 5une 10# C(eri) Bassiouni# w(o is leadin% a 3N ri%(ts inBuiry into t(e situation in Li+ya# su%%ested t(at t(e Dia%ra and "ass ra!e clai" was !art o) a '"assi,e (ysteria'. In )act# Bassiouni>s tea" 'unco,ered only )our alle%ed cases” o) ra!e and se/ual a+use: 'Can we draw a conclusion t(at t(ere is a syste"atic !olicy o) ra!eM In "y o!inion we can>t'. In addition to t(e 3N# $"nesty International>s Donatella o,era said in an inter,iew wit( t(e 7renc( daily Li+Kration# t(at $"nesty (ad 'not )ound cases o) ra!eS. Not only (a,e we not "et any ,icti"s# +ut we (a,e not e,en "et any !ersons w(o (a,e "et ,icti"s. $s )or t(e +o/es o) Dia%ra t(at Gadda)i is su!!osed to (a,e (ad distri+uted# t(ey were )ound intact near tan.s t(at were co"!letely +urnt out.” 121 The organi4ation Wo"en 3nder Sie%e accused Syrian security "orces o" indiscri inately raping young wo en and co itting other heinous acts in their pu!lication' $The ulti ate assault: Charting Syria1s use o" rape to terrori4e its people&3 Wo"en 3nder Sie%e reports o" ultiple attac#ers' $usually govern ent "orces3' who are said to gang rape wo en in their ho es' allegedly inoculating the victi s to i o!ili4e the while their $genitals are !urned or "illed with ice$& 5nBuestiona!ly' these acts warrant severe conde nation' however its relationship with reality re ains unclear' as the report "a iliarly goes on to state Ge phasis addedH: Government forces and others a!!ear to +e carryin% out a!!allin% se/uali6ed attac.s a%ainst wo"en# "en# and c(ildren in Syria as t(e con)lict t(ere continues. !lthough we are una le to independentl' confirm these stories *Syria is si"!ly too dan%erous# and our researc( sta)) too s"all*t(ey are consistent oth internall' and within the news and )G* reports telling similar stories )ro" t(e Syrian con)lict. ;iven the duplicity o" the ainstrea news edia and associated N;2s in their coverage o" the Syrian con"lict' the credi!ility o" any organi4ation atte pting to legiti i4e alleged reports o" atrocities !y citing their consistency to "it within a "lawed do inant narrative re ains highly Buestiona!le' especially when the organi4ation itsel" concedes: T(ere are well4docu"ented c(allen%es and li"itations w(en it co"es to studyin% se/uali6ed ,iolence in con)lict# and our data is not "eant to re!resent t(e Syrian con)lict in its entirety. $ll o) our re!orts co"e second4or t(ird4(and# and can>t +e inde!endently con)ir"ed. ;iven these state ents' the statistics o" rape and violence issued !y Wo"en 3nder Sie%e can !e nothing !ut highly Buestiona!le and arred with inconsistencies' cul inating in what is essentially anipulative propaganda reliant on leveraging hu an rights a!uses' while actively supporting a interventionist status Buo "ro which nu erous docu ented a!uses have originated& While the organi4ation ac#nowledges that its reports are unveri"ied' statistics li#e the one !elow display the clear politici4ation o" their purpose: 121 The Top Ten +yths in the War Against 0i!ya' Counterpunch' August =1' 2012

Go,ern"ent !er!etrators (a,e co""itted t(e "aIority o) t(e attac.s we>,e +een a+le to trac.: L1 !ercent# includin% attac.s a%ainst "en and wo"en# wit( anot(er L !ercent carried out +y %o,ern"ent and s(a+i(a )orces to%et(er. T(ese soldiers or o))icers (a,e alle%edly carried out 1P !ercent o) ra!es a%ainst wo"en- s(a+i(a N!lainclot(es "ilitiaO attac.ers 1& !ercent- %o,ern"ent and s(a+i(a wor.in% to%et(er 1 !ercent- and anot(er or un.nown attac.er 2L !ercent. In &2 !ercent o) t(e incidents o) se/uali6ed ,iolence a%ainst wo"en t(at we )ound# t(e ,icti"s were alle%edly attac.ed +y "ulti!le !eo!le at once# su%%estin% a distur+in%ly (i%( rate o) %an% ra!e &
122

6urther insight into the Wo en 5nder Siege organi4ation can !e gained "ro e*a ining the !ac#ground o" the group1s "ounder' "e inist leader ;loria Steine & An article pu!lished on 6e!ruary 21' 1>:? in the New :or. Ti"es titled' $C&(&A& Su!sidi4ed 6estival Trips: 7undreds o" Students Were Sent to World ;atherings'3 reports that Steine was recruited !y the C(A in 1>C9 to direct an activist organi4ation called the $(ndependent 8esearch Service'3 intended to pro ote le"t, li!eralis in opposition to +ar*is &12= While receiving !ac#ing "ro the C(A' Steine attended Co unist,sponsored youth "estivals throughout -urope' distri!uted newspapers' reported on other participants' and helped to incite riots& Wo en 5nder Siege is a pro)ect o" Steine 1s $Wo en1s +edia Center'3 which is itsel" a spino"" o" its u !rella organi4ation' +s& 6oundation' which receives direct "unding "ro ;eorge SorosD 2pen Society (nstitute' the 6ord 6oundation' Tides 6oundation' New %or# 0i"e' ;oogle' the 5nited Nations' AT&T' 0i"eti e' the AC05' and others as stated in their 2011 Annual 8eport&12< 5ndou!tedly' Steine 1s organi4ation is co, "acilitating the agenda o" the 5S State .epart ent' the National -ndow ent "or .e ocracy' and the various intelligence and ilitary agencies involved in desta!ili4ing Syria and toppling its govern ent& The duplicitous editorial policies o" Western ainstrea edia institutions and a""iliated N;2s have wor#ed to pro)ect a version o" reality entirely "riendly to A erican "oreign policy o!)ectives' including the conde nation o" countries that stood against international resolutions andating intervention in Syria& $"nesty International>s ca paign' $8ussia: No +ore -*cuses' Stand 5p Against Bloodshed in Syria'3 encouraged readers to send pre,written essages to 8ussian 6oreign +inister Sergei 0avrov and A !assador Sergey /islya#' urging the to halt ar s ship ents to the Syrian govern ent and endorse an (nternational Cri inal Court indict ent against Bashar al,Assad: I a!!eal to you to ensure t(at t(e Security Council re)ers Syria to t(e International Cri"inal Court )or cri"es a%ainst (u"anity and ot(er ,iolations o) international law122 The ulti ate assault: Charting Syria1s use o" rape to terrori4e its people' Wo en 5nder Siege' Auly 11' 2012 12= C&(&A& Su!sidi4ed 6estival Trips: 7undreds o" Students Were Sent to World ;atherings' The New %or# Ti es' 6e!ruary 21' 1>:? 12< 2011 Annual 8eport' +s& 6oundation' 2012

)ree6es t(e assets o) 2resident Bas(ar al4$ssad and (is close associates- and i"!oses an i""ediate ar"s e"+ar%o on Syria.12C While the idea o" an ar s e !argo against Syria ay initially sound plausi!le' the conduct o" intelligence agencies such as the C(A and other supporters o" Syria1s ar ed insurgents unwaveringly con"ir s that such an e !argo would !e arginally i ple ented and co pletely disregarded with respect to ar ing insurgents& $"nesty International perversely atte pts to twist around violence and unrest clearly "o ented !y the covert Western and ;ul" presence inside Syria as so ehow the result o" 8ussia1s re"usal to capitulate in the "ace o" another NAT2 intervention& $"nesty1s report cites the "a!ricated death toll produced !y the 5N !ased solely on Syrian opposition clai s' !e"ore !e oaning the positioning o" Syrian troops and eBuip ent in and around the city o" 7o s' which was #nown to !e a pro inent !ase o" operations "or heavily ar ed ilitants wor#ing against Syrian security "orces& As organi4ations li#e $"nesty International Grecipients o" "unding directly "ro the 5S State .epart entH naively address their readership with state ents li#e' $.onate Now: 6ight !ad guys with every dollar'3 posing rhetorical Buestions such as' $7ow any ore victi s ust su""er !e"ore 8ussia ta#es a decisive stance against cri es against hu anity in SyriaN3 it !eco es apparent that $"nesty International is wor#ing in contradiction o" their own ission state ent to $protect people wherever )ustice' "reedo ' truth and dignity are denied&3 Su4anne Nossel' -*ecutive .irector o" $"nesty International' had )ust "inished a stint as .eputy Assistant Secretary "or (nternational 2rgani4ations at the 5S State .epart ent !e"ore !eing appointed as head o" $"nestyP she was also vice,president o" strategy and operations "or the Wall Street 5ournal# and a edia and entertain ent consultant at +c/insey & Co pany Ga Council on 6oreign 8elations $"ounding3 corporate e !erH&12: 5pon closer e*a ination o" $"nesty International and si ilar organi4ations' it re ains !ewildering that such institutions can !e considered i partial' when those who clearly represent A erican "oreign policy interests constitute the groups1 ad inistration& 6urther ore' $"nesty International receives "unding "ro ;eorge Soros1 2pen Society (nstitute' as well as the 5/ .epart ent "or (nternational .evelop ent' the -uropean Co ission and other corporate,"unded "oundations&12? These staggering con"licts o" interest arise "ro organi4ations' "unded and run !y representatives o" Western govern ents and corporations' which disingenuously leverage no!le causes' such as the pree inence o" hu an rights' to carry out a sel",serving political agenda& 2n +ay 29' 2012' the BBC would ad it to using a photograph ta#en o" a 200= assacre in (raB "or their depiction o" the assacre in 7oula' Syria' pro pting the photographer who too# the original photo' +arco di 0auro' to state' $so eone is 12C 8ussia: No +ore -*cuses' Stand 5p Against Bloodshed in Syria' A nesty (nternational' 2012 12: 7illary Clinton aide at the hel o" A nesty (nternational 5SA' EoltaireNet' Nove !er 2=' 2011 12? 8eport and "inancial state ents "or the year ended =1 +arch 2011' A nesty (nternational'
2011

using so eone else1s picture "or propaganda on purpose&3 An article pu!lished !y the Tele%ra!( in response to the situation stated: 2(oto%ra!(er <arco di Lauro said (e nearly ')ell o)) (is c(air” w(en (e saw t(e i"a%e +ein% used# and said (e was 'astonis(ed” at t(e )ailure o) t(e cor!oration to c(ec. t(eir sources. T(e !icture# w(ic( was actually ta.en on <arc( 2F# 2000# s(ows a youn% IraBi c(ild Iu"!in% o,er do6ens o) w(ite +ody +a%s containin% s.eletons )ound in a desert sout( o) Ba%(dad. It was !osted on t(e BBC news we+site today under t(e (eadin% 'Syria "assacre in =oula conde"ned as outra%e %rows”. T(e ca!tion states t(e !(oto%ra!( was !ro,ided +y an acti,ist and cannot +e inde!endently ,eri)ied# +ut says it is '+elie,ed to s(ow t(e +odies o) c(ildren in =oula awaitin% +urial.” 129 This incident "urther encourages s#epticis o" unveri"ied $evidence3 !rought "orth !y $pro,de ocracy activists'3 once again challenging the veracity o" the do inant narrative shaping the Syrian crisis& 6ollowing the international hysteria created !y the 7oula assacre' outlets such as the Guardian accused the Syrian ilitary o" $shelling3 victi s in their ho es as reported in an article titled' $Syria shelling D#ills at least >0'1$ containing a state ent !y 5/ 6oreign 2""ice +inister Alistair Burt clai ing the deaths were the result o" artillery& 12> 6ollowing a report "ro the 8ussian 6oreign +inistry presenting evidence that e !ers o" the opposition too# part in the assacre !y e ploying the use o" short,range weaponry' the Guardian shi"ted its narrative in the article' $7oula assacre survivor tells how his "a ily were slaughtered'3 "a iliarly citing anony ous accounts o" villagers crediting e !ers o" pro,govern ent para ilitaries with the slaughter& 1=0 1=1 The e otionally anipulative narrative co es straight "ro a na eless !oy allegedly produced !y $a town elder who is a e !er o" the Syrian 8evolutionary Council'3 !e"ore stating $We are una!le to independently veri"y the account and have chosen not to na e the !oy "or security reasons&3 While the testi ony put "orth !y this witness is undenia!ly harrowing' the Guardian1s revised account speci"ically cites the na eless !oy supplied !y the opposition' who clai s to have seen Syrian troops dis ount "ro their tan#s and #ill his entire "a ily in "ront o" hi & @arado*ically' the Guardian then clai s they weren1t troops' !ut rather $al,Sha!iha3 irregular "orces that dis ounted "ro ar ored vehicles with $guns and #nives&3 Answering a Buestion as to how the witness #new the gun en were pro,regi e ilitia en' he responded' $Why are you as#ing e who they wereN ( #now who they were& We all #now it& They were the regi e ar y and people who "ight with the & That is true&3 The Guardian1s report "ailed to corro!orate or veri"y any o" the clai s presented !y the anony ous young witness& Si ilarly' the Guardian clai s in the article' $( saw assacre o" children' says 129 BBC News uses D(raB photo to illustrate Syrian assacre'1 The Telegraph' +ay 2?' 2012 12> Syria shelling D#ills at least >0' The ;uardian' +ay 2:' 2012 1=0 Both parties guilty in 7oula assacre F 0avrov' 8ussia Today' +ay 29' 2012 1=1 7oula assacre survivor tells how his "a ily were slaughtered' The ;uardian' +ay 29' 2012

de"ecting Syrian air "orce o""icer'3 that long,!earded en with shaved heads were o!served !y an alleged $Air 6orce o""icer3 "ro inside his house so e =00 eters away' stor ing the village o" 7oula' Syria screa ing' $Sha!iha "orever' "or your eyes' Assad&3 The Guardian clai s this tenuous narrative constitutes $crucial evidence on the 7oula #illings&3 The o""icer clai s he saw ilitants riding in $cars and ar y truc#s and on otor!i#es'3 which contradicts the testi ony o" the previous witness the Guardian has produced' who aintains that ilitants dis ounted "ro tan#s and ar ored transports to carry out the #illings& $DThey ca e in ar ored vehicles and there were so e tan#s'1 said the !oy&3 This discrepancy is never e*plained' and the Guardian is una!le to con"ir the identity o" the !earded en' the o""icer1s identity and his story& Additionally' the Guardian "ails to e*plain how' "ro =00 eters inside his ho e' the $o""icer3 was a!le to discern the identity o" the en' what they were doing' or hear what they were saying& =00 eters Gappro*i ately the length o" three "oot!all "ieldsH is !eyond the range o" !oth a hu an1s a!ility to discern what a hu an voice is saying' as well as !eyond the a!ility "or hu an eyes to positively identi"y strangers as !elonging to one group o" ilitants or another& According to Guardian1s $de"ected o""icer'3 he was a!le to discern the un"olding events "ro such a distance' with artillery and assault ri"les "iring' no less& Throughout the crisis in Syria' !oth the Guardian and the BBC have de onstratively "ailed to provide any actual evidence to !ac# the narrative they have !een irresponsi!ly reported in 7oula&1=2 A distur!ing and very telling incident that un"olded in early Aune 2012 saw British C(annel &>s Ale* Tho son , one o" the "ew Western )ournalists not only in Syria legally' !ut atte pting to cover !oth sides o" the con"lict , purpose"ully led !y re!els into a trap designed to have hi and his tea #illed !y govern ent troops in order to use his death as propaganda& $Set up to !e shot in Syria1s no an1s landN$ "eatured on Tho son1s personal C(annel & !log descri!es a tale o" violence on !oth sides' with atte pts to interview !elligerents on !oth sides o" the Syrian con"lict' very uncharacteristic o" Western and particularly British edia coverage& Tho son1s narrative descri!es what appears to !e a !i"urcation !etween $re!el3 "orces' stating that while organi4ed "ighters that appear to solely co it to "ighting the Syrian Ar y' there appears to !e a ore insidious $third party3 involved' a third party i plicated !y Tho son as having intentionally led hi and his tea into a deadly trap& This is a narrative that corro!orates state ents ade !y the Syrian govern ent itsel"' as well as independent geopolitical analysts "ro around the world , that there e*ists a su!stantial third party' consisting o" "oreign ercenaries and sectarian e*tre ists carrying out the !ul# o" the violence and atrocities& Tho son descri!es his ordeal a"ter acco panying 5N onitors out to $6ree Syrian Ar y3 held territory: We decide to as. )or an escort out t(e sa)e way we ca"e in. Bot( sides# +ot( c(ec.!oints will re"e"+er our ,e(icle. Suddenly )our "en in a +lac. car +ec.on us to )ollow. We "o,e out +e(ind. We are led anot(er route. Led in )act# strai%(t into a )ree4 )ire 6one. Told +y t(e 7ree Syrian $r"y to )ollow a road t(at was +loc.ed o)) in t(e "iddle o) no4"an>s4land. $t t(at !oint t(ere was t(e crac. o) a +ullet and one o) t(e 1=2 ( saw assacre o" children' says de"ecting Syrian air "orce o""icer' The ;uardian' Aune 02' 2012

slower t(ree4!oint turns I>,e e/!erienced. We screa"ed o)) into t(e nearest side street )or co,er. $not(er dead4end. T(ere was no o!tion +ut to dri,e +ac. out onto t(e sni!in% %round and )loor it +ac. to t(e road we>d +een led in on. 2redicta+ly t(e +lac. car was t(ere w(ic( (ad led us to t(e tra!. T(ey roared o)) as soon as we re4a!!eared. I>" Buite clear t(e re+els deli+erately set us u! to +e s(ot +y t(e Syrian $r"y. Dead Iournos are +ad )or Da"ascus. In a war w(ere t(ey slit t(e t(roats o) toddlers +ac. to t(e s!ine# w(at>s t(e +i% deal in sendin% a ,an )ull o) Iournalists into t(e .illin% 6oneM It was not(in% !ersonal. 1== The o!vious Buestion that co es to ind upon reading Tho son1s account' is that i" re!els are willing #ill "oreign )ournalists "or propaganda value )ust to !la e the deaths on the Syrian govern ent' why wouldn1t they #ill en' wo en and children to !la e on the Syrian govern ent as wellN @erhaps the ost duplicitous case o" edia anipulation in Syria was uncovered !y 6rench )ournalist Thierry +eyssan' in his Aune' 2012 article' NAT2 @reparing East disin"or ation ca paign' where an intelligence operation ai ing to replace Syrian state TE !roadcasts with "a!ricated "ootage "il ed on sound stages in .oha & 8iyadh is descri!ed: In a )ew days# !er(a!s as early as 7riday# 5une 11# at noon# t(e Syrians wantin% to watc( t(eir national TD stations will see t(e" re!laced on t(eir screens +y TD !ro%ra"s created +y t(e CI$. Studio4s(ot i"a%es will s(ow "assacres t(at are +la"ed on t(e Syrian Go,ern"ent# !eo!le de"onstratin%# "inisters and %enerals resi%nin% )ro" t(eir !osts# 2resident $l4$ssad )leein%# t(e re+els %at(erin% in t(e +i% city centers# and a new %o,ern"ent installin% itsel) in t(e !residential !alace. T(is o!eration o) disin)or"ation# directly "ana%ed )ro" Was(in%ton +y Ben (odes# t(e 3S de!uty national security ad,iser )or strate%ic co""unication# ai"s at de"orali6in% t(e Syrians in order to !a,e t(e way )or a cou! d>etat. N$T8# discontent a+out t(e dou+le ,eto o) ussia and C(ina# will t(us succeed in conBuerin% Syria wit(out attac.in% t(e country ille%ally. W(ic(e,er Iud%"ent you "i%(t (a,e )or"ed on t(e actual e,ents in Syria# a cou! d>etat will end all (o!es o) de"ocrati6ation. T(e $ra+ Lea%ue (as o))icially as.ed t(e satellite o!erators $ra+sat and Nilesat to sto! +roadcastin% Syrian "edia# eit(er !u+lic or !ri,ate NSyria TD# $l4;.+ariya# $d4 Dounia# C(a" TD# etc.O $ !recedent already e/ists +ecause t(e $ra+ Lea%ue (ad "ana%ed to censure Li+yan TD in order to .ee! t(e leaders o) t(e 5a"a(iriya )ro" co""unicatin% wit( t(eir !eo!le. T(ere is no =ert6 networ. in Syria# w(ere TD wor.s e/clusi,ely wit( satellites. T(e cut# (owe,er# will not lea,e t(e screens +lac.. $ctually# t(is !u+lic decision is only t(e ti! o) t(e ice+er%. $ccordin% to our in)or"ation se,eral international "eetin%s were or%ani6ed durin% t(e !ast wee. to coordinate t(e disin)or"ation ca"!ai%n. T(e )irst two were tec(nical "eetin%s# (eld in Do(a NHatarOt(e t(ird was a !olitical "eetin% and too. !lace in iyad( NSaudi $ra+iaO. T(e )irst "eetin% asse"+led 2S:82 o))icers# e"+edded in t(e satellite TD c(annels o) $l4$ra+iya# $l45a6eera# BBC# CNN# 7o/# 7rance 2&# 7uture TD and <TD. It is .nown t(at since 1CCP# t(e o))icers o) t(e 3S $r"y 2syc(olo%ical 8!erations 3nit N2S:82O (a,e +een incor!orated in CNN. Since t(en t(is !ractice (as +een e/tended +y N$T8 to ot(er strate%ic "edia as well.

1== Set up to !e shot in Syria1s no an1s landN Channel < News' Aune 9' 2012

T(ey )a+ricated )alse in)or"ation in ad,ance# on t(e +asis o) a 'story4tellin%” scri!t de,ised +y Ben (odes>s tea" at t(e W(ite =ouse. $ !rocedure o) reci!rocal ,alidation was installed# wit( eac( "edia Buotin% t(e lies o) t(e ot(er "edia to render t(e" !lausi+le )or TD s!ectators. T(e !artici!ants also decided not only to reBuisition t(e TD c(annels o) t(e CI$ )or Syria and Le+anon NBarada# 7uture TD# <TD# 8rient News# Syria C(aa+# Syria $l%(adO +ut also a+out &0 reli%ious Wa((a+i TD c(annels to call )or con)essional "assacres to t(e cry o) 'C(ristians to Beyrout(# $lawites into t(e %ra,eT” In 2011# 7rance 2& ser,ed as in)or"ation "inistry )or t(e Li+yan CNT# accordin% to a si%ned contract. Durin% t(e +attle o) Tri!oli# N$T8 !roduced )a.e studio )il"s# t(en trans"itted t(e" ,ia $l45a6eera and $l4$ra+iya# s(owin% !(anto" i"a%es o) Li+yan re+els on t(e central sBuare o) t(e ca!ital city# w(ile in reality t(ey were still )ar away. $s a conseBuence# t(e in(a+itants o) Tri!oli were !ersuaded t(at t(e war was lost and %a,e u! all resistance. Nowadays t(e "edia do not only su!!ort a war# t(ey !roduce it t(e"sel,es. 1=< +eyssan1s ground!rea#ing report provides valua!le insight into the role o" the ainstrea edia and its capacity to propagate an entirely "ictitious narrative in support o" ilitant "oreign policy ai ed at toppling govern ents in non,co pliant states& .ue to increased calls to satellite operators !y the Ara! 0eague reBuesting the Nilesat and Ara!sat satellites stop !roadcasting Syrian TE channels' the Syrian govern ent accused groups o" trying to ute the voice o" the Syrian people and succeeded in halting the operation&1=C (n late Aune 2012' Syrian re!els attac#ed and #illed seven e ployees Gincluding three )ournalistsH at the Syrian al4I.(+aryia Satellite Channel so e 20 #ilo eters south o" .a ascus&1=: 8e!els destroyed the studios with e*plosives' in an attac# seen as an e*tension o" the decision ta#en !y the -uropean 5nion on the previous day to i pose sanctions on Syrian radio and television organi4ations& 5ndou!tedly' had Syrian @resident Bashar al,Assad1s "orces #idnapped and urdered )ournalists sy pathetic to the West1s narrative , relentless accusations o" $cri es against hu anity'3 re"errals to the West1s yriad o" $international institutions'3 and sel",proclai ed international ar!iters would have "ollowed& 7owever' the perpetrators are instead terrorists receiving NAT2 !ac#ing' in an attac# cele!rated rather than conde ned !y the Western press' with euters descri!ing the incident as $one o" the !oldest attac#s yet on a sy !ol o" the authoritarian state&3 1=? Aournalist Thierry +eyssan reported "ro the scene o" the destroyed studios' and was Buoted as stating: In t(e "edia war t(at ta.es !lace around Syria# you>re !ro+a+ly wonderin% w(o is tellin% t(e trut(. In t(e +ac.%round# t(ere are t(ose w(o say t(at t(is country is t(e 1=< NAT2 preparing vast disin"or ation ca paign' EoltaireNet' Aune 11' 2012 1=C News Analysis: Syria1s Assad "aces "ull war' IinhuaNet' Aune 29' 2012 1=: Attac# .estroys @ro,;overn ent TE Station Near .a ascus' The New %or# Ti es' Aune 2?'
2012

1=? 8e!els stor @ro,Assad Syrian TE channel' 8euters' Aune 2?' 2012

su+Iect o) an internal re,olution and a terri+le re!ression# and t(ose w(o say instead t(at t(is country is attac.ed +y )orei%n !owers w(o (a,e sent in ar"ies o) "ercenaries and so!(isticated co""andos w(o en%a%e in destruction o) in)rastructure and tar%eted assassinations. To understand w(at is (a!!enin%# you "ust re"e"+er t(e !ro!a%anda syste". 2ro!a%anda consists o) into/ication )ro" one side o) t(e story %i,in% you )alse in)or"ation# and on t(e ot(er side# you are !re,ented )ro" recei,in% con)lictin% in)or"ation. 7or t(is to occur# t(e contradictory "edia "ust +e censored and destroyed. (n the idst o" an un"ettered edia war' hac#ers allegedly wor#ing independently inside Syria have hac#ed Western edia outlets and agencies such as $l45a6eera in an atte pt to counter the do inant edia narrative& The pro inent hac#er,ring #nown as the Syrian -lectronic Ar y has !oldly denounced $l45a6eera "or !roadcasting $"alse and "a!ricated news to ignite sedition a ong the people o" Syria to achieve the goals o" Washington and Tel Aviv'3 cul inating in targeted cy!er attac#s on $l4 5a6eera>s $Syria 0ive Blog3' which provides ongoing coverage o" the unrest' and $l4 5a6eera>s DStrea 1 Twitter account&1=9 (n an attac# conducted in early Auly 2012' hac#ers gained access to the Twitter account and !egan sending out stories pu!lished !y the alternative edia' including videos allegedly depicting e !ers o" the opposition torturing' e*ecuting' and !eheading Syrian ilitary personnel and civilians on the !asis o" !eing religious inorities and Assad loyalists& (n a recent interview conducted !y a )ournalist "ro the 7u""ington @ost' the anony ous leader o" the Syrian -lectronic Ar y clai s his group operates independently o" the Syrian govern ent stating' $We are not supported !y anyone F we started this wor# since 1C +arch 2011 when we have seen a large nu !ers o" terrorists spread around our country F so we decided to de"end our country&3 1=> 2n Auly 1=th' 2012' over 100 people were slaughtered in the village o" Tre seh' a village o" 11'000 people a!out 22 iles northwest o" 7a a& Activists reported the Syrian govern ent1s use o" artillery' tan#s and helicopters' insinuating that state "orces were !ehind the assacre& 5pon the initial "irst reports issued !y edia outlets' the 5nited States1 5N A !assador Susan 8ice posted on her Twitter account' $8eports o" Tray seh assacre are night arish F dra atically illustrate the need "or !inding 5NSC easures on Syria&3 A !assador 8ice scorned the Syrian state and threatened its govern ent with "urther 5N 8esolutions prior to the arrival o" any 5N onitoring personnel to the area' !e"ore any se !lance o" an investigation had !een conducted , even prior to any photography or video sur"acing& This i ediate accusation o" state "orces re"lects the deceit and "raudulence o" 5S leadership and the current state o" international )ustice under the (nternational Cri inal Court' an organi4ation only willing to indict those un"riendly to the private geopolitical and geo,econo ic o!)ectives o" Western capitals& (n Tre seh' eyewitness accounts !rought "orth !y $l4 1=9 @ro,govern ent hactivists de"ace Al Aa4eera coverage o" Syrian violence' Ars Technica' Aanurary =0' 2012 1=> Syrian -lectronic Ar y 0eader: Cy!er,War to Continue Against Those $.istorting the Truth A!out Syria'3 The 7u""ington @ost' April 2C' 2012

5a6eera clai govern ent troops opened "ire in retaliation' a"ter the 6SA attac#ed a neigh!oring Alawite village& Syria1s S$N$ News reported the capture o" < heavily ar ed non,Syrian Ara! nationals who were ordered to attac# ilitary and police chec#points and prevent state e ployees "ro going to wor# !y sowing chaos& 1<0 6ollowing the events in Tre seh' Syrian ilitary "orces on the scene sei4ed an opposition weapons cache stoc#ed with achine guns' sniper ri"les' 8@; launchers' ortars' e*plosive devices' gas as#s' !inoculars' satellite wireless devices' video ca eras' large a ounts o" gunpowder' TNT te plates' and highly e*plosive C< aterial&1<1 The New :or. Ti"es> Auly 1<' 2012 article titled' $.etails o" a Battle Challenge 8eports o" a Syrian +assacre'3 clai s that reports o" a assacre in Tre seh were ore accurately clashes !etween the heavily ar ed Syrian ilitary and local opposition "ighters wielding light weapons' with the latter !earing the a)ority o" casualties& There were reportedly no wo en a ong the dead in Tre seh' while a list pu!lished !y the Syrian National Council' cites that casualties were en !etween 1> and =:& Tre seh had allegedly !een a regional !ase o" operations "or 200 to =00 ilitant "ighters "or a period o" 20 days prior to the out!rea# o" violence& The New :or. Ti"es 8eport "urther states: $)ter t(e (i%( toll was announced )ro" Tre"se(# as was t(e case wit( =oula and ot(er si"ilar e!isodes# Western leaders lined u! to conde"n t(e "ass .illin%s o) ci,ilians. Col. iad al4$ssad# +ased in Tur.ey as t(e ostensi+le leader o) t(e loose coalition o) )i%(ters called t(e 7ree Syrian $r"y# told t(e $ra+ic tele,ision networ. $l 5a6eera on T(ursday t(at t(ere (ad +een no o!!osition )i%(ters in t(e town. $lt(ou%( w(at actually (a!!ened in Tre"se( re"ains "ur.y# t(e e,idence a,aila+le su%%ested t(at e,ents on T(ursday "ore closely )ollowed t(e Syrian %o,ern"ent account. But Syrian o))icials colored t(at account wit( t(eir usual ter"inolo%y o) +la"in% ')orei%n terrorist %an%s” )or all ,iolence. T(e %o,ern"ent said t(e Syrian $r"y (ad in)licted '(ea,y losses” on t(e 'terrorists.” 1<2 .e"ections o" e !ers o" the Syrian govern ent holding high positions were "ew and "ar !etween throughout the crisis' only a"ter the seventeenth onth o" the con"lict were nota!le de"ections reported& 2ne such senior o""icial' Nawa" 6ares' a "or er security chie" and Syria1s a !assador to (raB now har!ored in Katar' dra atically de"ected !y pu!lishing a video essage urging others to "ollow his e*a ple& (n an interview with the Tele%ra!(' 6ares ad its that Aihadi units that he hi sel" helped .a ascus send to "ight the A erican occupation in neigh!oring (raB were involved in the string o" deadly suicide !o ! attac#s in Syria& 1<= 7owever' 6ares 1<0 6our Terrorists "ro al,Trei seh: ;un en Were 2rdered to Spread Across the Town Be"ore Ar y 6orces -ntered (t' SANA News' Auly 1=' 2012 1<1 The Ar ed 6orces Carry out $Kualitative 2peration3 in al,Treis eh and Causes 7eavy 0osses a ong Terrorists' SANA News' Auly 1=' 2012 1<2 .etails o" a Battle Challenge 8eports o" a Syrian +assacre' The New %or# Ti es1 Auly 1<' 2012 1<= -*clusive interview: why ( de"ected "ro 6ares' The Telegraph' Auly 1<' 2012
Bashar al,Assad1s regi e' !y "or er diplo at Nawa"

accuses the Syrian govern ent itsel" o" orchestrating "alse "lag terrorist attac#s in the "or o" suicide !o !ings on its own govern ent !uildings in an atte pt to incri inate re!el "orces& Con"licting reports pu!lished !y ainstrea outlets con"ir that "oreign Al Kaeda aligned "ighters have independently crossed into Syria' si ply noting headlines such as $Al Kaeda head calls "or "all o" Assad$ G$2H' $Top 5S o""icial: Al Kaeda in (raB )oining "ight against Syria1s Assad$ G<cClatc(yH' and $Al Kaeda1s Qawahiri calls "or war to oust Syria1s Assad$ G$2H& Such headlines illustrate the a!surdity o" 6ares1 clai s o" @resident Bashar al,Assad $colla!orating3 with Al Kaeda in a conspiracy to accuse opposition "orces "or the ensuing atrocities& Not only did 6ares "ail to provide any evidence that $Al Kaeda3 has coordinated its !o !ing ca paigns with Syrian security "orces' !ut his clai directly contradicts onths o" reporting' such as 8euters1 April 2012 e*pos[ covering the 6ree Syrian Ar y1s $tactical switch3 to terrorist !o !ings in the "ace o" superior ilitary weapons and tactics e ployed !y govern ent security "orces& The article e*plained that Syrian e*tre ists who had honed their s#ills "ighting 5S and British troops in (raB had )oined the ran#s o" the 6SA to e ploy their !o !, a#ing a!ilities against' not in colla!oration with' the Syrian govern ent& Nawa" 6ares co es across as an e*aggerating opportunist' so overly eager to play his role that he has tripped over hi sel" and "ound !oth "eet lodged "ir ly in his outh& 6ares a!andoned a $regi e3 he "inds un!eara!le' which he clai s supported $Aihadi units3 carrying out a terrorist !o !ing ca paign against its own people' only to )oin a ilitant organi4ation that has de onstratively and ad ittedly carried out !o !ing ca paigns against the Syrian people& (n a ti ely piece' the Tele%ra!( reports that e*tre ist "ighters atte pting to "ound (sla ic caliphates have !een operating openly in so e areas o" (dli! and Aleppo provinces that straddle the !orders o" Tur#ey and (raB' where Al Kaeda1s "lags have !een seen "lying: '$n al Haeda %rou! led +y a "an w(o called (i"sel) $+u SaddiB too. control in Der Te66e(#” said one 7S$ re+el s!ea.in% on condition o) anony"ity. 'I was a "e"+er o) t(e e,olution Council t(ere. Suddenly t(ere was a new way o) t(in.in%. $+u SaddiB was installed as t(e A;"ir># or A2rince> o) t(e area )or t(ree "ont(s. I was told to !ut "y (and on t(e Joran and to o+ey (i". '=e wanted to +uild a reli%ious country. =e did not want de"ocracy +ut a reli%ious leader in !ower. =e wanted to use suicide +o"+ers as a way o) )i%(tin% %o,ern"ent troo!s in t(e area.” 1<< Aust as in 0i!ya' where "or er o""icials under ;adda"i e !raced the opposition National Transition Council' it re ains highly plausi!le that the de"ection o" senior o""icials in Syria is otivated !y those representatives receiving greater !ene"its and positions in the "uture !y cooperating with the internationally recogni4ed Syrian National Council opposition party& While the Syrian National Council is "ar "ro the only opposition group' its representatives and spo#espeople are the ost ac#nowledged due to their acBuiescence and deep connections with Western thin#, than#s and policy a#ers' pro pting British 6oreign +inister Willia 7ague to declare:

1<< Al,Kaeda tries to carve out a war "or itsel" in Syria' The Telegraph' Auly 12' 2012

'I will "eet leaders o) t(e Syrian National Council in a )ew "inutes> ti"e S We# in co""on wit( ot(er nations# will now treat t(e" and reco%ni6e t(e" as a le%iti"ate re!resentati,e o) t(e Syrian !eo!le.” 1<C Aournalist Charlie S#elton1s Auly 2012 e*pos[' $The Syrian opposition: who1s doing the tal#ingN$ pu!lished in the Guardian' details the inti ate connections !etween senior e !ers o" the Syrian National Council who have !een present at private gatherings such as the annual eetings conducted !y the Bilder!erg ;roup' and the West1s ost prestigious policy institutions and thin#,tan#s& 1<: 2ne such individual is 6rench,Syrian acade ic Bass a /od ani' a senior o""icial spo#esperson "or the Syrian National Council who "led Syria with her "a ily at age ten "ollowing 1>:?1s Si*,.ay War& /od ani has since settled !etween 0ondon' @aris' and -gypt' where she led the ;overnance and (nternational Cooperation progra "or the +iddle -ast and North A"rica at the 6ord 6oundation& Bass a /od ani was installed as e*ecutive director o" a research initiative esta!lished !y the 5S,!ased Council on 6oreign 8elations' the Ara! 8e"or (nitiative GA8(H' in Septe !er 200C' an institute ai ed at pro oting $re"or and de ocrati4ation in the Ara! world&3 +ore speci"ically' the A8( was "ounded !y a su!group o" senior diplo ats' intelligence o""icers and "inanciers within the Council on 6oreign 8elations1 $5SW+iddle -ast @ro)ect'3 chaired !y "or er 5S National Security Advisor Brent Scowcro"t& Accordingly' /od ani is research director at the Acad[ ie .iplo atiBue (nternationale' headed !y Aean, Claude Cousseran' "or er head o" the 6rench intelligence service .irection ;[n[rale de la S[curit[ -*t[rieure& (n 6e!ruary 2012' she was su!)ected to controversy "or previously de"ending (srael on 6rench television in 2009 stating' $We need (srael in the region&3 Although /od ani warned she would later retract those state ents' citing the opposition had to rely on either the $greater ilitari4ation o" local resistance or "oreign intervention'3 clai ing that $no dialogue with the ruling regi e is possi!le& We can only discuss how to ove on to a di""erent political syste &3 1<? /od ani would later !e Buoted !y $72 stating' $The ne*t step needs to !e a resolution under Chapter E((' which allows "or the use o" all legiti ate eans' coercive eans' e !argo on ar s' as well as the use o" "orce to o!lige the regi e to co ply&3 Willingness to call "or "oreign ilitary intervention appears to !e a de anding reBuisite o" Syrian National Council o""icials' such as Ausa a +ona)ed' who is descri!ed on the SNC1s we!site as !eing $widely Buoted and interviewed in prestigious international edia outlets including the Wall Street 5ournal# New :or. Ti"es' The Was(in%ton 2ost# Los $n%eles Ti"es# 7orei%n 2olicy <a%a6ine# 3S$ Today'3 and others& +ona)ed1s Auly 2012 op,ed in the =u))in%ton 2ost titled' $The @rice o" Apathy: Why the World +ust (ntervene in Syria'3 argued that the international co unity $has a 1<C Syria: Katar calls "or Ara! "orce to i pose peace , 6riday 2< 6e!ruary' The ;uardian' 6e!ruary
2<' 2012

1<: The Syrian opposition: who1s doing the tal#ingN The ;uardian' Auly 12' 2012 1<? Syria1s opposition concerned a!out independent ar ed re!el groups' The Christian Science +onitor' Aanurary 2?' 2012

oral o!ligation to help "oster a via!le resistance !y esta!lishing sa"e 4ones "ro which opposition "orces can train' re,ar and see# re"uge and edial assistance&3 1<9 This description is identical to the Broo#ing (nstitution1s +arch 2012 +e o' $Saving Syria: Assessing 2ptions "or 8egi e Change&3 +ona)ed is the "ounder and director o" a pro,opposition satellite channel' Barada Tele,ision' and the "or er director o" pu!lic relations with the +ove ent "or Austice and .evelop ent G+A.H' which received as uch as J: illion "ro the 5S State .epart ent and others since 200:' as reported !y the Was(in%ton 2ost &1<> +ona)ed was a panelist "or 5S,!ased Chatha 7ouse1s 200> event $-nvisioning Syria1s @olitical 6uture'3 along with Wissa Tari"' director o" +adrid,!ased Syrian hu an rights group (NSAN and SNC representative 8adwan Qiadeh' a senior "ellow at National Council and senior "ellow at the "ederally "unded 5S,!ased thin#,tan#' the 5S (nstitute o" @eace& (n 6e!ruary 2012' Qiadeh )oined -li4a!eth Cheney' /arl 8ove' Aa es Woolsey' and others in calling "or "oreign intervention and econo ic sanctions against Syria through an open letter to @resident 2!a a& The longstanding political and institutional support given to senior Syrian National Council o""icials de onstrates the disingenuous nature o" leading "igures within Syria1s political opposition' who have !een shaped !y the privileged lives they1ve en)oyed in the West& While the political syste under the Ba1ath @arty is not without its shortco ings' the ere insinuation that a group o" long,e*iled' Western, educated Syrian acade ics should !e recogni4ed as $the legiti ate representatives o" the Syrian people3 as advocated !y British 6oreign +inister Willia 7ague and others' is nothing sort o" a decisive oc#ery o" the touted de ocratic principles these individuals and institutions clai to represent& (n response to )ournalist Charlie S#elton1s investigative piece pu!lished in the Guardian' the pu!lications1 own $diplo atic editor3 Aulian Borger responded with' $5S anipulation o" news "ro Syria is a red herring'3 a slander piece entirely reliant on !randing S#elton a $conspiracy theorist&3 While Borger "ails to critically assess any o" the "indings addressed in S#elton1s article' he "a iliarly !erates the author with tired insinuations o" !elie" in $shadowy "orces'3 in a anner typical o" acade ic elitis and editorial condescension& Borger associates S#elton with historian and acade ic We!ster Tarpley' and atte pts to discredit the on the !asis o" Buestioning the o""icial account o" events on Septe !er 11th' 2001' !e"ore tru peting the do inant narrative in Syria F that an oppressive govern ent is re orselessly carried out a slaughter F and calling on the s#ewed (nternational Cri inal Court to investigate the situation&1C0 (" these e*hausted re!uttals are indicative o" anything' it is that those individuals' intellectuals' acade ics' analysts' e*perts' co entators and news outlets are unwilling to address and seriously ac#nowledge the enor ous discrepancies 1<9 The @rice o" Apathy: Why the World +ust (ntervene in Syria' The 7u""ington @ost' Auly 0?' 2012 1<> 5&S& secretly !ac#ed Syrian opposition groups' ca!les released !y Wi#i0ea#s show' The Washington @ost' April 19' 2011 1C0 5S anipulation o" news "ro Syria is a red herring' The ;uardian' Auly 1=' 2012

e !edded within the do inate narrative o" events in Syria& Their usings re"lect their own personal wea#ness' conceit' and dishonesty& 5ndou!tedly' the conduct o" the corporate news edia in colla!oration with co pro ised N;2s' "ront groups "or Western intelligence' and the 5nited Nations' constitutes a !ra4en atte pt to sa!otage a sovereign nation !y ethodically presenting a deeply dishonest and recycled narrative to the world& The edia war !eing waged on Syria has !een a vital co ponent o" the con"lict' perhaps !eing the only eans o" pu!lically legiti i4ing the opposition in an e""ort to topple the Syrian govern ent& While so e o" the witness accounts co ing "ro Syria ay hold validity' the inconsistencies o" those testi onies and the way in which organi4ations li#e the 5nited Nations o!scure such accounts with !lan#eting con"identiality only serve to "urther suspicions o" "a!rication and duplicity at the institutional level& As ore and ore people !egin to Buestion the credi!ility and accuracy o" ainstrea news edia' their coverage o" events in Syria re"lects not only a deeply "lawed editorial policy' !ut also their co it ent to "ully aiding ilitaristic ventures at the e*pense o" illions o" lives around the world& While the alternative edia struggles with its li itations and is not without its shortco ings' independent )ournalists and political analysts have succeeded in e*posing the insidiousness and intellectual dishonesty o" the do inant narrative in an atte pt to Buestion and critically assess what the world has !een told a!out the Syrian crisis& (t is only with editorial transparency' )ournalistic integrity' and si ple honesty that such con"licts in the "uture ay !e si ilarly e*posed and averted& N5uly 11t(# 2012O

Chapter $: The Prospect of %egiona# War
'Naturally t(e co""on !eo!le don>t want war- neit(er in ussia# nor in ;n%land# nor in $"erica# nor in Ger"any. T(at is understood. But a)ter all# it is t(e leaders o) t(e country w(o deter"ine !olicy# and it is always a si"!le "atter to dra% t(e !eo!le alon%# w(et(er it is a de"ocracy# or a )ascist dictators(i!# or a !arlia"ent# or a co""unist dictators(i!. Doice or no ,oice# t(e !eo!le can always +e +rou%(t to t(e +iddin% o) t(e leaders. T(at is easy. $ll you (a,e to do is to tell t(e" t(ey are +ein% attac.ed# and denounce t(e !aci)ists )or lac. o) !atriotis" and e/!osin% t(e country to dan%er. It wor.s t(e sa"e in any country.” 2er!ann 34ring
2resident o) t(e Ger"an eic(sta%

A"ter a vicious decade o" unpalata!le war and occupation in the +iddle -ast' the prospect o" the Syrian crisis intensi"ying into larger regional con"lict is an alar ing possi!ility& Such a war would !e propagated !y anipulating sectarian divisions in an e""ort to sow chaos and trigger the collapse o" the Assad govern ent' thus threatening the "oundations o" secular nationalis in Syria and inciting tensions with Bashar,al Assad1s closest diplo atic ally' (ran& As the 5nited States and its allies atte pt to desta!ili4e Syria' the si ultaneous isolation o" (ran through econo ic sanctions' and the increasing A erican ilitary presence in the @ersian ;ul" signi"ies a continued proclivity "or war and "oreign entangle ent& 6ro Saudi Ara!ia to Tur#ey' the e erging (sla ic powers allied with the 5nited States have wor#ed in tande to assist the ilitant Syrian insurgency' otivated ideologically !y aspirations o" halting the e*pansion o" Shi1a identity' and their own a !itions o" regional hege ony& As (srael continues to assert its right to pree ptively stri#e (ran' Tel Aviv views the toppling o" .a ascus as a eans o" e*tinguishing the critical conduit !etween Tehran and 7e4!ollah' the political and ilitant Shi1a organi4ation centered in Southern 0e!anon' in a !id to isolate the @alestinian resistance& As Syrian re!el "ighters ount "urther pressure on the Assad govern ent' it ust !e re e !ered' that the road to Tehran goes through .a ascus& The pages o" the 2010 5S +ilitary Special 6orces1 5nconventional War"are +anual o""er "urther insight into the insurrectionary nature o" the Syrian con"lict& A pu!lication ai ed at de"ining unconventional war"are tactics' the anual serves as a !lueprint "or decades o" illegally conducted clandestine operations carried out without the approval o" the 5S Congress& The docu ent illustrates the sheer i punity with which the 5nited States conducts its "oreign policy' ai ed at illegally inter"ering in the a""airs o" "oreign nations in order to su!vert and desta!ili4e the in the na e o" "urthering A erican interests: T(e Co""ander# 3nited States S!ecial 8!erations Co""and N3SS8C8<O# de)ines ?3ncon,entional War)are@ 3W as acti,ities conducted to ena+le a resistance "o,e"ent or insur%ency to coerce# disru!t# or o,ert(row a %o,ern"ent or occu!yin% !ower +y o!eratin% t(rou%( or wit( an under%round# au/iliary# and %uerrilla )orce in a denied area. T(e intent o) 3.S. ?3ncon,entional War)are@ 3W e))orts is to e/!loit a (ostile !ower>s !olitical# "ilitary# econo"ic# and !syc(olo%ical ,ulnera+ilities +y de,elo!in% and sustainin% resistance )orces to acco"!lis( 3.S. strate%ic o+Iecti,es. 7or t(e

)oreseea+le )uture# 3.S. )orces will !redo"inantly en%a%e in irre%ular war)are NIWO o!erations.1C1 The targets o" the a!ove entioned irregular war"are operations are those sovereign states that have !een historically unwilling to align the selves with A erican diplo atic and econo ic interests& These covert operations are eticulously orchestrated and conducted in phasesP !eginning with psychologically in"luencing targeted populations& Su!seBuently' targeted nations are in"iltrated to provide training and eBuip ent to dissident groups' until a political transition is "orci!ly i posed: +igure ,$- .hases of (nconventional /arfare .0!S1 2: .reparation esistance and e/ternal s!onsors conduct !syc(olo%ical !re!aration to uni)y !o!ulation a%ainst esta+lis(ed %o,ern"ent or occu!yin% !ower and !re!are !o!ulation to acce!t 3.S. su!!ort. .0!S1 22: 2nitial Contact 3SG ?3nited States Go,ern"ent@ a%encies coordinate wit( allied %o,ern"ent4in4 e/ile or resistance leaders(i! )or desired 3.S. su!!ort. .0!S1 222: 2nfiltration S7 ?S!ecial 7orces@ tea" in)iltrates o!erational area# esta+lis(es co""unications wit( its +ase# and contacts resistance or%ani6ation. .0!S1 23: *rgani"ation S7 ?S!ecial 7orces@ tea" or%ani6es# trains# and eBui!s resistance cadre. ;"!(asis is on de,elo!in% in)rastructure. .0!S1 3: Buildup S7 ?S!ecial 7orces@ tea" assist cadre wit( e/!ansion into an e))ecti,e resistance or%ani6ation. Li"ited co"+at o!erations "ay +e conducted# +ut e"!(asis re"ains on de,elo!"ent. .0!S1 32: 1mplo'ment 3W ?3ncon,entional War)are@ )orces conduct co"+at o!erations until lin.u! wit( con,entional )orces or end (ostilities. .0!S1 322: Transition 3W ?3ncon,entional War)are@ )orces re,ert to national control# s(i)tin% to re%ular )orces or de"o+ili6in%. The contents o" the anual constitute unrestrained disregard "or the principles o" international law' national sovereignty' and the preparedness or political desire "or change in those targeted nations& While the ainstrea edia e phasi4ed the $spontaneity3 o" political revolt in the Ara! World' the contents o" the 2010 5S +ilitary Special 6orces1 5nconventional War"are +anual provide incredi!le clarity into the insurrectionary nature o" resistance "orces operating in target nations& 2ne such nota!le section ite i4es the $structure o" an insurgency or resistance 1C1 Special 6orces 5nconventional War"are' .epart ent o" 5S Ar y' Nove !er 2010

ove ent'3 pedantically detailing the stages o" desta!ili4ation' "ro $underground activities3 to $guerilla actions'3 in an atte pt to under ine the legiti acy o" target govern ents and ulti ately topple the : +igure 4$4. Structure of an insurgenc' or resistance movement X Dissatis)action wit( 2olitical# ;cono"ic# Social# $d"inistrati,e# and 8t(er Conditions- National $s!iration NInde!endenceO or Desire )or Ideolo%ical and 8t(er C(an%es X Creatin% an $t"os!(ere o) Wider Discontent T(rou%( 2ro!a%anda and 2olitical and 2syc(olo%ical ;))ects to Discredit t(e Go,ern"ent X $%itation- Creation o) 7a,ora+le 2u+lic 8!inion N$d,ocatin% National CauseOCreation o) Distrust o) ;sta+lis(ed Institution X Increased $%itation# 3nrest# and Disa))ection- In)iltration o) $d"inistration# 2olice# <ilitary# and National 8r%ani6ations# Boycotts# Slowdowns# and Stri.es X In)iltration o) 7orei%n 8r%ani6ers and $d,isors and 7orei%n 2ro!a%anda# <aterial# <oney# Wea!ons# and ;Bui!"ent X ecruit"ent and Trainin% o) esistance Cadres X 2enetration into La+our 3nions# Student and National 8r%ani6ations and all 2arts o) Society X S!readin% o) Su+,ersi,e 8r%ani6ations into $ll Sectors o) Li)e o) a Country X ;sta+lis("ent o) National 7ront 8r%ani6ations and Li+eration <o,e"ents- $!!eal to 7orei%n Sy"!at(i6ers X ;/!ansion o) 7ront 8r%ani6ations X Intensi)ication o) 2ro!a%anda- 2syc(olo%ical 2er!etration o) 2o!ulation )or e+ellion X 8,ert and Co,ert 2ressures $%ainst Go,ern"ent NStri.es# iots# and DisorderO X Increased 3nder%round $cti,ities to De"onstrate Stren%t( o) esistance 8r%ani6ation and Wea.ness o) Go,ern"ent X Intense Sa!!in% o) <orale NGo,ern"ent# $d"inistration# 2olice# <ilitaryO X Increased 2olitical Diolence and Sa+ota%e X <inor Guerrilla $ctions X Lar%e4Scale Guerilla $ctions (n the Syrian conte*t' the $architecture o" resistance3 descri!ed !y the 2010 5nconventional War"are +anual irrors every aspect o" the uprising' "ro psychological operations conducted on targeted populations and the in"lu* o" ar s and aterial goods' to the conduct o" the insurgent "ighters' who have incre entally increased the scale o" their operations against the Syrian state to warrant la!eling their conduct as $0arge Scale ;uerilla Actions3& At ini u ' the contents o" the 5S +ilitary docu ent constitute nothing short o" an ad ission that the 5nited States advocates state,sponsored terroris to achieve its "oreign policy o!)ectives o" toppling "oreign states& While senior 5S o""icials and diplo ats pu!lically tout de ocratic principles' Washington1s $irregular war"are3 operations place uch

e phasis on ensuring s all eyes o" the population:

ilitant "actions "orci!ly legiti i4e the selves in the

'In al"ost e,ery scenario# resistance "o,e"ents )ace a !o!ulation wit( an acti,e "inority su!!ortin% t(e %o,ern"ent and an eBually s"all "ilitant )action su!!ortin% t(e resistance "o,e"ent. 7or t(e resistance to succeed# it "ust con,ince t(e unco""itted "iddle !o!ulationSto acce!t it as a le%iti"ate entity. $ !assi,e !o!ulation is so"eti"es all a well4su!!orted insur%ency needs to sei6e !olitical !ower.” (n an age where the $War on Terror3 is used as a prete*t to ilitarily intervene and occupy sovereign states' it ust not !e "orgotten that such disastrous tactics o" $irregular war"are3 were used to "und coalitions o" "ighters #nown as the +u)aheddin F later #nown as $al,Kaeda3 F an organi4ation whose du!ious origins can !e traced !ac# to policy initiatives theori4ed !y "or er Secretary o" .e"ense 8o!ert ;ates and "or er National Security Adviser Q!igniew Br4e4ins#i during the Soviet,A"ghan war in in the late 1>?01s and throughout the 1>901s& 1C2 Contrary to popular !elie"' the "unding and support o" "anatic ilitant groups did not !egin a"ter the Soviet invasion' !ut rather' several years prior to it& (n the 1>901s' the +u)aheddin were pu!lically portrayed as heroes and "reedo "ighters' with 7ollywood wor#ing to gla ouri4e the ar ed resistance in A"ghanistan& While the C(A "ueled A"ghanistan1s decade,long war with the Soviet 5nion' any o" those that "ought in A"ghanistan Gparticularly "oreign "ighters ar ed' trained' and !rought in !y the C(AH would go on to "or so e o" the world1s ost notorious terrorist groups' any o" which are listed today on the 5S and 5/ "oreign terrorist organi4ation lists& 5S intervention in A"ghanistan !y training and ar ing A"ghanistan1s +u)aheddin' along with 2sa a Bin 0aden1s Ara! "ighters' is one o" the leading "actors that led to the urderous and protracted decade,long war' which would "or ally esta!lish al,Kaeda' an terrorist networ# that would continue to "ight a"ter the Soviets were e*pelled "ro A"ghanistan' this ti e in /osovo1s !id "or independence "ro Ser!ia in the late 1>>01s& The al,Kaeda,trained /osovo 0i!eration Ar y G/0AH ilitants garnered an ar ed Ser!ian response' which was then used !y NAT2 as a prete*t "or intervention& NAT21s entry into the war led to the eventual carving up o" the nation' while organi4ations such as the C(A were "a iliarly "ound to !e propping up radical insurgent "ighters& Al,Kaeda Buic#ly !eca e A erica1s ost notorious ene y' "illing the void le"t !y a collapsed Soviet 5nion and )usti"ying Washington1s unwarranted de"ense spending and e*pansion o" enor ous tactical holdings overseas throughout the 1>>01s& Al,Kaeda continued receiving covert support "ro 5S and British intelligence agencies with "inancial assistance "ro Saudi Ara!ia' as did any other e*tre ist groups' which eventually !egan integrating with al,Kaeda across various regions o" the world& These C(A,"ostered terrorist groups include the 0i!yan (sla ic 6ighting ;roup G0(6;H' which was created in A"ghanistan with 0i!yan ilitants previously ar ed and trained !y the C(A to overthrow +ua ar ;adda"i in the early 1>901s& A"ter several "ailed atte pts to sei4e 0i!ya !y "orce' these "ighters "iltered !ac# into A"ghanistan to "ight the occupying 5S& This ti e' the A"ghans were no longer $gallant'3 !ut rather were portrayed as edieval' !ac#wards' and in need o" 1C2 DBlow!ac#'1 the @reBuel' The Nation' 2cto!er 2C' 2001

Western de ocracy and 5N,sanctioned nation !uilding& The 0i!yans "or their part would continue "ighting the 5S in A"ghanistan' and when the 5S invaded (raB in 200=' they would !egin "ighting 5S troops there as well& While 5S "orces occupied A"ghanistan "or ore than a decade' with "ighting reaching unprecedented levels' 0(6; ilitants once again received ilitary aid and diplo atic !ac#ing !y NAT2' along with "ull diplo atic recognition !y the 5S State .epart ent and the 5/ 6oreign and Co onwealth 2""ice as they rose up against ;adda"i in 0i!ya' )ust as A"ghanistan1s +u)aheddin rallied against Soviet e*pansionis on !ehal" o" Western "oreign policy& This is a narrative that "irst saw these ilitants as heroes' then the world1s ost scorned villains "or nearly a decade o" war' !e"ore e erging once again as heroes& According to reports issued !y the West @oint Co !ating Terror Center' 0i!ya1s eastern region is considered to !e one o" the world1s highest concentrations o" terrorists' an area where +ua ar ;adda"i had "ought "or nearly three decades to eli inate the region1s "oreign,!ac#ed ilitants' centered in the cities o" .ernah and the epicenter o" the NAT2,!ac#ed re!ellion' Bengha4i& The +usli Brotherhood and various Sunni (sla ist political "actions that have usurped power in the wa#e o" the 5S,engineered $Ara! Spring3 are the !yproduct o" a policy designed to under ine the govern ents o" (ran and Syria' and 7e4!ollah operating in 0e!anon' !y widening sectarian con"lict !etween Shi1a and Sunni +usli s& The creation o" a united Sunni,"ront was noted !y geopolitical analyst .r& We!ster Tarpley who has stated that the various new ad inistrations resulting "ro these engineered revolutions $could then !e used to support the "unda ental 5S,5/ strategy "or the +iddle -ast' which is to asse !le a !loc# o" Ara! and Sunni countries Gnota!ly -gypt' Saudi Ara!ia' the ;ul" states' and AordanH which' "or ed into a "ront with the participation o" (srael' would collide with the (ranian Shiite "ront' including Syria' 7e4!ollah' 7a as' and various radical "orces&3 Con"ir ing this analysis is a 200? article pu!lished in the New :or.er !y )ournalist Sey our 7ersh' $The 8edirection: (s the Ad inistration1s new policy !ene"iting our ene ies in the war on terroris N$ 7ersh1s piece docu ents ad issions that the 5S' Saudis' and (sraelis are indeed allied Gdespite atte pts !y Saudi Ara!ia and in"luential Sunni organi4ations to portray the selves as $anti, Qionist3H' and "urther con"ir s that the 5S has aterially supported a regional networ# o" e*tre ist "ighters and terrorists a""iliated with al,Kaeda& 1C= 7ersh descri!es a policy shi"t that saw Washington colla!orating with 8iyadh to conduct clandestine operations intended to wea#en 7e4!ollah in 0e!anon' )oining Saudi Ara!ia and (srael in a strategic e !race' largely !ecause !oth countries perceive (ran as an e*istential threat& A principal co ponent o" this policy shi"t was the !olstering o" Sunni e*tre ist groups espousing a ilitant version o" (sla against .a ascus' in an atte pt to under ine Syria' (ran1s pri ary conduit and plat"or o" in"luence in the Ara! world: To under"ine Iran# w(ic( is !redo"inantly S(iite# t(e Bus( $d"inistration (as decided# in e))ect# to recon)i%ure its !riorities in t(e <iddle ;ast. In Le+anon# t(e $d"inistration (as coo!erated wit( Saudi $ra+ia>s %o,ern"ent# w(ic( is Sunni# in 1C= The 8edirection' The New %or#er' +arch 0C' 200?

clandestine o!erations t(at are intended to wea.en =e6+olla(# t(e S(iite or%ani6ation t(at is +ac.ed +y Iran. T(e 3.S. (as also ta.en !art in clandestine o!erations ai"ed at Iran and its ally Syria. $ +y4!roduct o) t(ese acti,ities (as +een t(e +olsterin% o) Sunni e/tre"ist %rou!s t(at es!ouse a "ilitant ,ision o) Isla" and are (ostile to $"erica and sy"!at(etic to $l Haeda. 1C< 7ersh cites the #ey architects !ehind the policy shi"t toward clandestine operations as !eing "or er 5S Eice,@resident .ic# Cheney' "or er .eputy National Security Advisor -lliott A!ra s' "or er 5S A !assador to (raB Qal ay /halil4ad' and the in"a ous @rince Bandar !in Sultan' the "or er Saudi National,Security Advisor& The i portance o" @rince Bandar Ga close "riend and !usiness partner o" ;eorge 7&W& Bush' who genially designated hi with the nic#na e' $Bandar Bush3H in Washington1s e""ort to under ine Tehran and its in"luence in the +iddle -ast cannot !e understated& Bandar' who served as the A !assador to the 5nited States "or twenty,two years' was Buoted !y 7ersh as saying' $We have two night ares' "or (ran to acBuire the !o ! and "or the 5nited States to attac# (ran& (1d rather the (sraelis !o ! the (ranians' so we can !la e the & (" A erica does it' we will !e !la ed&3 .uring his tenure as A !assador to the 5nited States' Bandar developed close relationships with senior 5S o""icials' allied with the goal o" halting the e*pansion o" Shi1a political power and in"luence in the +iddle -ast& 7ersh highlights how Saudi o""icials used their enor ous wealth as "inancial leverage against the "eared e ergence o" the religious inority Shi1a' who are a a)ority in (ran' (raB' Bahrain' and 0e!anon' and are widely viewed as heretics !y Sunnis& 6or the allied powers in Tel Aviv' 8iyadh' and Washington' ilitant Sunni radicals are lesser ene ies o" the West in contrast to the geopolitical e ergence o" a $Shiite crescent&3 This is an ironic stance "or the 5nited States to adopt while spearheading war against (raB' where ost cases o" insurgent violence 5S "orces dealt with ca e "ro ilitant Sunni "orces& 6or er 5S @resident ;eorge Bush accused (ran and Syria o" allowing terrorists to ove in and out o" their territories to provide aterial support to resistance "ighters pitted against the A erican occupation in (raB& The Bush Ad inistration1s own "ailures in planning and e*ecuting their progra in (raB were )usti"ied as the result o" (ranian inter"erence& (n an atte pt to !uild a case against (ran inter"ering in (raB' 5S ilitary personnel arrested and interrogated hundred o" (ranians in (raB' any o" who were providing hu anitarian aid and edical assistance to war,torn (raB: 7lynt Le,erett# a )or"er Bus( $d"inistration National Security Council o))icial# told "e t(at 't(ere is not(in% coincidental or ironic” a+out t(e new strate%y wit( re%ard to IraB. 'T(e $d"inistration is tryin% to "a.e a case t(at Iran is "ore dan%erous and "ore !ro,ocati,e t(an t(e Sunni insur%ents to $"erican interests in IraB# w(en*i) you loo. at t(e actual casualty nu"+ers*t(e !unis("ent in)licted on $"erica +y t(e Sunnis is %reater +y an order o) "a%nitude#” Le,erett said. 'T(is is all !art o) t(e ca"!ai%n o) !ro,ocati,e ste!s to increase t(e !ressure on Iran. T(e idea is t(at at

1C< (!id

so"e !oint t(e Iranians will res!ond and t(en t(e $d"inistration will (a,e an o!en door to stri.e at t(e".” 1CC 7ersh1s article also descri!es in great detail the role o" Saad 7ariri' the "or er 0e!anese @ri e +inister who wor#ed closely with Saudi Ara!ia and the 5nited States to create a sa"e haven "or terrorist organi4ations on 0e!anese soil' who have !een instru ental in desta!ili4ing neigh!oring Syria: T(e Saudi %o,ern"ent# wit( Was(in%ton>s a!!ro,al# would !ro,ide )unds and lo%istical aid to wea.en t(e %o,ern"ent o) 2resident Bas(ar $ssad# o) Syria. T(e Israelis +elie,e t(at !uttin% suc( !ressure on t(e $ssad %o,ern"ent will "a.e it "ore conciliatory and o!en to ne%otiations. Syria is a "aIor conduit o) ar"s to =e6+olla(. T(e Saudi %o,ern"ent is also at odds wit( t(e Syrians o,er t(e assassination o) a)i. =ariri# t(e )or"er Le+anese 2ri"e <inister# in Beirut in 2001# )or w(ic( it +elie,es t(e $ssad %o,ern"ent was res!onsi+le. =ariri# a +illionaire Sunni# was closely associated wit( t(e Saudi re%i"e and wit( 2rince Bandar. 1C: The +usli Brotherhood is o"ten portrayed as !eing anti,(sraeli' anti,A erican' and anti,Western in general& (n reality' 7ersh1s 200? report a#es clear that the Brotherhood was the vehicle o" choice "or the 5S' (sraeli' and Saudi elite ai ed at halting Shi1a e*pansionis P an organi4ation that has long received !ac#ing and direct "unding not only in Syria' !ut in -gypt as well& The +usli Brotherhood1s ran# and "ile surely !elieves in what they are !eing told !y their leaders' who have proven the selves to !e pro"essional de agogues peddling anti,(sraeli and anti,A erican rhetoric solely "or pu!lic consu ption while !eing "ully co plicit in the West1s designs against the Ara! World& 7ersh reports that a supporter o" the 0e!anese 7ariri "action et .ic# Cheney in Washington and personally relayed the priority o" using the +usli Brotherhood in Syria in any ove against the ruling govern ent: ?Walid@ 5u"+latt t(en told "e t(at (e (ad "et wit( Dice42resident C(eney in Was(in%ton last )all to discuss# a"on% ot(er issues# t(e !ossi+ility o) under"inin% $ssad. =e and (is collea%ues ad,ised C(eney t(at# i) t(e 3nited States does try to "o,e a%ainst Syria# "e"+ers o) t(e Syrian <usli" Brot(er(ood would +e At(e ones to tal. to#> 5u"+latt said. 7ersh1s e*pos[ detailed how !ac#ing !y the 5nited States and Saudi Ara!ia had !egun !ene"iting the Brotherhood since at least 200?: T(ere is e,idence t(at t(e $d"inistration>s redirection strate%y (as already +ene)itted t(e Brot(er(ood. T(e Syrian National Sal,ation 7ront is a coalition o) o!!osition %rou!s w(ose !rinci!al "e"+ers are a )action led +y $+dul =ali" J(adda"# a )or"er Syrian Dice42resident w(o de)ected in 2001# and t(e Brot(er(ood. $ )or"er (i%(4ran.in% C.I.$. o))icer told "e# 'T(e $"ericans (a,e !ro,ided +ot( !olitical and )inancial su!!ort. T(e Saudis are ta.in% t(e lead wit( )inancial su!!ort# +ut t(ere is $"erican in,ol,e"ent.” =e said t(at J(adda"# w(o now li,es in 2aris# was %ettin% "oney )ro" Saudi $ra+ia# wit( t(e .nowled%e o) t(e W(ite =ouse. NIn 2001# a dele%ation o) t(e 7ront>s "e"+ers "et wit( o))icials )ro" t(e National Security 1CC (!id 1C: (!id

Council# accordin% to !ress re!orts.O $ )or"er W(ite =ouse o))icial told "e t(at t(e Saudis (ad !ro,ided "e"+ers o) t(e 7ront wit( tra,el docu"ents. 1C? (ndeed' the ploy descri!ed in incredi!le detail in 200? has de onstra!ly co e to "ruition' not to protect against e*istential threats to the people o" Saudi Ara!ia' (srael' or the 5nited States' !ut against e*istential threats to their leadership1s a !itions o" regional hege ony: Bandar and ot(er Saudis (a,e assured t(e W(ite =ouse t(at 't(ey will .ee! a ,ery close eye on t(e reli%ious )unda"entalists.” T(eir "essa%e to us was 'We>,e created t(is "o,e"ent# and we can control it. It>s not t(at we don>t want t(e Sala)is to t(row +o"+s- it>s w(o t(ey t(row t(e" at*=e6+olla(# <oBtada al4Sadr# Iran# and at t(e Syrians# i) t(ey continue to wor. wit( =e6+olla( and Iran.” 1C9 Poetic 'ustice in the Persian 3u#f The en"la ing o" regional sectarian divisions holds enor ous i plications "or the +iddle -ast' particularly the prospect o" $!low!ac#3 in the /ingdo & Saudi Ara!ia has a signi"icant Shiite inority in its oil rich -astern @rovince' and the 7ouse o" Saud !elieves that (ranian operatives have !een actively wor#ing with the local Shi1a population to desta!ili4e the region& As the nations targeted "or regi e change and desta!ili4ation either "alter or aggressively atte pt to restore order in their own nations' the possi!ility o" an authentic indigenous revolution is terri"ying to those Ara! nations who have unco pro isingly wor#ed to destroy the Syrian state& The ultra,conservative ideological Saudi Wa((a+is" practiced in the /ingdo purges any co on +usli practices on the !asis o" !eing considered as i purities and innovations in (sla & While 8iyadh has called "or de ocracy and respect "or hu an rights in Syria' the 7ouse o" Saud presides over an a!solutist state where political parties are prohi!ited and capital punish ent !y pu!lic !eheading can !e i posed as punish ent "or "ornication' witchcra"t' and apostasy "ro (sla & 5nder a governance syste re iniscent o" edieval -urope' the Wahha!i ideology strictly "or!ids dissent as the 7ouse o" Saud e*erts control over the Sala"ist religious esta!lish ent to issue "atwas Ga legal pronounce ent in (sla ic lawH to legiti i4e their unchallenged authority& Because it is a a)or e*porter o" oil and a staunch ally o" the 5nited States' Washington has largely turned a !lind eye to the glaring hypocrisies o" Saudi a!solutis ' giving the regi e "ree reign to violate principles that other nations are "alsely accused o" violating& (n late 6e!ruary 2011' protests erupted in the Shi1a a)ority Bahrain' calling "or greater political "reedo and eBuality "or the a)ority Shia population' as well as the down"all o" the onarchy o" /ing 7a ad !in (sa Al /hali"a&1C> 2 inously' /hali"a reBuested a Saudi, led contingent o" the ;CC1s @eninsula Shield 6orce G@S6H to e*tinguish opposition protests under the auspices o" the ;CC1s @eninsula Shield de"ense pact !e"ore declaring artial law and a three, onth state o" e ergency& Bahraini and Saudi 1C? (!id 1C9 (!id 1C> Bahrain ourners call "or end to onarchy' The ;uardian' 6e!ruary 19' 2011

Ara!ian "orces unleashed a vicious o""ensive against unar ed civilian protesters in +ana a1s @earl SBuare and have continued to e*ert e*cessive "orce according to reports issued !y the Bahrain (ndependent Co ission o" (nBuiry GB(C(H&1:0 As the situation escalated in Bahrain' the govern ent !la ed (ran "or instigating unrest as the reactionary regi e in 8iyadh deli!erately en"la ed sectarian rhetoric in "ear o" its own Shi1a inority revolting' in order to instigate inter,religious stri"e which would reduce the li#elihood o" any uprising !y the Sunni a)ority within Saudi Ara!ia&1:1 Since 6e!ruary 2011' protesters regularly held de onstrations in Saudi Ara!ia' ainly in Kati" and Awa iyah in the eastern province' calling "or the release o" all political prisoners and "reedo o" e*pression& 2n +arch Cth' 2011' the Saudi (nterior +inistry issued a state ent prohi!iting $all "or s o" de onstrations' arches or protests' and calls "or the ' !ecause that contradicts the principles o" the (sla ic sharia' the values and traditions o" Saudi society' and results in distur!ing pu!lic order and har ing pu!lic and private interests&3 1:2 The 6e!ruary 2012 arrest and detention o" pro inent Shi1a Shei#h Ni r BaBr al,Ni r in Saudi Ara!i1s eastern province o" al,Awa iyah "ueled popular senti ents against the regi e' pro pting open dissent and rare displays o" wider protest' spreading to Sunni areas in 7e)a4' and even to +ecca and the political power!ase o" 8iyadh& Al,Ni r has allegedly !een tortured "or critici4ing Saudi authorities "or their treat ent o" the Shi1a inority and calling "or secession o" the oil,rich eastern province prior to predicting the overthrow o" the govern ent i" repression continued& (n Auly 2012' C(A .irector .avid @etraeus "lew to Aeddah and et with Saudi /ing A!dullah !in A!dula4i4 Al Saud' shortly a"ter the onarch ordered the country1s security "orces to go on a state o" high alert due to what he called a $tur!ulent situation3 in the region&1:= Although no reports sur"aced o" what was discussed during the eeting' one would assu e the pair conversed over issues such as Washington1s concern over an internal power struggle within the royal "a ily' the ailing health o" /ing A!dullah' and the increasing violent crac#down on Shi1a activists and anti,govern ent protestors& .eep splits within in the royal "a ily !eca e apparent as the several thousand princes and princesses !egan setting up their own coalitions to address chronic pro!le s such as une ploy ent' corruption and inadeBuate housing' despite the enor ous "inancial resources "ro oil e*ports& The death o" regi e hardliner @rince Naye" !in A!dul A4i4 in Aune 2010 e*posed the "ragility o" transition in the Saudi /ingdo P Naye" headed the do estic security and intelligence apparatus and was #nown "or crac#ing down on the security threat posed !y Al Kaeda and its a""iliates operating inside Saudi Ara!ia' a pree inent threat to the sta!ility o" the onarchy& @rior to his death' he introduced a wel"are 1:0 Bahraini regi e "orces attac# =11 houses: al,We"aB' @ressTE' Auly 21' 2012 1:1 Bahrain protesters )oin anti,govern ent arch in +ana a' BBC' +arch >' 2012 1:2 C(A director eets Saudi #ing in Aeddah' @ressTE' Auly 10' 2012 1:= (!id

pac#age to alleviate issues o" youth une ploy ent in the country' which was perceived as an inadeBuate solution to an increasingly severe pro!le in the /ingdo & Naye" was seen as a "igure that held de "acto control over the Saudi state due to the ailing health o" 9>,year old /ing A!dullah' and was an aggressive opponent o" !oth (ran and 7e4!ollah' who he accused o" intentionally under ining the Sunni population o" (raB and 0e!anon& 2ne o" Naye"1s "oreign policy o!)ectives ai ed to topple Shi1a (raBi leaders +uBtada al, Sadr' A ar al,7a#i and @ri e +inister Nuri al,+al#i "or their close ties to Tehran& Since the 1>?> (sla ic 8evolution in (ran' Ara! onarchies in the @ersian ;ul" sought to increase their ties' perceiving (ran to !e a threat to their interests& Saudi Ara!ia !elieves that the unrest in Bahrain and in its own Shi1a do inated eastern province has !een !olstered !y (ran1s clerical esta!lish ent' viewing the religious inority as representing the interests o" Tehran& 8iyadh1s intentions to esta!lish a stronger econo ic union with Bahrain is li#ely otivated !y (ran1s territorial clai s over the region and their opposition to the esta!lish ent o" such a con"ederacy: 'In a re)erence to Iran>s (istorical territorial clai"s o,er Ba(rain# an Iranian !arlia"entarian las(ed out a%ainst Saudi $ra+ia>s !lans: AI) it ?Ba(rain@ is su!!osed to +e anne/ed# it will %o to t(e Isla"ic e!u+lic not ?t(e@ al4Saud ?)a"ily@>. In a "ore o))icial res!onse# Iranian 7orei%n <inistry s!o.es"an a"in <e("an!arast su%%ested# AT(e crac.down on !eo!le# "ilitary and security inter,ention +y nei%(+orin% countries li.e Saudi $ra+ia# and !lans li.e t(e !ro!osal )or t(e )or"ation o) a union +etween Ba(rain and Saudi $ra+ia are# in our ,iew# ill4ad,ised "easures# w(ic( will dee!en t(e crisis>. Gi,en t(e sta.es in,ol,ed# Ba(rain will re"ain a crucial strate%ic +attle%round +etween Saudi $ra+ia and Iran in t(e "ont(s a(ead.” 1:< While conde ning and arginali4ing its Shi1a population do estically' the /ingdo 1s airwaves have !een do inated !y "iery rhetoric "ro the Sala"ist religious esta!lish calling "or )ihad against the Assad regi e in Syria' going as "ar as "or ali4ing a pay structure "or e !ers o" the 6ree Syrian Ar y and other insurgents operating in Syria with cooperation "ro their ;ul" allies& As dissident groups in neigh!oring Katar issue nationwide calls de anding the ouster o" - ir Shei#h 7a ad !in /hali"a Al Thani and the dis antling o" Katar1s do estic 5S !ase' the /ingdo is undou!tedly petri"ied !y the prospect o" an internal revolt at a ti e when around hal" the population is under 19,years old and the ageing upper echelons o" the royal "a ily are increasingly perceived to !e repressive and reactionary&1:C (n a country where the $showcase o" re"or 3 is the "or ation o" an allegiance council to select the heir to the throne twice within an eight, onth period' the /ingdo ay well "ind itsel" paraly4ed !y the growing internal political ove ent calling "or an end to the 7ouse o" Saud& The hypocrisy o" /ing A!dullah calling on Bashar al,Assad to i ple ent genuine re"or and $halt the #illing achine'3 de onstrates the dishonesty o" the Saudi line' as the /ingdo 1s support "or sectarian insurgency in Syria constitutes nothing short o" state,directed )ihad: 1:< Saudi Ara!ia,Bahrain union re"lects ;ul" rivalry' Asia Ti es 2nline' Aune 20' 2012 1:C .issidents call "or pu!lic protests against .oha regi e' 5&S& !ases in Katar' Tehran Ti es' Auly
2<' 2012

T(e Saudis are dri,en +y t(eir )ear t(at Iran could tilt t(e +alance o) !ower not only in t(e re%ion# +ut wit(in t(eir own country. Saudi $ra+ia (as a si%ni)icant S(iite "inority in its ;astern 2ro,ince# a re%ion o) "aIor oil )ields- sectarian tensions are (i%( in t(e !ro,ince. T(e royal )a"ily +elie,es t(at Iranian o!erati,es# wor.in% wit( local S(iites# (a,e +een +e(ind "any terrorist attac.s inside t(e .in%do"# accordin% to Dali Nasr. 'Today# t(e only ar"y ca!a+le o) containin% Iran”*t(e IraBi $r"y*”(as +een destroyed +y t(e 3nited States. :ou>re now dealin% wit( an Iran t(at could +e nuclear4 ca!a+le and (as a standin% ar"y o) )our (undred and )i)ty t(ousand soldiers.” NSaudi $ra+ia (as se,enty4)i,e t(ousand troo!s in its standin% ar"y.O Nasr went on# 'T(e Saudis (a,e considera+le )inancial "eans# and (a,e dee! relations wit( t(e <usli" Brot(er(ood and t(e Sala)is”*Sunni e/tre"ists w(o ,iew S(iites as a!ostates. 'T(e last ti"e Iran was a t(reat# t(e Saudis were a+le to "o+ili6e t(e worst .inds o) Isla"ic radicals. 8nce you %et t(e" out o) t(e +o/# you can>t !ut t(e" +ac..” 1:: Saudi Ara!ia1s participation in desta!ili4ing Syria is seen as a eans o" ulti ately di inishing the in"luence o" (ran in the Ara! world' and aiding the esta!lish ent o" an a!solutist' Sunni satellite,state in .a ascus& .ue to international e !argoes on (ran' the /ingdo 1s oil production levels are at a thirty,year high and it can !e sa"ely e*pected that Saudi Ara!ia and its ;ul" allies would ilitarily !ac# (srael and the 5nited States i" they choose to stri#e (ran1s nuclear "acilities& 1:? 8iyadh would not li#ely !e satis"ied with regi e change in (ranP they see# their own regional hege ony !y wea#ening the Shi1a state entirely& The /ingdo would support insurgent ove ents ai ed at capturing Tehran1s resources and threatening the territorial integrity o" the country along ethnic lines' encouraging (ran1s /urds in the northwest' Balochs in the southeast and Ara!s in the west to ta#e up ar s in support o" their own autono y& As 8iyadh desperately in)ects its tre endous "inancial resources into wel"are progra s and su!sidies to appease the agitated population' the /ingdo is approaching a crossroads that ay challenge the a!solutist rule o" the 7ouse o" Saud& As the /ingdo and its ;ul" allies ove to enthusiastically support the uprising in Syria' historian and geopolitical analyst .r& We!ster Tarpley "oreshadows insta!ility "or the onarchy' warning 8iyadh1s reactionary ruling class to e*a ine the case o" 0ouis @hilippe Aoseph d12rl[ans' a e !er o" ruling 7ouse o" Bour!on dynasty' who enthusiastically supported the 6rench 8evolution' only to "ind hi sel" eventually under the !lade o" the guillotine& Tur-ey an" the )ur"ish 5uestion 5nder the direction o" @ri e +inister 8ecep Tayyip -rdoOan and 6oreign +inister Ah et .avutoOlu' Tur#ish "oreign policy has aggressively shi"ted away "ro the touted $Qero @ro!le s3 policy' trans"or ing into an intrusive spearhead ripping into the Syrian state& Tur#ey1s close geographic pro*i ity to Syria has given rise to ar s tra""ic#ing' turning the Tur#ish,Syrian !order into a "lashpoint "or insurgent "ighters ta#ing re"uge with the "ull co plicity o" An#ara& The increasing ilitari4ation o" Tur#ey1s !order with Syria serves as an unco "orta!le indication o" the con"lict1s 1:: The 8edirection' The New %or#er' +arch 0C' 200? 1:? Saudi Ara!ia says #ingdo pu ping 10 illion !pd' the ost in C onths' Al,Ara!iya' +ay 9'
2012

severity' where atch and tinder can eet at any o ent with de!ilitating conseBuences "or the region& (n +ay 2012' the Council on 6oreign 8elations sponsored an (ndependent Tas# 6orce led !y "or er 5S Secretary o" State +adeleine Al!right' "or er National Security Adviser Stephen A& 7adley' and twenty,"ive others' who issued a report entitled' $5&S&,Tur#ey 8elations: A New @artnership&3 1:9 The docu ent is written in the conte*t o" how Tur#ey can !ene"it the 5nited States with respect to Syria and (ran' not without e pty pro ises to entice Tur#ish leaders into "alling on their swords "or Western a !itions across the +iddle -ast& The C681s atte pt to "lesh out an i proved alliance !etween the 5S and Tur#ey' clai ing the new relationship would tru p the potential "or 5S cooperation with any B8(CS nation Ge*cept perhaps (ndiaH' serves as a patroni4ing political stunt atte pting to "ill Tur#ish leaders with delusions o" grandeur' te pting the to lead the charge against Syria and (ran in e*change "or Western support !ehind An#ara1s a !itions o" regional hege ony& (n late Auly 2012' euters con"ir ed the e*istence o" re!el !ase in Adana' a southern Tur#ish city roughly 100 # "ro the Syrian !order' reBuested !y Saudi .eputy 6oreign +inister @rince A!dula4i4 !in A!dullah al,Saud during an o""icial visit& Adana is also ho e to a 5S,NAT2 !ase at (ncirli#' con"ir ing suspicions o" direct covert A erican involve ent& euters1s source in Katar was Buoted as saying: 'T(ree %o,ern"ents are su!!lyin% wea!ons: Tur.ey# Hatar and Saudi $ra+ia#” said a Do(a4+ased source. $n.ara (as o))icially denied su!!lyin% wea!ons. '$ll wea!onry is ussian. T(e o+,ious reason is t(at t(ese %uys Nt(e Syrian re+elsO are trained to use ussian wea!ons# also +ecause t(e $"ericans don>t want t(eir (ands on it. $ll wea!ons are )ro" t(e +lac. "ar.et. T(e ot(er way t(ey %et wea!ons is to steal t(e" )ro" t(e Syrian ar"y. T(ey raid wea!ons stores.” T(e source added: 'T(e Tur.s (a,e +een des!erate to i"!ro,e t(eir wea. sur,eillance# and (a,e +een +e%%in% Was(in%ton )or drones and sur,eillance.” T(e !leas a!!ear to (a,e )ailed. 'So t(ey (a,e (ired so"e !ri,ate %uys to co"e do t(e Io+.” The depreciation o" Tur#ey1s status to an acBuiescent ar o" the 5S (ntelligence esta!lish ent ay li#ely co e at great cost to @ri e +inister -rdoOan' as the collapse o" the Syrian state could yield a closer colla!oration !etween Syrian /urdish re!els operating in northern Syria and Tur#ey1s own /urdish ilitant resistance' pushing the insurgency "urther into eastern Tur#ey and' conseBuently' desta!ili4ing the country& The /urdish inority in Tur#ey a#es up ore than a Buarter o" the total population and has "ought a ilitant separatist ca paign in the /urdish region "or decades led !y the /urdistan Wor#ers1 @arty G@//H' who would pose an i ediate threat to the do estic security o" Tur#ey i" !olstered !y an in"lu* o" Syrian /urdish re!els& /urdistan is a roughly de"ined geo,cultural region enco passing areas o" eastern Tur#ey' northeastern Syria' northern (raB and northwestern (ran' where nationalist organi4ations have historically "ought "or the esta!lish ent o" an independent state and greater autono y within e*isting national !orders& (raBi /urdish leader +assoud Bar4ani o" the autono ous /urdistan 8egional ;overn ent G/8;H in northern (raB has proved to !e an a ena!le candidate "or the 5nited States to use in 1:9 5&S&,Tur#ey 8elations' Council on 6oreign 8elations' +ay 2012

anipulating Tur#ish policy& Bar4ani aintains control over (raBi /urdistan1s rich oil "ields' where the li#es o" -**on+o!il and Chevron have acBuired a co !ined area o" 1'12< sBuare #ilo eters' uch to the dis ay o" (raB1s Central govern ent in Baghdad' which views the deal with Bar4ani1s provincial authority as !ypassing (raB1s sovereignty& The oil is intended to !e e*ported onto international ar#ets' and while (raB and Tur#ey1s /ir#u#,Ceyhan pipeline could !e used as an e*it point' a ore attractive transportation route "or the considera!le oil and gas deposits in /urdistan Gcontaining !etween = and : trillion cu!ic eters o" natural gas and <C !illion !arrels o" oilH would !e the Syrian port city o" 0ata#ia' situated on the eastern +editerranean& As An#ara is deter ined to e*pand its energy consu ption to "uel its do estic econo y' Tur#ey1s -nergy +inister Taner %ildi4 has enthusiastically e !raced econo ic cooperation with the /urdistan 8egional ;overn ent' despite Baghdad1s a""ir ations o" the provincial govern ent illegally approving energy deals to e*port /urdistani natural gas to Siyah /ale ' a Tur#ish engineering and construction co pany& 6or An#ara' +assoud Bar4ani is a strategic ally' as Tur#ish "oreign policy toward Syria and (raB converge& (raB is Tur#ey1s second largest trading partner' with ore than hal" o" An#ara1s J12 !illion trade !eing conducted with Bar4ani1s /8;& Bar4ani is viewed not only as a !usiness partner' !ut also as a vital "igure who can leverage Tur#ey1s pro!le s with /urdish ilitancy within its own !orders !y spearheading a new political trac# "or the region1s various /urdish "actions& (n April 2012' Bar4ani ade an o""icial visit to Washington to esta!lish a 5S, /urdistan Business Council to pro ote A erican invest ent in the region' eeting with @resident Barac# 2!a a' .e"ense Secretary 0eon @anetta' .eputy Secretary o" State Willia Burns' Secretary o" State 7illary Clinton and Eice @resident Aoe Biden& (raB1s Shi1a @ri e +inister Nouri al,+ali#i has "allen out o" "avor with Washington and Tur#ey "or deepening ties to (ran and "or diplo atically siding with Bashar al, Assad1s govern ent& The 5nited States originally !ac#ed +ali#i assu ing that a Shiite govern ent in (raB could wor# in Washington1s "avor to under ine the Sunni e*tre ist circles that vigorously "ought against A erican occupation' although this led to the !olstering o" Shi1a radical ilitias under +ali#i1s watch& 5nsurprisingly' Bar4ani espoused harsh rhetoric toward (raB1s central govern ent upon returning "ro Washington: =e told al4=ayat# 'IraB is "o,in% toward a catastro!(e# a return to dictators(i!”# and t(at on (is return to $r+il (e would call a "eetin% o) IraBi leaders to 'sa,e” t(e country )ro" <ali.i and to see. 'radical solutions.” 1:> 5ndou!tedly' Bar4ani is re"erring to the prospect o" /urdish secession "ro (raB' an attractive strategy "or the 5nited States and a ove that Tur#ey would itsel" support under circu stances that !ene"it its own interests& Bar4ani has atte pted to reconcile di""erences !etween various /urdish groups !y !ri!ing "actional leaders with Tur#ish oney' even endeavoring to persuade Syrian /urds to align with the anti,Assad opposition& Tur#ish @+ -rdoOan et directly with Bar4ani in (stan!ul' leading the charge against +ali#i1s ad inistration in Baghdad in tande with the 1:> 5S' Tur#ey and (raBi /urds )oin hands' Asia Ti es 2nline' April 2<' 2012

@ersian ;ul" nations that have wor#ed to syste atically de olish the Syrian state' stating: 'T(e +asis o) t(e !olitical crisis in w(ic( IraB )inds itsel) is t(at IraBi !oliticians see. to consolidate !ower and e/clude ot(ers# rat(er t(an ?)ollow@ !olitics +ased on de"ocratic and uni,ersal !rinci!les. It is a )act t(at +e(ind t(e "is!erce!tions t(at led to t(e accusations a%ainst Tur.ey +y 2ri"e <inister <ali.i# w(o insti%ated t(e crisis in IraB# t(is wron% understandin% o) !olitics can +e )ound.” 1?0 2nce again in step with the a!solutist ;ul" states' the underlying otive o" a de oni4ation o" (raB1s govern ent is the isolation o" (ran !y strangling its allies and pro oting a relationship !etween (raB1s /urdish and Sunni leadership' there!y under ining +ali#i1s ad inistration in Baghdad& An interview with 7e4!ollah1s leader 7assan Nasrallah conducted in 200? alluded to the prospect o" a geopolitical restructuring o" the region along ethnic and sectarian lines: Nasralla( said (e +elie,ed t(at 2resident Bus(>s %oal was 't(e drawin% o) a new "a! )or t(e re%ion. T(ey want t(e !artition o) IraB. IraB is not on t(e ed%e o) a ci,il war*t(ere is a ci,il war. T(ere is et(nic and sectarian cleansin%. T(e daily .illin% and dis!lace"ent w(ic( is ta.in% !lace in IraB ai"s at ac(ie,in% t(ree IraBi !arts# w(ic( will +e sectarian and et(nically !ure as a !relude to t(e !artition o) IraB. Wit(in one or two years at t(e "ost# t(ere will +e total Sunni areas# total S(iite areas# and total Jurdis( areas. ;,en in Ba%(dad# t(ere is a )ear t(at it "i%(t +e di,ided into two areas# one Sunni and one S(iite.” 1?1 An#ara1s reliance on e !oldening Bar4ani1s a !itions to lead an independent /urdish entity' with Ar!il as its capital in northern (raB' co es with the hope that the /8; can play a central role in s othering /urdish insurgents in eastern Tur#ey led !y the ilitant /urdistan Wor#ers1 @arty G@//H' which uses northern (raB as a pri ary !ase o" operations& 2n a state visit to An#ara' Bar4ani addressed the issue o" /urdish ilitancy: :ou won>t %et anyw(ere wit( wea!ons. T(e 2JJ s(ould lay down its ar"s. I will not let t(e 2JJ !re,ail in nort(ern IraB ... I) t(e 2JJ %oes a(ead wit( wea!ons# it will +ear t(e conseBuences. 1?2 Bar4ani has toed the Tur#ish line despite the "act that the @// en)oys widespread sy pathy a ong /urds in northern (raB' pri arily !ecause he !elieves having power"ul "riends with deep poc#ets in An#ara' .oha and 8iyadh will e power hi "inancially and politically& The reactionary Ara! onarchies perceive +ali#i1s (raB to !e a eddleso e outpost o" (ranian in"luence& They see# to add a /urdish di ension to "oreign policy directed at Syria' ai ing to prevent the @// "ro re#indling old alliances with Bashar al,Assad1s govern ent in .a ascus& Bar4ani1s success in persuading Syria1s /urds Gwho constitute a!out 10T o" the country1s 1?0 (!id 1?1 The 8edirection' The New %or#er' +arch 0C' 200? 1?2 5S' Tur#ey and (raBi /urds )oin hands' Asia Ti es 2nline' April 2<' 2012

populationH to )oin the re!ellion against Assad depends on supporting their separatist de ands to oversee an autono ous /urdish region in eastern Syria& An#ara1s policy on Syria wal#s a delicate line and is "unda entally hypocritical in its support "or /urdish autono y a!road while ruthlessly Buelling ove ents holding si ilar aspirations do estically& ;iven the e*tent to which An#ara has ade itsel" into a suppressor o" do estic /urdish nationalis ' its support "or (raB1s /urdish population and other international "actions ay li#ely trigger high pu!lic resent ent' leading to insurgent activity in Syria which would !leed into the Tur#ish state& 2ne case o" is)udged econo ic develop ent co es with an underlying political co ponent that holds alar ing conseBuences "or local residents and areas o" historical archaeological i portance in 7asan#ey"' a s all village in southeastern Tur#ey& This is one o" the oldest continuously inha!ited hu an settle ents with records dating !ac# appro*i ately >'C00 years& An#ara1s State 7ydraulic Wor#s has pressed "orward with the construction o" the hydroelectric (lisu .a ' which would cause i ense ecological har to the Tigris 8iver valley !y raising water levels and "looding near!y canyons that are currently dry& Although Tur#ey is a ong the world1s highest potential geother al energy providers' the construction o" the (lisu .a in 7asan#ey" would su! erge the entire village with its population o" three thousand residents and irreplacea!le cultural heritage' despite the co pleted da producing less than 2T o" Tur#ey1s total energy needs&1?= An#ara has openly declared that one o" the ain "unctions o" the pro)ect is to drown out strongholds o" the /urdistan Wor#ers1 @arty' whose ilitants operate "ro the ountainous (raBi, Tur#ish !order&1?< Both the govern ents in Syria and (raB have conde ned the pro)ect and raised grave concerns that Tur#ey1s da construction upstrea will a""ect around CC'000 people living along the Tigris 8iver in other nations& The destruction o" a site containing arti"acts "ro nu erous ancient civili4ations and the to ! o" ( an A!dullah' thought to !e a close relative o" the @rophet +oha ad' will undou!tedly wor# to "an the "la es o" a /urdish !ac#lash into Tur#ey& 1?C As a result o" Tur#ey1s aggressive stance on Syria' An#ara ay )eopardi4e its su!stantial trade relations and energy develop ent pro)ects with !oth 8ussia and China& The construction o" Tur#ey1s +ersin A##uyu nuclear plant serves as 8ussia1s largest "oreign invest ent' esti ated at J20 !illion' and would help develop An#ara1s energy sector as it oves toward advanced econo ic develop ent& 1?: ;iven the utual !ene"its to !oth An#ara and +oscow "ro econo ic cooperation' the possi!ility o" signi"icantly reducing those ties is unli#ely' unless Tur#ey ilitarily intervenes in Syria directly outside the andate o" the 5nited Nations& Both parties 1?= Tur#ey1s ;eother al -nergy @otential' Stan"ord 5niversity' 6e!ruary 2010 1?< Tur#ey1s 7asan#ey" da can drown /urds1 hideaways' Asia Ti es 2nline' Aune 12' 2012 1?C Tur#ish history to sin# to o!livion' Asia Ti es 2nline' Septe !er 09' 2010 1?: Tur#ey and 8ussia develop strategic alliance' Today1s Ta an' Aanurary 2>' 2012

have agreed to the South Strea pipeline pro)ect' to transport 8ussian natural gas to -urope !y passing through Tur#ish territorial waters' with the trade volu e !etween the two countries reaching J100 !illion within "ive years& Considering 8ussia1s signi"icant invest ents into Tur#ish industry' co unication services' !an#ing institutions' and the esta!lish ent o" a 7igh 0evel Cooperation Council introduced !y "or er 8ussian @resident +edvedev' +oscow ay !e willing to turn a !lind eye to Tur#ish aggression to preserve its own interests !y !ringing the diplo atic and political stance o" the two countries closer' not without vocal criticis s "ro the 8ussian 6oreign +inistry& (n late Auly' state ents !y 8ussian 6oreign +inister Sergei 0avrov were critical o" Tur#ey' which allowed !order chec#points with Syria to !e captured !y ilitants: '$ccordin% to so"e in)or"ation# t(ese c(ec.!oints were sei6ed not +y t(e 7ree Syrian $r"y at all 4 w(ate,er one t(in.s a+out it 4 +ut +y %rou!s directly lin.ed wit( al Haeda#” La,ro, said at a news con)erence wit( (is Cy!riot counter!art. 'We are dou+le4 c(ec.in% t(is#” said La,ro,# su%%estin% t(at Western nations s(ould not rus( to cele+rate territorial %ains +y o!!onents o) 2resident Bas(ar al4$ssad>s %o,ern"ent. 'I) suc( !rocesses 4 t(e sei6ure o) territory +y terrorists 4 are su!!orted +y our !artners# t(en we would li.e to recei,e an answer to t(e Buestion o) w(at t(eir !osition on Syria is# w(at t(ey are tryin% to ac(ie,e in t(at country#” (e said. 1?? .espite cynicis "ro +oscow' chances are higher o" Tur#ey !eing denied entry into the Shanghai Cooperation 2rgani4ation GSC2H "or its !elligerence in Syria than the prospect o" any su!stantial "ree4ing in trade relations with 8ussia& Tur#ey was granted dialogue partner status at the SC21s 2012 Bei)ing Su it' and has shi"ted away "ro atte pting to )oin the "ledging -uropean 5nion with a renewed "ocus on integration with the SC2&1?9 Tur#ey1s strategic geographic pro*i ity a#es it a valua!le trading partner and ally to Bei)ing' with their a !itions to develop the energy potential o" Central Asia !y eans o" a $New Sil# 8oad3' !ridging several countries to connect China and Tur#ey& While cases o" Tur#ish ar ed "orces atte pting to inter"ere with 8ussian vessels delivering cargo to Syria would unBuestiona!ly strain relations !etween the two countries' An#ara is actively endangering its e*port trade to 8ussia' esti ated at ore than J1 !illion& Throughout the Syrian crisis' Tur#ey1s irresponsi!le conduct as the ostensi!le dagger o" NAT2 has ta#en An#ara down an unproductive path o" aggression' en"la ing tension with its allies and regional neigh!ors' and disen"ranchising its own elected o""icials& A ong others' 8e"i# -r,%il a4' legislator o" the 8epu!lican @eople1s @arty and e !er o" the Tur#ish parlia ent' has lashed out against the nation1s !order !eco ing a hu! "or $swar s o" C(A and +ossad spies in"iltrating into Syria "reely'3 critici4ing Tur#ish "oreign policy' calling it irrational and unsuccess"ul: =e noted t(at local !eo!le in t(e !ro,ince are %ettin% a%itated o,er t(e !resence o) t(e stran%ers. Tur.is( !olice re"ain "ute s!ectators as t(e s!ies carry ,arious ty!es o) identi)ication# ;r4:i"a6 went on to say. =e also accused t(e aut(orities o) allowin% $"erican and Israeli troo!ers on Tur.is( soil wit(out any a!!ro,al )ro" t(e 1?? 6ighters on Syrian,Tur#ish !order ay !e Kaeda allies: 8ussia' 8euters' Auly 2C' 2012 1?9 Tur#ey opts "or SC2' The Eoice o" 8ussia' Auly 2?' 2012

!arlia"ent. ;r4:il"a6>s co""ents ca"e a)ter t(e de!uty o) t(e e!u+lican 2eo!le>s 2arty# 8s"an 7aru. Lo%o%lu# on <onday +la"ed Tur.ey>s rulin% 5ustice and De,elo!"ent 2arty )or )o"entin% t(e unrest in Syria. Lo%o%lu critici6ed t(e Tur.is( %o,ern"ent )or a%%ra,atin% t(e situation +y sendin% "ilitary )orces and ,e(icles towards t(e Syrian +order. 1?> An#ara1s readiness to host ilitants on their territory and hesitation to negotiate with .a ascus is "raught with high ris#s& At a ti e when Tur#ey1s ethnically diverse society is increasingly divided over (sla ist and secular lines' -rdoOan is una!le to persuade the a)ority opinion to support a war in Syria' so ething which would cost the Tur#ish state i ensely& While !eing in close contact with Washington and Tel Aviv to discuss $a !road range o" contingency plans3 over $how to anage a Syrian govern ent collapse'3 An#ara has hosted and "inancially supported the Syrian National Council' the 6ree Syrian Ar y' the Syrian +usli Brotherhood' and has shown itsel" to !e "ully co itted to toppling the Syrian govern ent& Since severely straining relations a"ter a +ay 2010 incident involving the slaying o" nine Tur#s !y (sraeli co andos who tried to stop a Tur#ish ship "ro !rea#ing the ;a4a !loc#ade' Tel Aviv and An#ara have converged once ore to cooperate against the Assad govern ent: $ nor"ali6ed Tur.is(4Israeli relations(i! would also o!en o!!ortunities )or coo!eration a%ainst t(e $ssad %o,ern"ent# wit( t(e Tur.s ta.in% t(e !olitical and re%ional lead and t(e Israelis !ro,idin% intelli%ence and additional !ractical assets. $ny Israeli contri+ution would# o) course# (a,e to +e in,isi+le in order not to create a sense t(at Israel was +e(ind t(e Syrian u!risin%. T(is "a.es Tur.is(4Israeli coo!eration a%ainst <r. $ssad e,en "ore ,alua+le# )or it would allow Israel to !ro,ide untracea+le assets to su!!ort Tur.ey>s e))orts to under"ine t(e $ssad %o,ern"ent. 190 (srael1s +ossad has Buietly directed support to Sala"ist "ighters and ar ed re!el groups "ro the onset o" the uprising in southern Syria in +arch 2011& Additionally' they have also provided support to /urdish separatists in northern Syria allied with +assoud Bar4ani1s /urdish 8egional ;overn ent in (raB&191 /urdish separatis is the vehicle o" choice "or "oreign powers to wea#en Syria1s territorial integrity !y !al#ani4ation along ethnic and religious lines in order to "or acBuiescent political entities& 6or Tel Aviv' this strategy is "unda ental to (sraeli e*pansionis and serves to isolate their larger adversary in Tehran& Israe# an" the Path to Persia Since the 1>:? Si* .ay War' (srael has illegally occupied an area o" southwestern Syria' #nown as the ;olan 7eights' a region that Tel Aviv relies on "or one,third o" its "resh water supplies&192 7istorically' (srael has shown interest in e*ploring the ;olan 1?> Tur#ey1s 7atay @rovince' +ossad' C(A spy hu!: Tur#ish +@' @ressTE' Auly =1' 2012 190 7ow A erica Can 7elp (ts 6riends +a#e Nice' The New %or# Ti es' Aune 20' 2012 191 Eeteran /urdish politician calls on (srael to support the !rea#,up o" Syria' /urd Net' +ay 1:'
2012

192 Shouting in the hills' Al,Ahra ' Aune 2009

7eights1 petroleu and natural gas reserves F initiatives that were suspended under previous ad inistrations1 peace negotiations with Syria& (n an atte pt to decrease Tel Aviv1s reliance on oil e*ports' (sraeli @ri e +inister Ben)a in Netanyahu1s govern ent has ta#en advantage o" civil unrest in Syria to approve e*ploratory drilling in the ;olan 7eights' a ove li#ely to trigger international uproar and potential con"lict !etween (srael1s Ara! neigh!ors i" energy resources are indeed "ound&19= While "anning the "la es o" insurgency inside Syria' Netanyahu and (sraeli .e"ense +inister -hud Bara# assert that Tel Aviv would !e prepared to attac# Syria with the ai o" targeting its weapons arsenals should the situation deteriorate& 19< While Netanyahu pu!lically announced support "or a @alestinian state on the West Ban#' a panel o" (sraeli )urists asse !led !y Netanyahu1s govern ent to deter ine the legal status o" the West Ban# concluded that there is $no occupation3 o" @alestinian lands and that the continued construction o" settle ent outposts are entirely legal under (sraeli law' regardless o" international opinion& Netanyahu1s ad inistration has approved construction o" 9C0 settler ho es in the occupied West Ban# in Aune 2012' even a"ter the (sraeli parlia ent re)ected a !ill to retroactively legali4e so e o" the e*isting ho es in the area& 19C While (srael1s 6oreign +inister Avigdor 0ie!er an asserts Tel Aviv1s unwillingness to per it @alestinians any right to return to their lands' e phasi4ing' $not even one re"ugee'3 apartheid en"orced on ethnic and religious lines has !eco e a rati"ied part o" (sraeli govern ent policy& 19: (n 1>C2' (sraeli .e"ense +inister +oshe .ayan spo#e ardently o" Tel Aviv1s ulti ate goal' the creation o" $an (sraeli e pire&3 Netanyahu1s conservative 0i#ud party was "ounded on the ideological "oundations o" 8evisionist Qionis ' pro oting Aewish settle ent in Audea and Sa aria Gthe West Ban#H and the "ull !i!lical land o" (srael !y conte porary Aews' an oil,rich land ass e*tending "ro the !an#s o" the Nile 8iver in -gypt to the shores o" the -uphrates& The +ove ent "or ;reater (srael was "ounded "ollowing the capture o" the West Ban# and ;a4a Strip "ro Aordan and -gypt during 1>:?1s Si* .ay War' leading to the wider construction o" (sraeli settle ents& (srael1s 0i#ud party was esta!lished on the philosophy o" Qe1ev Aa!otin#sy' who called "or the esta!lish ent o" a $;reater (srael'3 a concept e !raced !y (sraeli historian Ben4ion Netanyahu' "ather o" the (srael1s @ri e +inister who was Buoted in an interview !e"ore his death in 2012 as saying: 'T(e Bi+le )inds no worse i"a%e t(an t(is o) t(e "an )ro" t(e desert. $nd w(yM Because (e (as no res!ect )or any law. Because in t(e desert (e can do as (e !leases#”

19= ;overn ent secretly approves ;olan 7eights drilling' The Ti es o" (srael' +ay 1=' 2012 19< Netanyahu Ddeter ined to attac# (ran1 !e"ore 5S elections' clai s (srael1s Channel 10' The Ti es o" (srael' August 20' 2012 19C (srael to !uild ore West Ban# ho es' Al,Aa4eera' Aune 0?' 2012 19: 0ie!er an: Netanyahu1s stance on 1>:? !orders re"lects viewpoint o" +ay 2=' 2011
ost (sraelis' The Ti es o" (srael'

Ben6ion Netanya(u said. 'T(e tendency towards con)lict is in t(e essence o) t(e $ra+. =e is an ene"y +y essence. =is !ersonality won>t allow (i" any co pro ise or a%ree"ent. It doesn>t "atter w(at .ind o) resistance (e will "eet# w(at !rice (e will !ay. =is e/istence is one o) !er!etual war.” Israel>s "ust +e t(e sa"e# (e indicated. 'T(e two states solution doesn>t e/ist#” Ben6ion Netanya(u said. 'T(ere are no two !eo!le (ere. T(ere is a 5ewis( !eo!le and an $ra+ !o!ulationS t(ere is no 2alestinian !eo!le# so you don>t create a state )or an i"a%inary nationS t(ey only call t(e"sel,es a !eo!le in order to )i%(t t(e 5ews.” 19? While openly advocating progra s o" such su!stantial territorial e*pansion have "allen out o" ainstrea (sraeli policy goals' adherents to hyper,conservative Qionis view (sraeli e*pansionis as the unwavering o!ligation o" the Aewish people& 5ndou!tedly' the country that ost challenges these a !itions is the (sla ic 8epu!lic o" (ran& Although nuclear,ar ed (srael presides over perhaps the ost capa!le ar y in the +iddle -ast and is nowhere near as vulnera!le as -urope1s Aewish population prior to World War (( GNetanyahu o"ten contrasts the 7olocaust with the i pending threat posed !y (ranH' Netanyahu1s ad inistration has asserted its right to stri#e (ran without consent "ro any other nation in order to prevent Tehran "ro developing the capa!ility to produce nuclear weapons& 199 Senior o""icials within (srael have !een vocal in their criticis s o" the Netanyahu govern ent1s de"ense policies' such as (.6 Chie" o" Sta"" 0t& ;en& Benny ;ant4' who advised against attac#ing Syrian che ical weapon convoys' advising "urther caution and restraint&19> 6or er +ossad chie" +eir .agan has !een a vocal critic against the Netanyahu govern ent1s plans to attac# (ran' calling it' $the stupidest thing ( have ever heard'3 warning o" wider regional war&1>0 Netanyahu has insinuated that non, terrestrial atters guide Tehran1s "oreign policy' !eing critical o" Shi1a religious !elie"s practiced in (ran' which prophesi4e the return o" a direct descendent o" the "ounder o" (sla ' Al,( a al,+ahdi' during ti es o" tur oil and decadence to !ring order through the authentic interpretation o" (sla ' despite hi sel" !eing widely critici4ed "or espousing a egalo aniacal hu!ris' and e phasi4ing a essianic, catastrophic worldview' where (srael is $the eternal nation&3 1>1 19? 8eceived Wisdo N 7ow the (deology o" Netanyahu1s 0ate 6ather (n"luenced the Son' T(+-' +ay 02' 2012 199 Bad news unwelco e: (srael re"uses to listen to 5S envoy1s report on (ran' 8ussia Today' +ay
2:' 2012

2<' 2012

19> Attac# on Syrian che

ical stoc#piles could lead to D!roader ca paign'1 says (.6 Chie" o" Sta""' 7aaret4' Auly

1>0 -*,+ossad !oss +eir .agan says an (sraeli attac# on (ran would !e Dstupidist thing ever'1 The New %or# Ti
2012

es' +arch 11'

1>1 As Netanyahu pushes (srael closer to war with (ran' (sraelis cannot #eep silent' 7aaret4' August
0=' 2012

(n an interview with L0 <inutes' +eir .agan e phasi4ed the rationality o" the (ranian regi e' while "or er Shin Bet security service chie" %uval .is#in has pu!licly re)ected calls to ilitarily stri#e (ran' accusing Tel Aviv o" e*acer!ating the situation&1>2 While these senior (sraeli o""icials "ear the possi!le ra i"ications o" a direct stri#e on (ran' ost advocate regi e change in Tehran& 6or er +ossad chie" -phrai 7alevy argues that tal# o" (ran posing an $e*istential threat3 to (srael is erely Tel Aviv atte pting to garner support o" the international co unity !y 1>= a#ing insinuations to the historical plight o" Aews& 7alevy has e phasi4ed that (ran and (srael should "or ally a#e agree ents that Tehran will not to weaponi4e its nuclear energy progra ' allowing (ran to !e $reintroduced into the "a ily o" nations "ro which they have !een virtually e*pelled in recent onths&3 (nternational sanctions and oil e !argoes on (ran have caused in"lation to soar' with the cost o" "ood in (ran increasing !etween 2C and 12C percent' with :0 percent o" the population relying on cash su!sidies handed out !y Tehran&1>< As the (ranian rial continues to plunge while co odity prices continue to s#yroc#et' "or er (sraeli "oreign inister Shlo o Ben,A i "orewarns' $When a national currency loses C0T o" its value in a atter o" wee#s' econo ic collapse is at hand&3 1>C =aaret6 reports the re ar#s o" an unna ed senior o""icial in the (sraeli 6oreign +inistry: T(ese aren>t sanctions a%ainst Iran. Instead# t(ey are sanctions i"!osed +y t(e West to cur+ Israel>s attac. !lans. =ad Israel not s!o.en out a+out its intention to attac.# none o) t(is would +e (a!!enin%. T(e Iranians are )ri%(tened. :ou (a,e to understand w(at>s %oin% on t(ere in stores- citi6ens %ra+ )ood o)) t(e s(el,es +ecause t(ey are worried a+out an i"!endin% attac.. In)lation is soarin% and t(e currency (as lost (al) its ,alue. $ll t(is attests to )ear. 1>: While (ranian 6oreign +inister Ali A#!ar Salehi pu!lically renounces the develop ent o" nuclear weapons' (ranian scientists clai to !e enriching uraniu to 20T to develop radiophar aceuticals and industrial isotopes under the supervision o" inspectors o" the (nternational Ato ic -nergy Agency G(A-AH&1>? (ran has ade e""orts to ensure the transparency o" its nuclear progra !y allowing (A-A pro!es to inspect (ranian sites such as the 6ordo enrich ent plant and @archin ilitary co ple*' where the agency has reported suspicious activities in the past& 6or er chie" o" the (nternational Ato ic -nergy Agency G(A-AH 7ans Bli* has challenged the 1>2 %uval .is#in' (srael 6or
er (ntel Chie"' Sla s Netanyahu1s (ran Stance' The 7u""ington @ost' April 29' 2012

1>= (ran poses no De*istential threat1 to (srael , e*,+ossad chie"' 8ussia Today' 6e!ruary 0:' 2012 1>< No 2ne Can A""ord Another 8ound o" (ran Sanctions' 2il@rice' +ay 21' 2012 1>C (ran1s Nuclear ;rass -aters' @ro)ect Syndicate' April 0<' 2012 1>: (sraeli threats o" attac# spar#ed new wave o" (ran sanctions' o""icials say' (srael' +ay 1:' 2012 1>? (ranian -*perts @lace 6uel @lates into 7eart o" Tehran 8esearch 8eactor' 6A8S' +ay 2=' 2012

(A-A1s own reports on (ran1s nuclear activities' accusing the agency o" relying on unveri"ied intelligence "ro the 5S and (srael&1>9 The (A-A1s +ay 2012 report cited Tehran1s progress toward enrich ent technology with co plete cooperation with the agency' con"ir ing the non,weaponi4ed status o" (ranian nuclear activities&1>> Clinton Bastin' "or er director o" 5S nuclear weapons production progra s' has sent an open letter to @resident 2!a a in .ece !er 2011 regarding the status o" (ran1s capacity to produce nuclear weapons& Bastin reiterates: T(e ulti"ate !roduct o) Iran>s %as centri)u%e )acilities would +e (i%(ly enric(ed uraniu" (e/a)luoride# a %as t(at cannot +e used to "a.e a wea!on. Con,ertin% t(e %as to "etal# )a+ricatin% co"!onents and asse"+lin% t(e" wit( (i%( e/!losi,es usin% dan%erous and di))icult tec(nolo%y t(at (as ne,er +een used in Iran would ta.e "any years a)ter a di,ersion o) t(ree tons o) low enric(ed uraniu" %as )ro" )ully sa)e%uarded in,entories. T(e resultin% wea!on# i) intended )or deli,ery +y "issile# would (a,e a yield eBui,alent to t(at o) a .iloton o) con,entional (i%( e/!losi,es. 200 Bastin1s assess ent o" (ran1s nuclear progra "urther e phasi4es the i practicality o" weaponi4ing the he*a"luoride product o" Tehran1s gas,centri"uges' as it would produce a highly ine""icient nuclear weapon& (" (ran chose to produce nuclear weapons in this way' it would ta#e several years to reach the >0T enrich ent levels needed "or a nuclear deterrent& (n +arch 2012' euters released a special report entitled' $(ntel shows (ran nuclear threat not i inent$' concluding that the 5nited States' its -uropean allies and even (srael agree that Tehran does not have a !o !' it has not decided to !uild one' and it is years away "ro having a delivera!le nuclear warhead&201 .espite evidence that (ran does not possess the capa!ility to !uild nuclear weapons' and with no indication o" Tehran atte pting to do so' leaders in Tel Aviv have asserted their right to conduct ilitary stri#es against (ran !e"ore the 5S @residential elections in Nove !er 2012&202 6ollowing a terrorist attac# targeting a !us in Bulgaria that #illed "ive (sraeli tourists in Auly 2012' Netanyahu i ediately issued state ents accusing 7e4!ollah and (ran o" !eing responsi!le "or the attac#s' stating: Iran "ust +e e/!osed +y t(e international co""unity as t(e !re"ier terrorist su!!ort state t(at it is# and e,eryt(in% s(ould +e done to !re,ent Iran# t(e world>s "ost dan%erous re%i"e# )ro" de,elo!in% t(e world>s "ost dan%erous wea!ons. 20= 1>9 Bli*: 5S' (srael source ost o" (A-A allegations' @ressTE' +ay 2C' 2012 1>> -nvoy: 5N Ato ic 8eport -ndorses @eace"ul Nature o" (ran1s N& Activities' 6A8S' +ay 0C' 2012 200 Top 5S Nuclear -*pert Tells 2!a a: There (s No Weapons Threat 6ro 6e!ruary 2C' 2012 201 S@-C(A0 8-@28T,(ntel shows (ran nuclear threat not i
(ran' 0arouche@ac'

inent' 8euters' +arch 2=' 2012

202 (srael ta#es !ac# pro ise to 2!a a not to attac# (ran !e"ore the election' 8ussia Today' +ay
2<' 2012

The possi!ility o" (srael directly stri#ing che ical weapons convoys in Syria and in"iltrating its territory' or stri#ing (ran1s nuclear energy sites' will yield dangerous conseBuences "or the entire region' and the glo!al econo y& Contrary to clai s o" institutional anti,Se itis e anating "ro Tehran' the "ounder o" the (sla ic 8epu!lic' Ayatollah 8uhollah /ho eini' re"erred to Audais as an honored !ranch o" the sa e tree o" onotheis that produced (sla Gthe largest population o" Aews in the +iddle -ast outside o" (srael reside in (ranH' while state edia has distinguished !etween Aews and Qionists' the latter !eing viewed as the ove ent to "orce"ully clai Aewish territorial hege ony in what they regard as the heart o" the +usli world&20< While !ehind closed doors 5S policy a#ers ad it (ran' even i" it were to o!tain nuclear weapons' is driven !y sel",preservation and protecting the in"luence it is steadily gaining throughout the +iddle -astern region it !orders' the essage they desperately see# to relate to the pu!lic is one o" an irrational' apocalyptic theocracy eager to usher in Ar ageddon& 8eports issued !y the 8AN. corporation note that (ran has had che ical weapons in its inventory "or decades' descri!ing the strict control that ilitary units e*ercise over these weapons' a#ing it unli#ely they would end up in the hands o" $terrorists'3 or even 7e4!ollah& 20C The "act that (ran1s e*tensive che ical weapon stoc#pile has yet to !e dispersed into the hands o" non, state actors' along with the "act that these sa e ilitary units would in turn handle any (ranian nuclear weapons' lends "urther evidence to the conclusion that (ran is indeed driven !y sel",preservation and sel",de"ense& While the argu ent ensues over whether or not (ran should have nuclear weapons or i" it intends to co it genocide against the Aews' the war against Tehran has !een eticulously planned in advanced and has already Buietly !egun& The Broo#ings (nstitution' a 5S,!ased thin#,tan#' was "ounded on grants given !y the Carnegie Corporation' the 8oc#e"eller 6oundation and the 6ord 6oundation' and receives "unding "ro corporate sponsors such as Ban# o" A erica' ;old an Sachs' 0oc#heed +artin' -**on' Boeing' ;eneral -lectric' and others& (n 200>' the Broo#ing (nstitute issued a lengthy report titled' $Which @ath to @ersiaN$ e*a ining ways in which the 5nited States can in"luence regi e change in Tehran& 20: The opening pages o" the report cite ac#nowledg ents given !y the S ith 8ichardson 6oundation' upon which 5S "oreign policy theoretician Q!igniew Br4e4ins#i sits as an acting governor& The sheer scale o" the ilitary options considered !y Broo#ings1 strategy would create i ense pro"its "or the de"ense contractors that sponsor it' regardless o" the operation1s success& The report opens with the "ran# declaration that (ran is a con"ounding nation that under ines A erica1s interests and in"luence in the +iddle -ast& Not once is it entioned that the (sla ic 8epu!lic poses any direct threat to the 20= Ben)a in Netanyahu: (ran is the ost dangerous regi e in the world' The Telegraph' Auly 1>'
2012

20< (ran1s Aews re)ect cash o""er to ove to (srael' The ;uardian' Auly 12' 200? 20C (ntegrating Counterproli"eration into .e"ense @lanning' 8AN. Corporation' 200? 20: Which @ath to @ersiaN The Broo#ings (nstitution' Aune 200>

security o" the 5nited States itsel"& (n "act' (ran is descri!ed as a nation intentionally avoiding provocations that would )usti"y ilitary operations to !e conducted against it& (ran1s otivations are listed as !eing ideological' nationalistic' and security driven , very understanda!le' considering the condition o" its neigh!ors' who have !een invaded and occupied !y "oreign "orces& The cru* o" the issue is that A erica1s interests in the region' not security' otivate it to con"ront (ran' a the e that repeats itsel" incessantly throughout the 1C:,page report& X Sanctions 6Page $78 7or t(ose w(o )a,or re%i"e c(an%e or a "ilitary attac. on Iran Neit(er +y t(e 3nited States or IsraelO# t(ere is a stron% ar%u"ent to +e "ade )or tryin% t(is o!tion )irst. Incitin% re%i"e c(an%e in Iran would +e %reatly assisted +y con,incin% t(e Iranian !eo!le t(at t(eir %o,ern"ent is so ideolo%ically +lin.ered t(at it re)uses to do w(at is +est )or t(e !eo!le and instead clin%s to a !olicy t(at could only +rin% ruin on t(e country. T(e ideal scenario in t(is case would +e t(at t(e 3nited States and t(e international co""unity !resent a !ac.a%e o) !ositi,e induce"ents so enticin% t(at t(e Iranian citi6enry would su!!ort t(e deal# only to (a,e t(e re%i"e reIect it. In a si"ilar ,ein# any "ilitary o!eration a%ainst Iran will li.ely +e ,ery un!o!ular around t(e world and reBuire t(e !ro!er international conte/t*+ot( to ensure t(e lo%istical su!!ort t(e o!eration would reBuire and to "ini"i6e t(e +low+ac. )ro" it. T(e +est way to "ini"i6e international o!!ro+riu" and "a/i"i6e su!!ort N(owe,er %rud%in% or co,ertO# is to stri.e only w(en t(ere is a wides!read con,iction t(at t(e Iranians were %i,en +ut t(en reIected a su!er+ o))er*one so %ood t(at only a re%i"e deter"ined to acBuire nuclear wea!ons and acBuire t(e" )or t(e wron% reasons would turn it down. 3nder t(ose circu"stances# t(e 3nited States Nor IsraelO could !ortray its o!erations as ta.en in sorrow# not an%er# and at least so"e in t(e international co""unity would conclude t(at t(e Iranians '+rou%(t it on t(e"sel,es” +y re)usin% a ,ery %ood deal. 8egi e change and perhaps even ilitary operations against (ran are tal#ed a!out as a "oregone conclusion' with the Broo#ings (nstitution using the prete*t o" sanctions as erely a eans o" incre ental escalation to tip,toe the world into !ac#ing regi e change' including war i" need !e& Broo#ings suggests coercing the (ranian govern ent' without regi e change' through crippling sanctions versus incentives& The proposed incentives' in turn' appear ore a relie" "ro A erican i posed econo ic punish ent than anything o" actual su!stance& Broo#ings suggests $security guarantees3 "ro an A erican invasion to address the very real concerns that would otivate (ran to construct nuclear weapons in the "irst place' noting that concrete action would !e needed !y the 5S in order to "ul"ill this incentive' including drawing down 5S "orces in the +iddle -ast' a concession Broo#ings itsel" ad its is highly unli#ely over the ne*t several decades& Broo#ings inter)ects at this point' a !ra4en ad ission that under no circu stance should the 5S grant (ran a position o" do inance' nor should there !e any a !iguity a!out what Washington sees as Tehran1s role in the region& This option o" $persuasion3 appears to have already played out and "ailed' !oth in drawing concessions "ro (ran through eaningless o""ers and at arshaling the international support needed to a#e additional sanctions e""ective& Broo#ings1s report notes on @age 2<' that the real threat is not the deploy ent o" nuclear

weapons' !ut rather the deterrence they present' allowing (ran to counter 5S in"luence in the region without the "ear o" an A erican invasion& (n other words' the playing "ield would !eco e level and A erica ay !e "orced to recogni4e (ran1s national sovereignty in regards to its own regional interests& The report concedes that (ran1s leadership ay !e aggressive' !ut not rec#less& The possession o" nuclear weapons would !e used as an a!solute last resort' considering A erican and even (sraeli nuclear deterrence capa!ilities& X In*asion 6Page 658 I) t(e 3nited States were to decide t(at# to %arner %reater international su!!ort# %al,ani6e 3.S. do"estic su!!ort# andWor !ro,ide a le%al Iusti)ication )or an in,asion# it would +e +est to wait )or an Iranian !ro,ocation# t(en t(e ti"e )ra"e )or an in,asion "i%(t stretc( out inde)initely. Wit( only one real e/ce!tion# since t(e 1CFC re,olution# t(e Isla"ic e!u+lic (as ne,er willin%ly !ro,o.ed an $"erican "ilitary res!onse# alt(ou%( it certainly (as ta.en actions t(at could (a,e done so i) Was(in%ton (ad +een loo.in% )or a )i%(t. T(us it is not i"!ossi+le t(at Te(ran "i%(t ta.e so"e action t(at would Iusti)y an $"erican in,asion and it is certainly t(e case t(at i) Was(in%ton sou%(t suc( a !ro,ocation# it could ta.e actions t(at "i%(t "a.e it "ore li.ely t(at Te(ran would do so Nalt(ou%( +ein% too o+,ious a+out t(is could nulli)y t(e !ro,ocationO. =owe,er# since it would +e u! to Iran to "a.e t(e !ro,ocati,e "o,e# w(ic( Iran (as +een wary o) doin% "ost ti"es in t(e !ast# t(e 3nited States would ne,er .now )or sure w(en it would %et t(e reBuisite Iranian !ro,ocation. In )act# it "i%(t ne,er co"e at all. This e*cerpt is nothing less than 5S policy, a#ers openly tal#ing a!out purpose"ully provo#ing a nation in order to )usti"y a "ull,scale invasion that would otherwise !e untena!le& (" such treachery' at the cost o" thousands o" A erican lives and perhaps illions o" (ranian lives' is openly tal#ed a!out within the halls o" these corporate,"unded thin# tan#s' what do they tal# a!out that isn1t on recordN (ndeed' a conventional war with (ran is currently i possi!le' as ac#nowledged !y the Broo#ings (nstitution& What is worrying is that they !elieve it would not !e i possi!le i" only A erica were presented with the $proper3 provocations& Broo#ings1s e*perts go on to say that Washington could ta#e $certain actions3 to ensure such provocations too# place& 6urther ore' Broo#ings states that (ran has already gone through e*tre e easures speci"ically not to react to A erican provocations' raising the specter that provocations ay ta#e the shape o" a staged event instead' should "ull,scale invasion !e sought& X 9nite" (ront Against Iran 6Page 668 <ost ;uro!ean# $sian# and <iddle ;astern !u+lics are dead set a%ainst any $"erican "ilitary action a%ainst Iran deri,ed )ro" t(e current di))erences +etween Iran and t(e international co""unity*let alone Iran and t(e 3nited States. 8t(er t(an a Te(ran4s!onsored CW11# it is (ard to i"a%ine w(at would c(an%e t(eir "inds. 7or "any de"ocracies and so"e )ra%ile autocracies to w(ic( Was(in%ton would +e loo.in% )or su!!ort# t(is !u+lic anti!at(y is li.ely to !ro,e decisi,e. 7or instance# Saudi $ra+ia is !ositi,ely a!o!lectic a+out t(e Iranians> nuclear !ro%ra"# as well as a+out t(eir "isc(ie)4"a.in% in Le+anon# IraB# and t(e 2alestinian territories. :et# so )ar#

iyad( (as "ade clear t(at it will not su!!ort "ilitary o!erations o) any .ind a%ainst Iran. Certainly t(at could c(an%e# +ut it is (ard to i"a%ine w(at it would ta.e. Gi,en t(at t(is situation (as not +een enou%( to !us( t(e GCC to su!!ort "ilitary o!erations a%ainst Iran# w(at wouldM Certainly# Iran testin% a nuclear de,ice "i%(t# +ut at t(at !oint# it al"ost certainly would +e too late: i) t(e 3nited States is %oin% to in,ade Iran# it will want to do so +e)ore Iran (as de,elo!ed actual nuclear wea!ons# not a)ter. It is (ard to .now w(at else Iran could do t(at would c(an%e GCC attitudes a+out t(e use o) )orce unless new leaders too. !ower in t(e Gul) w(o were )ar "ore deter"ined to sto! Iran t(an t(e current leaders(i! is. As the e*cerpt a#es ention o" $new leaders3 ta#ing over in the ;ul"' "unding and support "or insurgents in Syria !y 5S allies such as Saudi Ara!ia indicates that the /ingdo 1s "oreign policy and that o" the ;ul" Cooperation Council is in line with Washington and Tel Aviv1s o!)ectives in the region& 5ndou!tedly' leaders o" nations in the @ersian ;ul" would "avor !ringing a!out desta!ili4ation covertly' through the #ind o" insurgency and psychological operations carried out in Syria' rather than open ilitary con"rontation or stri#es led !y Washington or Tel Aviv& X anufacturing Pro*ocations 6Page :; . :58 It would +e )ar "ore !re)era+le i) t(e 3nited States could cite an Iranian !ro,ocation as Iusti)ication )or t(e airstri.es +e)ore launc(in% t(e". Clearly# t(e "ore outra%eous# t(e "ore deadly# and t(e "ore un!ro,o.ed t(e Iranian action# t(e +etter o)) t(e 3nited States would +e. 8) course# it would +e ,ery di))icult )or t(e 3nited States to %oad Iran into suc( a !ro,ocation wit(out t(e rest o) t(e world reco%ni6in% t(is %a"e# w(ic( would t(en under"ine it. N8ne "et(od t(at would (a,e so"e !ossi+ility o) success would +e to ratc(et u! co,ert re%i"e c(an%e e))orts in t(e (o!e t(at Te(ran would retaliate o,ertly# or e,en se"i4o,ertly# w(ic( could t(en +e !ortrayed as an un!ro,o.ed act o) Iranian a%%ression.O T(is su%%ests t(at t(is o!tion "i%(t +ene)it )ro" +ein% (eld in a+eyance until suc( ti"e as t(e Iranians "ade an a!!ro!riately !ro,ocati,e "o,e# as t(ey do )ro" ti"e to ti"e. In t(at case# it would +e less a deter"ined !olicy to e"!loy airstri.es and# instead# "ore o) an o!!ortunistic (o!e t(at Iran would !ro,ide t(e 3nited States wit( t(e .ind o) !ro,ocation t(at would Iusti)y airstri.es. =owe,er# t(at would "ean t(at t(e use o) airstri.es could not +e t(e !ri"ary 3.S. !olicy toward Iran Ne,en i) it were Was(in%ton>s )er,ent !re)erenceO# +ut "erely an ancillary contin%ency to anot(er o!tion t(at would +e t(e !ri"ary !olicy unless and until Iran !ro,ided t(e necessary !rete/t. The plotting o" a deceit"ul ga !it to goad a sovereign nation into war is again in sight' a notion Broo#ings notes ti e and ti e again since (ran has no interest in ar ed con"lict with the 5nited States& The re"erence to $covert regi e change e""orts3 is used as a eans o" applying pressure to "urther political escalation and su!seBuent ilitary intervention& Such strategies descri!e the #ind o" violent scenarios that have un"olded in 0i!ya and Syria' where "oreign support encouraged the use o" violence' to which national govern ents were "orced to react' with the response then serving as an i petus "or e*panded "oreign intervention& Broo#ings notes that such provocations ust !e carried out without raising suspicions o" the $ga e3 !eing played throughout the world' insinuating the loss o" credi!ility that

would co e with ainstrea and "oreign su!version&

ac#nowledge ent o" long institutionali4ed aggression

X (oreign.(un"e" Co#or %e*o#ution 6Page 1&58 T(e 3nited States could !lay "ulti!le roles in )acilitatin% a re,olution. By )undin% and (el!in% or%ani6e do"estic ri,als o) t(e re%i"e# t(e 3nited States could create an alternati,e leaders(i! to sei6e !ower. $s ay"ond Tanter o) t(e Iran 2olicy Co""ittee ar%ues# students and ot(er %rou!s 'need co,ert +ac.in% )or t(eir de"onstrations. T(ey need )a/ "ac(ines. T(ey need internet access# )unds to du!licate "aterials# and )unds to .ee! ,i%ilantes )ro" +eatin% t(e" u!.” Beyond t(is# 3.S.4+ac.ed "edia outlets could (i%(li%(t re%i"e s(ortco"in%s and "a.e ot(erwise o+scure critics "ore !ro"inent. T(e 3nited States already su!!orts 2ersian4lan%ua%e satellite tele,ision NDoice o) $"erica 2ersianO and radio N adio 7ardaO t(at +rin% un)iltered news to Iranians Nin recent years# t(ese (a,e ta.en t(e lion>s s(are o) o,ert 3.S. )undin% )or !ro"otin% de"ocracy in IranO. 3.S. econo"ic !ressure Nand !er(a!s "ilitary !ressure as wellO can discredit t(e re%i"e# "a.in% t(e !o!ulation (un%ry )or a ri,al leaders(i!. @olicy, a#ers at the Broo#ings (nstitution a#e outright calls to create the conditions within (ran' or any target nation "or that atter' that are li#ely to coa* civil unrest& They suggest "unding and organi4ing that unrest and using do estic and "oreign edia to anipulate pu!lic perception and perpetuate 5S,!ac#ed anti, Tehran propaganda& This odel is used in nearly every country targeted "or desta!ili4ation' generally "unded !y organi4ations li#e the National -ndow ent "or .e ocracy GN-.H' so,called $independent edia3 organi4ations and hu an rights N;2s that $ a#e otherwise o!scure critics ore pro inent&3 The N-.,"unded @ro)ect on +iddle -ast .e ocracy is one such propaganda outlet operating throughout the +iddle -ast' propagating the o""icial 5S narrative in regards to unrest "o ented "ro -gypt to Syria& Broo#ings openly entions Doice o) $"erica1s 6arsi language service' while other e*a ples include Southeast Asia1s N-.,"unded @rachatai o" Thailand' and 8adio 6ree -urope in -astern -urope' a su!sidiary with E2A under the Broadcasting Board o" ;overnors' upon which Secretary o" State 7illary Clinton sits as a e !er& This glo!al networ# o" $de ocracy pro otion3 "eeds the ainstrea edia their tal#ing points' which are then repeated ver!ati or cited outright as reputa!le sources& Broo#ings1s ad ission that these institutions e*ist to protect and e*pand 5S interests throughout the region' while di inishing (ran1s a!ility to challenge those interests' is signi"icant& This ad ission de onstrates conclusively that these various institutions do not serve to pro ote de ocracy' protect "reedo ' or even protect A erica "ro a genuine security threat' !ut rather serve the geopolitical and strategic o!)ectives o" the 5nited States& X Assisting Popu#ar %e*o#utions 1ith i#itary (orce 6Page 1&7 . 11&8 ConseBuently# i) t(e 3nited States e,er succeeds in s!ar.in% a re,olt a%ainst t(e clerical re%i"e# Was(in%ton "ay (a,e to consider w(et(er to !ro,ide it ?t(e re,olt@ wit( so"e )or" o) "ilitary su!!ort to !re,ent Te(ran )ro" crus(in% it. T(is reBuire"ent "eans t(at a !o!ular re,olution in Iran does not see" to )it t(e "odel o) t(e ',el,et re,olutions” t(at occurred elsew(ere. T(e !oint is t(at t(e Iranian re%i"e "ay not +e willin% to %o %ently into t(at %ood ni%(t- instead# and unli.e so "any ;astern ;uro!ean re%i"es# it "ay c(oose to )i%(t to t(e deat(. In t(ose circu"stances# i) t(ere is not e/ternal "ilitary assistance to t(e re,olutionaries# t(ey "i%(t not Iust )ail

+ut +e "assacred. ConseBuently# i) t(e 3nited States is to !ursue t(is !olicy# Was(in%ton "ust ta.e t(is !ossi+ility into consideration. It adds so"e ,ery i"!ortant reBuire"ents to t(e list: eit(er t(e !olicy "ust include ways to wea.en t(e Iranian "ilitary or wea.en t(e willin%ness o) t(e re%i"e>s leaders to call on t(e "ilitary# or else t(e 3nited States "ust +e ready to inter,ene to de)eat it. Kuite clearly' a"ter previously conspiring to i ple ent "oreign,"unded unrest' the predicta!le crac#down !y (ranian security "orces to restore order $reBuires3 so e "or o" deterrent or ilitary support to !e e ployed in order to prevent the ove ent "ro !eing crushed& This scenario ateriali4ed in 0i!ya' where "oreign, "unded insurgents were li#ened to $unar ed civilians3 shortly a"ter their re!ellion !egan' prior to NAT2 "orces intervening to prevent the ar ed uprising "ro !eing de"eated !y ;adda"i1s "orces& X 9S Sponsore" Terroris! 6Page 11$8 T(e 3nited States could wor. wit( %rou!s li.e t(e IraB4+ased National Council o) esistance o) Iran NNC IO and its "ilitary win%# t(e <uIa(edin4e J(alB N<;JO# (el!in% t(e t(ousands o) its "e"+ers w(o# under Sadda" =usayn>s re%i"e# were ar"ed and (ad conducted %uerrilla and terrorist o!erations a%ainst t(e clerical re%i"e. $lt(ou%( t(e NC I is su!!osedly disar"ed today# t(at could Buic.ly +e c(an%ed. X u<ahe"in.e )ha#= > Ar!e" Insurgency 6Page 11? @ 11: > 1218 2er(a!s t(e "ost !ro"inent Nand certainly t(e "ost contro,ersialO o!!osition %rou! t(at (as attracted attention as a !otential 3.S. !ro/y is t(e NC I NNational Council o) esistance o) IranO# t(e !olitical "o,e"ent esta+lis(ed +y t(e <;J N<uIa(edin4e J(alBO. Critics +elie,e t(e %rou! to +e unde"ocratic and un!o!ular# and indeed anti4$"erican. In contrast# t(e %rou!>s c(a"!ions contend t(at t(e "o,e"ent>s lon%4standin% o!!osition to t(e Iranian re%i"e and record o) success)ul attac.s on and intelli%ence4%at(erin% o!erations a%ainst t(e re%i"e "a.e it wort(y o) 3.S. su!!ort. T(ey also ar%ue t(at t(e %rou! is no lon%er anti4$"erican and Buestion t(e "erit o) earlier accusations. ay"ond Tanter# one o) t(e %rou!>s su!!orters in t(e 3nited States# contends t(at t(e <;J and t(e NC I are allies )or re%i"e c(an%e in Te(ran and also act as a use)ul !ro/y )or %at(erin% intelli%ence. T(e <;J>s %reatest intelli%ence cou! was t(e !ro,ision o) intelli%ence in 2002 t(at led to t(e disco,ery o) a secret site in Iran )or enric(in% uraniu". Des!ite its de)enders> clai"s# t(e <;J re"ains on t(e 3.S. %o,ern"ent list o) )orei%n terrorist or%ani6ations. In t(e 1CF0s# t(e %rou! .illed t(ree 3.S. o))icers and t(ree ci,ilian contractors in Iran. Durin% t(e 1CFC41CP0 (osta%e crisis# t(e %rou! !raised t(e decision to ta.e $"erican (osta%es and ;laine Sciolino re!orted t(at# w(ile %rou! leaders !u+licly conde"ned t(e CW11 attac.s# wit(in t(e %rou! cele+rations were wides!read. 3ndenia+ly# t(e %rou! (as conducted terrorist attac.s*o)ten e/cused +y t(e <;J>s ad,ocates +ecause t(ey are directed a%ainst t(e Iranian %o,ern"ent. 7or e/a"!le# in 1CP1# t(e %rou! +o"+ed t(e (eadBuarters o) t(e Isla"ic e!u+lic 2arty# w(ic( was t(en t(e clerical leaders(i!>s "ain !olitical or%ani6ation# .illin% an esti"ated F0 senior o))icials. <ore recently# t(e %rou! (as clai"ed credit )or o,er a do6en "ortar attac.s# assassinations# and ot(er assaults on Iranian ci,ilian and "ilitary tar%ets +etween 1CCP and 2001. $t t(e ,ery least# to wor. "ore closely wit( t(e %rou! Nat least in an o,ert "annerO# Was(in%ton would need to re"o,e it )ro" t(e list o) )orei%n terrorist or%ani6ations.

An articled pu!lished in the New :or.er !y )ournalist Sey our 7ersh titled' $2ur +en in (ranN$ docu ents how e !ers o" +u)ahideen,e,/halB G+-/H' an (ranian dissident group and 5S State .epart ent,listed terrorist organi4ation' were trained in co unications' cryptography' s all,unit tactics and weaponry !y the Aoint Special 2perations Co and GAS2CH at a !ase in Nevada starting in 200C& 20? AS2C instructed +-/ operatives on how to penetrate a)or (ranian co unications syste s' allowing the group to intercept telephone calls and te*t essages inside (ran "or the purpose o" sharing the with A erican intelligence& The group has !een i plicated in the assassination o" (ranian nuclear scientists and the planting o" the Stu*net alware that sa!otaged (ran1s nuclear "acility in Natan4& 209 +-/ was "ounded in 1>:C as a +ar*ist (sla ic ass political ove ent ai ed at agitating the onarchy o" the 5S,!ac#ed (ranian Shah' +oha ad 8e4a @ahlavi& The group initially sided with revolutionary clerics led !y Ayatollah /ho eini "ollowing the 1>?> (sla ic 8evolution' !ut eventually turned away "ro the regi e during a power struggle that resulted in the group waging ur!an guerilla war"are against (ran1s 8evolutionary ;uards in 1>91& The organi4ation was later given re"uge !y Sadda 7ussein and ounted attac#s on (ran "ro within (raBi territory' #illing an esti ated 1?'000 (ranian nationals in the process&20> +-/ e*ists as the ain co ponent o" the @aris,!ased National Council o" 8esistance o" (ran GNC8(H' a $coalition o" de ocratic (ranian organi4ations' groups and personalities'3 calling itsel" a $parlia ent,in,e*ile3 and see#ing to $esta!lish a de ocratic' secular and coalition govern ent3 in (ran& 6ollowing the toppling o" Sadda 7ussein' 5N special representative in (raB +artin /o!ler organi4ed e""orts to relocate +-/ insurgents to a "or er 5S ilitary !ase near the Baghdad airport' with the "ull support o" the 5S - !assy in (raB and the State .epart ent in order to avoid violent clashes !etween the +-/ and the Shiite,led (raBi govern ent&210 +-/ has long received aterial assistance "ro (srael' who assisted the organi4ation with !roadcasting into (ran "ro their political !ase in @aris' while the +-/ and NC8( have reportedly provided the 5nited States with intelligence on (ran1s nuclear progra & .espite the docu ented cases o" atrocities co itted !y +-/ "orces' elder states en such as "or er NAT2 Supre e Allied Co ander ;eneral Wesley /& Clar#' "or er New %or# City +ayor 8udy ;iuliani' and "or er >W11 Co ission Chair an 0ee 7a ilton were paid J20'000 to J=0'000 per engage ent to endorse the re oval o" the +u)ahideen,e /halB "ro the 5S State .epart ent1s list o" 6oreign Terrorist 2rgani4ations&211 A recent investigation !y the 5S Treasury .epart ent has indicated that the +u)ahedin,e /halB 2rgani4ation is "inancially 20? 2ur +en in (ranN The New %or#er' April 0:' 2012 209 (srael tea
s with terror group to #ill (ran1s nuclear scientists' 5&S& o""icials tell NBC News' NBC' 6e!ruary

0>' 2012

20> +oBtada Sadr 8eiterates (raBis1 .e and "or -*pulsion o" +/2 Terrorists' 6A8S' Septe !er 0>'
2011

210 Are the +-/1s 5&S& "riends its worst ene iesN 6oreign @olicy' +arch 09' 2012

sponsored !y the (sraeli regi e and Saudi Ara!ia&212 5pon launching a war against (ran' aggressor nations would li#ely utili4e +-/ "orces as opposition insurgents and could even recogni4e the touted $parlia ent,in,e*ile3' the National Council o" 8esistance o" (ran' as (ran1s $legiti ate representative'3 uch li#e the 6riends o" Syria group has recogni4ed the opposition Syrian National Council&21= X Potentia# Athnic ProBies 6Page 11$8 7or instance# t(e 3nited States could o!t to wor. !ri"arily wit( ,arious un(a!!y Iranian et(nic %rou!s NJurds# Baluc(# $ra+s# and so onO w(o (a,e )ou%(t t(e re%i"e at ,arious !eriods since t(e re,olution. $ coalition o) et(nic o!!osition "o,e"ents# !articularly i) co"+ined wit( dissident 2ersians# would !ose a serious t(reat to re%i"e sta+ility. In addition# t(e unrest t(e %rou!s t(e"sel,es create could wea.en t(e re%i"e at (o"e. $t t(e least# t(e re%i"e would (a,e to di,ert resources to !uttin% down t(e re+ellions. $t "ost# t(e unrest "i%(t discredit t(e re%i"e o,erti"e# wea.enin% its !osition ,is4Y4,is its ri,als. .espite the sha eless !ravado displayed throughout the entire report' no section is as unsettling as the one titled $(nspiring an (nsurgency'3 where Broo#ings outright advocates the "unding' training' and triggering o" a "ull,!lown ar ed insurgency against the govern ent o" (ran& The report speci"ically entions Ahva4i Ara! separatists' who would later !e the su!)ect o" Sey our 7ersh1s $@reparing the Battle"ield$ where he e*poses the option as already !eing set in otion within (ran&21< -thnic /urds in the North' and Baloch re!els near @a#istan in the -ast are also entioned as potential recipients o" 5S aid in conducting their ca paigns o" ar ed terror against the (ranian people& The C(A is selected to handle supplies and training' while Broo#ings suggests that options "or ore direct ilitary support also !e considered& (n their su!section' $6inding a @ro*y'3 Broo#ings descri!es how the use o" ethnic tensions could "uel unrest& (t la ents the "act that any ethnic inorities still hold nationalis as a priority along with their "ellow @ersians& .espite !eing on A erica1s o""icial terrorist list "or having previously #illed 5S ilitary en' the +u)ahedin,e /halB are given a ple consideration within Broo#ings1s report& (n their su!section' $6inding a Conduit and Sa"e 7aven'3 Broo#ings descri!es various ethods o" har!oring their sta!le o" 5S,"unded terrorists within the nations currently occupied !y 5S troops and how to "erry the in and out o" (ran !etween operations& Certainly' i" the 5nited States went through with ar ing and "unding +-/' they the selves would !eco e $state sponsors o" terroris 3 , even as they continue to "ight a decade,long war against supposedly )ust that& +-/ is uneBuivocally a terrorist organi4ation that indiscri inately targets 211 +u)ahideen,e /halB: 6or
09' 2012 er 5&S& 2""icials +a#e +illions Advocating 6or Terrorist 2rgani4ation' The 7u""ington @ost' Auly

212 (srael "unds terrorist +/2: (nvestigation' @ressTE' +ay 2<' 2012 21= 6riends o" Syria recogni4e SNC as Dlegiti ate representative'1 8ussia Today' April 01' 2012 21< @reparing the Battle"ield' The New %or#er' Auly 0?' 200?

civilians along with their political opponents' and yet' they are considered a potential pro*y' and considerations "or their re oval "ro the apparently eaningless $"oreign terrorist organi4ations3 list are !ased solely on their use"ulness in advancing 5S "oreign policy& X (o!enting a i#itary Coup 6Page 12$ . 12;8 <ountin% a cou! is (ard wor.# es!ecially in a state as !aranoid a+out )orei%n in)luence and "eddlin% as Iran is. T(e 3nited States would )irst (a,e to "a.e contact wit( "e"+ers o) Iran>s "ilitary Nand li.ely its security ser,ices as wellO. T(is +y itsel) is ,ery di))icult. Because o) Iranian (y!ersensiti,ity to $"ericans# t(e 3nited States would li.ely (a,e to rely on 'cutouts”*t(ird !arty nationals wor.in% on +e(al) o) t(e 3nited States*w(ic( in,aria+ly introduces considera+le co"!le/ity. T(en t(e 3nited States would (a,e to use t(ose contacts to try to identi)y Iranian "ilitary !ersonnel w(o were +ot( willin% and a+le to sta%e a cou!# w(ic( would +e "ore di))icult still- it would +e (ard enou%( )or $"ericans to "a.e contact wit( Iranian "ilitary o))icers# let alone "a.e contact wit( t(ose s!eci)ic indi,iduals willin% to ris. t(eir li,es and t(eir )a"ilies in a cou! atte"!t. 8) course# it is !ossi+le t(at i) Was(in%ton "a.es ,ery clear t(at it is tryin% to su!!ort a cou! in Iran# t(e cou! !lotters will reac( out to t(e 3nited States. But t(is is ,ery rare: (istory s(ows t(at cou! !lotters willin% to e/!ose t(e"sel,es to anot(er national %o,ern"ent are usually disco,ered and .illed- )urt(er"ore# "ost o) t(ose co"in% to t(e 3nited States to as. )or (el! o,ert(rowin% t(is or t(at %o,ern"ent tend to +e !oseurs or e,en counterintelli%ence a%ents o) t(e tar%eted %o,ern"ent. (t should !e noted that the Broo#ings report suggests that all options , popular revolution' insurgency' and coup , !e used concurrently in the hopes that at least one ay succeed& (t also suggests that $help"ul synergies3 ight !e created a ong the to "urther ire the targeted regi e& The Broo#ings report itsel" a#es re"erence to the historical precedence o" the 5nited States success"ully $ ounting a coup3 in (ran' providing 1>C=1s 2peration A)a* as a nota!le e*a ple: $lt(ou%( "any cou!s are (o"e%rown# one o+,ious (istoric "odel o) a )orei%n4 assisted cou! in Iran is 8!eration $Ia/# t(e 1C10 cou! d>Ktat t(at o,ert(rew t(e %o,ern"ent o) 2ri"e <inister <o(a""ed <ossadeB and reinstated t(e rule o) S(a( e6a 2a(la,i. To carry out t(e cou!# t(e CI$ and Britis( intelli%ence su!!orted General 7a6lolla( Qa(edi# !ro,idin% (i" and (is )ollowers wit( "oney and !ro!a%anda# as well as (el!in% or%ani6e t(eir acti,ities. G@age 1C0H (t is inconceiva!le that one could read the pages o" $Which @ath to @ersiaN3 and not understand the current $international co unity3 as anything less than a!solutely illegiti ate& Western leaders have historically contrived a yriad o" laws with which to restrain and eli inate their co petition' while re aining entirely uninhi!ited the selves in their own overt cri inality' e*torting and coercing the world to con"or to its $interests&3 This report represents the "ull array o" options not only "or use in (ran' !ut throughout the world& With the 5S,"unded $Ara! Spring3 as a real world odel' one can plainly see how the ethodology outlined in the report has !een used to desta!ili4e and depose regi es as well as instigate wars o" aggression& (t is essential that reports o" this nature !e widely circulated and ade pu!lic #nowledge' e*posing the ethodology and architects o" aggressive Western "oreign policy& As the report itsel" states nu erous ti es' the vast a)ority o" their

ga !its reBuire secrecy' $plausi!le denia!ility'3 to carry out their ideas $without the rest o" the world recogni4ing this ga e&3 .espite the shortco ings o" the ad inistration in Tehran' law a#ers and senior o""icials have advocated international cooperation' dialogue and prag atis with regard to the Syrian issue& 2n August >th' 2012' (ran hosted an (nternational Consultative Con"erence' !ringing together representatives o" thirty nations to call "or ending the "low o" "oreign ar s into terrorist hands inside Syria' proposals to !ro#er a eaning"ul cease"ire' the coordination o" hu anitarian aid' and support "or Syrian people1s right to re"or without "oreign inter"erence&21C The uniBue con"erence "eatured representatives o" over hal" o" the world1s population' including nations such as 8ussia' China' (ndia' @a#istan' (ndonesia' and Eene4uela' signaling that' indeed' Syria1s govern ent is not as $isolated3 as portrayed !y Western edia& The 5nited States downplayed the signi"icance o" the con"erence and critici4ed the (sla ic 8epu!lic "or supporting Bashar al,Assad1s govern ent& (ran1s stance on Syria is !est ela!orated in an August 2012 2p,-d in the Washington @ost' authored !y (ranian 6oreign +inister Ali A#!ar Salehi: Iran see.s a solution t(at is in t(e interest o) e,eryone. Syrian society is a +eauti)ul "osaic o) et(nicities# )ait(s and cultures# and it will +e s"as(ed to !ieces s(ould 2resident Bas(ar al4$ssad a+ru!tly )all. T(e idea t(at# in t(at e,ent# t(ere would +e an orderly transition o) !ower is an illusion. $+ru!t !olitical c(an%e wit(out a road"a! )or "ana%ed !olitical transition will lead only to a !recarious situation t(at would desta+ili6e one o) t(e world>s "ost sensiti,e re%ions. Iran is !art o) t(e solution# not t(e !ro+le". $s t(e world (as witnessed durin% t(e !ast decade# we (a,e acted as a sta+ili6in% )orce in IraB and $)%(anistan# two ot(er <usli" countries t(rown into tur"oil. T(e sta+ility o) our re%ion is !ara"ount )or world !eace and tranBuility. 21: Tehran has supported /o"i Annan1s si*,point plan and has shown willingness to "acilitate tal#s !etween the Syrian govern ent and the opposition& 6oreign +inister Salehi has reiterated Tehran1s support "or the #ind o" political re"or that will ensure that people have the right to participate in "ree and "air presidential elections under international supervision& 6urther ore' (ran has opposed $any "oreign inter"erence and ilitary intervention in resolving the Syrian crisis3 and has provided edical and hu anitarian aid to Syria through the (ranian 8ed Crescent&21? 5ndou!tedly' (ran1s e""orts at diplo atically negotiating an end to the Syrian con"lict deserve respect and appropriate ac#nowledge ent& The rationality o" Tehran1s approach is ulti ately a testa ent to (ran1s value as a responsi!le and via!le e !er o" the international co unity& The Sino.%ussian Position

21C 2? World Countries Attending Tehran Con"erence on Syria' 6A8S' August 0>' 2012 21: Ta#ing the lead on Syria' The Washington @ost' August 0>' 2012 21? (ran1s 8ed Crescent to dispatch hu anitarian aid to Syria' (sla ic 8epu!lic News Agency' +ay
21' 2012

While the Syrian con"lict has deeply divided international opinion' the steady non,interventionist stance o" 8ussia and China has !een su!)ected to harsh criticis "or preventing the 5nited Nations Security Council "ro passing resolutions allowing "oreign ilitary intervention& +ost "a ously' 5S Secretary o" State 7ilary Clinton threatened that 8ussia and China would $pay a price3 "or their position on the Syrian issue' pro pting the 8ussian 6oreign +inistry to categorically re)ect accusations o" !ac#ing Bashar al,Assad and sharing co plicity in !loodshed and civilian deaths in Syria&219 While Clinton atte pts to !la e 8ussia and China "or $holding up progress3 in atte pts to overthrow the Assad govern ent' it is ore li#ely that the 5nited States1 own loss o" legiti acy is the reason it has not success"ully convinced the world to go along with a sel",serving and very untena!le agenda& The ideology !ehind the 8ussian and Chinese "oreign policy is !est su ari4ed !y China1s a !assador to the 5nited Nations' 0i Baodong: We ?do@ not (a,e intention to !rotect any+ody a%ainst any+ody. W(at we really want to see is t(at t(e so,erei%nty o) t(at country can +e sa)e%uarded# and t(e destiny o) t(at country can +e in t(e (ands o) t(e !eo!le in Syria. 21> The desperate de"a ation and threatening rhetoric o" the 5S State .epart ent co es at a ti e when the e*panding Sino,8ussian alliance directly i pedes Western encroach ent into strategically sensitive regions that are vital to the develop ent and security o" Bei)ing and +oscow& (n star# contrast to the Western adventuris o" "oreign intervention under the guise o" $protecting hu an rights3 and $A erican principles'3 the diplo atic stance o" the e erging Shanghai Cooperation 2rgani4ation is one that values the tenets o" national sovereignty over a odel where outside "orces dictate the "uture o" an independent nation and its govern ent& Although diplo atic criticis s have o"ten !een uted' 6oreign +inister Sergey 0avrov has !rought 8ussia !ac# into the center o" international decision, a#ing with +oscow1s "ir stance toward the Western e !race o" Syria1s ar ed insurgents: T(is is direct endorse"ent o) terroris". =ow are we su!!osed to understand t(atM T(is is a sinister !osition- I cannot )ind words to e/!ress our attitude towards t(at. In ot(er words t(is "eans 'We are %oin% to su!!ort suc( acts o) terroris" until t(e 3NSC does w(at we want.” 220 Since reassu ing his post as 8ussia1s @resident' Eladi ir @utin' an ardent critic o" NAT21s operation in 0i!ya' has personally engaged !oth e !ers o" the Assad govern ent and the opposition Syrian National Council' in addition to Tur#ish @ri e +inister -rdoOan' (sraeli @ri e +inister Netanyahu' and 5S @resident 2!a a' in an atte pt to prevent the "urther deterioration o" the situation& Both @resident @utin and 6oreign +inister 0avrov have shown stringent adherence to 5N -nvoy /o"i Annan1s si* point peace plan' which calls "or the i ediate cessation o" violence' dialogue' and a 5N,!ac#ed cease"ire& @utin has warned o" ceaseless civil war i" the 219 Clinton: 8ussia and China will Dpay price1 "or supporting Assad' 8ussia Today' Auly 0:' 2012 21> China says it1s not protecting Syria1s Assad' A@' Aune 0<' 2012 220 5S position on Syria directly endorses terroris , 0avrov' 8ussia Today' Auly 2C' 2012

Assad govern ent is overthrown !y "orce' urging that dialogue and prag atis the only eans to de"use the situation:

are

T(e incu"+ent Syrian aut(orities as well as t(e so4 called ar"ed o!!osition "ust )ind stren%t( to or%ani6e t(e tal.s and )ind a "utually acce!ta+le co"!ro"ise )or t(e country>s )uture. We +elie,e t(at t(e )ollowin% s(ould +e t(e course o) action: (altin% t(e ,iolence# conductin% ne%otiations# searc(in% )or a solution# layin% down a constitutional +asis )or t(e )uture society# and only t(en introducin% structural c(an%es# not ,ice ,ersa. Doin% t(in%s t(e ot(er way around would only cause c(aos. 221 8ussia1s stance re"lects a growing glo!al consensus o" independent )ournalists and geopolitical analysts who have eticulously and o!)ectively docu ented the pre editated desta!ili4ation o" Syria !y Western and ;ul" States& 8ussia1s a !assador to the 5N' Eitaly Chur#in' who urges spectators not !e $duped !y Western hu anitarian rhetoric on Syria'3 re"lects on the underlying aggression and deceptive nature o" the du!ious $6riends o" Syria3 group and their stance: T(ey (a,e +een wor.in% wit( t(e so4called A7riends o) Syria>. In )act# t(is is a %rou! o) countries w(o are ene"ies o) t(e Syrian %o,ern"ent# I would not call t(e" t(e ene"ies o) t(e Syrian !eo!le# +ut certainly t(ose w(o want to to!!le t(e Syrian %o,ern"ent# disre%ardin% t(e conseBuences w(ic( are e/tre"ely tra%ic- suc( a !olicy ine,ita+ly entails ?tra%edy@ +ecause t(e %o,ern"ent o) 2resident $ssad is not si"!ly one indi,idual or a %rou! o) indi,iduals. T(ey re!resent a certain se%"ent o) t(e Syrian !o!ulation# a certain !ower structure# w(ic( (as e/isted t(ere )or decades. To +rea. it would cause# and is causin%# considera+le trou+le and +loods(ed. To re)or" it t(rou%( dialo%ue# t(is would +e a "uc( "ore reasona+le line o) action and t(is is w(at ussia (as +een ad,ocatin%.222 Apart "ro the oral i perative o" re)ecting institutionali4ed support "or terroris ' 8ussia has strategic interests in aintaining their port rights to +oscow1s only +editerranean naval port in Tartus' the last re aining 8ussian ilitary !ase outside the "or er Soviet 5nion& The naval !ase at Tartus has !een upgraded and declared a per anent regional !ase "or 8ussia1s nuclear,capa!le warships& Western capitals have atte pted to spar# controversy over 8ussia delivering an esti ated JC00 illion in air de"ense syste s' reconditioned helicopters' and "ighter )ets to Syria& Accusations o" +oscow "ueling !loodshed' and the i position o" trade e !argos on one o" +oscow1s vessels delivering +i,2C helicopters' have driven 8ussia and the 5nited States "urther apart diplo atically' despite the "act that contracts "or 8ussian de"ense ship ents to Syria were signed !etween 200? and 2009&22= (n late Auly' +oscow agreed to delay the delivery o" re"ur!ished helicopters' while a 8ussian naval "lotilla entered the eastern +editerranean' consisting o" 10 8ussian warships and 10 escort vessels led !y the Ad iral Cha!anen#o anti, 221 @utin: Non,stop civil war i" Assad ousted' 8ussia Today' Auly 2=' 2012 222 D.on1t !e duped !y Western hu
anitarian rhetoric on Syria1 F 8ussia1s 5N a !assador' 8ussia Today' Auly

20' 2012

22= 8ussia Will .elay .elivery o" 7elicopters to Syria' The +oscow Ti es' Auly 20' 2012

su! arine destroyer' including landing ships with arines on !oard& 22< (n +ay 2011' 8ussia1s .eputy @ri e +inister . itry 8ogo4in warned that' $NAT2 is planning a ilitary ca paign against Syria to help overthrow the regi e o" @resident Bashar al, Assad with a long,reaching goal o" preparing a !eachhead "or an attac# on (ran&3 7e "urther e phasi4ed that the NAT2 ilitary alliance ai s to inter"ere only with those states $whose views do not coincide with those o" the West&3 8ussia1s Ad iral Ale*ander 6edosen#ov has said +oscow1s warships in the +editerranean are preparing "or naval drills scheduled "or Septe !er 2012' and are not carrying out any ilitary tas#s in Syria&22C .espite a long history o" utual distrust !etween 8ussia and China' !oth nations have a co on interest in growing their econo ic sectors and resisting A erican ilitary e*pansion in their spheres o" in"luence& 6ollowing the announce ent that the 5nited States plans to shi"t :0 percent o" its warships to the Asia,@aci"ic' +oscow announced that it would !oost ilitary cooperation with Bei)ing' including holding ore )oint e*ercises' giving way to Sino,8ussian naval e*ercises in the %ellow Sea held during April 2012&22: 6oreign +inister 0avrov has e phasi4ed the strong opposition o" !oth +oscow and Bei)ing against the e""orts o" Washington and NAT2 to e*pand their ilitary alliances !y deploying issile de"ense syste s in various parts o" the world& 8ussia and China have spo#en out against e*pansionis o" the Western ilitary !loc and the deploy ent o" issile de"ense syste s in -astern -urope& +oscow "eels threatened !y the continued eastern e*pansion o" NAT2' potentially into "or er Soviet states that have long !een viewed as 8ussia1s traditional sphere o" in"luence' such as 5#raine and ;eorgia& -lsewhere' Bei)ing is concerned with A erican ilitary e*pansion into the Asia,@aci"ic' the continued ar s sales to Taiwan' and the !ac#ing o" the @hilippines in the ongoing territorial dispute in the South China Sea& 8ussia and China intend to continue strengthening their partnership !y de"ending each other1s utual sovereignty and territorial integrity' and !y increasing !ilateral trade to J100 !illion !y 201C& 6oreign +inister 0avrov underlines the strong disapproval o" !oth +oscow and Bei)ing with A erican hege ony and ilitary encroach ent: ussia and C(ina su!!ort t(e esta+lis("ent o) a "ulti!olar "odel o) international relations# t(e )or"ation o) a )airer and de"ocratic !olitical and econo"ic syste"# t(e stren%t(enin% o) t(e 3N central coordinatin% role in sol,in% !ressin% issues on t(e international a%enda& 22? 5nsurprisingly' the leaders o" 8ussia and China are staunchly opposed to the use o" ilitary "orce against (ran' as Washington and Tel Aviv continue their assertions to $#eep all options open3 with regard to halting the develop ent o" Tehran1s nuclear 22< 8ussian "lotilla headed "or Syria enters +editerranean' %ahoo News' Auly 2<' 2012 22C 8ussian Warships in +editerranean Dnot -ngaged in Syria Tas#s' 8iaNovosti' Auly 2:' 2012 22: @utin says to push ilitary ties with China' 8euters' Aune 0:' 2012 22? 8ussia' China Conde n West1s +issile Shield @rogra ' 6A8S' Aune 0:' 2012

progra &229 Since returning to o""ice' @resident @utin has !egun i ple enting plans to create a 8ussian,do inated -urasian econo ic and ilitary !loc' !eginning with the "or ation o" a !ilateral 5nion State !etween 8ussia and Belarus' vowing to counter all "oreign atte pts to a""ect the internal a""airs o" that union' including li itation and sanctions& 5pon ta#ing o""ice' @resident @utin e phasi4ed the need "or +oscow to "urther develop its nuclear arsenal' along with 8ussia1s own air and space de"enses' ordering that the develop ent o" odern weapons !e increased !y ?C,9C per cent "or the nuclear "orces and to ?0 per cent "or space and air de"ense !y 2020' stating: We are not %oin% to enter t(e ar"s race# +ut no one s(ould (a,e any dou+ts in t(e relia+ility and e))ecti,eness o) our nuclear !otential# as well as t(e "eans o) air and s!ace de)ense. T(e nuclear wea!ons re"ain t(e "ost i"!ortant %uarantee o) ussia>s so,erei%nty and territorial inte%rity# and !lay a .ey role in "aintainin% t(e re%ional +alance and sta+ility.22> (n reaction to Washington and NAT21s "ir aversion to cooperating with +oscow on the controversial issile de"ense shield in -astern -urope' 8ussia has !egun developing its o""ensive weapons capa!ility !y !olstering its intercontinental !allistic issile syste & Eladi ir /o4in' a leading researcher at the 8ussian Strategic 8esearch (nstitute' ela!orated on the threat posed !y NAT21s e*pansion to the !orders o" 8ussian territory: T(e new "issile !roIect is a ste! in t(e ri%(t direction at a ti"e w(en t(e 3nited States is en%a%ed in lar%e4scale "oderni6ation o) its strate%ic and tactical nuclear !otentials# and a"id t(e continuin% de!loy"ent o) t(e ;uro!ean and %lo+al "issile de)ense syste"s. Suc( a co"+ination carries e,en "ore t(reats )or ussia and its allies and )riends# t(an a se!arately o!eratin% "issile s(ield. Was(in%ton# as N$T8>s <ay su""it de"onstrated# continues to ne%lect t(e ussian leaders(i!>s concerns a+out t(e a+solutely unIusti)ied asse"+ly o) a "ulti4layered "issile de)ense structure near t(e ussian +orders# as well as ussia>s !ro!osals to )or" a less !ro,ocati,e# +ut "ore e))icient "issile de)ense structure. 2=0 @resident 2!a a has supported the construction o" an anti,!allistic issile syste in -astern -urope to sa"eguard against a possi!le stri#e "ro (ran& (nitially' +oscow pressed NAT2 o""icials "or a guarantee that this A+B syste would not !e used to target 8ussia' so ething that o""icials were una!le to legally guarantee&2=1 (n response' "or er 8ussian @resident . itry +edvedev warned' $8ussia will deploy odern o""ensive weapons syste s in the west and south o" the country' there!y ensuring its a!ility to ta#e out any part o" the 5S issile de"ense syste in -urope&3 229 China' 8ussia' Say No To War With (ran' 6or!es' Aune 0:' 2012 22> @utin pushes nuclear' space de"ense re"or ' 8ussia Today' Auly 2:' 2012 2=0 New 8ussia weapons to counter NAT2 strategic "ist , e*pert' 8ussia Today' +ay 2<' 2012 2=1 NAT2 Cannot @rovide 8ussia with +issile ;uarantees' Says .eputy Secretary ;eneral' -stonian @u!lic Broadcasting' +ay
2>' 2012

+edvedev also hinted at +oscow1s withdrawal "ro the Strategic Ar s 8eduction Treaty signed in 2010' an initiative to utually reduce nuclear stoc#piles in the 5nited States and 8ussia& The con"lict in Syria is one o" any "lashpoints "or increased tension and possi!le ilitary e*change !etween +oscow and Washington& While the ad inistrations in +oscow and Bei)ing are not without their own shortco ings' their stance throughout the Syrian con"lict represents the increased institutional in"luence o" e erging nations and their i pact on international a""airs& As e !ers o" the Shanghai Cooperation 2rgani4ation "ocus on increasing trade' !uilding in"rastructure' and e*panding utually !ene"icial' peace"ul econo ic develop ent' @resident @utin1s clai s that the 5nited States su""ers "ro an $illusion o" invulnera!ility'3 o""ers valua!le insight into the shape o" things to co e&2=2 N$u%ust 12t(# 2012O

2=2 A erica su""ers "ro Dillusion o" invulnera!ility1 , @utin' 8ussia Today' +arch 02' 2012

Conc#usion
'2eo!le w(o (a,e +een de+ased )or so lon% t(at t(ey (a,e +eco"e li.e ani"als# or worse# a+solutely will not de"and li+erty. T(ey "i%(t a,en%e t(e"sel,es on t(e des!ot# +ut t(is will +e only to ta.e re,en%e on (is !erson# not to %et rid o) des!otis". T(is will not +ene)it t(e !eo!le# )or it will +e e/c(an%in% one disease )or anot(er# li.e su+stitutin% a (eadac(e )or a sto"ac( ac(e.” A+" a#.%ah!an a#.)a1a-i+i
Syrian 2(iloso!(er U 2ro!onent o) 2an4Isla"ic $ra+ 3nity

The in"inite co ple*ities o" the trou!les "acing Bashar al,Assad1s Syria are not to !e underesti ated& While .a ascus has responded to this ca paign o" insurgency uch li#e any govern ent would' the lac# o" restraint and the individual isconduct o" e !ers o" the Syrian ilitary have regretta!ly contri!uted to the loss o" li"e& Contrary to the popular historical account o" events' the con"lict that has ravaged Syria is not an indigenous internal dispute' and it is not a tale o" a !elligerent dictator !ent on $ urdering his own people&3 8egardless o" how this situation is resolved' it ust !e re e !ered as an atte pt !y allied "oreign entities to use unrestrained tactics o" su!version and terroris to overthrow a sovereign nation1s govern ent& While the o""icial casualty rates o""ered !y the 5nited Nations re ain highly Buestiona!le' those innocents who su""ered unti ely deaths at the e*pense o" this state,sponsored desta!ili4ation ca paign ust not !e "orgotten& (" any political transition ta#es place in Syria' it ust !e through dialogue and not through "orce& Be"ore any such transition occurs' it is the responsi!ility o" the Syrian govern ent to restore order and sa"ety to the civilian population& As allied "oreign nations convene together to decide the "ate o" .a ascus' it would !e appear that the right o" Syria1s own people to decide their political destiny has !een overloo#ed& Syria1s people ust collectively decide the "uture o" their nation' and the "ate o" Bashar al,Assad& As the northern city o" Aleppo !eco es the epicenter o" insurgency in the eighteenth onth o" the con"lict' attention ust !e lent to one o" Syria1s ost pro inent intellectuals' a an who would !e ost concerned with the violence engul"ing his !irthplace i" he were alive today& A!d al,8ah an al,/awa#i!i was !orn in Aleppo in 19<>' and was a leading proponent o" secularis and unity throughout the Ara! world& The nationalistic co ponents o" al,/awa#i!i1s philosophy o" unity' "reedo ' and socialis contri!uted to the ideological "oundations o" Ara! leaders such as ;a al A!del Nasser' and later to the Syrian Ba1ath party& Al,/awa#i!i spo#e ardently o" his repugnance "or autocracy' !ut warned' $despotis ust !e "ought not with violence !ut' rather' with gradualis and gentleness&3 .espotis ' as he perceived it' cannot !e overthrow !y "orce' at ris# o" $su!stituting a headache "or a sto ach ache&3 Al,/awa#i!i instead "avored evolutionary and incre ental change' and the trans"or ation o" society at large through education& Al,/awa#i!i was trou!led !y what he saw as the decline o" (sla ic co unities' !ut unli#e other thin#ers o" his day' he attri!uted this trend not to e*ternal "orces' !ut to reactionary +usli despots& The theories o" Al,/awa#i!i re ain stri#ingly relevant to the present situation' where disunity and sectarian violence plague uch o" the (sla ic world& +usli s and worshippers o" all !ac#grounds ust ta#e heed to

avoid en"la ing such social and religious di""erences' as these sectarian distinctions have !een historically e*ploited !y colonial and i perialist powers to turn co unities against each other& +uch can !e drawn "ro Al,/awa#i!i1s assess ents o" political despotis ' "or i" the secular Syrian state is shattered' the political entity that replaces it ay prove !e in"initely ore sel",serving and despotic& Syrian people "ace a di""icult choice and an uncertain "uture' one that will have enor ous ra i"ications !oth regionally and do estically& (" e*ternal actors i pose $de ocracy3 on the Syrian state' the resulting political order that e erges will unBuestiona!ly operate as a vassal o" those "oreign entities that "ed the insurgency and violence at the e*pense o" innocent lives& An article pu!lished !y 7orei%n 2olicy in late Auly 2012 titled' $(nside the Buiet e""ort to plan "or a post,Assad Syria'3 lays !are the ethodology !eing used !y the 5nited States to esta!lish a client regi e in .a ascus& 2== The 5S State .epart ent' through the $5nited States (nstitute o" @eace3 is wor#ing directly with Syrian opposition groups to "or ulate a new Syrian constitution' re"erred to as a $transition strategy docu ent&3 The 5nited States (nstitute o" @eace is a direct "unctionary o" the A erican govern ent' with acting e !ers o" the 5S State .epart ent' including +ichael @osner and e !ers o" the 5S .epart ent o" .e"ense' including Aa es +iller' serving on the 5S(@ Board o" .irectors& Such ad issions e*hi!it the a!solute illegiti acy o" the so,called $Syrian opposition'3 , a co plete contrivance o" the 5S govern ent' and in no way representative o" the Syrian people& The unparalleled cri inality o" Washington is nowhere ore apparent than in the New :or. Ti"es> outrageous article' $5S to 6ocus on 6orci!ly Toppling Syrian ;overn ent'3 which is all !ut an ad ission that indeed' "oreign,!ac#ed terrorists have "ailed' and that the restoration o" order !y the Syrian ar y is i inent: T(e 8+a"a ad"inistration (as )or now a+andoned e))orts )or a di!lo"atic settle"ent to t(e con)lict in Syria# and instead it is increasin% aid to t(e re+els and redou+lin% e))orts to rally a coalition o) li.e4"inded countries to )orci+ly +rin% down t(e %o,ern"ent o) 2resident Bas(ar al4$ssad# $"erican o))icials say. 'We>re loo.in% at t(e controlled de"olition o) t(e $ssad re%i"e#” said $ndrew 5. Ta+ler# a Syria e/!ert at t(e Was(in%ton Institute )or Near ;ast 2olicy. 'But li.e any controlled de"olition# anyt(in% can %o wron%.” 2=< (n Syria' things have gone very wrong' and the rhetoric !eing espoused to )usti"y the alicious conduct o" Washington1s "oot soldiers is nothing sort o" alar ing& @erhaps the ost da ning e*a ple o" editorial dishonesty co es "ro -d 7usain' senior "ellow "or +iddle -astern Studies at the 5S Council on 6oreign 8elations& 7is August 2012 article' $Al,Kaeda1s Specter in Syria'3 argues in "avor o" al,Kaeda terrorists and their inclusion in the 6ree Syrian Ar y' in what can !e categori4ed only as an atte pt to pro)ect cognitive dissonance to his readership' a state in which an individual holds two con"licting ideas si ultaneously in a consistent !elie" syste : 2== (nside the Buiet e""ort to plan "or a post,Assad Syria' 6oreign @olicy' Auly 20' 2012 2=< 5S to 6ocus on 6orci!ly Toppling Syrian ;overn ent' The New %or# Ti es' Auly 22' 2012

T(e Syrian re+els would +e i""easura+ly wea.er today wit(out al4Haeda in t(eir ran.s. By and lar%e# 7ree Syrian $r"y N7S$O +attalions are tired# di,ided# c(aotic# and ine))ecti,e. 7eelin% a+andoned +y t(e West# re+el )orces are increasin%ly de"orali6ed as t(ey sBuare o)) wit( t(e $ssad re%i"e>s su!erior wea!onry and !ro)essional ar"y. $l4Haeda )i%(ters# (owe,er# "ay (el! i"!ro,e "orale. T(e in)lu/ o) Ii(adis +rin%s disci!line# reli%ious )er,or# +attle e/!erience )ro" IraB# )undin% )ro" Sunni sy"!at(i6ers in t(e Gul)# and "ost i"!ortantly# deadly results. In s(ort# t(e 7S$ needs al4Haeda now.2=C To argue in "avor o" the sa e terrorist entity that was used to )usti"y over a decade o" A erican presence in (raB' A"ghanistan' and elsewhere' is a wanton display o" hypocrisy and acade ic irresponsi!ility& Clearly' no nation could' in good conscience' or in the interest o" sel",preservation' condone the overt desta!ili4ation o" Syria !y "oreign powers with disingenuous otives' using listed terrorist organi4ations to do so& 7usain1s co entary is a testa ent to the desperate and !i4arre illogicality o" the 5S position on Syria' characteri4ed !y a willingness to sponsor the very onsters against who Washington has long cried "oul& To "ollow suit' 7orei%n 2olicy pu!lished an August 2012 article literally titled' $Two Cheers "or Syrian (sla ists&3 Author ;ary ;a !ill' ;eneral -ditor o" the Neo, Con +iddle -ast 6oru ' concedes that the Syrian govern ent $would not !e in the trou!le it1s in today were it not "or the (sla ists'3 revealing what the allied "oreign powers and their edia houses have atte pted !ut "ailed at o!"uscating , that the violence in Syria is the wor# o" sectarian e*tre ists' not $pro,de ocracy activists&3 The latter1s e*istence was a pli"ied !y the Western edia speci"ically to provide cover and legiti acy "or the violence and su!version o" the "or er& ;a !ill continues his $two cheers3 "or terroris in perhaps the ost perverse state ent "ound to,date in the Western press on the su!)ect: Isla"ists 44 "any o) t(e" (ardened +y years o) )i%(tin% 3.S. )orces in IraB 44 are si"!ly "ore e))ecti,e )i%(ters t(an t(eir secular counter!arts. $ssad (as (ad e/traordinary di))iculty counterin% tactics !er)ected +y (is )or"er Ii(adist allies# !articularly suicide +o"+in%s and roadside +o"+s. 2=: ;a !ill is e""usively praising en who have #illed his own nation1s solders' ad iring their prowess on the !attle"ield through their use o" indiscri inate terrorist tactics' which have #illed and ai ed tens o" thousands o" civilians across the Ara! World& ;a !ill disingenuously clai s that Washington can do $little a!out3 what he calls the $political ascendancy3 o" these sectarian e*tre ists' portraying the rise o" violence across the 0evant and the iraculous resurrection o" the +usli Brotherhood across the Ara! World as coincidentally aligned to A erican interests: So lon% as Syrian Ii(adis are co""itted to )i%(tin% Iran and its $ra+ !ro/ies# we s(ould Buietly root )or t(e" 44 w(ile .ee!in% our distance )ro" a con)lict t(at is %oin% to %et ,ery u%ly +e)ore t(e s"o.e clears. T(ere will +e !lenty o) ti"e to ta"e t(e +east a)ter Iran>s re%ional (e%e"onic a"+itions (a,e %one down in )la"es. 2=C Al,Kaeda1s Specter in Syria' The Council on 6oreign 8elations' August 0:' 2012 2=: Two Cheers "or Syrian (sla ists' 6oreign @olicy' August 2=' 2012

(t ust !e re e !ered that the terrorists ;a !ill is $cheering3 "or have destroyed peace"ul co unities' co itted racially and religiously otivated violence and ensnared illions o" Western troops "or over a decade in the o*y oronic and "ictitious $War on Terror'3 #illing innu era!le innocents& As pu!lic awareness grows o" Western support "or these very terrorists' it would !e al ost inconceiva!le that there would not !e a pro"ound' perhaps even violent !ac#lash against people li#e ;a !ill and the esta!lish ent he represents& euters>s duplicitously titled August 2012 report' $0i!yan "reedo "ighters )oin with Syrian re!els'3 con"ir s what independent geopolitical analysts and alternative news sources have reported "or onths' that e !ers o" the 0i!yan (sla ic 6ighting ;roup G0(6;H are stationed in Syria' and leading o""ensives against the Syrian govern ent&2=? The 0i!yan (sla ic 6ighting ;roup is designated as an al,Kaeda a""iliate !y the 5nited Nations pursuant to resolutions 12:? G1>>>H and 1>9> G2011H' noting several pro inent 0(6; terrorists occupying the highest echelons o" al,Kaeda1s co and structure' in addition to !eing listed !y !oth the 5S State .epart ent and the 5/ 7o e 2""ice as a "oreign terrorist organi4ation and a proscri!ed terrorist organi4ation respectively& 2=9 (n direct violation o" !oth A erican and British anti,terroris legislation' particularly provisions regarding providing aterial support "or listed or proscri!ed terrorist organi4ations' the 5nited /ingdo announced in August 2012 that it will provide ar ed ilitants' including listed terror organi4ations' with a \C illion tranche o" what it calls $non,lethal practical assistance&3 This eans that the 5nited States' the 5nited /ingdo ' the North Atlantic Treaty 2rgani4ation' with Tur#ey' Saudi Ara!ia' and Katar are #nowingly and will"ully "unding designated a""iliates o" al,Kaeda contrary not only to 5S and British anti,terror legislation' !ut contrary to 5N resolutions as well& 2=> The 5S State .epart ent1s own we!site "eatures a list o" designated "oreign terrorist organi4ations G6T2H upon which !oth al,Kaeda GM=?H & the 0(6; GM29H are clearly listed& Toward the !otto o" the page' the State .epart ent indicates the $0egal 8a i"ications o" UitsV .esignation3 as "ollows: 1. It is unlaw)ul )or a !erson in t(e 3nited States or su+Iect to t(e Iurisdiction o) t(e 3nited States to .nowin%ly !ro,ide '"aterial su!!ort or resources” to a desi%nated 7T8. NT(e ter" '"aterial su!!ort or resources” is de)ined in 1P 3.S.C. Z 200C$N+ON1O as ' any !ro!erty# tan%i+le or intan%i+le# or ser,ice# includin% currency or "onetary instru"ents or )inancial securities# )inancial ser,ices# lod%in%# trainin%# e/!ert ad,ice or assistance# sa)e(ouses# )alse docu"entation or identi)ication# co""unications eBui!"ent# )acilities# wea!ons# let(al su+stances# e/!losi,es# !ersonnel N1 or "ore indi,iduals w(o "ay+e or include onesel)O# and trans!ortation# e/ce!t "edicine or reli%ious "aterials.” 1P 3.S.C. Z 200C$N+ON2O !ro,ides t(at )or t(ese !ur!oses 't(e ter" Atrainin%> "eans instruction or teac(in% desi%ned to i"!art a s!eci)ic s.ill# as o!!osed 2=? 0i!yan "reedo "ighters )oin with Syrian re!els' 8euters' August 19' 2012 2=9 K-&0&11&01& 0(B%AN (S0A+(C 6(;7T(N; ;825@' 5nited Nations' August 2=' 2010 2=> Britain to give \C illion to Syria re!els' Ti es o" (ndia' August 10' 2012

to %eneral .nowled%e.” 1P 3.S.C. Z 200C$N+ON0O )urt(er !ro,ides t(at )or t(ese !ur!oses t(e ter" Ae/!ert ad,ice or assistance> "eans ad,ice or assistance deri,ed )ro" scienti)ic# tec(nical or ot(er s!eciali6ed .nowled%e.>> 2. e!resentati,es and "e"+ers o) a desi%nated 7T8# i) t(ey are aliens# are inad"issi+le to and# in certain circu"stances# re"o,a+le )ro" t(e 3nited States Nsee P 3.S.C. ZZ 11P2 NaON0ONBONiONIDO4NDO# 122F NaON1ON$OO. 0. $ny 3.S. )inancial institution t(at +eco"es aware t(at it (as !ossession o) or control o,er )unds in w(ic( a desi%nated 7T8 or its a%ent (as an interest "ust retain !ossession o) or control o,er t(e )unds and re!ort t(e )unds to t(e 8))ice o) 7orei%n $ssets Control o) t(e 3.S. De!art"ent o) t(e Treasury.2<0 The isconduct and cri inality o" !oth the 5nited States and the 5nited /ingdo with respect to aiding and a!etting terrorist organi4ations in Syria and 0i!ya constitute high cri es and treason& 5nder the anti,terroris legislation in place in !oth nations' the "ollowing de ands can !e su!stantiated: S The i ediate resignation and trial o" 9nite" States Secretary of State 2i##ary %o"ha! C#inton under the 5nited States1 5SC R 2==>A & 2==>B , @roviding aterial support or resources to designated "oreign terrorist organi4ations& S The i ediate resignation and trial o" 9nite" States A!+assa"or to the 9nite" Nations Susan %ice under the 5nited States1 5SC R 2==>A & 2==>B , @roviding aterial support or resources to designated "oreign terrorist organi4ations& S The i ediate resignation and trial o" ,ritish (oreign Secretary an" (irst Secretary of State Wi##ia! 2ague under the 5nited /ingdo 1s Anti,terroris ' Cri e and Security Act o" 2001& The generation preceding 7illary Clinton1s' those o" World War ((' swore $never again3 to the tragedy o" that glo!al con"lict& They also swore $never again3 to the lies and anipulations that aneuvered illions o" people across the glo!e into deadly con"lict with one another& 7illary Clinton1s "a!rications and atte pts to "oist yet another war constructed upon "alsehoods !etrays that pro ise' and thus )eopardi4es the very "oundation and principles upon which civili4ation stands& 7illary Clinton' to continue in her capacity' li#e the entire Bush Ad inistration !e"ore her' co pro ises and "orever stains the credi!ility and integrity o" the 5nited States& Not only has the 2!a a ad inistration' with 7illary Clinton as Secretary o" State and Susan 8ice as A !assador to the 5nited Nations' inherited and perpetuated this violent conspiracy against the Syrian people' it has inherited and perpetuated the dishonor and straining o" A erica1s re aining integrity and glo!al good will& 6or A erica1s econo y which cannot shoulder another ilitary adventure' "or A erica1s honor which cannot "ind space to "it another scar' 7illary Clinton and Susan 8ice ust resign and those in Congress and throughout industry ust withdraw support "or those sBuandering the last o" A erica1s once vast potential in pursuit o" ilitaristic hege ony& While the State .epart ent1s $0egal 8a i"ications o" UitsV .esignation3 clearly prohi!its providing $sa"ehouses3 to designated "oreign terrorist organi4ations # 2<0 6oreign Terrorist 2rgani4ations' 5&S& .epart ent o" State' Aanuary 2?' 2012

A erican Neo,Conservatives have concurrently $called on3 5S @resident Barac# 2!a a to assist in the esta!lish ent o" $sa"e 4ones3 inside o" Syria in a Auly 2012 letter pu!lished !y the $6oreign @olicy (nitiative3 G6@(H and the $6oundation "or the .e"ense o" .e ocracies3 G6..H& The letter' pu!lished in 7orei%n 2olicy>s article $Conservatives call on 2!a a to esta!lish Dsa"e 4ones1 in Syria'3 was signed !y co, conspirators in the invasion o" (raB including -lliott A!ra s' /arl 8ove' and @aul Bre er' along with advisors to +itt 8o ney' including -ric Adel an and 8o!ert /agan&2<1 Both institutions are corporate' "oundation' and govern ent,"unded clearinghouses' e*tensions o" larger thin# tan#s li#e the A erican -nterprise (nstitute' responsi!le "or anu"acturing consensus !ehind aggressive agendas that have little to no support within the general pu!lic& @erhaps the ost distur!ing aspect o" the open letter is its calls "or a no,"ly 4one over Syria: We ur%e you to ta.e i""ediate ste!s# in close and continuin% consultation wit( t(e Con%ress# to wor. wit( re%ional !artners to esta+lis( air4!atrolled 'sa)e 6ones” co,erin% already li+erated areas wit(in Syria# usin% "ilitary !ower not only to !rotect t(ese 6ones )ro" )urt(er a%%ression +y t(e $ssad re%i"e>s "ilitary and irre%ular )orces# +ut also to neutrali6e t(e t(reat !osed +y t(e Syrian dictators(i!>s c(e"ical and +iolo%ical wea!ons. euters>s August 2012 article' $Securing Syria che ical weapons ay ta#e tens o" thousands o" troops'3 illustrates the "rightening possi!ility o" direct ilitary intervention in Syria: T(e 3nited States and its allies are discussin% a worst4case scenario t(at could reBuire tens o) t(ousands o) %round troo!s to %o into Syria to secure c(e"ical and +iolo%ical wea!ons sites )ollowin% t(e )all o) 2resident Bas(ar al4$ssad>s %o,ern"ent# accordin% to 3.S. and di!lo"atic o))icials. Two di!lo"atic sources# also s!ea.in% on condition o) anony"ity# said as "any as 10#000 or L0#000 %round )orces "ay +e needed i) o))icials> worst )ears are reali6ed# !lus additional su!!ort )orces. ;,en a )orce o) L0#000 troo!s# (owe,er# would not +e lar%e enou%( )or !eace.ee!in% and would only +e t(e a"ount reBuired to secure t(e wea!ons sites 4 des!ite so"e o) t(e a!!earances o) a IraB4style occu!ation )orce# t(e di!lo"atic sources cautioned.2<2 Anony ous 5S o""icials cited !y the Wall Street 5ournal reported that the Syrian govern ent is ta#ing che ical weapons out o" storage "or possi!le use $against anti, regi e re!els or civilians' possi!ly in an ethnic cleansing ca paign&3 2<= .espite clai ing to possess this in"or ation' the 5S o""icials re"used to disclose the location these weapons were !eing oved to' or the speci"ic weapons' stating only $they are ost worried a!out Syria1s stoc#piles o" sarin gas&3 The Syrian govern ent has withstood over a year o" political' econo ic' and diplo atic attac#s' !oth in the "or 2<1 Conservatives call on 2!a a to esta!lish Dsa"e 4ones1 in Syria' 6oreign @olicy' Auly 2<' 2012 2<2 Securing Syria che ical weapons ay ta#e tens o" thousands o" troops' 8euters' August 1?'
2012

2<= Annan Dappalled1 !y reported #illings' 5@(' Auly 1=' 2012

o" edia disin"or ation and ilitary su!version& The logical Buestion one ight as# would !e why the Syrian govern ent would use che ical weapons' providing the West the prete*t needed to aneuver around the o!structions posed !y the lac# o" consensus in the 5N Security Council& The answer is si ple' the Syrian govern ent is not pondering the use o" che ical weapons F allied "oreign powers and their terrorist pro*ies are& Washington has long tal#ed o" $tipping the !alance3 o" the con"lict to their "avor' and it appears highly plausi!le that the threat o" che ical weapons and their use ay !e used to )usti"y "orci!ly toppling .a ascus& 6ro the start o" the con"lict in Syria' the possi!ility o" open "oreign ilitary intervention has loo ed unco "orta!ly over the series o" diplo atic easures ta#en in an atte pt to di""use the situation F those e""orts have now deteriorated& ;iven the unpredicta!ility o" the Syrian situation' it is di""icult to "oresee any possi!le outco es to the ongoing crisis' though the possi!ility o" the "ollowing situations co ing to pass' and their ra i"ications' ust !e considered: / Assa" atte!pts to =ue## the insurgency +y force' re"lecting the conduct o" nations such as Algeria' who have success"ully suppressed insurgents a""iliated with AK(+& This course o" action ay wor# to "urther en"la e the situation i" outside "orces continue to increase their use o" "oreign ercenaries and provide re!el "ighters with ore dangerous ar a ents' including che ical or !iological weapons& (" Syrian security "orces are una!le to restore order and crush the insurgency' any authentic or anu"actured atrocity or incursion into Tur#ish territory ay !e enough to tip the scale in "avor o" open ilitary intervention Gwith or without the approval o" the 5NSCH& (" that occurs' the Tur#ish,Syrian !order would see open e*changes o" "ire' with An#ara atte pting to capture territory in northern Syria& (ran would li#ely o""er ilitary support to Assad' while the non,interventionist policies o" 8ussia and China a#e their actions ore di""icult to "oresee& 6ro that point' the potential "or a wider regional con"lict is plausi!le& / Assa" succee"s in =ue##ing the insurgency +y force' causing re!el ilitants to disperse' surrender and ta#e re"uge in rural areas and neigh!oring countries& Syrian security "orces would increase their operations and atte pt to aintain order in population centers& The ilitary would secure tense areas and so e "or o" nor ality would resu e' although !o !ings' !order incursions and other attac#s could persist on a s aller scale& Assad would step up internal security' and !e de oni4ed as an international pariah& Syria would continue su""ering under heavy econo ic sanctions& (" Assad continues to hold onto power and "ails to deliver eaning"ul re"or s and political pluralis ' internal dissent could again !eco e pro!le atic' potentially shi"ting oderates to e !race "actions o" the opposition& @olitical tur oil would ensue' !ut the security situation could !e sta!ili4ed i" insurgent activity is success"ully su!dued& / Assa"’s go*ern!ent co##apses +y force' either "ro !eing overta#en !y re!el "orces or as a result o" "oreign ilitary intervention& (" insurgents pushed "orward with their ca paign and were a!le to capture territory and aintain an upper hand' ar ed gangs could persecute Assad loyalists' Alawites' Shi1as' and other religious inorities such as Christians and .ru4e' re"lecting the conduct o" 0i!yan 0(6; "ighters "ollowing the "all o" ;adda"i& Che ical weapons ay !e used !y the re!els to incri inate Assad and )usti"y intervention' or legiti ately used !y Assad to repel "oreign ilitary "orces entering the country en "asse. The resulting interi

govern ent would struggle to aintain the security situation and li#ely !e una!le to i ple ent coherent policy a id divisions in leadership& @olitical tur oil would ensue' and ar ed gangs could continue their ca paign' a id increasing sectarian tensions& The long,ter ra i"ications o" this scenario are di""icult to i agine' !ut it would li#ely !e characteri4ed !y volatility and incredi!le hu an su""ering i" the situation !eco es an e*tended con"lict& The glo!al hege ony o" Wall Street and 0ondon has !een !uilt !ehind a "acade o" $hu an rights'3 $"reedo '3 and $de ocracy&3 As conte porary Western civili4ation is characteri4ed !y the erosion o" these very principles' their use "or disguising i perialis ' corporate onopoli4ation' and ilitary aggression a!road have !eco e overt and increasingly ine""ective& While Washington !la es +oscow and Bei)ing "or $holding up progress3 in the West1s ca paign o" pre editated desta!ili4ation in Syria' it is ore li#ely that the West1s own loss o" legiti acy is the true reason it has not success"ully convinced representatives o" large percentages o" the glo!al population to acBuiesce to its sel",serving' "a!ricated' and untena!le agenda& Should the 5nited States "ail in its atte pts to overthrow the govern ent o" Syria' and Buite li#ely even i" it does anage to succeed' the West1s credi!ility and that o" its institutions have deteriorated so signi"icantly' that "uture ga !its will !e even ore di""icult to e*ecute& As the West1s econo y and geopolitical power cru !les and its reach !eco es less su!tle and ore adversarial' shareholders will see# ore secure invest ents: "inancial' political' and tactical& +aintaining an e pire relies on an i ense glo!al in"rastructure that the West still possesses' one that is eeting co petition "ro !oth rival hege onies and individual nations& - pires are also !uilt on psychological "actors' such as "aith in one1s institutions and "ear o" one1s ilitary prowess& The West has !een increasingly "altering in all respects in a world where these concepts are !eco ing increasingly challenged !y shi"ting social' econo ic' and technological paradig s& What the West should !e doing is positioning itsel" "or this changing world instead o" clinging to a cru !ling e pire' scra !ling to !uild a glo!al paradig rendered antiBuated long !e"ore it has even !een i ple ented& Boycotting the corporate,"inancier interests !ehind this atte pt at esta!lishing inclusive hege ony will accelerate and ensure its "ailure& (nstead' creating genuine institutions on a local and national level "or and !y the people will ensure that we are not le"t in disarray once these corrupt international institutions are rendered o!solete& As di""icult as it ight !e "or so e to !elieve' Syria1s pro!le is not violence' ar ed insurrection' or political upheaval& Neither is it econo ic or social& These are !ut sy pto s' any purpose"ully induced "ro a!road' o" Syria1s real pro!le ' and there"ore any solution ai ed at treating only these sy pto s will provide erely the ost super"icial and te porary relie"& +any geopolitical analysts #now this' and yet cha pion the i ediate treat ent o" these sy pto s' particularly the end o" violence' which would indeed neutrali4e the situation& 5lti ately' however' this "ails i" the root o" the pro!le is not also e*posed and a solution is not "or ulated and appropriately pro oted& Syria1s pro!le is not the $6ree Syrian Ar y3 or the $Syrian National Council'3 nor is it the yriad o" terrorist organi4ations operating under this u !rella& (nstead' it is the corporate,"inancier driven "oreign interests that created' "und' and ar these groups' tactically and politically perpetuating their activities&

Syria1s pro!le is that it has attracted the attention o" Wall Street and 0ondon and "ound itsel" in the iddle o" their geopolitical aspirations "or glo!al hege ony& Analysts !elieve that under ining Western a !itions "or regi e change in Syria !y i ediately co ing to a negotiated agree ent with Syria1s so,called $opposition3 should ta#e priority& -ven !y erely atte pting to do this with so e degree o" credi!ility' it ay a""ord Syria the ti e needed to retrench against "oreign desta!ili4ation , even i" a settle ent ulti ately "ails& (n the case o" Syria' so uch ti e has !een invested in reaching a negotiated agree ent' that any have lost sight o" the "act that the West and its ;ul" allies are creating this violence in the "irst place' and that their pro*y $opposition3 ove ent has re)ected any and all reasona!le ter s o" negotiated agree ents speci"ically to avoid this reprieve in desta!ili4ation& By !rea#ing o entu ' the West "ears it ay !e una!le to recreate this su!version in the near "uture' should a eaning"ul cease"ire !e esta!lished& Beyond this goal "or te porary reprieve' lie solutions ai ed deeper and !roader' at the very !ase o" the allied powers driving this con"lict' and si ilar ca paigns o" violence and political desta!ili4ation worldwide& (denti"ying and e*posing the co pro ised interests driving the govern ents o" NAT2 and its ercenary pro*ies' institutions' N;2s' and edia F organi4ations such as =u"an i%(ts Watc(' $"nesty International' the (nternational Cri inal Court' and even the 5nited Nations itsel" to a great e*tent F is the "irst step in truly solving the pro!le s "acing Syria and other nations& -*posing these interests as the ain perpetrators o" Syria1s pre editated ca paign o" violence and desta!ili4ation is an a!solute necessity in any atte pt to under ine the legiti acy o" the West1s "a!ricated do inant narrative& -*ternal "orces ust !e held accounta!le "or engaging in activities that have !rought the Syrian crisis to this dis al stage& Considering the level o" su!version and deceit de onstrated !y "oreign powers operating in Syria' Bashar al,Assad1s a !itions to crush insurgent "ighters !y "orce ay well !e warranted& All e""orts ust !e ade to transition the Syrian people into a cli ate o" nor ality' including the re oval o" econo ic sanctions& At this crucial stage' the Syrian govern ent should e*ercise as uch restraint as possi!le to ensure the sa"ety o" civilians& 5ntil the Syrian govern ent restores order and provides total security to its people' no via!le political transitions can !e agreed upon& The govern ent o" Bashar al,Assad ust continue to a#e tangi!le re"or s that legiti i4e dissent and pro ote e*pression while individuals within the $6ree Syrian Ar y3 ust lay down their ar s' lest they !e dealt with !y "orce& The i plications o" !oth "oreign ilitary intervention and regi e change in Syria hold unaccepta!le conseBuences "or the Syrian people and the entire region& -ven i" internal actors agree upon a solution' it will ta#e years "or the people o" Syria to recover "ro this con"lict& (" the a)ority o" the Syrian people desire a change in leadership' the world ust respect their aspirations& 7owever' such a decision can only !e reached once the do estic security situation has transitioned to one o" order& Those individuals who value sta!ility "ounded on the pillars o" peace' co pro ise and con"lict aversion ust stand with the Syrian people and help steer the out o" these dar# ti es& N$u%. 2&t(# 2012O