# 4 – 1 Controlled Rectifiers (H.Rashid): Introduction: As we know that diode rectifiers provide a fixed output voltage only.

In order to obtain controlled output voltage, phase controlled thyristors are used instead of diodes. The output voltage of thyristor rectifier is varied by controlling the delayor firing angle of the thyristors. A phase controlled thyristor is turned-on by applying a short pulse to its gate and turned-off due to natural or line commutation and in case of a highly inductive load it is turned-off by firing another thyristor of the rectifier during the negative half cycle of the input voltage. A 3-Phase controlled rectifiers are simple and less expensive and the efficiency of these rectifiers are in general above 95 %. These are extensively used in industrial purposes especially in variable speed drives ranging from fractional horse power to mega watt power levels. The phase controlled rectifiers can be classified into two types, depending upon the type of input voltage; 1. Single phase converters. 2. Three phase converters. Each type can be sub-divided into; a). Semi converter: A semi converter is one quadrant converter and it has one polarity of the output voltage and current.

b).

Full converter: A Full converter is a two quadrant converter and the polarity of its output voltage can be either positive or negative. However the output current of full converter has one polarity.

c).

Dual converter: A Dual converter can operate in four quadrant’s and both the output voltage & current can be either positive or negative.

Note: in some applications converters are connected in series to operate at higher voltages and to improve the input power factor.

1

with resistive load R. When the input voltage starts to be negative at ω t = л. is called as the delay or firing angle . When thyristor T 1 is fired at an angle ω t = . During the positive half cycle of the input voltage.r. the thyristor anode is negative w. where the output voltage and current have one polarity.4-2 Principle of Phase controlled Converters (H. output voltage load current and voltage across T 1.r. The time after the input voltage starts to go positive until thyristor is fired at ω t = .to its cathode and the thyristor is said to be forward biased. Figure .      2 . thyristor T 1 conducts and the input voltage appears across the load. the thyristor anode is positive w.to its cathode and thyristor T 1 is said to be reverse biased and it is turned off.Rashid): Operation:   Consider the figure 4-1a. Figure – c shows the wave forms for input voltage.b shows the region of converter operation.

s => (0. rectification efficiency.m.3536 V m The average output current is I dc =V dc /R => 0.3536) 2 V m 2 / R] => [(0.. I r. peak inverse voltage. iv). the delay angle is (1). (5). Ripple factor.m. (6)..3536) 2 V m 2 / R => Pd c = (0.m.s load current is obtained as.m.m. iii). Pa c = V Pd c = V r.1592) 2 V m 2 / R d.27%. V r. η = Pd c / Pa c . Solution: From the given data. And the r.s x / 2 ) ( 1 + 1) => V dc m = 0.Example 4 – 1: if the converter in given figure 4-1 a has a purely resistive load of R and the delay Angle is =л /2.3536 V m /R => I r..1592 V m Pa c = V I r.025345] / [(0. Form factor.m..1592 V m / R) => Pa c = (0.c xI d.m.1592 V m /R => I dc = (0..m.3536 V m / R) So that.s = (Vm / 2) [ ( –( ) ) ] ½ – sin (2 )] sin 2 ( )] ½ (Vm /2) [ ( (Vm /2) [ ( ½ => (V m √ ) => V r.m.1592 V m / R) (4).s =V r.c The rectification efficiency is obtained as.s /R => 0. 3 . Transformer utilization factor..m..s voltage can be obtained as. (2).3536 V m / R) => (0.s The r. = (V m / 2 ) ( 1 + cos ) ) => (V m (V (V m / 2 ) ( 1 + cos / ) r. ii).s = 0.3536 V m ) x (0. v). (7). Determine the factors of Thyristor T 1.s x I r.1592 V m ) x (0.2027 or 20. => => For V dc = . => => (3).(2 – 44) => [(0.m..125] => η = 0.1592) 2 V m 2 / R] / [(0.s = (0.. i).

U.3536 V m) / R] PIV = V => T.F = Pd c / V I [(0. (V m) 2 / R] / [ (0.m.m.707 V m) (0.1592) 2. => (9). => (10).s = (0. Form Factor = V [(0. r.21 ] / [(0.983 For T.s => I r.s / V dc => Form Factor = 2.707 V m I S= I Now => (11).3536 V m r.U.F = 0.1014 or 10.U.14 % m 4 .(8).F = Pd c / V I VI=VSx I S => & V S= V m /√ => V S = 0.1592 V m] Ripple Factor = √( √( ) ) => √ => Ripple Factor = 1.m.3536 V m / R) T.

4-3 Single Phase Semi converters: 5 .

4-4 Single Phase Full-converters: 6 .

(4 – 32) dc2 Since one converter is rectifying & the other one is Inverting.. there will be an instantaneous voltage difference and this will result in circulating current between the two converters .. the corresponding average output voltages are V d c 1 & V d c 2.....1 & converter ..... If α 1 & α 2 are the delay angles of converters 1 & 2 respectively.... Since the two output voltages during the interval ω t = Π + α 1 to ω t = 2 Π – α 1 are equal. = (2 V m / Π) cos α 1 .  V o 1 & V o 2 are the instantaneous output voltages of converter . so that. Or V dc1 =–V dc2 cos α 1 = – cos α 2 cos α 1 = cos (Π – α 1) Therefore...4-5 Single Phase Dual converters (H........ V V dc1 Similarly.... Figure 4 .. their contribution to the instantaneous circulating current i r is zero.. where the two output voltages are the same. The system will provide four quadrant operations and is called a Dual Converter.4 c shows the v – i characteristics of a dual converter. Figure 4 .....4 b shows the output wave forms for two converters. this circulating current will not flow through the load & is normally limited by a circulating current Reactor L (Figure 4 – 4 a). both the output voltage & the load current can be reversed. but both converters produce the same average output voltage. the circulating current can be found by integrating the instantaneous voltage difference starting from ωt=2Π–α1. α 2 = (Π – α 1) ...(4 – 33) Since the instantaneous voltages of the two converters are out of phase.  7 ....Rashid):         If two full converters are connected back to back (Fig: 4-4 a). Dual converters are normally used in high power variable speed drives..(4 – 31) = (2 V m / Π) cos α 2 . the average output voltage are..2 respectively. The delay angles are controlled such that one converter operates as a rectifier and the other one converter operates as an Inverter... From equation 4 – 17.

8 . Calculate the peak circulating current and the peak current of the Converter 1. delay angles are α 1 = 60° & α 2 = 120 °. The circulating inductance is L = 40 m H. 60 Hz supply and the load resistance is of R = 10 Ω.Example 4 – 4: The Single phase dual converter (figure 4-4 a) is operated from a 120 v.