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TUTORIAL 2

NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS

Question 1 The governing equation derived from the energy equation (1.8) study book is H = (0.5v2/2g) + (v2/2g) + (10v2/2g) + (fLv2/2gD) = (11.5v2/2g) + (fLv2/2gD) Three approaches may be used to solve this problem: a) To simplify calculations, initially ignore the minor losses and solve for friction head, using the Colebrook-White equation (2.7) of the study book: k 2.51ν v = −2 2 gDS f log s + 3.7 D D 2 gDS where Sf = hf/L = 50/5000 = 0.01; and solving for v f v = 1.564 m/s; now with this estimate of velocity include the minor loss term 11.5v2/2g = 1.435 m i.e. a better estimate of hf = 50 - 1.435 and Sf = 48.565/5000 = 0.0097 and applying this to the Colebrook-White equation, the revised value of v = 1.544 Repeat the process until the correction in v is small ie. v = 1.541 m/s Discharge Q = 48.411 L/s

k 51286 . 1 = −2 log s + and assume v = 2 m/s f 3.7 D N R 0.89 NR = 2 x 0.2 x 106/1.13 ; solving for f = 0.0156 and then apply to the governing equation

b) Using the explicit equation (2.9),

H = (11.5v2/2g) + (fLv2/2gD) and solving for v = 1.563 which then gives f = 0.0161 Repeat the calculations until v converges giving a final velocity of 1.563 m/s and Q = 48.4 L/s c) Using the Moody chart; and assume initially v = 2 m/s; NR = 3.54 x 105 and k/D = 0.00015 From the chart f = 0.015 but note in practice the chart will only read to 2 places of decimal; and from governing equation solve for v = 1.593 m/s and NR = 2.82 x 105 Repeat until v converges; giving v = 1.54 m/s and Q = 48.4 L/s

Question 2

First draw a sketch of the arrangement and label the details Q = 6.9 m3/min = 0.115 m3/s; Area of pipeO-A = AA = 0.0177 m2 Similarly area of pipeA-B = AB = 0.0079 m2 From the continuity equation (1.7) Study Bk; Q = VA AA = VB AB which gives VA = 6.51 m/s and VB = 14.64 m/s

B

4.5 m pump

O A

3m

Apply the energy equation (1.8) to points at the sump level O and pt A i.e. PA/ρg + 3 + 6.512/2g = 0 and solve for PA PA = -5.16 x 103 x 9.81 = -50.62 kN/m2; a negative pressure at the suction pipe.

Prepared by E Yoong

ENV4202 Design & Location of Urban Services

Page 2 of 4

Next, consider the energy equation between pts A & B including the pump energy. Energy from pump is 25 kW i.e. 25 x 103 Nm/s and needs to be converted to pump energy head using equation (2.19) study book i.e. hp = 22.16 m. Refer to page 1.7, study book on the energy equation where the pump energy is added to the equation. PA/ρg + ZA + VA2/2g + hp = PB/ρg + ZB + VB2/2g and solve for PB = 36.94 kN/m2 If PB = 25 kN/m2 , a value less than calculated which indicates that there is energy loss (e.g.. friction loss, minor losses due to fittings), then determine the total energy loss in kW between sump and pt B. PO/ρg + ZO + VO2/2g = PB/ρg + ZB + VB2/2g - hp + hL ; where hL is the total energy losses

**Solving for hL = 1.1875 m and in terms of power in kW i.e. ρg Q hL = 1.34 kW
**

Question 3

**The relevant equations are: Friction loss, hf = f Lv2/(2gD) Minor loss, hm = 10 v2/(2g) ks/D = 0.00075 NR = v D/v
**

Governing energy equation: 100 = f L v2/(2gD) + 10 v2/(2g)

As with most hydraulic problems, the solution is iterative and the governing equation needs to be solved for equality. First assume a velocity for the pipe, which will then give a value for the friction factor f, using the Barr equation below (or any other friction factor equation e.g. Moody). k 51286 . 1 = −2 log s + From equation (2.9) of the study book gives a better accuracy. f 3.7 D N R 0.89 From trial and error calculations, the following values were obtained. NR = 49.974 x 104 hf = 99.061 m

f = 0.0192

v = 1.423 m/s hf + hm = 100.09 ≈ 100 m

hm = 1.0321

Therefore accept v = 1.423 m/s which gives Q = 1.423 x (π 0.402/4) = 0.179 m3/s If the flow was throttled down to 160 L/s using a valve, then the governing equation is modified.

Revised governing energy equation: 100 = hf + hm + hv where hv is the valve head loss

**The velocity is now 1.273 m/s, the following values were obtained. NR = 44.714 x 104 hm = 0.826 m
**

f = 0.0193

hf = 79.656 m

hv = 100 - (hf + hm) = 100 - 79.656 - 0.826

Additional head loss due to valve is 19.518 m

Prepared by E Yoong

ENV4202 Design & Location of Urban Services

Page 3 of 4

Question 4

Difference in elevation head = 90 m which delivers an unknown flow through 350 mm diameter pipeline 15 km long. Use the energy equation (1.8) of study book, to derive the following governing equation.

Consider first gravity flow

The 90 m head has to account for friction loss and minor loss which gives the governing equation:

f L v2 /(2 g D) + 20 v2 /(2g) = 90

but one equation with two unknowns; therefore we need a second equation. Equations (2.8) or (2.9) for the friction factor f from study book p.2.5 may be used and a trial velocity will also be required so that when applied to the above governing equation equality will be reached by trial and error.

v, m/s

1.300 1.500 1.425

NR = ρ v D/µ

399473 460931 437884

f (from eqn 2.9)

0.0199 0.0198 0.0198

H (calculated)

75.136 < 90 99.495 > 90 89.962 ≈ 90

There is convergence between the available & calculated head at a velocity = 1.425 m/s, Thus, discharge under gravity flow, Q = v x A = 1.425 x πD2 /4 = 0.1371 m3/s Alternatively; Assume a value for f = 0.02 as a first trial, so that [(0.02 x 15000/0.35) + 20] v2 /(2 x 9.81) = 90 which gives v = 1.42 m/s Check for validity of the assumed friction factor f from the Moody diagram (fig 2.1, p.2.5 of study book) NR = 1.42 x 0.35 /(1.139 x 10-6) = 4.36 x 105 and ks /D = 0.00086 From the Moody diagram the corresponding f = 0.019 accept as close to 0.02, otherwise re-estimate using the revised f value. Therefore, Q = v A = 1.425 x π x 0.352/4 = 0.1371 m3/s or 137 L/s

With the pump installed, flow will increase together with increased losses f L v2 /(2 g D) + 20 v2 /(2g) = H = 90 at gravity flow of 137 L/s

Prepare a table of head losses (H) against Q i.e. system head curve of the pipeline

Prepared by E Yoong

ENV4202 Design & Location of Urban Services

Page 4 of 4

Q m /s 0.137 0.140 0.145 0.150 0.155 0.160 0.165 0.170

3

v m/s 1.4250 1.4551 1.5071 1.5591 1.6110 1.6630 1.7150 1.7669

NR 437884 447143 463112 479082 495051 511021 526990 542959

f 0.0198 0.0198 0.0198 0.0197 0.0197 0.0197 0.0197 0.0197

H 90 94 100 107 114 122 129 137

The relationship Q - H is known as the system head of the pipeline i.e. pipeline losses. Next, from the given pump characteristics data add the gravity head i.e. 90 m Tabulate the pump characteristic plus gravity head against discharge:

Discharge, m /s Manometric head, m Total head, m

3

0 50.0 140.0

0.05 49.0 139.0

0.10 46.5 136.5

0.15 42.0 132.0

0.20 36.0 126.0

0.25 28.2 118.2

Plot the values of the system head curve and the total pump characteristic curve (pump curve) against flow.

150 140 130

Hm

**120 110 100 90 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200
**

3

system head pump curve

0.250

0.300

Q m /s

At the intersection of the two curves there is a balance or equality of the gross pumping head and the pipeline losses. The point of intersection gives a pump flow of 165 L/s at a delivery head of 40 m. Note: The Moody diagram if used will not be able to give any accuracy beyond the second decimal. The above values of f were obtained from equation (2.9) of the study book.

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