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# Basics of Pipe Stress - (1) | PIPING GUIDE

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**Basics of Pipe Stress - (1)
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1. Introduction:

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Present day process plant piping systems use various fluids at various conditions of pressure and temperature. The piping engineer has to design the systems to ensure reliability and safety throughout designed plant life. The piping systems are subjected to combined effects of fluid internal pressure, its own weight and restrained thermal expansion. The elevated temperature also affects the pipe strength adversely. Therefore the task of the engineer is: i) To specify an adequate wall thickness to sustain the internal pressure with safety. ii) To select a piping layout with an adequate flexibility between points of anchorage to absorb its thermal expansion without exceeding allowable material stress levels, also reacting thrusts and moments at the points of anchorage must be kept below certain limits. iii) To limit the additional stresses due to the dead weight of the piping by providing suitable supporting system- effective for cold as well as hot conditions. All these objectives are achieved by: a) Assuming adequate support to prevent excessive sag and stresses in piping system. b) Incorporating sufficient flexibility to accommodate stress resulting from changes in pipe length due to thermal effects and movement of the connection at the ends of the pipe.

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Crude Oil Natural Gas Gasoline Heating Oil Gold Silver Copper 104.04 2.02 3.12 3.14 1643.46 31.68 3.70 + 0.15% +0.12% + 0.21% +0.12% - 0.00% - 0.02% - 0.19%

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c) Designing the piping system to prevent its exerting excessive forces and movements on equipment such as pumps and tanks or on other connection and support points.

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The stress engineer of a piping design department performs the necessary calculations to ascertain that the various requirements due to internal pressure, thermal expansion and external weight are satisfied. Various computer packages are available in the market, which perform the required rigorous analysis. These analyses are basically static analyses. There are situations where stresses are introduced into the piping systems due to dynamic loading situations like reciprocating compressor vibration, safety valve discharge etc. However it is the static analysis which most of the pipe stress engineers perform and are acquainted with. Now the present day computer packages that are being used (CEASAR-II, CAEPIPE, PIPEPLUS etc.) are quite comprehensive and if the piping configuration and pipe data are fed properly, comprehensive analysis are done through the computer packages. This has improved pipe stress analysis job productivity immensely. However sometimes this has led to a decline in the knowledge about the basics of pipe stress analysis especially in situation where the stress analysis engineer after acquiring some sort of skill in the use of the analysis package does not make effort to learn about the basics of pipe stress. Some of the ideas about the basics of pipe stress have been enumerated herein.

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• A Process Design Engineer’s Perspective on Using Equivalent Lengths of Valves and Fittings in Pipeline Pressure Drop Calculations • McCabe-Thiele method • OIL INDUSTRY CONVERSIONS • What is Heat Pipe? • Common mistakes in process design/simulation • CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF VALVES FOR PIPING NETWORK • Fabricated Tees & Area Reinforcement & Flexible Analysis • MATERIAL SELECTION - PIPING • SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER: CORRECTED LIMITED LMTD

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2. General ideas on failure of materials: Failures of material can occur by: a) Brittle fracture

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b) Excessive elastic deformation c) Excessive non-elastic (plastic or viscous) deformations d) Thermal or mechanical fatigue.

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2.1 Brittle Fracture: Steel is generally considered to be a ductile material. However in certain cases steels sometimes rupture without prior evidence of distress. Such brittle failures are accompanied by but little plastic deformation, and the energy required to propagate the fracture appears to be quite low. The three conditions, which control this tendency for steel to behave in a brittle fashion, include (1) high stress concentration; i.e. notches, nickes, scratches, internal flows or sharp edges in geometry

• GAS COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE • ORIFICE SIZING FOR FLUID FLOW • PARTIAL VOLUMES OF TANKS • SIZING OF LIQUID-VAPOR SEPARATORS • FORCE ON A PIPE BEND • GAS PIPE FLOW: FLOW RATE CALCULATION FOR INCLINED PIPELINE • GAS PIPE FLOW: FLOW RATE CALCULATION FOR HORIZONTAL PIPELINE • NATURAL GAS: Z-FACTOR & VISCOSITY FOR GIVEN SPECIFIC GRAVITY • NATURAL GAS: Z-FACTOR & VISCOSITY FOR GIVEN COMPOSITION • LIQUID PIPE FLOW: PIPE DIAMETER CALCULATION

http://www.pipingguide.net/2008/08/basics-of-pipe-stress-1.html

4/22/2012

PIPING • DESIGN OF PIPING . 2. steel with low transition temperature are generally preferred for service involving severe stress concentrations.B31.2 Elastic and non elastic deformation: Elastic deformamations are deformations that disappear when the stress is removed. Plastic deformation is non-reversible. used to describe this progressive deformation may occur in metals even at stress below the short time yield strength or proportional limit. low temperature or combination of the three. Mechanical fatigue is caused by pipe movement. Severe localized mechanical stress have caused or contributed to failures. impact loading.B31.. However there is another kind of plastic deformation called creep where the deformation increases with time at constant stress. Standards of Pipes and Fittings Ankit Chugh Sorry i didn't get you? http://www. the temperature of the high temperature piping systems should be maintained continuously and uniformly as far as possible. which is the term.(1) | PIPING GUIDE Page 2 of 4 (2) a high rate of straining and (3) a low temperature. Distances and Clearances • PIPING CODES & STANDARDS 0 Like 1 person liked this.Basics of Pipe Stress . Thermal expansion and contraction occur in all metal components by the change in temperature. At certain temperature levels creep.1 • PIPING SYMBOLS You may also like - CONTENTS Basics of Pipe Stress .5 Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components • B31. Thus the yield strength or proportional limit.pipingguide.(2) Flexibility Analysis of Piping (Part-2) Flexibility Analysis of Piping (Part-1) PDS TUTORIALS: Model Revision (Revise Existing . Continued to BASICS OF PIPE STRESS . A look at the stress strain diagram of say a carbon steel material will clarify the concepts.8 • DESIGN OF PIPING . Over a long period this results in thermal fatigue.CSA Z662 • DESIGN OF PIPING .2 • PIPE LINES • PIPELINE RISERS • FLANGES • PIPE WORK • VALVES • SIZING OF PIPELINES • PE Pipes and Dimensions • PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN & CODES • NPSH .html 4/22/2012 .. 2.1 Power Pping • DESIGN LOADS . It follows that a steel with low transition temperature is more likely to behave in a ductile manner and therefore.REPRESENTATION • The Database Listing Form • Positioning Radial Nozzles • PDMS SYNTAX'S • PDMS PSEUDO ATTRIBUTES • PDMS Creating & Deleting Elements • PDMS Orientation Commands • PDMS Positioning Commands (Piping) • PDMS Positioning Commands (General) • PDMS QUERY COMMANDS • SETTING PDMS ATTRIBUTES • PDMS SYNTAX EXAMPLES • STRUCTURE.3 Process Piping • B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems • B31.. Steel with high transition temperature is more likely to behave in a brittle manner during fabrication or in service.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for liquid hydrocarbons and other liquids • B31.net/2008/08/basics-of-pipe-stress-1. restraints preventing free movement or other conditions. Thermal fatigue is caused by frequent change in operating temperatures of pipeline. which the steel behaves in a predominantly ductile manner and below which it behaves in a predominantly brittle maner.(2) • Basics of Pipe Stress . EQUIPMENT & OTHERS Remaining Commands of PDMS • PDMS COMMANDS: PIPING COMMANDS Piping Articles Failure has occurred when the service become more severe than the conditions for which the piping was originally designed. vibration.3 Thermal and mechanical fatigue: • LIQUID PIPE FLOW: FLOW RATE CALCULATION • LIQUID PIPE FLOW: PRESSURE DROP CALCULATION • LIQUID PIPE FLOW: PIPE LENGTH CALCULATION • REYNOLDS NUMBER AND FRICTION FACTORS PDMS Articles • PDMS .3 • DESIGN OF PIPING – B31.how about stress in valves? 3 years ago Like Reply ► March (1) ▼ February (68) General Guidelines for Equipment and Piping Locati.1 • AN INTRODUCTION TO PIPELINE PIGGING – 2 TO SUBSCRIBE TO THE UPDATES OF ARTICLES CLICK HE 0 Like 0 • ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code – (Digital Version) • CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF VALVES FOR PIPING NETWORK • Basics of Pipe Stress . • Piping & Instrumentation Diagram • Standards of Pipes and Fittings • General Guidelines for Equipment and Piping Location.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems • B31. Hence for best metallurgical conditions.. which are determined by short time tensile tests do not represent satisfactory criteria for the design of piping systems over the entire temperature range CREEP RATE or CREEP LIMIT determination through a large number of long time tensile test of elevated temperature becomes necessary. • PIPING DESIGN Showing 5 of 8 comments Sort by popular now • FOULING • PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION Syahrul_msi Like Piping Guide Zone this article is very importance for gas transportation by pipeline system 0 ► 2012 (29) Like Reply 3 months ago ► 2011 (1) ► 2010 (17) ▼ 2009 (128) ► December (3) ► November (5) ► October (1) ► September (4) ► August (8) ► July (11) ► June (5) ► May (11) ► April (7) Ankit Chugh Thank you Syahrul_msi 3 months ago in reply to Syahrul_msi Like Reply teronk piping.(1) • Standards of Pipes and Fittings • B31. Spacing.. When the stress is removed plastic strain approximately remains unaltered. The transition temperature for any steel is the temperature above. Thermal or mechanical fatigue is usually the most common causes of failures in high temperature piping systems.Net Positive Suction Head • “m” & “y” Factors in calculations for Gaskets in Heat Exchanger Equipment Designing • Pump Suction Strainers • PIPING & TUBE SPECIFICATIONS • AIR-COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS • PIPELINE PIGGING • AN INTRODUCTION TO PIPELINE PIGGING .

yield strength of room temp. All these values have been Like Google Translate My Page Translate Select Language Gadgets powered by Google Process Articles • A Process Design Engineer’s Perspective on Using Equivalent Lengths of Valves and Fittings in Pipeline Pressure Drop Calculations • McCabe-Thiele method • OIL INDUSTRY CONVERSIONS • What is Heat Pipe? • Common mistakes in process design/simulation • CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF VALVES FOR PIPING NETWORK • Fabricated Tees & Area Reinforcement & Flexible Analysis • MATERIAL SELECTION . Get Us EveryWhere!! Like 235 people like this. These two codes have the maximum usage among the Indian pipe stress Engineers for Petrochemical/ Refinery.33 times the lowest stress to produce rupture at temp.02% . and in No case more than 1. For our design purpose and allowable stress value is fixed which is based on a certain factor of safety over the yield strength or ultimate tensile strength. Ads by Google Pipe Fittings Stress Stress Relaxation Pipe Fittings Steel Basics of Pipe Stress .0 Allowable stress range: The stress of a piping system lowers within the elasticity range in which plastic flow does not occur by self-spring during several initial cycles even if the calculation value exceeds the yield point.19% » Add to your site Natural Gas Gasoline Heating Oil Gold Silver Copper 3.PIPING made available after carrying on repeated laboratory tests on the specimen. • SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER: CORRECTED LIMITED LMTD • GAS COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE • ORIFICE SIZING FOR FLUID FLOW • PARTIAL VOLUMES OF TANKS • SIZING OF LIQUID-VAPOR SEPARATORS • FORCE ON A PIPE BEND • GAS PIPE FLOW: FLOW RATE CALCULATION FOR INCLINED PIPELINE • GAS PIPE FLOW: FLOW RATE CALCULATION FOR HORIZONTAL PIPELINE • NATURAL GAS: Z-FACTOR & VISCOSITY FOR GIVEN SPECIFIC GRAVITY The maximum stress range a system could be subjected to without producing flow neither in the cold nor in the hot condition was first proposed by ARC Mark as follows: • NATURAL GAS: Z-FACTOR & VISCOSITY FOR GIVEN COMPOSITION • LIQUID PIPE FLOW: PIPE DIAMETER CALCULATION http://www.pipingguide. Hence repture in a piping system may be due to low cycle fatigue. Commodities 104.12% + 0. 0 4.5 or Sr = 1. and thereafter-steady respective stress is applied.html 4/22/2012 .3 and IBR are described herein.7 ii) For temperatures above 454 Deg. Various codes detail the allowable stress basis. at a temp.(2) Posted by Ankit Chugh on 4:42 AM 0 Comments and 0 Reactions Search your Query Here Search I'm on Add to circles .12 3. The mean stress does not always become zero if self spring takes place in piping system but in the ANSI code.5 Where R = Min. b) 1/3 of tensile strength of design temp.C.04 2.net/2008/08/basics-of-pipe-stress-2.21% +0. Sc = Average stress to produce an elongation of 1% creep in 100. c) 2/3 of Min. Crude Oil 10 396 followers Enter your email Subscribe RSS Feed LinkedIn Google Plus Â» Subscribe via email Get all new articles & jobs directly in your inbox.1 Allowable stress as per ACSI: As per Petroleum refinery piping code ANSI B31. d) 2/3 of Min.Basics of Pipe Stress . As pe the Indian Boiler Regulations the allowable working stress is calculated as shown below: i) For temperatures at or below 454 Deg.14 1643. It is well known that fatigue strength usually depends upon the mean stress and the stress amplitude. the value of the mean stress is disregarded while the algebraic difference between the maximum and the minimum stress namely only the stress range SA is employed as the criterion of the strength against fatigue rupture.000 hr’s.1 3. of the following values.15% +0.0. a) 1/3 of the minimum tensile strength at room temp.12% . e) 100% of average stress for creep rate of O/D 1% per 1000 hr’s. Et = Yield point (02% proof stress) at the temp. 3.0 Allowable stress: From stress strain diagram of a material like carbon steel we know about yield strength as also ultimate tensile strength.0. For higher temperature applications creep strength also comes in picture. 0 Sr = Average stress to produce rupture in 100.C the allowable stress is lower of the Values: Et = 1. yield strength at design temp.02 3.(2) | PIPING GUIDE Page 1 of 4 Home About Us Contents FAQ'S in Interviews Advertise With Us Contact Us 10 PIPING GUIDE A Unique blog for Oil and Gas Professionals covering topics related to Piping and Process.3 the basic allowable stress values are the min.46 31.68 3. the allowable stress is the lower of the following values: Et = 1. tensile strength of the steel at room temp.5 or R = 2. The basis adopted in ANSI B31.70 + 0.00% .000 hr’s. Continued from BASICS OF PIPE STRESS . Just enter your email address: Subscribe You will receive a confirmation email to confirm the subscription.0.2 Allowable Stress as per IBR: Quotes delayed 15 min.

They are: i) Stress due to the thermal expansion of the line. • LIQUID PIPE FLOW: PRESSURE DROP CALCULATION • LIQUID PIPE FLOW: PIPE LENGTH CALCULATION • REYNOLDS NUMBER AND FRICTION FACTORS b) At elevated temperatures at which creep is more likely the stress in the pipe material shall itself to the rupture strength i.REPRESENTATION • The Database Listing Form • Positioning Radial Nozzles • PDMS SYNTAX'S • PDMS PSEUDO ATTRIBUTES Sh = 1.PIPING • DESIGN OF PIPING . fittings. Ye = 1.e.1 • AN INTRODUCTION TO PIPELINE PIGGING – 2 • ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code – (Digital Version) 5. Cycles over expected life 7. the internal fluid. changes solely is called expansion stress SE.000 and less 0.25 Sh) VALUES OF FACTOR ‘ f ’ Total number of full ‘ f ’ factor Temp. valves and external loading such as wind.3 • DESIGN OF PIPING – B31. therefore.8 45. Standards of Pipes and Fittings http://www. 8/5th PDMS Articles • PDMS .6 Sc.0 Pressure & Bending Stress & Combination Application: • CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF VALVES FOR PIPING NETWORK • Basics of Pipe Stress . SE = Sb2 + 4St2 0 Sb = I (Mb / Z) = resulting bending stress Like Piping Guide Zone Mt = (Mt /2Z) = torsional stress / 0 ► 2012 (29) ► 2011 (1) ► 2010 (17) ▼ 2009 (128) ► December (3) ► November (5) ► October (1) ► September (4) ► August (8) ► July (11) ► June (5) Mb = resulting bending movement Mt / = torsional movement Z = section modules of pipe ► May (11) ► April (7) ► March (1) ▼ February (68) i = stress intensification factor General Guidelines for Equipment and Piping Locati.net/2008/08/basics-of-pipe-stress-2. pressure stress.CSA Z662 • DESIGN OF PIPING . EQUIPMENT & OTHERS Remaining Commands of PDMS • PDMS COMMANDS: PIPING COMMANDS However. This stress must be within the allowable stress range SA.(2) • Basics of Pipe Stress . 5. Therefore stress range = 1. earthquake etc.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for liquid hydrocarbons and other liquids • B31.1 • PIPING SYMBOLS • Piping & Instrumentation Diagram • Standards of Pipes and Fittings • General Guidelines for Equipment and Piping Location. hot stresses and any other stresses inducted by external loads such as wind and earthquake.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems • B31. The maximum stress due to thermal.1 Stresses due to the thermal expansion of the line: Temperature change in restrained piping cause bending stresses in single plane systems.B31..1 Power Pping • DESIGN LOADS .6 250.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems • B31.(2) | PIPING GUIDE Page 2 of 4 • LIQUID PIPE FLOW: FLOW RATE CALCULATION a) In cold condition the stress in the pipe material will automatically limit itself to the yield strength or 8/5 of Sc because Sc is limited to 5/8th of Y. ii) The longitudinal stresses due to internal or external pressure.e. iii) The bending stress created by the weight of the pipe and its insulation.000 and less 0.000 and less 0.6 Sh.5 Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components • B31. Spacing.6f(Sc = Sh) • PDMS Creating & Deleting Elements • PDMS Orientation Commands • PDMS Positioning Commands (Piping) • PDMS Positioning Commands (General) • PDMS QUERY COMMANDS • SETTING PDMS ATTRIBUTES • PDMS SYNTAX EXAMPLES • STRUCTURE.000 and less 0. f is the stress range reduction factor for cyclic conditions as given below: To determine the stress range available for expansion stress alone we subtract the stresses inducted by pressure stress and weight stress which itself cannot exceed sh.000 and less 0. expansion – stress. and bending and torsional stresses in three-dimensional system. Therefore the range for expansion stress only is SA = f(1.000 and less 1 14.7 100.(1) • Standards of Pipes and Fittings • B31.8 • DESIGN OF PIPING . Distances and Clearances • PIPING CODES & STANDARDS • PIPING DESIGN • FOULING • PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION The code confines the stress examination to the most significant stresses created by the diversity of loading to which a piping system is subjected.S.B31.Basics of Pipe Stress .25f(Sc + Sh) which includes all stresses i.pipingguide.3 Process Piping • B31.25 Sc + 0.Net Positive Suction Head • “m” & “y” Factors in calculations for Gaskets in Heat Exchanger Equipment Designing • Pump Suction Strainers • PIPING & TUBE SPECIFICATIONS • AIR-COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS • PIPELINE PIGGING • AN INTRODUCTION TO PIPELINE PIGGING .html 4/22/2012 .5 Piping Articles • PIPE LINES • PIPELINE RISERS • FLANGES • PIPE WORK • VALVES • SIZING OF PIPELINES • PE Pipes and Dimensions • PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN & CODES • NPSH . the code limits the stress range conservatively as 1.9 22..

. Both flexibility factor and stress intensification factors have been described in PROCESS PIPING CODE”(ASME B31.. and it is reviewed whether the stresses are within allowable limits. which acts as stress raisers. 7. MATERIAL SELECTION . API-617..2 Longitudinal stress due to internal or external pressure: AN INTRODUCTION TO PIPELINE PIGGING -1 AN INTRODUCTION TO PIPELINE PIGGING –2 The longitudinal stress due to internal/external pressure shall be expressed as P (Ai / Am) Where Ai is inside cross sectional area of pipe.html 4/22/2012 .. However the pipe stress engineers are advised to study the specific applicable codes also as this will give them a further insight for solving specific problems related to equipment Like nozzle loading. EQUIPMENT & OTHERS Remaining Commands o..3) and is also included in the various pipe stress analysis computer programmes. This leads to higher flexibility of the end as there is some decrease in moment of inertia due to distortion from circular to elliptical shape and also due to fact that the outer layer fibers. Flexibility factor of a fitting is actually the ratio of rotation per unit length of the fitting in question under certain value of moment to the rotation of a straight pipe of same nominal diameter and schedule and under identical value of moment. The pipefitting item.Basics of Pipe Stress .B31. For the analysis of these piping connected with various rotating equipment.5 Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Compo.(2) | PIPING GUIDE Page 3 of 4 Recommend on Google 5. various codes like NEMA SM-23. vendor also provide information regarding nozzle movements and allowable loads.. PDMS COMMANDS: PIPING COMMANDS PIPING CODES & STANDARDS SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER: CORRECTED LIMITED LMT. B31.1 Power Pping Fabricated Tees & Area Reinforcement & Flexible An.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for liquid h.(2) Basics of Pipe Stress .REPRESENTATION The Database Listing Form Positioning Radial Nozzles PDMS SYNTAX'S PDMS PSEUDO ATTRIBUTES PDMS Creating & Deleting Elements PDMS Orientation Commands PDMS Positioning Commands (Piping) One end is anchored and the other end is attached to a rigid arm to which a force is applied. compressors centrifugal pumps.1 PIPING SYMBOLS B31.0 Flexibility and stress intensification factor: Some of the piping items (say pipe elbow) show different flexibility than predicted by ordinary beam theory. B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems The stress induced. fluid. What is a Heat Pipe? Common mistakes in process design/simulation Basics of Pipe Stress . It is the responsibility of the equipment engineer to ensure that the allowable loads 0 as agreed by vendors are always equal to or greater the values as per the respective applicable code..(1) CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF VALVES FOR PIPING NETWOR. Z is the section modules of the pipe.2 AUTO CAD KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS .B31... They do not participate in stress reductions due to relaxation and are excluded from the comparison of which as the latter has been adjusted to allow for them with the following provision. Piping component used in piping system has notches/discontinuities in the piping system.. B31. NATURAL GAS: Z-FACTOR & VISCOSITY FOR GIVEN COMPOS. The outer fibers of the bend/elbow will be under tension and the inner fibers will be under compression. For example a fabricated tee branch. is a pipe elbow/bend..PIPING DESIGN LOADS .. self weight of pipe.net/2008/08/basics-of-pipe-stress-2.1 PIPING DESIGN 6.... Am is the metal area. However in lot of cases pipe stress analysis becomes critical and rather complicated because it is not only stress of piping but the nozzle loading of the various equipment which has to be kept within allowable limits. 5.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Sys..3 DESIGN OF PIPING – B31. P is the pressure. Due to shape of bend both tension and compression will have component in the same direction creating distortion/slottening of bend. Where M is bending moment created by the pipe and other fittings. TO SUBSCRIBE TO THE UPDATES OF ARTICLES CLICK HERE 0 0 Like 0 You may also like - http://www.. The stresses due to internal pressure and weight of the piping are permanently sustained. give guidelines regarding the allowable nozzle loading. GAS PIPE FLOW: FLOW RATE CALCULATION FOR HORIZONTA. PDMS . As explained earlier pipe stresses are calculated for various type of loading such as pressure.3 Process Piping B31. weight.pipingguide. B31.3 Weight Stress: AUTO CAD SHORTCUTS . PDMS Positioning Commands (General) PDMS QUERY COMMANDS SETTING PDMS ATTRIBUTES PDMS SYNTAX EXAMPLES STRUCTURE..0 Equipment nozzle loading: NATURAL GAS: Z-FACTOR & VISCOSITY FOR GIVEN SPECIF. thermal etc. FORCE ON A PIPE BEND LIQUID PIPE FLOW: PIPE DIAMETER CALCULATION LIQUID PIPE FLOW: FLOW RATE CALCULATION LIQUID PIPE FLOW: PIPE LENGTH CALCULATION REYNOLDS NUMBER AND FRICTION FACTORS PIPELINE PIGGING PIPELINE RISERS PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION FOULING SIZING OF PIPELINES PIPE LINES FLANGES PIPE WORK VALVES LIQUID PIPE FLOW: PRESSURE DROP CALCULATION McCabe-Thiele method ► January (4) ► 2008 (6) ► 2007 (1) For rotating equipment’s like steam turbines.. API-610 etc.. Various computer packages now have equipment nozzle check features..CSA Z662 DESIGN OF PIPING . which are under tension has to elongate less and the inner layer fibers which are under compression has to contract less to accommodate the same angular rotation leading to higher flexibility.8 DESIGN OF PIPING . GAS COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE ORIFICE SIZING FOR FLUID FLOW PARTIAL VOLUMES OF TANKS SIZING OF LIQUID-VAPOR SEPARATORS PREFIXES OF INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS GENERAL CONVERSION FACTORS GAS PIPE FLOW: FLOW RATE CALCULATION FOR INCLINED . which shows substantial flexibility..PIPING DESIGN OF PIPING . The concept of stress intensification comes from this and is defined as the ratio of the bending moment producing fatigue failure in a given number of cycles in straight pipe of nominal dimensions to that producing failure in the same number of cycles for the part under consideration. fittings etc. as given by SW = M/Z.