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FRANCOIS ALOUGES AND ANTONIO DESIMONE cylindrical shaft is presented. The algorithm is based on the notion of viscosity solutions to the eikonal equation, and is not restricted to simply-connected cross-sections. Applications to other, related problems, such as ferromagnetic thin lms, and elastic buckling of thin lm blisters are also discussed.

Abstract. A simple algorithm to calculate the maximum torsional load for a

1. Introduction A classical problem in Plasticity more speci cally, in Limit Analysis is that of determining the maximum admissible torsional load for a cylindrical shaft. If the yield criterion is von Mises', and if the cross section is simply connected, the solution can be obtained through Nadai's sand heap" analogy 8 . When the cross-section is not simply connected, the sand heap construction can still be used, provided that constant heights are judiciously assigned on the contours of the internal holes1 . Mathematically, constructing sand heaps amounts to solving the eikonal equation. There are many solutions to this equation, typically with discontinuous slopes. However, the tallest admissible sand heap, i.e., the maximal pointwise Lipschitz solution of the eikonal equation can be obtained as its viscosity solution an introduction to the notion of viscosity solution can be found in 3 . Very e cient computational methods for nding viscosity solutions have become available in the last decade, and they are easy to implement 10 . Inspired by these recent advances, we present an algorithm to compute the limit plastic torque for a cylindrical shaft with multiply connected cross-section. We also discuss the application of the algorithm to a few more physical systems, whose behavior is also modelled by the eikonal equation. We hope that the few lines of Matlab code provided herein will entice many to experiment with plastic torsional loads, isotropic thin lm ferromagnets, and elastically buckled thin lm blisters. 2. Limit torque for a cylindrical shaft Let be the cross-section of a cylindrical shaft under torsion, a nice open set in R2 . Since is not assumed to be simply connected, its boundary @ may consist of several disjoint components: ,0 , the outer boundary, and ,1 = @ 1 ; : : : ; , = @ , the boundaries of the internal holes . Finally, let denote the lled" crosssection 1 ::: .

n n i n

Plasticity, Limit Analysis, Torsion, Eikonal Equation, Ferromagnetism, Magnetic Domains, Thin Films, von K
rm
n Plates. a a 1 See, e.g., 5 . A discussion of the more general elastoplastic problem is in 4 . 1

Key words and phrases.

Date

: October 28, 1999.

n .2 the largest solution to the problem 2. rx rx dx = 2 x dx : i i i i i i i i i i Here rx = x1 . where is the outer unit normal to . Depending on . . x2 is the radius vector from the origin and r ^ t = x1 t2 . the maximal admissible torsional load is obtained by plugging in 2. This takes care of the rst equilibrium condition in 2. While we are free to assign the value zero on .1 div t = 0 in . Level set methods and viscosity solution to the eikonal equation Equation 2. These can be represented using a stream function such that r = . and assuming that the cross-section is everywhere at yield. hence is constant on each . x = 0 on @ . The equilibrium conditions at the boundary become r = 0. Moreover. i = 0 : : : . . we are led to seeking divergence-free unit vector elds which are tangent to the boundary. x2 t1 . . Normalizing this threshold to one. t = 0 on . where is tangent to . t1 .2 FRANCOIS ALOUGES AND ANTONIO DESIMONE i . where x equals one on and zero elsewhere. . i . Such a distribution is plastically admissible according to von Mises' criterion if its magnitude never exceeds the yield value. we want to choose these constants so that the corresponding torque is maximized.0 . the constant values on the inner boundaries are restricted grows at most with unit slope from the value zero at the outer boundary. Thus.3 . it may have no smooth solution. let be which is constant on each . An equilibrated distribution of shear stresses on is a two-dimensional vector eld t = t1 . 3.2 M= rx ^ tx dx = . We proceed as follows: Given de ned in and constant on each . .3 is the eikonal equation the name comes from the fact that it describes light propagation: here we are assuming in nite speed of propagation in the holes. but many di erent ones with discontinuous slopes. The cross-section of a circular shaft. t2 satisfying 2.1. The theory of viscosity solutions gives a way to break this degeneracy by singling out the maximal pointwise Lipschitz solution to 2.t2 .0 Figure 1. Integration by parts shows that its extension to the torque M generated by the shear stress distribution t is twice the integral over of the corresponding extended stream function : Z Z Z 2.3 jrxj = x in .

Delta = 2*C2-A-B. avoids division by 0 outside the domain C2 = C.20. axis 0 M 0 N .5. val = menu'Choose a test-case'. T2:M-1.2:N-T1:M-1. X1 = 0.-SGN.3:N. S2:M-1. First value for the outside colormap map axis square end 3 Figure 2. map1. two test-cases on a disk F.SGN.. Magnetic football end C = 1. P=uint8S1:M-1.y =meshgridx. M=100.2:N-1. DeSimone July 1999 close all. The disk T = big*S.2:N-1.^2-0. Alouges & A.5. map = colormap.x.clear all.-signx-0. big=1. small=1. The MATLAB script. Main loop for i=1:maxM. colormap gray.1:N-2.'Torsion'.:= 0 1 1 . pmax=maxmaxP.N=100.1:N-1.e9. .25 2. x= 0:N-1 N-1.'Magnetism'.^2+y-0..2:N-1+small. X2 = minA. end if val == 1 FIGURE 1 : 3D Graph of the potential figure1.^2. 2.pmin=minminP. axis equal. else T:. x.*X2.*X1+1. S = 1.5*A+B+sqrtabsDelta. contourT.2:N-1.T2:M-1.PLASTIC TORSION AND RELATED PROBLEMS Solution to the Eikonal Equation.e-40.T3:M.*64*P-pmin pmax-pmin+1. Sand_Heap_Volume=abssumsumT else FIGURE : KERR like visualisation P=T2:M. SGN = signDelta+1. surfT.N 4:N 2 = big.^2. Take infinite speed inside a square hole SM 4:M 2. imageP. FIGURE 2 : Contour lines figure2.M 2 = 0.B + C..2:N-1 = minT2:M-1. if val==1 Torsion.1:N-1.N A = minT1:M-2. B = minT2:M-1.

In the absence of an applied magnetic eld. by allowing all plastically admissible stress elds rather than only those for which the cross-section is everywhere at yield. Field lines for the shear stresses realizing the maximal admissible torque in a circular cross-section with a square hole. see 2. we obtain the same maximal torque. 2 .3 with replacing the equality sign. For a disk. models the response of a physical system. The algorithm can be made very fast by updating information only in a narrow band around the marching front. which is printed out by the program in a simple yet representative example. 4. and to construct the solution by propagating a wave front inwards. The basic idea of the algorithm is to view x as the rst arrival time at x of a light ray emanating from the outer boundary. see Figure 2. This proves the intuitive idea that.2.3 in 7 also shows that the viscosity solution is the maximal Lipschitz function satisfying 2. Introducing a stream function . the viscosity In fact. A very e cient strategy for the numerical computation of viscosity solutions is described in 10 . see 7 . Proposition 7. x = 0 on @ .4 100 FRANCOIS ALOUGES AND ANTONIO DESIMONE 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Figure 3. Proposition 7. Related problems The plastic torsion problem gives just one example where the eikonal equation 4.1.1 jrxj = 1 in . starting from @ . Figure 3 shows the eld lines for t the value of M is easily obtained from the integral of . we get 4.32. We give two more. We have chosen not to implement this feature in our Matlab script. to keep the lines of code to a minimum. the magnetization in a thin ferromagnetic lm of cross section made of a soft ferromagnetic material can be thought of as a two-dimensional divergence-free unit vector eld after normalization 6 .

and P. F. Many . To obtain a pattern similar to the experimentally observed football shaped con guration of Figure 4. with very characteristic shapes.1. is the a a out-of-plane de ection of the lm.PLASTIC TORSION AND RELATED PROBLEMS 5 Figure 4. A simpli ed model has been derived in 9 from von K rm n's theory of plates. upon cooling. r is the slope of the lm with respect to the horizontal substrate. Podio-Guidugli. It is remarkable how such simple a model can faithfully reproduce the complicated folding patterns of the observed blisters. Delamination of the lm and subsequent buckling is then a mechanism to release these compressive stresses. solution gives a cone which. In this case. and 1 is a normalized preferred slope for the lm which accomplishes optimal release of the thermal stresses. a di erence in the thermal expansion coe cients between lm and substrate may induce. This is actually observed. Otto. we assign to the value zero along a diameter the output will appear by executing the Matlab program in Figure 2.1 gives insight in the behavior of a physical system is the formation of buckling-induced blisters in the thin. a state of isotropic compression in the lm. Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge valuable discussions with R. and it results in the formation of blisters in the coating. Kerr microscopy of a four-domain pattern in a soft ferromagnetic lm courtesy of R. The reader is encouraged to experiment with our code to nd an initial assignement for that will produce the two small triangular regions closure domains that are visible in Figure 4. leading to 4. Kohn. Schafer. IFW Dresden.lm coating of a at substrate. represents a vortex. Figure 5 shows the result of our algorithm on a domain whose boundary was scanned in from 1 .V. in terms of eld lines for the magnetization vector. This work was done while the rst author held a postdoctoral position with the TMR Network on Phase Transitions in Crystaline Solids". Another interesting example where 4. When deposition of the lm occurs at a high temperature.

6 150 FRANCOIS ALOUGES AND ANTONIO DESIMONE 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 .

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