Systematic agreement among six components (Semler, 1997)
Process Reward Systems Values Norms Performance
(ideal v. actual) Cultural components


Structural components

Structural contingency theories

Symbolic Convergence
(Bormann, various)

Theories of action
(Argyris & Schon)

Components of Internal structural fit  Organization structure  Individuals  Skills  Traits  Habits of membership

Components of external structural fit¹  Organization structure  External environment

Reality is a social construction of symbols shared by a group, based on five assumptions:  Through conversation people build a shared view of reality/ “rhetorical vision” that may/may not reflect objective fact  The rhetorical vision is best determined by analyzing a key phrase, sentence, or statement/ ”fantasy theme”  Meaning, emotion, and motives for action are contained in the fantasy theme  Fantasy themes create dramatistic visions with plots, characters, scenes, etc  Rhetorical visions may be in direct conflict

Espoused theories

Theories in use

Internal mental links to thoughts & actions the individual knows about & would offer if questioned

Subconscious links implied by actual behavior, & unknown to individual

Components of:  Action strategies  Consequences for self & others  Governing variables  Action strategy effectiveness

1. Also applies to Semler’s “Environment” component

Five Phase Model of Organizational Growth (Greiner & Schein) Three Phases of Reaction for people in transition (Bridges) Cycles of evolution & revolution; revolutions provide opportunity for dramatic change (good or bad)
1. Growth through creativity—loose structure, informal communication, hard work, low earnings; ends with crisis of leadership 2. Growth through direction—formalization, directive management practices; ends with crisis of autonomy 3. Growth through delegation—upper management struggles with freedom of subordinates, middle management struggles with taking leadership roles; ends with crisis of control 4. Growth through coordination & monitoring—developing bureaucracy, formalized hierarchies & roles; ends with crisis of red tape 5. Growth through collaboration—characterized by high levels of complexity which defines structure and behavior 6. Growth through alliances and strategic partnerships (later added)

Letting go of the past

Neutral zone Acceptance/creation of new beginning

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