Resistance temperature transducers Two main Groups: a. Metal resistance temperature transducers  E.g.

platinum, copper, tungsten, and nickel  It exhibits a small increases in resistance as the temperature rises  i.e they have a positive temperature coefficient of resistance ( )  Where: = temperature coefficient of resistance in 1/ degree celcius = resistance in ohms at the reference temperature = 0 degree celcius  Platinum resistance thermometer -259.35 deg Celsius to 630.5 deg Celsius Thermistors  E.g oxides of manganese, cobalt, chromium, or nickel  These exhibit large non-linear resistance changes with temperature variation and normally have a negative temperature coefficient.

b.

Photoconductive cells    Uses a light-sensitive semiconductors material. The resistance between the metal electrodes decreases as the intensity of the light striking the semiconductor increases. Common semiconductor material used for photoconductive cells: o Cadmium sulphide o Lead sulphide o Copper-doped germanium The useful range of frequencies is determined by the material used Cadmium sulphide is mainly suitable for visible light.

Photoemissive cells   Also called variable conduction or inverse resistance Note: explain the figure

Capacitive transducers  The capacitive transducer is used extensively for the measurement of displacement, pressure etc. Let us see the principle of working of capacitive transducer or sensor also called as variable capacitance transducer. What is Capacitve Transducer? The capacitive transducer or sensor is nothing but the capacitor with variable capacitance. The capacitive transducer comprises of two parallel metal plates that are separated by the material such as air, which is called as the dielectric material. In the typical capacitor the distance between the two plates is fixed, but in variable capacitance transducers the distance between the two plates is variable. In the instruments using capacitance transducers the value of the capacitance changes due to change in the value of the input quantity that is to be measured. This change in capacitance can be measured easily and it is calibrated against the input quantity, thus the value if the input quantity can be measured directly.

This is the most commonly used type of variable capacitance transducer. For measurement of the displacement of the object. This principle is used in the torquemeter. This capacitance. 3) Changing Distance between the Plates of Capacitive Transducers In these capacitive transducers the distance between the plates is variable. 1) Changing Dielectric Constant type of Capacitive Transducers In these capacitive transducer the dielectric material between the two plates changes. they are of three types as mentioned below. while the other is connected to the object. which is displacement. due to which the capacitance of the transducer also changes. used for measurement of the torque on the shaft. A is the area of the plates D is the distance between the plates It is clear from the above formula that capacitance of the capacitive transducer depends on the area of the plates and the distance between the plates. this results in change in distance between the two plates and the change in the capacitance. this principle can also be used for measurement of humidity and moisture content of the air. directly gives the value of the quantity to be measured. 2) Changing Area of the Plates of Capacitive Transducers The capacitance of the variable capacitance transducer also changes with the area of the two plates. This comprises of the sleeve that has teeth cut axially and the matching shaft that has similar teeth at its periphery. velocity. This principle can also be used to measure pressure. . When the object moves. Thus the capacitance of the variable capacitance transducer can change with the change of the dielectric material. The changed capacitance is measured easily and it calibrated against the input quantity. Depending on the parameter that changes for the capacitive transducers. one plate of the capacitance transducer is kept fixed. change in the area of the plates and the distance between the plates. calibrated against the input quantity. where the change in level of hydrogen between the two plates results in change of the dielectric constant of the capacitance transducer. the plate of the capacitance transducer also moves. while the area of the plates and the dielectric constant remain constant.The capacitance C between the two plates of capacitive transducers is given by: C = εo x εr x A/ d Where C is the capacitance of the capacitor or the variable capacitance transducer εo is the absolute permittivity εr is the relative permittivity The product of εo & εr is also called as the dielectric constant of the capacitive transducer. When the input quantity to be measured changes the value of the dielectric constant also changes so the capacitance of the instrument changes. Apart from level. acceleration etc. The capacitance of the capacitive transducer also changes with the dielectric constant of the dielectric material used in it. This principle is used for measurement of level in the hydrogen container.

d. A is the excitation coil and B is the output coil. Measuring techniques used with capacitive and inductive a. As the armature position changes. In the inductive transducers the magnetic materials are used in the flux path and there are one or more air gaps. d. b. Resolution: infinite Accuracy: ±0. There are two common type inductive transducers: simple inductance type and two-coil mutual inductance type. Both have been described below along with their circuits. The output is proportional to the mechanical input. The arrangement shown in figure 5 also works in the similar manner.  Inductive Transducers The inductive transducers work on the principle of the magnetic induction of magnetic material. the air gap between the fixed magnetic material and the armature changes. A.C potentiometer circuits for dynamic measurements D. The change in the air gap also results in change in the inductance of the circuit and in most of the inductive transducers it is used for the working of the instrument. As shown in the figure 4 below.  1) Simple Inductance Type Inductive Transducers In the simple inductance type of the inductive transducers simple single coil is used as the transducer. The output from the circuit is calibrated directly against the value of the input. pressure. and the permeability of the flux path. thus it directly gives the valve of the parameter to be measured. and liquid level. 25x10 -6 m to 10x10 -3 m Rise time: less than 50 microsecond possible Typical measurands are displacements. the size of the magnetic material. c. . b.Inductive transducers There are two common type inductive transducers: simple inductance type and two-coil mutual inductance type. In the first coil the excitation is generated by external source of the power and in the second coil the output is obtained. When the mechanical element whose displacement is to be measured is moved.C circuits to give a voltage proportional to velocity for a capacitor Frequency-modulation methods Important features of capacitive and inductive transducers are follows: a. the induction of the magnetic material depends on a number of variables like the number of turns of the coil on the material. Just as the resistance of the electric conductor depends on number of factors.1% of full scale is quoted Displacement ranges. sound. which changes the inductance of the circuit and the corresponding output. c. 2) Two-Coil Mutual Inductance Type Inductive Transducer In the two coil arrangement there are two different coils. Both have been described below along with their circuits.C excited bridges using differential capacitors or inductors A. The inductance of the output coil changes due to change in position of the armature which is connected to the mechanical element whose motion is to be measured. vibration. it changes the permeance of the flux path generated by the circuit.

There is one primary coil in the middle of the core through which the input voltage is applied. The body whose displacement is to be measured is connected to the iron core. Thus in LVDT the voltage output obtained is linear with respect to the motion of the core moving inside it. which is connected to the body whose displacement is to be measured. Within certain limits on either side of the null position the output obtained from the differential transformer is proportional to the movement of the core. The relative coupling is in turn dependent on the position of the solid core inside the hollow core. As shown in the figure there is certain position of the core. The body whose displacement is to be measured is connected to this core. called as the null position. The linear variable differential transformer or LVDT works within this range of motion of the core. .  What is LVDT? Linear variable differential transformer is popularly known as LVDT. for which the output voltage is zero. Beyond the null position the core moves either to the left or to the right and there is certain output voltage obtained from the differential transformer. The output obtained from the LVDT is calibrated against the input motion of the core. Construction of the LVDT The LVDT is basically a differential transformer. whose voltage output is proportional to the displacement of the object hence it is given the name linear variable differential transformer. thus any motion of the body gives direct output from the LVDT in the form of the displacement. This means the output from the differential transformer is linear with respect to the motion of the core. The LVDT comprises of the one primary winding.Linear variable-differential transformer It works on the principle of differential transformer that has one primary winding and two secondary windings. The magnitude of the output voltage obtained across the sides of the null position is same but they are opposite in phase. In LVDT the linear range obtained through the device is dependent on the length of the secondary coils. The differential transformer has a hollow magnetic core on which three coils are wound as shown in the figure below. The figure below shows the output characteristics of the typical differential transformer. this is an ideal position and is very difficult to attain. which are connected to each other in the phase opposition manner and through which the output is obtained. Thus it is possible to distinguish the two outputs from LVDT by determining the phase difference between the output voltages. Working of the LVDT The input voltage is supplied to the primary coil from the external source of power and the output is obtained from the secondary coils. and two secondary windings connected to each other in series opposing manner as shown in the figure below. Through the hollow another solid core is passed. The amplitude and the phase of the output depend on the relative coupling between the two output coils and primary coil. There are two secondary coils at the two ends of the central core. The voltage output from the LVDT is proportional to the movement of the core whose displacement is to be measured. As the name suggests LVDT comprises of the differential transformer that provides the AC voltage output proportional to the displacement of the core passing through the windings.

5% Excitation frequency 50Hz to 20kHz Null voltage less than 1% of full scale output voltage Maximum displacement frequency 10% of the excitation frequency No wear of moving parts Displacement ranges available from 2x10 -4m to 0. force and liquid level.g pressure. d. Some important characteristics and features of the lvdt are as follows: a. e. . which can be transduced into a displacement. acceleration. e. 3) Another important advantage of LVDT is that the output obtained from it is fairly high and it can be measured easily without requiring the need of the intermediate amplification. c. 3) LVDT is insensitive to the temperature and the changes in the temperature.. Infinite resolution Linearity better than 0. b. f. h.5m Amplitude modulated output Typical measurands are any quantities. 2) LVDT cannot be overloaded mechanically since the core is completely separated from the other parts of the device.Advantages of LVDT 1) The biggest advantage of the LVDT is that the output obtained from it is proportional to the displacement of the mechanical member whose displacement is being measured. g. vibration.

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