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ECTTON 4.1
How to Design Mqchine Bqses
I.
.
R
EO UIR E/VIENTS
Bases for all types of machines and for such subassemb.lies as power drive units ,." usualiy critical to th.e machine,s performance. Theproblem is one of rigidiry under e bending load. essentially ano the base cross_section mLrst have sufficient moment of inertia to resist the bending load withoui excessive deflection. Deflection of bases subjecr to bending loads is coraple.(;. see Sect. 2.9. Topic g. rel3tivtto "Des_ rgnrng a base to resist bending,. NIost bases have more than two Loads, and it is necessary to consider each and to sum them in determining total requireO moment of inertia. Likewise, members of thi base I!ust be considered separately as to their contribu_ tion to the total res istance to d;flectio"; i. _ e. dinal side members and cross membersiongitu ald/or braces. Rotational forces and eccentric static, impact ot cyclic loads usually create an aOAltional proUlem or torsion, or deflection by angular twist. ^The prini mlasurgs taken by the designer to improve ^ctPlf rorslonal resrstance a,ce (1) diagonal brc.cine: (2) closed sections in longitudinal members; anld i:i ngld end connectioos. See Sect. 3.6, Topics ?, and 9. relative to the deflection of built_u; fr;;e; li and the effects of bracing. stiffene rs, parricularly diagonal ,  lllermediare oraces, are important to lessening the unsupp6rted span of the top panel, thereby increasing'its sistance to localized deflection under beidinE.re_ Excess ive deflection ofa base may cause aneular mi saliglrnelrr, especially trouUtesome in ifr" c.?li mechaoicalll,, coupled power Oriu" compoo"nls anOor snans rnbearings. ltrnayresultin high vibration and eccentric loading of rotating memb"er", srve oeartng wear, and impaired quality of work "*"."_ performed, See Sect. 8.3 on Vibraiion Control. In the case of machine tools, deflection mav cause rool charter and premature tool failurl, ln,_ aollllv to hotd dimensional tole.rances. and tapered
steel members under loading conditions can be accurately predeterminecl, and improvements are easily made to meet changing servtce cooditions. In the past the lead time required in makins patterns, pouring the machine base, and aging th! castings has been a serious deterrent tJ nioAet changes and to short delivery cycl.es for manv mach.inery builders. The efficieni use of weldei steel eliminates these problems..
3. BASIC DESIGN APPROACH _ The design of a steel base on the basis of loading, closely follows that of a simpie built_up frame as discussed in previous sections. The main principles are leviewed in the following problem.
Problem
1
 To design a base or foundation for an engine, driving an electric generator. The total weigit o; the engine and the generator is 25 tons or 50,000 lbs. FunctionalJ.y, the base should be about 24,, high. .36" wide and 200" long. No[ only must the base_have sufficient stcength. but it musi be rigid. rne_desrgner considers that the unitdeflection,i.e. total deflection in inches of a member divided by its length in inches,(1,/L) shouldnot exceed.00O1 in./in.
surfaces. In_orher tl,pes or ""r,inurv, oliiJ"tiJi nas comparable
effects on quality.
STEEL
2.
ADVANTAGES OF
Steel is the best material economicallv for f'uilding bases. It is inherently .*"n ,."l",ri"ja gray cast iron, for examplJ, ffr" U"fr""fr."ri oan
4.12 / StotionoryMember
D
esig n
l}s I loirded, 3nd design J. cross_section nrvtng sur clent moment of inerti:t to hold the deflection of the beam to within .0001 in. /in. unit
. .\ssumc theblsetohesupportcdoneachend r)eflm, unr^tormly
It is decide(l to use an I section, having 24". Since;
t = L(lr
a depth of
,
_ 9:lle "tlre b:aT diagrams. find rhe required moment ot lnertit (I):
I d'
4:l;18
l.r
I
=.01:]()5 in.'
Using the unit properties for stiffness of an section, it is found this value can be obtained fromI an I sectio,n having a rvidth of the Oepth anO a '2,, thickness ot 4t1t% ol the depth. fo. unit p..ope.tiesl see Lower Tabte 3 in Sect. 2.3. Thus the f,iffo*ilr" sections will provide the required momenr of inerili in the longitudinal. members:
FIGURE I
where: W = 50,000 Ibs L = 200r' E = 30,000,000 psi
?l fl
r._
I
<*
l,oa
(
\slme areo
of cou ld be, flonqez havey
)
?4
I I
: = .0001 in.,/in.
Since:
_r
sWLr
384EI
FIGURE 2
..
I
_
5WLr _ 5WL. 384EA 3848(+)
560.000) (200),
The decision then is to use a built_up I section, as shown here;
384 (30,000,000) (.0001)
=
ori
8,675 in.. (total of both sides)
I = 4,338 in.1 on each side member To build up a steel section which will have this required moment of inertia, the unit properties table wru oe nerptul. See Sect. 2.3, Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5.
3
6:________.]
FIGURE 3
FIGURE 4
How to Design Mqchine Boses,/ 4.1_3
Design the cross mcmlje rs
JoLnLng
dimens.ions, Figure 4, are establishedon tfr"Ursis of ove rall cons ide rations. . Even though there is no spplied horizontal [oed_ rng on the base. the base shouldbecapcble of with_ standilg an assumed horizontal force; for example, '4 of the vertical load% of 50,000
next step . . The rne mJ.in is to design the cross mcmber side members of rhe base. The
FIGURE 6
lbs = 10,000 lbs
2500 lbs per member.
Having decided to use 4 cross members,
Fr
=
Considering only the main portion of the cross member (extending the full distance trom slOe io side) as two beams joined eod to end, Irom beam diagrams:
The next step is to check the resultant upper portion of this cross member; a horizontal crosss€ction of this is similar to an I beam. Its outer flange is a portion of the longitudinal member,s web; its web is the web of the cross its inner flange is a continuation oftfremember; and c.ossrn"m] ber's top llange.
FIGURE
where:
FIGURE 7
16
rr
e
P = 2500 lbs
E = 30,000,000 psi
L = I57hn
=
From beam diagrams:
IL = .0001 in./in.
Since:
FIGURE 8
PoI:
2EI
where:
=
PeL/L\ , PeL? _l_
ttr\ oE I i,
2500 (16)(157a)
I
P = 2500 lbs
L=gtt
E = 30,000,000 psi
2 (30,000,000 ) (.0001)
 =
Since:
,\ ,uuuI ln./ ..tn. ^^^.
=
105.8 in.a
Now the steel cross member must be built up to have this value, with a depth of 12r', Since: I = I,d'I
prl 3EI
,I
=.0051
105.8
124
,
PL.r PLr/L\ 38.\ =_t_l \A/ 3E
2500 (8):: (30,000,000)(.0001) 3
in.a
Using the unit propefties for stiffness of an I section, it is found this value can be obtained from an I section having a width of. Y2 the depth, and a thickness of. 2Vo of the depth. See Lower Table 3,
Section 2.3.
= 17.8 in.r required From Figure g:
t
= 57oof d
4.14,/ StotionoryMember
D
esig n
f his sec*;on is
sitilor
]o
FIGURE 9
Because of the 6" width of the top longitudinal flange, it is desirable to hold the depah he;e to S',. Using the appropri.ate unit properties table:
I,,
= .02562 x 5' = 16.0 in.3 . .Hence section is OK, close enough to the 1?.g in.{ required inertia in view of only pari of side pLate being considered in flange. Check the base for resistance to twistins The final. step is to check the torsional resistance of the base, and to modify it if necessary. Power transmitted = 1000 Hp Speed = 800 RpM
I = I"d4
=
.02562
From Seetion 3.6 on Torsion, the torsional re_ sistance of a builtup open section is larown to equal the sum of the torsional resistances of its rectan_ gular areas. Considering the tongitudhal side members, follow Table 1 of Section 9.6: (l) R, = Fbdj (See Figure II)
where: B = .263 b = 6"
d=2',
Rr
(2) Rz where:
= .263 (6) (2)3 = 12.62 in.1
= Bbd3
(See
Figure
11)
E
FIGURE IO
= .333 b=20" d = 1tla "
B
.
. Rr = .333 (20) (1/e)3
o,to i4
T_63,024xHP
RPM
The total resistance of the two side members to twisting is 
_ =
(63,024) (1000) (800) 78,780 in.lbs.
R=4Rr12Rr
= 4 (12.62t + 2(9.49) = 69.46 in.1
and the angular twist will be
^ TL
NTN
N\\SI 17742'42'>7777NSNI
NSNN

E.R
(78.780) (r00)
(12
x
105) (69.46)
=
.0095 radians or .54"
FIGURE I I
be boxed in.
If this is believed to be excessive, diagonal braces can be used or the two side members can
: \ td{ t)q 8 C{s Fo Lt_ E.J. I s s Atrfl $$o @ E slr! $ g$$$ *q b \ a.3 .r ill g{ tr Ol :it l1r ll ^s (9e * *\ b I PX ! R ir8.:eR E i( s {$3 Ar $$" a {(J) eN io r( t! n oS tfi :! s:i v !t$s$i [s FR :b..2./ 4.s. o FC zo =a :d q. ':Ql 'r1"' r *.15 (N) $$$ o !sill '1 stl t liisii ":t*gFi S t* .} {qt P t e _:{ Fq @@@oo s! rl ! .l\.tl iii L $ tr rlJY '7X o T LY tl li$iss gii.lll \ lll .q J $ !q$ il u.9{. c clli ":  inT \\\\\\ flI rih# ll 8ocF4a \.ttrx I .G * "rnt sil i .How to Design Mochina Bqses.$ $t!l $n ilH !:iii: u..\:/   I ..:t) \lIT \9 l H 'Tlli ".qTgSFe€€!.\ 5 dt.
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in. tnd vet h:l!e vcry lorv torjiontl ru_ slstaoce. This is used in the design formuie for angu.ph: Line 1 = Type of sectioo.lbs) on the supporting oase.rL.red total moment of inertiaof tihe baseThe crosssection of the base will be determined bv this value. . in.\ I)irs') miry be sulficientll. Numerous conditions may cause a torsional Load to be applied to the member or base. The total torsiooal resistance equrls the sum of the resistences offerecl separate_ ly by the members.) Line 5 = Pivot Line Line 6 = Al]owab]e unit deflection of the base (t/L) . the rongitudinal members are sometimes made heavier of providing the required moment of inertia. and closed or open round tubes. permits the oesrgner to quiclily fiod te torsionti resistance of a proposed design. In the case of a rectJ. loads acting or the base. Here b = the section's width and c = its depth. l: Design bsse t. as derermined by rhe first nomograph.How to Design Mochine Boses / 4. Usually it win be similar in nature to one of the followine situatrons: a gear reducer at a given speed (RpM) wil.) r. 1. in. iThis ratio never exceeds 50%. The base design tentatively proposed on the basis Notice that the meaning of a and b varies. Line 5 = Torsional resistsnce of the section (R). Figure 14. this nomogra. Further.{ These moments of inertia are added toqether to give the requi.l produce a ceriain torque (in.ngular elemnt. the distance ofthe load from the closest end support divided by the length of base between supports. For simplicity. In the case of solid squares or rounds. a is the wall or plare rhickness. and the resist_ ances of the sections are added to give the total torsional resistance of the fiameor base. gives the moment of inertia (I) required of the lrame to resist a given load. Step Line 1 = Each individual. in.1 These ya. in.jisL:r L lo dol.se of a hoIIoTv rectangle.ction hv bendin{. Start at vertical Line 1 in the nomograph.lL.. accor?ine ti the t5rpe oI section or element for which torsional resistance (R) is sought. l.lbs Line 2 = Length of the base between end supports (L). The cause of vertical deflection is often misin_ )rpretedi and ignoring the torque problem. USE OF NOMOGRAPHS 'lhe busic desisn proceclure is modified so lhat equally reliuble designs mir1/ be developed morc quickly by using the nomogrephs prese[teci herein. Figure 13. For a solid rectangular section use the ratio of width (a) di. Line 2 = Dimension (a).lniform wall or plate thickness). only the deflectioo at the middle of tlle birse is considerecl.ltle dccrelrsc in lhe di.ided by thickness (b).1_7 4.ch load causes acertain deflec_ . As a guide this scale has been marked off into three basic ranges for various classes ofservice re_ quirements. A givenhorsepower (Hp) transmitted through . Nlost bases have more thtln two lotds. for a hollow rectangular sectron use width (b) divided by depth (c).lne I = The answer to be read from this graph: the required moment of inertia (I) ior ihe particular load. 2: Strengthen base to resist twisting rVost bases are subjected to some kind of torqu6. He re: of the dellection which may bJallowed at the middle of the base. This is the desisner's idea In the case of a membe r having a builtup cross_ section. or in the next [omo_ graph. For hollow rectangular sections (of r./in. Ec.. Hence. 2 and 4 must correspond. On The first nomograph. or element of a built_up section./L. wilt probably have to be checked for its resistance to twistins. each load requires the base to have a certain moment of ineftia in order to maintain an established allowable unit deflection. Line 3 = Piyot lire Line 4 = Dimension (b). go directly to the point on the scale indicated by the visual representation of the crosssec[ton.)flcction. read the Fisure 13 nomograph for the R value of each element or area mal(ing up the section. using the scale to the right of it that eKpresses the recrangular element's a7b ratio. such as a T or I beam.lues for each element are added together to give the total torsional resistance of the section. Observe caution as to meaning of ietter symbols. use the scale along the left of vertical Line 1 that expresses the ratio b/c. in. one at a time. Step !. divided bv the length of the base. and the total deflec_ tion at lhis point equals the sum of the deftections produced by the individual.lar twist.'ith()ul !tnv upprcciu.esisL bendins tion at the middle of the base. the required moment of inertia of the base equals the sum of the moments of inertia obtained by con_ sidering each load to act separstely on the base. The second nomograph. load on the base (p) in lbs or couple (C) in in. Line 3 = Pivot line Line 4 = Ratio a. Thevxlue of eind 6' on Lines 1. a G the Ionger dimension: but in the ca. Figure 12.
I Nta! dss' (qrii d'1 $P cls * i. N' g i$l Nt!t R]'*l AI o $" I! .il el s\ {t.*$. FS l: x F qi.'rla \" \I \] \ s \ *.1" 8 $g I ir^tFr \ i. Seooeo $.$ eb s s t$ ssr ds:i isls $i $it $liei ! S! \Q $i si se sa R5 " R = 5 o z F o ql \q€..1.<Va706at :a7 p o J ll ]Y $'p z f 'rJ o +^ .'tEl 3bl \l al r{  tB g s..\i\s/ ii .t\l f." \ \ N z l *H sd \ qb oi d "$H E i .o.l$ \ld \ loi .!q*s* ${t$$d l{ ! a A Ru 'r r \$ \i{ s N ^s S \ $ sr: '\L .4.18 / Stctiono ryM em ber Desig n rl Nl rl . . i$ $ t$ qiiirs$ .)) blsl s .s F F t: ts tq *ls.9 sn er\ N. $.
S/no/e PeducEton 9p99E gz4lEza Stiffening the base against twisting is achieved (1) by closing in of an open section. Figure 14. in Length of base. 13). where b is maximum spacing between in. The fourth nomograph (Fig. 5a = For triangul. 5b panel. and having obtained the total torsional resistance preceding nomograph. even though the section ofwhichitisapart has sufficient moment of inertia (I) to properly resist bending as determined by Step 1. read the ans_ wer on Line 5.ar panelma\imu_rn tength of side a. distance of a. lbs = Thickness of panel. 15) enables the designer to quickly determine the required spacingof stiffeners to maintain the unit deflection within an allowable limit. For a triangular panel pattern.\ given tool pressure (lbs) in a lathe actins on a given radius of worl< (inches) will produce i certrin torque (in. and/or (2) by using diagonal bracing. On the second nomograph (Fig. Line 7 = For rectangular panelratio of b/a. The weights of the equipment are known. in the case of the longitudinal side members. 13 and 14) shows a torsional reslstance (R) or subsequen yan anguLar twist (O) which i. in. Step 50 HP Motar /750 ppM. use Lines 2b and 4b in the nomograph. read the answer on Line 7 as a percentage of the base width. the base may have to be strengthened and the iesuitant structure rechecked. go directly to the point along left side of Line 1 indicated for the type of bracing employed and on Lines 2 and 4leta = thickness ofthe brace and b = depth of the brace.r pattern. Consider only the panel poftion between stiffeners.toresistlocalized bending Frequently the flat top panel ofthe proposed base be thickenoughto support agiven load. Line 5 = Resultani unit angular twist (O).PM of the motor. in. Desigl between stiffeners top panel. as are the HP and 8. If the torsional Ioad is applied by a given force acting on a given radius. in. whether triangular or rectangular. Figure 13. Line 2a = Line 2b = Line 3 = Line 4a = this nomograph: Line 1 = Concentrated bending load (p) on the On Line Line Line Line Line = For rectangular paheluse this as a pivot Line Line 6 = For rectangular panelwidth a of base.lbs) on the base. Steel.a. Rather than increase the thickness of this panel. is selectedbecauseof lts suDerior rigidity and its economy. As a guide. Line 1 = Total torsional resistance of the base Horsepower (HP) transmitted to the base Force which causes torsion (F) lbs Pivot line Speed (RPM) of the machine part which applies the torsional load to the base Line 4b = Radius or torque arm. . Having evaluated the conditions producing torque more economical to add stiffeoers to reduce the unsupported length of panel. To design a new base for amotorand speed reducer unit on the basis of loading. 3. Problem 2 accepted range for several classes of application. centerline from point at which force is applied. bracing will result in a triangular pattern. the resulting angular twist of the member or base can be determined. 2 3 If the torsional load is caused by a given horse_ power transmitted to the base at a given RPVI. the values along vertical Line b of the nomograph are grouped according to the commonly stiffeners. If use of thesd\ nomographs (Figs.s considered inadequate. of the member or base by using the On this nomograph: (R)./a). = Pivot line 4 = Allowabie unit deflection (t. can be used for this purpose. The allowabl.How to Derign Mq<hine Boses / 4. Conven_ tional crossmembers will result in a rectangula. Weighsgoo/bz FIG URE I6 .e unit angu1ar twist is what the de_ signer knows or assumes wiLL provide acceptable performance of the base for the given application. Diagonal. For a rectangular panel pattern. in. use Lines 2a and 4a. in.\ial. The third nomograph. in. degrees/in.19 2. it is usuauy preferable and wiII not We@hs 5O0 /b9.
iridi.s' S$:t$$il 5 l.1 lO / 5lotionory/f\ember Design I lrgl TR"\iY o k\\\\\ e lto'' rr I I I el nol o Ql9'4ilqcssece . gt . I ) rl.iE S oo { S tirt t"' .Q'{oo s{ o@@@o@ : Ad ( ".s t6) rz E.H t*..i rN: FE+ I  i i : ii.lll (d) = i e9 q.1I IJJ llG s I I li hd_! g I J <. /'\. nt ".Jl. .$ :_leS z !t g l\ {9S li rrrmrrrrinnrI ""*1.f I l rt it I !L Bi. Fs . gi ! I.i\ 't liiiii {eo@o@ .S s P^ i ti $t o z o o (q) .ll ^ "1 .4.\\\..(}:l _'l .$ $i€./n(m I i dlq r_1. @il _^ry z u tUA: \!/ Nor"'"od Rl8c83ed I r {gtt 3$ s! it a.Y i$ti Hssieiex' t tooooo@ .
0 0001 2.nel has a moment of inertia of 13 in.2Ib channels will provide this value. A/L b Line ? 1 2 3 11 1 /in.2 . 2. Design top panel to resist localiied between stiffeners. The following three steps will result inJ. which should be about 60" long ani !0" ///" 3/JZ FIGURE I8 J6.0 in.rd and se rv ice requi rements: 1. in this case . to the left.belm maximum roaued From Nomograph No. Determine a minimum moment of in_ ertia (I) required to hold the unit deflection within the desired value. trearing rhe on the endi and 3as: lswlth the l. l7 The 3 moior sieps in bose design. plate which can bL assumed to have an equal or greater moment of inertia. 4 Vo LINE in.2 5.. 3.. .o Fig.a _ Using this as a guide. Strengthen base to resist twGting. See Figure 19. Design base to resist bending.r 00 01 0001 00 01 + 15. in.^_yi1 rl"./ 4.ative est end of the base \is diagrammed: to the near_ weight of the motor and the reducer.1_ll . Step 1: Design base to resist bending . it is decided to form up the base from a continuous Za.et lo. first simpty supported 12). Consulting a steel handbook we find that two 6" x 2Vz" x 8. I.0001 in.d sleel dcslgn to mL.1 Total Required I = 22. Line 250 250 450 450 I lbs Line 2 L.I How to Dosign Mochine Boses..0 10. Distribution of the loads rel. nornograph (Fig.72 op2 wide. in.welde. since each chan. 60 60 60 60 Line K.{ I =2x 13 FIGURE I9 = 26 in. ro FJ 1 P. . bending These steps are illustrated in Figure 1?.0 5. First find the required moment of inertia (I) of the base./in.
strengthen further. b=6" Line 5. 1. of the lu"" r. Pivot line Line 4. R=46" Line 2.. Us ing.resistance to ffiIl*" p9s!Sl!_ogpanel to resist tocalized bending ported at 4 points. 22 Stiffened bose for motor ond reducer. P = 300 lbs Line 2. Pivot line Line 4.d be the m&yimum load concentrated at the centerii any one panel area between stiffeners.small (R = .it is not added to rne varue ot the diagonal brace./in. nomograph.{ ). *" *"test load is 900 lbs. if insufficienr. Figure 14: Line 1. Therefore. Figure 15. '>i Fig. _ This corresponds to a vertical uplift (A gW) of .4. it is assumed that3OO lbs woul.691 in. and is suD !. a = Vt" Line 3. *:V. Using the nomograph. addbracing.. I I  I rt . t =Va" Line 3. t[.. 22t wirh a = 21'r is well on the sale side.i.se to resist twisting This step is divided into two parts: Step 2: This amount oftwist is conside red allowable forthis type of appli crtion. .ngular lwlst resulting from the load and. find resultins .rC. The allowable unit deflection (Aza1 = . a quick check shows that rnrs Dase does not have sufficient . Pivot line Line 4. . Treating the proposed base as a section com_ posed of solid rectangles.4). 20 Use heovier brqces for greoter R. Doublediagonal braced base Line 2.o Since the torsional. The stiffened base can be further checked bv checking it for resultant angular twist. RPM = 1800 Line 5. * . Theunit de_ fl.24 n.. it is decided to try Y{" diagonal braces to stiffen the base. The modified base desiga is again checked.({ = ..I resrsrance oI base 3nd.24 in.l Fig. HP = 50 Line 3.006" at the corner if base is not anchored =down. Line 5a. Read a = 2C' The proposed stiffened base (Fig.ection of the triangular panel will Ue hetJ toa maximum of . (unit angular twist).1 12 / Stotionory/flember Oesign Streflgthen br.i"t. usins rne same nomograph. tind torsionr. 2l Checking top ponel stiffness. ifexces] srve. Figure 14.. 2: Usir../in..Oo02o/in. Line 1. .001 in. tack_ welding them in place. Figure 13. Read + = . Read n = tgjn. Figure 13: Line 1.nomograph. find the maxi_ mum dimensions of the triangular panel: Fig.. nomograph. resistance of the rest .
the enqineer wai able to take advantage of double diagonal bracing throughout the whole base. By combiiing all of these sections together. CONVERTING FRO/\A A WETDMENT CASTING IO A STEE! ln converting directly from a casting to a steel weldment. Several nomographs are available for that express purpose./ 4. DESIGN AND FABRICATING IDEAS The following examples of welded steel base de_ signs incorporate many ideas on efficient use of steel and on economical fabrication. See Figure 23. 23 Welded sreel bose for dri lling ond topping mochine. Brake forming is used to Fig. The basic loadins is that of compression and tension.How to Design /llqchine Boses. The exploded view illustrates the method of assembling. and then the entire unit slipped together withverylittle welding required to tle the whole base tosether. some designers have found theEquiva. 6%l /. Sincethebase is normally one of the largest components of a machine. it offers the opportunity for greatest cost savinc. 24 Method of ossembling bose.d . giving the greatest accessibility for welding at all times. Base for DriIIing and Tapping Machine The designer of this base for a multiplespindle drilling and tapping machine put spe.113 5. advantage.ent Sections J'pproach very helpful. Section i.1A/ l0 goge . Fig. 6. Many of these diagonal members are welded to the side sections as subassemblies.l. Directly below each spindle position is a square section which would support this load and also eive the best section to resist twisting.ial emphasis on achieving minimum weight. without sacrificing needed rigidity.4 pre_ sents a full discussion of converring a base by this method. This greatly stiffeni the top panel in addition to being resistant to twist.
rivoteni =39 in.iJ."rJp to bendirg. cen be milde of .J:t.' pieces ol'steli can be used.. 'fhere were six levelins :crew:.11. somerhing lacliine in "ff"* ""lV'frigl. or.r rhe orE_ iron desisn. "io"" bers.. . wr = 2. i9.Conv€rting this to a weldc...dairies..eigrrt Example 2 lBed for packagirg llachine *^ Tl:.35 x resistonce to bend lO. (steel equivotent 3.g Ir = 74. It was a rather e"p"nsiv" packaging ""sti"gt.3nges develop a high resistence "J"tion...c ) Torsion R.. ::]9ll^s_.2 (sleel eqr.rple to t"U.. 8.illi"'i"'il1t"" . 16.i proved to be advtntageous . iron bed was used to support ma:nrnejy^.. .'":"J1. or 1o_gage material. solid a" x +..4 in.1 ll: amount of coring requrred.closed box type of section can be userl tbr Side and cross members can be made of Zr.4) = 1. sherred rnd rr*i i.""". ^:1": .Dottom..800 tbs GZ Are o = Fig.:ljjl :.t. The six supports for leveling the base can made of thickwal.t _t.dl. it tia to ne srnoottr anJ lr^ ^y..i:iili. where milk Previous Cost lron Design resrst3nce to twisting. r."easy to i:"d free from any pockets clean. ::'Ji. which mu rr wris u pon .r.1. 'l'he front ptnel. plare.?#i.z Wr =56 lbs /fl Bendi." !.5 in.l :. and will result in the closid con".:":1iF..ted tube sections welaeA into be thJ side members.i1ilf.i" ^Tid" rne remtinder of the side panels . Th". Because in. lii"e per pound for fabricarioo is low.s'. 25 Conversion to steel weldment for bed oF pock_ ogi ng mochine."i::. with the side and _"_n!"" welded into them (as shown).::tr. .l stcel rjesig. / rroftonory_member Design to. required for sanitary reasons.. This type of construction oorn the longiLudinal memberS and Lhe crossmem_ mlgl'lt cnsilv collocl.i"oi" and weld. The members will be siri.\..5 x resistonce to lwist i less vreiqht . ano.O in.2 in.:gether.1": . s uppo of t.^". ffi#il:.Xsize' I rhe top and bottom ptares rhe resurt is a rgnt..a . p9* ::1"r.:h"..
imated thar making the base of welded steei Dlxte walls to about .lls of chip disposai chutes in the bed and effectively tie the hlavy rails forming the bed ways to the f. E*_ haustive testing proved this high degree o1 rigidity has sol.l of these pieces can then be dropped into a simple fixture and man_ uelly welded together.El<r"rpr" lpump Base The cast iron pump base shown in Fisure 2? weighed 2600 lbs. chip pall and pedestals which are separate units in the conventional engine lathe design. actua]ly netted an 13fold increase in the rigidityof the bed without increasing the machine . As i result.i_ of the bed when combined as an integral unit.tpt"T r. This member butes significantly to the horizontal rigidity"ont. there was a high initial pattern cost. 26 Welded steel lofhe bed . The casting's walls were 1" thick. occasional repairs to the pattern.lly s ul)mc rged _arc welclecl. shcirrc(l to sizc.ved the vibration damping problem.re also availabie f rom the mill .l then slippcd into a simpie f ixtu re lrnd il.. model studies lrnd showed thlt pyramiclshaped rein_ lorcing ribs would result in high torsioncl:tiffness.r sections at ilbout the srme price LS orher hotrolled sectionsStaliing the cross members sligh y less in depth (about t!") than the longitudinal members pro_ duces an easy to weld fillet joint.e what it would be in a conventional design.s '. finll analysis cremoLy 'fhe torsional rigiciity of a ltthe bed is also er importrnt. it was extended down to the floor and kept solid. in_ surance. 'f hese mcml)c rs a. storage cost. brlllie_forme. A1.ch. prcliminary I r. These ribs also form the w.1_15 Ste0[ pLIlc.s hotrolled rectangulif. The design approa. an. The seivice department revealed that a few of the castings had wouLd reduce the l. . placing. the depth of the bed structure is almostdoubl. when combined withthe increa.<ture on a po_ srnoner wrll permit milking manuelwelds inthe flat position for marimum welding speed. Thev est_ Fig.athe Bed This weldedsteel lathe bed combines into one integral unit the bed. The chip pan must extend considerably to the front and rear ofthe bed to per_ form its function adequately.uto!nirt i c:l. Cas[ing lim itations whi ch dictated previous designs did notapplytothenewdesign.ont and rear wlllsThe original objective was to haye several times more rigidity thana conventional cast iron bed.How to Design Mochine Boses / 4.l int() chirnncl scctions.rEigirt. time in getting the pattern out of storage.rhe fi_. etc.sed modulus of elasticity of steel over cast iron. The company cost reduction committee selected this particular castins to in_ vestigste for possible cost reduction. tn addition to rhe cosl of the unmachined castings. Since the front wall must resist most of the force of the cutting loads.
! t a a':ae"t ti *"t a.d I Fig. ..il fu ablt sbriyr aap.egt@nct to l1a/tithq ..._t _1. necessary if Ao/d douas tue. LmB lt u<.!za//tlee. . mede t*e hse rea//y rrg. ..ffi F#r.etded bol <a//bnr wd anoaatu/ly 28 Alternotive bose designs.4 l 16 / Stoiionoryl!\sqber Design 7 /f _ ii_ _\ i1'.e._l /L.. 27 Punp bose subiect of cosf study. ."atea / .j'a..a y tereat tob iD. 0a. .fi'tuofi &e End Fig.e/ baa. .'\ .
ving highest cost_ reduction potential. was selected foia tiest run. Other Design and f'abricating Ideas illustrates various other welded_steel _ Figure 29 and base. These are shown along with the estimated fabricatins cost ffi@ w ffi Fig. Closing this in was not economicitl.How to Oesign Mochine Boses / 4. obtlrin:rbility The methods committee made a carefulstudvof Six different designs which would fulfill all the requtrements were developed.ottom of the cr. . elch proposed design from the stendpoint of e"strmrreo cost.nce required. Subsequen[_ ly the. 29 Design ideos for bose detqils. eirse oI f:rbrication with [ne equrpment aveilable in the plant.sting was open.t center. someooe questiooed the necessity for all eight hold_ down lugs if the weldec] unit resulted ina more rigid section. of the requirecl meterial without difficulty or Oelaf predicted service performance of the unit as weii a_s posstble mc. figure 29.design shown r.ifi. hJ.sed the torsional resistance and streigthof the unit. the .1_17 blolicn whcn dropped in lhe fielcl.designs features that may be suggestive to the designer according to his spe. appearance. Bccause of the difficult coring problem. Closed box sections or diagonal bricins were suggested for the proposed weldld steel unit] tbr tcn units. etc. even though it would heve grelt_ ly increc.intenr.c pio'Ut". Itwas recosniz_ cd thilt a welcled steel unit would be more rufged.
' plote contribute io 577o weig ht odvon roge of this welded steel bqse. lnierior reinforcing ribs of l/4.4.118 StotionoryMember Desion Portiol redesign moy produce substonfiol sovings through use of composite conslruction steel plotes ond costings welded together. os compored wilh cost iron equivolent. For qn undercutfing focer used in mining. : * I . the stiffened welded bose cost only hqlf os much qs cost bqse.
the desigD.Irom a 410lb casring to a 920:Ib Nevertheless. In addition. for example. The design of machine tool tables. 1. only 2070 oi the 0. Total defl. loading ramps.2 How to Design Flot Tobles l. providing iequiied hold_ down slots in table surfaces. FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE I weldment. IYIACHINE TOOI TABTES Flat tables for modern machine tool. any one of these three desims (Figs.ntained between reference surfaces and the tool sDindle centerline. of its component parts to develop suf_ ficient rigidity to resist bending and twistin!. Either diagonal bracing or box sec'lions provide a tremendous increase in torsional resistance as compared to the Tsection assembly. arcwelded steel sections must depend on tle ar_ langement. BASIC PROBT E'\ S Many machinery components. The increased rigidity of the welded table permitted a machiDing tolerance of 0. vacuum chucks. and flat bars connecting the flanges of the T_sec_ tions produce the needed rigidity in the other di_ rection.ection was 0. Figure 2. used due to the ease with which it can be fabricat_ ed using existing standard structural shapes.001t' to be maintained on surfaci . This design is the most common and widelv In the alternate desigr.014". a thin plate is bent along its edge to form the top pauel and two sides. Figure 4. removes material from the crosssection. In the following illustrations.In thelirst assembly. and comparable products in welded steel demands a sound approach to en_ sure the completed structure adequately resists bending and twisting. this design lacks resistance to twisting. channel sections are joined to the top plate to form box sections. an assembly of relativeiy thin. The welded facing planer table was supported at three corners and the sag of the fourth corner was measured. a. three common methods for achieving this result are shown. How_ ever. This has been verified with tests made by a planer manufacturer on their new welded steel tables. In each case. Suggestions that follow will help the designer solve these problems. 2 or 3) will show improved performaiee over a cast iron counterpart.SECTTON 4.re essentially a flat table.er used the better physical properties of steel to effect a 20% weiEht reouctron . Tsections are used to obtain the desired resistance to bending in one direction. The design in Figure 3 employs diagonal bracing. afld thus directly affects the quaiitv of work produced. 2. This increased torsional resistance is achievJd without sacrificing resistance to bendinc. But even a loading ramp must have limited deflection so that a highpitch caused by excessive curvature wili not slow up the move_ melt of materials handling trucks. flatness. A machine tool table is especially critical because its rigidity de_ termines how welI relationships can be mai. Figure 1.s usuallv have Iittle depth in comparison to their larEe sur"_ face area. further complicating the design problem. and other Dro_ ducts. Thus.0?0'r deflection measured by the same test onthe previously used cast iron table.
Recess for Hydrou JOCt(S lic lilting s\.. the designer must execute the chucl( design to effecLively use steel's physical properLies end flace the steel where it can best accomplish its function.4?2 / StotionoryMember Design 3. re] duction of finish machining allowance for ciruck surface approximating bole as compared to cast IIon. was fabricated in three sections. Theydemonstrate two types of wel..esired assemblyi The slotted flat strips. The following illustrations demonstrate two simple techniques for economicaf aiagonal bracing. C lo mpin g Cylinds. Diagonal bracing was aciom_ plished with welded channels forming box_section ribs. This almost square chuck requires onlv corner support from the machine table.. The welded steel universal vacuum chuck.. FIGURE 7 lb. VACUUM CHUCKS Desisning v:rcuum chucks for welded steel construction poses problems that parallel those eo_ coqntered with welded table designs. Both approaches are designed to minimize the num_ Der or component parts and the amount of welding necessary to join them into the d. signed for the ai rcraft iodustry to hold wing and skin Two vacuum chucks illustrated here were de_ . planer_1ype mil_ Iing machines.way slots extending their entire length for fastenine hold_ . rigidity while maintaining minimum chuck depth.s Another approach to vacuum chuck desigl is found in Figure 8. nest together and ure 7. greater flexibility. Bothapproachei have specifi c manufacturing advantages..d Vsection longitudinal ribs produced the de. and over_all versatilityin design. !herr contacting completed Uy arc welain! rnem a! . FIGURE 6 FLAT TABI. 4.d_ ed design. In Figure 6.. To maiotain alignmen of very thin flat sections while vr. FIGUR€ 4 Efficient Bracing panels to the tables ofhighspeed. Fig_ Coble Guides FIGURE 5 require only a few short fillet welds to hotd them in position. ftat strip has been pre_ Iormed on a bend brake into a continuous ziE_zaE The bracing is l:l3r_1.ES WITH KEYWAYS Many flat tables must incorporate ke]. Figure 5. surfaces.rious grinding or mtchining opentions are carried out. Advantages accruing fiom welding _ inciude a major reduction in construction cost. Modifi.
be flat bars to standard structural shapes.based primarily on production facilities..How to Design Flqt Tobles / 4. These sketches illustrate various design approaches that have satisfactorily answered the problem. T)ifferent designs have been devel.ibility foreconomically welding the components of the assembly to obtain unitized cbnstructiLn. however] selling req_uirements not only demand that the ramp function effectively but also be low cost. The formula for calculating the deflecti. In Fig_ ures 10 and 11. Howevei. Those in Figures 11 and 12 join properly positioned 5.on ( A of an unsupported corner of a rectanEular frame) supported at the other three corners is ciyen in Table 1. quantjty. the necessity for economy in weight as well as manufacturing cost complicates the problem and requires the desigter to integrate material.! PS Minimum weight and resistance to bendins and twisting are basic design requirements for loidins ramps. This grea y weakens the table unless special effort is made to tie the unit to_ gether. To produce a satisfactory design. shape. . and placement while keepingpro_ FIGURE 9 FIGURE IO duction costs down. Selection from among these four designs would . Note how __ ach design effectively places the weld in a readilv accessible position.oped which produce the desired rigidity and still permit acces_ s.. down attachmenrs.y and range from flat plate through rectangular box sectioni.2_3 FIGUR E I I FIGURE 8 uonrrotlrng welding and using correct weldins se_ quence procedures in the subessembly operaiions and the final assembly will minimize distortion and reduce stock removal during final surface mach_ ining. FIGURE I2 The designs in. FIat plate would seem to be the simplest design solution and most economicaL to produce. Various standard structural sections can be used for the component parts of the assembJ. cost. LOADING RA. This is oot required in the designs of Figuris 9 end 12. One design approach analyzes the ramp's torsional resistance by measuring the deflection ofthe ramp under torsional loading. the slots are premachined into tie heavier surface plates of these designs. This demonstrates the ramp's abiliry to distribute a coraer Ioad more equally among all the supporting members and reflects the ramp's rigidity.Figures 9 and l0 combine pro_ perly spaced flat plate strips with formed sections.
PLW I Lw ' lrE48l t TT ud nl @_L " 2tb2d2 I .64t'. the torsional resistance of the plate can be included with that of the longitudinal members to gi. Here. when subjected to a load (p) of only 100 ibs.". lbs E. bt + d tt t2  tr2 where: L = length of whole frame. in. Figure 13.in.{ nL = number of longitudinal members nr = number of transvetse rnembers P = load applied at corner.24 / StotionoryMember TABLE D esig n I . LongitudinaL angles were custom cut to fit. Using the standard frame deflection formula.s  ftrPlor = btr 481.).t I t dl yl. in. rn.a Itr. initial design incorporated %6" standard rolled angles running fuII width..(dr.ve the total resistance: One manufacturer. The formulas for calculating torsional resistance (R) of some standard structural shapes are fomd in Table 1. would deflect about 3. = torsional resistance of longitudinal member.rln"r FIGURE I3 (b +d) = 3 tx (2 + 3). F tltt in ta Vrl r?@:l tl I {b + r d)r3 A*t l h f UJ 4 2brr3+ drr3 . W= Rt width of whole frame. and welded to the laterals.__l D+d ffialp= 4.r Rr = torsional resistance of transverse mernber.4. = modulus ofelasticity in shear (steel: t2 X 106)..25)3 3 _ = ..Jt   r.d 'iI .2d in. it was determined the unsupported corner of a ramp havingthe indicated dimensions. in.18753 3 = . psi A = vertical deflection.4 .bJ Il   I 2rrr{br)..t Lo.011 in..TORSIONAL RESISIANCE OF FRAME AND TYPICAL SECTIONS b 1 Deflectron of Frome Under T.
l 1. nrt(T lnLtt.Il ri. manufacturi.1. LW _ .=lat _ 2tbjdl b+d 2 (.trrx L I I 100 (60) (48r 10" r I I l3{rJtL 4rr34l _ln =.1.0ur L =. Iess.l=. or 2./02h. p ro vides required strength ond rigidity w hi le p keep ing weig hi to o mi nimum .75 2 = l.ti {(. PL!v[ I a = =.T L46r I I 4. (Depth of lateral. channels were made %..1345) (2)! (3)ir 2+.i. t't. figure 1..64" L I r. rrt lir ntllr l\4rere.otl. using proper stiffeners. w E.:. fofm box sections that add greatly to the torsional resistance ^f fhA a6fi F6 F. .1345) (2)! (2. Weld fobricotion of lo rg e lotforms. making Oeff"ction (A) with this new desigTl is thus reit 36 times more rigid than I4 the original angle design.75tt.ng costs were reduced by simplifying cutting.{ In an effort to improve the design and reduce costs.) These U sections when welded to the top plate. In addition.How lo Design Flot Tobles / 4. the manufacturer repl.1 48 60 I p_2tbjdx b+d _ = 2 (. fitting and welding procedures.has FIGURE duced to .ced the angles with 1ogage formed channel sections.94 in.75)r 2.25 .te's contribution to total R: 100 ({n)) rP y (18)[ t{)h) lit (.m^ .102rr./l + ln . even disregarding the ph. to permit fillet welds entirely.
26 / 5totionoryMember De sig n Welded steel bose for precision mochine tool incorporotes diogonol brocing for mqximum rigidity with minimum mqteriql.4. .
probably because the same member often serves the duil function of bracing the frame against torsion and of stiffenins :hetop panel against deflection under a bendini load. even lnough the entire seclion of which it is a part has sufficient moment of inertia to properly resist overall bending.SECTTON 4. The two termsbraces and stiffeners__are often used interchangeably. Here are some of the ways stiffeners are uied in efficient designs for welded steel: 1./or rigidity.xis is the re.is panel.chieve such efficiency is to use lighter_gage sheet or plate that is easily sheared and formldl and to add stiffeners as necessary for the required strength and. shows how the top panel . This assumes a diaphriEm welded at the ends and having sufficient deptlito grve proper support. Design techniques are interrelatedBRACES I. reduce its deflec_ tion and increase its strength under abendingload. 5. axis is the ratio of the panel's Iength to its width.tative thickness of the panel with stiffeners. greatly increase its resistance to twist. REDUCING PANE[ 5PAN Frequently. dla. HOW STIFFENERS ARE USED When stiffeners are used properly. they permit the utilization of smal]er member sections. thickness may be reduced by ahachi ng sri ff"n"i" o.is strengthened or stiffened by the addition of ribs or diaphragms.phragms. crosswise or diagonal to the members. 3.esistance to buckling from edge compression. from diagonal compressive forces. the added irembers are commonly referred to as stiffeners. it is usually preferable to add stiffeners oi dio_ phragms to reduce the unsuppofted length of the panel. Stiffeners added to a flexible panel inerease the combined moment of inertia. Stiffeners braces placed at 4Eo on a ^or panel. One way to . diaphragms 2. 2. the vertical a.s due to the increase in radius of gyration. The chart.. or at 45" to side members of a frame. Rigid stiffeners or diaphragms enable a panel ro support a greater bending load by reducing its unsupported length. its this . Stiffeners added to a flat panel increase . 4. When a frame is reinforced by the addition of members. the modification is commonly referred to as brac^ ing and the added members as braces. Figure 2. tions of frames stiffen the web against buckling 3. These are welded to the side members. The chart is for panels with one to five stiffeners. Rather than increase the thickness of th.. the top panel of a weldment will not be thick enough to support a given load. When a flat panel.3 How to Broce or Stiffen <l Member AND STIFFEN ER5 The efficient use of materials is the first essential to ]owcost product designs. . Stiffeners added to webs of beams and por FIGURE I . The horizontal. while maintaining the required strength and rigidity.
{. \ N The usual metilod is lo consider a section of the panel having a lvidth equal to the distance between centers of the stiffeners. On risht TI. applies to panels wherein the area between stiffeners will be trianguJ. of either a uniform or a concentrated load. a 1" thick top panel ha. The resulting moment of inertia (I) of the stiffener and the section of the panel may be fouad from the follorvinE formula: . dr I = l. crosssectional area of plate witNn distance b. can be reduced to about 3/" if just one stiffener is added.UKE . in. in.ino T..vicl[h trf plncl. read the dimension a which geometrically controls spacing of the stiffe.e diagonal stiffeners are to be added.! thickness of panel. rcrt(t Llrc ri]. I'igure 4. just one stiffeoer rvill be included in the panel section. the ranges of allowable deflection for several classifications are marked off. Use thi. These will increrse the stiffness ofthe whole panel by increirsing the moment of inertia (t) of the member panel sections. FIGURE 6 where: b *d Ar. h:rD(l 4. Figure 3. = distance between stiffeners. Figures 3 and 4.. panel..+ :.\. = = t= *I. in.1 *A./in.' FIGURE 2 f'or example. = *Data obtained from any steel handbook . = distance between center of gravityofpanel and that of stiffener.4.3 2 / 5f otionoryMember Desig n NEDU<€O 8Y Sf/FF€N€AS vcrLiclrl [. in.) b **tTe Q' F: L e5 . in. in. For guidance. INCREASING PANEL RIGIDITY A second use of stiifeners is to stiffen J. + A.ar in shape. Note that vertical Line 4 represents the unit deflection(i/a). If it vcry lolv rltio indicirtes thc stiffcnet's will bc too closc together tbr flltrication cconomy.Li() of stilfener s[)xcing to r. for any condition.' crosssectional area of stiffener. regardless of how flexible or rigid the stitTeners are. in. Nomographs. . If two stiffeners are added. applies to panels wherein the area between sti. The Nomograph.s when conventional transverse stiffeners are to be added. Use this when either single or doubl. In this manner. tr . thc pirncl thicliness must be inc relsed. give the required spacing of stiffeners.t__ wholc sd.. and results in the same deflection or equivaLent stiffness. considered by the designer to be allowable for the specific application..+ :12 A. The Nomograph.ers.ction 4S strffana. On rishthand vefiical Line 5. this thickness need be onlyt/:". moment of inertia of stiffener.ffeners will be rectangular in shape.ving a length twice the width (b/a = 2l with a uniform Ioad.\.
3OO' concantratad bad unit daflaction . if entire wldth of panel (b).l F Roarlr lI E</. and vertical shear .owing distances to the outer fibers must be known. 3 .d '.+Ap ' cs=hcp where: cp t 2 The panel section may then be treated as a simpiy supported beam and be designed with sufficient moment of inertia (I) to withstand whatever load is applied. I I I Fo_l qgq. l.33 FrG.. = distance from neutral axis of whole section to outer fiber of stiffener.cknzss of pncl (th) twtd side F.'of a' of t ahgtakn. =:h+ A. use uniform pressure of (p) psi. P /97'206 r In figuring the maximum bending stress in this builtup section. I EE @ @ @ 2 'un.nst.ooo. with p being the pressure i.l. the foll. FI a ti). FormuLas for findiug ma. and use uniform load of (w) Ibs per linear inch. th.frct(a=) €@ t*h"* taa/ jI I .in. ud. Figure 7 (page 5) illustrates the technique of treating a panel section as a beam under tbree different conditions. bending moment. . .. v/>. co.' ?': L 9'vot ttne tr r\ I L LianqL)tarN.A.ooo t'(41 _:_____vJ.ooo 4.< to..oot tn/in find srda "o' i tk.fkctioo of ponct(lnJ raad 'side a.n psi against the panel. .lg9tbs r r\ . in.d (tb'. c.)toal Problem @ (9^ 3 (structoral) ($) read a'4. are given./@d) trianotbita'nr t6ad) (in) lh.ximum deflection.d = distance from neutral axis of whole section to outer fiber of plate.) a9 tt.eoo@. A. in.t d.How to Broce or 5tiflenoMember/4.@ @ P. Use a 1!' wide strip of this panel.OOt l.:2! @ uniform toad @ .fqd todd (psiJ @ t .STIFFENING OF FLAT PAN ELS (D iogono l) T LV//)l d.
34 / SlctionoryMember Design @ r*i:r slJ @ EHH F i'l 8l @ @ GI $l^.4.. tS {sll K:d s .9 s Fi^' l.l !v'lG li \ iElr l+ Y(9 Qi(9) rS o'l llN y J P S.etd .t = il* /G\ b {l s 6 ^ $l RI I d.s" E Nl €gE t t o€rd :t i\l sl tJl .rd :."gd o90000@ @@@ s i :f H"lRs {'HE u s *l' {p ttl tl N EI r'.tj x! i{** { sc sYs . .Y $Uiq :.€t€ Xtt Q !{ 5a tod.'.r l+: r! br Rd t 9'd 6: F) r! _x \f )\ 'i l\s I)1 J tt^ => =q = I il TN Fe! ?:"8 \h * *5* .1 a !i o d !t O\l '.i i$ st$ss .
..35 B FtG.. (4) ' A'nJ = ^^^^^ PbLl ." = ^ .. r[_lr lt I For the panel reaction For the stiffener Tendency for wab to buc4/e 5. The marimum stress in the outer fibers of either the panel or the stiffener may be found by using the corresponding value of c and the maximum moment (M*) in the following formulas: h = height of liquid or material. These two stressescombine to form a diagonal compressive stress and a FIGURE 8 ri iii 6..\lJ (r ..iquid or material. d lnterme.0361 hs =.=0. Stiffeners on just one side of the web wiII satisfy the need to resist web buckling...0642pbL! . lbs./cu in. . lbs/cu ft. density of liquid or material.(11) ..".(7) U. However...4335 Hs vhere: Ibs/cu in..How lo Broce or StiffenoMember/4.UUbDZ F I rt{ .(10) 97EI M. (8) M. These stiffeners are frequently used on beams... RESIsTING TORSION ConventionaL cross stiffeners on a panel do not offer any resistance to twisting.. .Kr)l . ifthese stiffeneis are placed at 45".. STIFFENING WEB SECTION Stiffeners can also be used to glve proper suppofi against buckling from diagonal compressive stresses in a section subjected to high shear forces... ft s = specific gravity of l. from vartica/ forcei l' l. C 384EI .=FLK(rK v...(s) = F(1 K (With reference to figure ?) If due to weight of liquid or granular material: p=hd=. a high diagonal compressive stress might cause the web to buckle... A1l vertical shear stresses have an equal value of horizonta] shear stress. as weIIas on the horizontal portions of frames subject to the high shear reactions such as presses..7  PROPERTIES OF PANEL SECTION TREATED AS A EAM F Condition A ' aPq/tad force /4 <50% Condition B Co ndition 1.. . diagonal tensile stress.... for thin. they will greatly in . H = height of liquid or material. .. unless it is properly stiffened.di ate' Sti f feners 6hear strass resu/tir4 .. = D = density of liquid or material.(12) . in. deep web sections..006944HD p = .
\ \ There is no twisting cctton on 45'dcgSnat mamDaT stnce shaaT campanen ts cancel out a\) a Only diagonal tansion and comprasstan o.teet.. In this particular case although the moment of inertia has increased B4Vo. however.on of the stiffeners in_ creases the section. This is because the strength or section i./ @ r. "r' membar is very rigid.4 I o \. while the dis_ tance to the outer fiber in the built_up section (B) is 14'.. plate without any stiffeners..'y.:+ T 1.lthough section B might have SOyo grerteritr"sJ.z rnq.i. ata90nc.stiffeners. The re_ sulting plastic flow in the stiffener woutO attow ifre Theoretically this means that section B could only be load€d vp to 67Ea that of section A fo.even thbugh the rigidity oi the l"9l"". which p/a6a membaln'be. hence no harm would be doneThere are two places where this theoretical con_ sideration would have to be considered.. \v ( ).X 15. The first would be if the ma..oo 1.)') \1.shear stresses are equa'i anO opposite ana.r. cancel out.05 bracz I 34 c \). We must realize that the aAaition of mitl erial to a section does not al*ays increase ifs strength ever though the stiffness does increaseRetative Values . Section A consists of a t/e.s moment of inertia (I) by347o. the distance to the outer fiber in the original plirte (. Inthis particul.>.oo ...rs Crass mz:nbcrs "\\4 /.terial were brittle such as cast iron. Fortunately.\) is .Leng :nwis.. sneartng a. iuder certain fatigue conditions the fatigue strengthwould be reached before the yield point and theiefore no plastic flow could take place to relieve this hisher stress at the outer fiber of the stiffener.67 @ r. RIGIDITY V5.m. The second example would be in the case of fatigue loading where quite often the fatisue strength of a material is below the yield point. /^:t (' \ \. The designer feels thai this section snouro nave increased stiffness and therefore de_ .oo r. t\\'.. th.ar case stiffeners as illustrated. formad.9 add :19:: as shown6. in section B should not be used.'x h. is Z.nd. thus.d cra subjact to twtsting actton afthe strcsses fiber hirs doultled. STRENGTH possible to reinforce a plate with stiffeners _It is strength 1n9section is increased. Stiffeners could be used if of sufficient size that the section modulus is not reduced below the original value of the plate alone. mild steel is ductile eoough so that under the sa"" io"a. FIGURE 9 \o crease the torsional resistanc^e of a panel. There no twisting action on the 45o stiffener" U""ru"" the two components from the longltuOinaf ani irans_ verse. More important. same stress at the outer fiber.od_ secrion is equal to thJmoment of inertia il":. 3/o" ]_ Notice that the additi. '/4 o..'. the disiance ofthe outer _I r FIGURE IO . ptale in B remaioder of the plate to be stressed up to its yield point. then of course section A would be recom_ mended.y exceed the yield point. to this original. This means that even with ductile mild..it Fisure 10. therefore.re. is the fact init tt" srrengTn ot this section as measured by sectioo modulus (S) has been reduced to 67Vo otthi o"iginui plate. it would ultimatel. of Dy olvrded i the distance of the neutral axis to the outer fiber (c).
Ii rtiffcncrs on flat paacl3 =_itu L_ ii rFIGUR E I I tl Lt_=_=.50 57 50 2. J.h:Jn... .stiffener to the pancl .1""iT#il???#!l. 3.1. performonceof mr tt. lbs a = area held by weld.i".ih.i:ki.:il'i'"" J:' : i grven percentage of continuous weld.f$L'}:"""n#l Lorgeroller mill for tile indusrry mqres ettective use o f we ldmen fs.". V= totll shear on section at a giverI position along the beam..3_7 8..How to Brq<e or Sriffen o Member / 4.:ir i:: w 11 gi ve th"'.! y = distance between center of gravity of the 1T" iF neutral a\is of whole "u"iion.n a.liiifi Ji:i".).Hxxirll. and divide size or intermiiie."y tuiouiO rom the following fo rm TABLE I INTERMITTENT Leng th VVELDS ula: Vav 9600 of Inrermiffenr welds ond Disronce Eerween Cenfer5 I n 75). stiff_ ener to the panel conlinuous .r = leg size of . in. in. inl rr .iJ_ sed as a decima]. :::"iJ_?!::Ti*:tlJi:'". WEtD stz t 'lhe leg size of the cootinuous fillet weld re_ !:l:"1 .joi.:.t 36 43 I  43 40 37 33 t0 30 3  t0 2A 2 .:t"i:" fif./2E I = moment of inertia of whole section.1l 2 . in. ii!"r#.r n = number of continuous welas joining. :i ". I brocing of welded steel Diogono oose ofters fhis securify of low cosr.. !vhere: J4 fillet weld.requires high bose rig id i fy to resist forsionql forces developed by the duol drive.
and yet be arranged ina pattern so as to resist twist. bracing. that on the left has diagonal bracing. frames. It makes use of single diagonal. Designers use this principie successfully on bases. bracing of the frame of a sel. . Ievers. it becomes desirable to reduce The machine tool base at C has single diagonal bracing in the lower poftion to give greater resistance to twist. The underside of a welded steel base for a canmaking machine is shown at D. etc. Diagonal bracing greatly increases the resi stance to twist. E.IAE AGAINST TWIS] Sometimes when the thickness of the top panel. The model on the right has conventional bracing. Doublediagonal bracing was used because ofthe extreme resistance against twisting that was required. l2 Exomples of brqcing. Examples of this are shown in Figure 12. Each model is supported on three corners and is loaded onthe fourth corner. tabl. Braces canbe spaced so as to cut down the length ofthe unsupported span of the panel.ustrated at A.38 / 5totronoryIyle mber Oesign Fig.es. produced greater resistance against twisting.fpropelled farm combine. By the use of arc welding the engineer has complete freedom of design and can economically use a pattern of braces which will produce the section properties required. A test on a scale model of a type bed from a flat bed printing press is ill. brackets. The lever at F is from a packaging machine which must be rigid but light in weight. Double diagonal. the designer overlooks the torsional problem. 9. In another method of producing double diagonal bracing. BRACING FRA. B.4. bracing is formed from steel stripin a bend brake.
Sect. 4.4 at the back of this book contains numerous pages of frame diagrams and formulas. Automqtic sheet feeder incorporotes mony welded steel members.1. INTRODUCTION The design of builtup steel frames for use in machinery overlaps the discussion of other subiects in this text. Welded frome hos required rigidity for good beoring supporr.4 How to uestgn )teel A . for example. . Whatever one is accepied should be considered a compromise. 2.rative proposed designs with respect to thesJobiectives. A machine base. 4. will cover a host of seemingly difficult design situations. and evaluatins alter. to be used until time and experience and evolution of the art result in a redesicn that is sufficiently superior to justily its use.ass of frame. couldbe repeatedhere. directly or by judicious adaptation. and therefore will. not be treated as comprehensively here. These. should constitute the major challenge to wirich the mathematical procedure should be sJrvant. butinsteadthe designer is referred to that Section and toother pas_ sages crossreferenced in Sect. Nlost of the discussion on designing machine bases. A few examples of irame design problems and their solutions are given here for the guidance of other desigrrers in findiog and developing a sound engineering approach to their problems.sEcTtoN 4. tF Frqmes I.1. Of special yalue to the desigaer. FIGURE I COMPARISON OF ATTERNATIVE DE5IGNS The first desig[ can hardly be expected to be the best. represents a particular cl. Defining design objectives. contribu ting io ro ll o lignment ond eliminofion of vibrotion problems in drive sysrem. Reference Section 7.
AIIsteeI designs." x 8" base plate is welded to it. Thickwalled tubes aie provided for the bearings. This weighs ?90lbs.A_good example of this is illustrateil in i.plates inserted corners. . This frame weighs 885 lbi. Design B is made of h 'plate. an approximately 5070 reduction in weighl from the or_ iginal desigtr. lend themselves to ecooomical modifilation aia im_ provement between major model changes.42 / 5lolronqryMember Design O) Q)j _ oi. Design C uses two %"side plates flame_cut to shape.The original side frame as a gray iron casl_ ing weighed 1600 lbs. are bent at the bottom and with the added stiffener provide the feet of the frame. while retaining the necessary rigidity and strength. these also tie into the bearine hubs and stiffen them.y. This frame weighs 1520 lbs. ob_ _a vrousl. V2" x 4.s made of two /a" side plates flanged top and bottomsoastoformabox section when t6e_ welded together. It can easil. frame is usually so large and heavy that a smau percentage saviDgs in weight is verv imDor_ tant.y be converted. For additionaltorsio[aI resistarrce. These are welded directly to the l" x g. these could be solid round bar stockand later bored out to size.ig_ ure 1. j 'otote FIGURE 2 .cient box section for added torsional resistance. . o. the %" by for Design D i. 1.The evolution of a much more efficient design is shownin Figure 2. End plates. .timate 72le savings in weighl.. 3" flat bars a.' base plate and joined all the way around the other three sides by Va" x4" flat bar.plate.. .4. an ul.re inserted at 45u to form dia_ gonal bracing. with three of its oges anged over and two formed t2'.. A. into a strong. wtich represents very low savings in weight. rigid and much lighter welded steli trame. This final design weighJ45o lbs. a better design is needed. fabricated by welding. This produces an effi. Thickwalled tubine is inserted ^ between the two side plates and weldel in place to provide for the bearings and to tie the frame together. This is flame_cut from 1.r'! '. Four rntcKwau tlubes are welded in place for the bear_ ings. . perhaps the simplest fabrtJated sEeel_trame is design A..
= 15.1 y:r (c) " plate " plate S.ttre :tes:and lts lrame supporling a 500_lb vercical roao own dead weicht. The torque equals the force onthe baffle multiplied by rhe height of the bc. U5E OF STANDARD SECTIONS (S) rnd (t) of rhe secrion c"i. rhcy c:rn oiten be uscd rdvanru j. and directs the grain out through tfre OoorenJ into* a nopper below.:.__. be fab_ bending rotls. w = 5. .A twisting action to the lower horizontal member.1 FIGURE 4 (B) pipe I. "a. un_ because so manv forces 3re tpplie(l to this ^ Irame and vary becc. m. The most efficient sections for compressive or torsional loading are closed shapes.:usty..ffle above the bottom member. stiffer. .:j]C. loaded with the dead weighi of the fiame as well es the weight of rhe baffl.r while the car iS tilted. B. . A twisting and bending action on rhe vertic]l plpe member.e is Inserted into the box car with the pressure of the grarn against it.l S. = 66..j as a buitdup ot rmt)ers hl}ving clesira."which is lnse.ble.lSr.d condirions.. cncl more economicllly. For large frames.1.lt to make a compietJ analysi" of if. Srrrcc rh. is or Lne lrame under a given set of loo.section properties. . Nlalty frames crn bo designe. . 2. FIGURE 3 L = 153 in.Ll sr.'(length) I' = 324 in.cs .!5 lbs/in. This resqlts in__ 1.33 in.use of ch3.i" frarne.ina erc_*etOinl inE Problem 1 It supportsa baffle.loni. it is difficu. .natyi" poriion" However.1 sy.How to Design 5ieel Frqmes / 4.y ou".ft fl m H N f'"1 N___j (A) 6 6" XX F 6" r15. w 4.3 w = 4...ted from flll srocl( using press brillie.{.rl(ing thelr stjlection relittivcly_ e:t roun'ls... and C.6. Stccl hlnrllrooks cu ralog rhc p rope rL ics .4 .p::.following analyses the strengxh aod stiffor..rigidity Lne welt_designed frame and permir its being made lighter.h ::".:. suchashollow seams.1 inl = 54 in. The_frame in Figure B is part of a grain loxder Ior a box car. ro . tnls frame has three memoers: A. The baffl.nging [o3d condirions. Cross_section properties of t12. these members are readily avaitable.j.'lilp. similar sections can ricr.. Assume this frame is simply supported bv two bearings.rrrvirrlJt)ln In J wide ran{eof jLltndlLr(lsl rurtur.rr.+3 lbs/in. The frame is fixed or held at the rower connection. ir possible to .' I % t.rnd rcctlnrjL.4_3 3. :]nd likc equipmenL. = a=48"(length) b = 60" (length) c=48. Excluding the hubs.95 lbs/in. The..)[ s ri]n( l Jro sccl. iqu: .rred lnto the ca. .
4.44 / 5totionoryMembar
D
esig n
Problem l continued. . From our frr.me diagrams (See Reference Sec_ tion at bacli of this book), the vertical shear on each member i s(A)
,,
*
t
a
I
5a
8l
I"
a
L I.,
= 49.6 lbs
/;\ \9
266
?AA
tt
J
P
= 361.5 lbs
(c)
8a  ;+ v=r3l a 'L {I,
'. 66'33'i*3(48)
48
18(60)
3(60) 3(60)
oo.!r!,
rtJ
= 20?.5 lbs Total vertical shearY = 49.6 + 361.5 + 20?.S = 618.6 lbs
Reactions at points of suDport
Rz
14.=1:4Rza 2
_
(5.95) (48),
2
_
(618.6) (48)
=V=
= =
+618.6 lbs
=

22,800 in.lbs
Rr = woa + P + w"a
(4.25t @8) 637.4 lbs
+
V?
Bending stress in members
+ 766
(5.95) (48)
_
618.6
tA.t oJ =
M4

=
25.7OO
:
= 4/b
psr
Bending moments at corners
(B)
Mo=t"f'R'"
_
(4.?5IUB.)2
=]& = 15.64 Sr, Mr 22.800 tr_, o"==or,
25'7oo
=
r..640 o"i psl
_
= 4)u
(6s?.4) (48)
=

25,700
in.lbs
These values are weII below the allowable m&\imum stress.
How to Design 5teel Fromes,/ 4.4_5 l)rol)lcm I c,lntrnucd
rend
. Treating the weld as r.line, rng expressed as
^ lrd
Pipe(B)
ar
Bending moments at the cor.nors
its strength in bend_ section modulus is__
From frame diJ.grams in the Reference Section:
,l
16!
4
Mr=+Rra=+(pV) = + (500  2;16) (48)
= + 12,700 in.lbs
a
:18.{ in.r
M{ s,.
25,700
28.4
\x ^
= 905 lbs,/in. of wel.d
NJi tl
a.t =
6"1
lJ
Mr=Va=(2l]6)(48)  _ 11,;100 in.lbs
Vertical. distance to of deflection is Zi ro (Mr
Mr)
11,300,
.. Since 9600 lbsis the accepted all.owable loadper linear inch for a fillet weld of 1'r Leg size, the mini_ mum fillet weld leg size ist.l=::=.095"
905
6

Irlr

M.,
=
12.700
 (_
2Mr
Then Chgck Stiffness of Frame
= 24,000 Mr = 25,400 + ( 
11,300)
vertical deflection (j) when p = 5O0lbs is applied. Since we are ooly interestedinthe chanse between unloaded and loaded conditions. the weieit of the frame is disregarded in using formulas."_Check
and:
=
6(12.700) (60)
14,100
^


r2(24.000) (14,
1001
*
r
From simiLar triangles of moment diagram:
M.=(MJM.r9 M.
= (11,3oo
=

12, ?oo)
{fl + 12, zoo
+
4,560 in. lbs
Vertical deflection
rI\,UKE
5
The following corresponds to standard formula from Frame Diagrams in Reference Section:
Vertical shear
n /M.+M.\"" \ 2
/EIr
1M{a2a 2 EI. 3
v=fla zl
_ 
za ru I T.ll; I
Jb a
I
I I
_/4560 +_12,?00)_ 1?9.3F) (4s) + (t2,z0o)(48), /(30 x 106)(66.33) t.ro x rog(rz4l'
\
2
=
.0052',
.tE' 63:5T T  l_+83160)48
soo
LI" Ir I"l r 2(18) . 3(60) I
L:24* 6E;35* r55J

Angular deflection
,, /M"+Mr\ c lMra i Er,*tET
"'\ ,
 \=
_ / 4560
+
z
12,?oo\
(:0.35)
rCIr roe
= 236.0 lbs
.00013 radians,
/
ilo x
or .00?"
:rr
.
#fi##h
4.4
6 / 5lolionoryMember
R
Design
4. TORSIONAL
ESISTANCE
In most cases there is some torque on the frame, and in many cases adequate torsional resistance is the primary design consideration. Section 3.6dis
cusses the torsional resistance of builtup fr&mes in a comprehensive manner, but a sample problem is included here.
Problem
2
To check the torsional resistance and strensth of the frame for a frontend loader, Figure 6, and to determine the size of the connecting weld on the crossmember. Here the width between centerlines of the longitudinal members is 34.?5", and the latter are 82" long. For simpLicity, assume the frame to be as shown in Figure 7, with loading on the frame to be 17,000 lbs on one corner.
FIGURE 6
Torsional resistance of
Transverse member
FIGURE 9
FIGURE 7
Torsional resistance of Longitudinal members
 = 2t(bt)r(dt), ttT i:i=.b+dzl
1d=3.15"r
=^ '=;
2 (.5) (8
8+10r(.s)

.5), (r0

.5)'?
TI
= 298.3 in.4 Then check the vertical deflection ofthe frame
I
''l, w* Li
\
PWL /r" R, . .t Rt\
(r7,000) (34.75) (82)
(r2 x i06)/2 x137.5 , 293.3\
FIGURE 8
s4Js
a
 8rl
1)<"
=.349,' and the angular twist of
t1z 14
1,12
longitudinal member
o,
_2t bt+dtrtr2t2 _ 2 (1.25) (.75) (r3.0  1.25)' (3.75  .75)' (r3.0) (1.25) + (3.75)(.75)  (.7512  (1.25\2
(b
.A
w
.349
34.75
=
137.5 in.a, each member
=
.01004 radians, or .57'
How to Design 5teel Frcmes
Using the formula from Sect. ;].6. .fopic ? on torsional resistcncc of builtup iramcs. theapptieJ torque oo only one longitudinar member is__
TL _
/ 44_7
I
E. nr, Rr.
!vL
l0,r) (1) ( r37.5)
_ (.349)(12 x =
\34.i 5l (82)
2O2,S0O in._lbs, each
FIGURE'IO
member
along the midsection ofthe longituOinat memf:er. the short side of its cross_section is__
. From
I
(8)3 6
l H iH IAIH
14" _
I
lt,l
n..
HiM FIH tu*JJ'
[_ _]__.9
Section 3.6. Table L, the shear stress
Tr
Ji
. ,,,
=
=
brd b3 _r+E
(8)' (r0) t *
405.3 in.J
2t(bt)(d_tr) _
= 2,300 psi
shear stress at mid_section ofthe member, on the long side of its cross_section is__ Tr 2tr(bt) (d  tr)
and.the_
202,500
=
and the polar mornent of inertia is _
J=i+L
=
566.2
+
405.3
ottiJ Assuming just two vertical welds transfer verti_ cal shear (V), the length of the weld i.s_
= 3,800 psi
Shear stress in transverse memoer ln a similar manner it is found that the applied torque on the transverse member is__
L* = 2 x
10
=
20,,
Torsion on weld From the standard design formula for torsion
_ _
r=los/ur..(stress)
the corresponding formula for total weld force is obtatled
.r,
= {r:n,R,. WL
_ =
(.349) (12 x 106)(1) (293.3) (34.75) (82) 438,500 in.lbs
f, =
::
.J_
lbs/i.n. (force per linear inch of weld)
the crosssection _ Sincehollow ber is a
of thetransverse mem_ rectangle of uniform tf.,ictnes",i;e at mid_length along either side of rhe :::il""1:"._"
fh
r= _ 
Tt 2t(b _ t)(d _ t)
t./ t/
FIGURE I I
l.'
a5)]6'Ellid :5jfillet
weld
438.500
= 6,160 psi
Size of connecting
Treating the weld as a line__
, bd, .'=l?
=
The horizontal component of this torque
is
_
dJ
(Dee
(10)3
Figure
10)
(8)(10),
'
_
=
Tc"
J.
(438,500) (5)
972
2
566.7 in.3
* 6
=
2,250 lbs/in.
= 202.{.000 lbs or use %" \ fillet '. To design a steel platen for use in pressing layers of wood together whiie they are beingglued] Figure 14.) is to be nero wood.J/t 9600 3560 = 17. orpanel sizes. V=Pr=41 _ = I\l = 202.y_Alembef . Vertical shear on weld Since the vertical shear on the joint is__ P ==. In Figure 16. is _ I4  Mc _ (202. Weld s ize Since 9600 lbs is the accepted allowable load per linear inch of fil.500) (4) = 1. It is desired that this will result in a uniform pressure (p.trEo. + (r'.825 with accurately preOeter_ Problem 20" 3 _ = 292 lbs/in.) 972 = 1. Tcr J D€sign and the vertical components of this torque is _ f.zin.ler wood panel size results in a considerable overhang of the platen. pressure on the platen (p.vetd.tely identifiable as to use of standard desim formulas. A uniform pres_ sure (p) is applied to the platen..l?85. +lr8ot = 3560 lbs. ANALYSIs OF THE PROBTEAA Many types of machines present problems not immedia. = \.{o / )tqttono.Iet weld heving a l" leg size.805 lbs/in.) will vary as Pemn = puuv IOllOws: FIGURE I3 In Figure 15 the p]aten applies pressure oyer most of the area of the wood.Platen (m by nl applies pressure against layers of wood (u by v). This causes the center of the platen to Iift up off of . igTl the resultalt force on the vertical welds is _ 5. the much smal. the shaded area.500 in.lbs the resultant force on the weld.500) (5) (566. any situation can be expressld mathemarically and doing so is the only wiy to a_ chieve an effi cient des mined results. Hovever. Jl _ (438. The layers of wood will come out fairly flat. + f.ince the bending M = Tr. monent on the joint is__ Bending on weld S. Resultant force on weld Resolving combined forces on weld at point of greatest effectIronsverse member .7) FIGURE = 1785 lbs/in.) against the wood.Ifconstant lor al. applied this pressure_ against . the.t areas oithe wood (p. the minimum leg size for this applicatioo G__' &.ft + f. .825 lbs 5.500 w FIGURE I2 5.
seven 4.. this conaition orrorce wijt panels more at ttre enOs :?mprgss the the center.a. wood li [ne and the pl.!J n = = 1r5 (25) (46) (98) 1463 lbs.How to Oesign 5teef Fromes 4.O in a FIGURE I8 ... Consider the following problem__ I = 2Or29 ' 58.lll n in lbs/linear in. wvZ h order to hold this deflection (A) at center to Cil. ertia (I) indicates an upward Oun.l: nv+ 6nj.528 of the tength of"th..sri"...0!' v = 46. Tbis formula is used if the length of the (v) is. rl". I:(98){'16' 3il{30. $ "jru"ji T: J"jl:. w.0'r n = 98..iJ u'n in_ dicated downward deflection tfr" pf"t"n .0".ofO tnu O"if""tion be .. required w=pm=p.ii"i?"l.as__ the surface of the wood and produces a force at [h€ ends of the wo. This welding is done with . Using the preceding formul._:l# _ .XS m = 5 0."tioo.?1.. of inerria of r ="58 . x 212.r . therefore..aten to withln /i!.rdinilitv deflect A positive . the platen at its center will be assumed to be . of length (n) _ The layers of wood cannot curve more than platen.8 in.P"rlI: first d.ii'iX"l".  rznu + onr) .upward.i.td4 E I FIGURE 17 Since n = 2a a y.0r' u = 25.un.esign.. Figure 17. which is sutficilni"'* ild.d.. !v.(t".0r1 and the_pressu_re agr. lJ.1'. tfris Oenectioi can be determined for any given size ofwood panet.::"... the vertical d"ft"". of the amount of curve of thewood. =rL1u.. _ ( 1463) (46). and they will come out curved..inst the wood surface is to = t2? psi.4_9 / pl&ten plywood doo r s *.. It is desired to f. wood i.y"llg1 the_ required 1rnertia (I) of the platen is__ "tifn"""1" *o_"ii oi r clrannels.a.?ff .rrrti" mergedarc welder foi maximum speed "uU_ mum distortion.a. The resulting moment and mini_ of inertia oI this platen is I = 83.(5 vl .^[:?."oufO!.u linear inch lc yers of wood r ^ ' = gS?g_\ {vj .24 u:1 . tnan ai w=p."iil""lj".il. l{b' + 6{98)rl wVl = FIGURE I6 48.{!. With concentrtted further Oown] the lTq]Ttg1 ofwoodplaten.fo" oi'u1 ""ir" t". inwhich case the centerof the platenwill . "...ua" uniformly against the wood and this formula ivouiJ not be applicable.TfrTent .2 {1.'":lH: auto. _. e1 a = IJ .5 in. l0'..ijJitj :^:::T.tess than 0.
704  t/ { ^ h.4. The t beam sections wouldn't be as much access for welding th.e stiff_ eners in place. A 4.'l d M +. and also gives a very stable sectio.ya") formed into channels andthenwelded into box sections.j1M Element Area r.4375 .60" l.L25 4.iler.7 5 = Locating the neutral 8.4 FIGURE 20 *^=1!=..5 0 I* 7x.5" 0 + 2.?5 !r = 1.50 trY t/tt' E 11.4079 =b.4079 in.l axis.Id rD + L4. Two intersecting channel sections..546" cr.4079 JrnD=_=4VJrn_J 1. FIGURE I9 _ffi: Thus.?5 1.5 x 3  1.{below xx a.7< (. Problem 4 (2nd design) could also be stiffened..a a'(i s NA = M= . Section bevond central olate  tr*A . the entire assembly wiLl take its shafe of the loading rather than simply loading one beam to its maximum.D .125 To design a welded steel supporting frame for a fifth wheel assembly of a semitr.5 + 8.p the section modulus is thus _ 8.628 + o. although there Assume the reference . Compute the moment of inertia (I) about this section's neutr3.__1 total 14.25 New  ._l l_7. intersect over the king pin and secure ii bette.375 4.J /D 1.= 1.Mr A _ 2.25'' Ila = =  ( 4'5)'1 7. for any twisting or racking action. This results in a verv efficient crosssection for the bending moments resulting from the load.44rn.625 r t__ 3 3" . There is al.25 TotaI l\'\ = t\ .v of the builtup section's depth. this provides stiffness in the transverse direction.9375 0 + o.6" l fr=l FIGURE 2I l2.25 .5 0 1.'J*n.5 0 I.J Section at center Here lhe 36" wide fifth wheel suppori plate adds an effective 11'r to the bottom plate. One suggestion is to make this frame out of thin steel (viz.250 4.\is (xx) to be midwJ. applied vertically.000 lbs.rrb = 8. than many designs in which these stiffeninE members pass around the pin.ris) o?q.4lO / 5lotionoryMember Design Rectangular stiffeners or choclis are placed within the channel sections (Ist dt:sign) tefore welding to the steel plate.925 in. which form box sections with the fifth wheel plate.375)': 4.43?5 aA1.704" cr"rt.75 8..7 5 7.. and the section modulus (S): Eleme Area d M 1..625 0 + 3. 6x.3?5 _ _.so a horizontal force due to accelerating and braking. The assumed maximum load on this frame is 20. lst total add: 11 x .1it 2.
.000 lbs on the frame may rise to 25.2.p  M 295. DetermininE the weld size tvl ' s..44\ 27. 385.zin How to Design Sreel Fromes / 4. is M Su.000)(1.552 psi compression =and at point (2) just beyond the edge of the fifth wheel support plateoloo = 1 8... T1 steel in tension will have an allowabl.900 psi tension Here the horizontal shear force on the fillet weld.lbs Thus..'".000 psi tension = M Su..5) in tension should not exceed 54. min .600 is within this limit.u. This represents a bending stress of 29.000 Ibs.Jh ln.000 psi.000 psi.100 psi compression in the bottom fibers.000 tbs I I w = 556 lbs. the stress at midspan.ffi) 16.000) (9) For the same service life. Table 2) ofo _ 29.36) 36..000)(47. members supporting the totai 1oad.000 2 (5.405) 2 (5..500 1. the decision is to check the possibilityofusing T1 steel.552 psi compression in the bott()m Iibers. the ratio representing the fatigue cycle is .Ibs.93) = 29.100 psi compression Summarizing the stresses The maximum bending moment occurs at the f = 2960 lbs/in.900 psi tension in the top fibers.405 in' .000) (29.000 lbs 10.75 inz FIGURE 23 = ' = s.000 i For a service life of 2 million cycles.500 16. is 1.ma< + 15.421) (8.. and the computed al.60) = Note: Fatigue stress of T1 butt welds in tension also should not exceed 54.e fatigue strength (Sect. = L1)15" l).6 5 (6) = 47.T_ or (10. The bending moment just beyond the fifth wheel pla.000 in. and 27.l I '= "I ()!5 =  6ll in Diagramming the closed channel member as a beam 10.cr.. T1 steelbuttwelds in tension wiII have an allowable fatigue strength ofd = = M:: 385. = 295.000 psi tension in the top fibers.000 2 (1r. This results in rr bending stress of 36.?00 is within this iimit.80K 31. The allowable for a butt weld has been selected because in the future this frame may be fabricated by buttwelding two halves together.. distributed over the two parallel channels..000 in.421" 1. Note: Fatigue stress of T1  (10.".te is 295.700 psi 16. (two fiuet welds) = 1480 ibs/in. considering the fact that there are two closedin channel.75)(1..000 "vAy '. and the computed allowable value of 47.5) = 295.I to :1S5. (each filtet weld) .000 in.6 5 K 1. Because of the magtitude of these stresses and the fatigue frlctors in this type application.000 1. 3.4_11 centerline of the member and is equ!.000 _ 29.lowabLe value of 31.600 psi FIGURE 22 The bending uloments at principal points of inIeresI areM L= (10.000 2 (4.000 in.80(.p = drbolofr 385. and 16. II on( J'r' = = Sr". Assuming the mean load of 20.000 + 25.000 lbs ordecreaseto 15.lbs.lbs = (10.
and only a portion might be transferred through the fifth wheel unit. %0 " N. '  The average velocity Vi +Vf 2 is  and therefore the minimum fillet weld leg size is 1. .l ".. a horizontal force supplied by the truck in accelerating and also pullingthe trailer up an inclined road. the propelties about the ver ..l force.s tires.../sec The time to come to rest is Influence of horizontal force The described design has beenbasedon resisting the principal vertical force of20. of course.0OO lbs.412 / Stof ionoryMember Design For some ider of the Iimiting value ofthis pos_ sible horizontc. . ofa lower value than the vertical force onwhich the desisn was made. Velocity V.203 " or between weld to assure .. ft/sec Ircal axls are: = 13.zin.so. Although these horizonial forces miEht be computed for various conditions. Al.8(. the allowable force on the filiet a service life of 2 million cycles is _ = 6360 o t_.' N = 44 ft.480 _88+o 2 12. the critical sectionfor any horizontal force _would be just adjacent to the edge oi the fifth wheel plate. the finding that the horizontal force is less than the vertical force makes further computation utrnecessary.200 =. and rherefore the fillet weld leg size is 1480 7300 " N.19 in.41 in.ll his brakes for a crash stop c.r whereas the same properties about the horizontal axls are: be supplied by the braking force of the trailer. Sy = 7. assume the operator initially traveling at 60 miles/hr wilt appty j.nd come to rest within a distance of 350 ft.000 lbs. = 4. they willb.95 11. so the design is on the safe side.3 (top) . = zero = .800 lbs Iy = 25.6) lbs/in.5 (.4.d = = 350 ft 44 ftrc* 7. U just the truck were to supply the braking force. thereby reducing this horizontaL force. it would require a much longer distance to stop. the framehas a much higher moment of inertia and section modulus about the vertical axis to resist these horizontal forces than it has about the horizontal axis to resist the vertical load of 20.16 in. The greatest portion ofthis horizontal force will L= 8.{ S. Since it has already been establ. because of restricted height in*which the frame must be placed. Velocity V. rElsec't lr.80K or 6860 o 1_. There is.1 ftlsecz is The force required to decelerate the trailer w 40. There could also be a horizontal foree supplied in braking the unit if there should be a difference in braking power of truck and trailer.r I= 7300 o . or %.95 sec  The rate of deceleration is Vi Vi a= t = 880 7.000 322  c lbs t. the allowabLe force on the fillet weld to assure a service life of 2 million cycles is5090 c.6) 12.ished that the moment of inertia and section modulus being higher about the vertical axis would resist a higher transverse force.93 in.121'.200 lbs. = 60 MPH or 88 ftlsec For mild steel. lor example. and % F_350 fi _____ FIGURE 24 For T1 steel.
Section 2.5 on the Aaalysis of Compression fully discusses the mathematical approach to the desigr of long compression col. although good overaII machine design will generally resul. : I .cal design factor.I. are ordinarily long Figure 1 shows some simple columns built up from standard structural shapes. legs and feet are aII supporting mem Torsional loading may also be a problem.s Columns. Each of these exploits the efficiency and the economy of a closed hollow section under compressive or torsional loadinE. Columns. 2. Fig.5ECTION 4. Legs or Feet . Machine columns.umns. I Welding permits moxi mum economy in column des sign through optimum use of 5tondord struciurql hop es qnd brqkeformed sections.t in good balance of forces on supporting members. COLUMNS enough to be considered long columns in which the slenderness ratio is a criti. as compression members. GENERAT bers which are loaded primarily in compression.
Sizeable savinss in material are possible by using these steels in heavyduty applications. Iegs often have a For aesthetic teasons. Any part of the leg so formed adds stiffness to the 1eg. The original casting. a simple lowcost die maybe used to blank out the meEber. With sheet steel. . 3. right. Cosr of ihe sofer qrcwelded steel leg.ght. or. if production watrants. Legs are not as common eliminates much welding. at ri. However. shows a repaired lower cross brace which had broken in shop handling. Punching requires but a fraction of the drilling time. This produces smooth round corners and Fig. required holes may be quickly punched into the 1eg instead of being drilled as is required in a cast leg.Fig. wos only 5l7o of the costing. This would sive smooth edges at the lowest possible cost. 3 Welded feet offer sound support to boses ond co tumns. It is also easy to close a sheet metal leg into a box section and thereby greatly increase its torsional resistanee when required on heavier loading. Lightgage steel legs Lightgage steel sheet may be sheared. welded steel saved 3070 in weight and 5170 in total cost. left. In the example shown at the left in Figure 2. When used.2 Thinsectionwos difficult to cost. sufficiently low slenefness ratio that advantage can be taken ofhigherstrength steels. Corners of the leg may be formed in a bend brake. legs are still needed on many portable machines and those used in the service trades. LEGS in machinery designs as they were in years past.
bj/ ct. '.Suppo rt ing. 4 DESIGN IDEAS FOR WELDED FEEI @@G6 <_vfl)3 . is. Flgures J and 4. when it occuis.i\ \  v I_JL_J @q . Somctimes.chine base. By welding feet onto a ma.re con_ sidered sl'rort' columns and failurl. The higher_strength steels offer advantages here also.. rtnce obiectives. c')niidcrrblc slving c:rn ofLctl bu me.rious d€signs for ldding feet lo satisfyeconomy. show vr. runcuonxl or appe3. columnor Ilange^outward Lhe sidc pancls of thc base so as to Oe Se U..ushing.lc in ttbrrcxllon. FEE' Fcet which xrc loaded in compressioo c. howevcr. it ij simplcr to The illustrations here.... ir:unc.4. FIG..
.5 4 / StotionoryMember Design Veriicol confour grinder mokes effective use ofsteel weldments to meel high quolity stondords whi le keeping monufocturing costs to q minimum.4. Note fhe use of diogonol brocing in ihe column for extro rigidity.
NIost containers have and come under the classification of thinwall shells. some have both.4336(6)(r. OF THE CONTAINER The surfaces of any container must withstand pressure of some type. so it would be well to consider the strength and stiffness of various sha. the joints are made as tight and strong as the plates joined. made up entirely of flat surfaces.pes and forms of plates under uniform pressu. consist of a cylinder closed at each end by a flat plate. Many containers must be designed and fabricated sllos oil lvell casings thin shel. some have curved surfaces.sEcTloN 4. in feet s 2.re.4336Hs . smooth. Other containers. Some carry steam.6 psi = the specific gravity of the liquid . !tr/hereas many castings must be sealed v vacuum impregnation with a resin inorder to be sed for container purpos€s. In anaLysis of a given container. GENERAT Some containers are of box construction. EtErv\ENTS codes. TYPES OF CONTAINERS I tanks llt xno/or uurvecl Surlaces chutes mL\ing chambers steam chests crankcases and oil pans f" mhl ind harralc boilers vats hoppers hydr:tutic cylinders revoLving driers cLamshelL buckets accumulators dump cars aonealing pots stacks drums bins pipe and piping systems The first requisite of a container is that it be tight. Rolied steel plate versus cast steeL has hard. Some of these containers have flat sutfaces. principles and formulas relating to their design are best discussed as a single group. Table 1 presents design formulas applicable to various flat plates subjected to internal pressure. Figure 1. gasses. others carry bulk material such as grain.e.inst side waLls is due to the weight of a liquid: i1 FIGURE I p=. In Large tanks built up from a number of plates or sheets. pitless inside surfaces that olfer greater hydraulic efficiency.ls in comparison to their diameters 2. butt welds are customarily specified. Problem 1 1 ) l F1 72" l li ri p Determine the required plate thickness of the following tank to hold water. many tanks for exampl. covering many types of containers.) where: lt = the maximum height of the liquid. ERS according to the minimum requirements of certain FtAT SURFACES OF CONTAIN 3. Since the varying pressure aga. In arcwelded construction. or pressurized fluids that exert uniform pressure inaildirections. more resistance to colrosion and erosion. rolled steel piate is inherently sealed by its homogeneous metallurgy. Cylinders ' < qnd Shells al'!o E This is a broad classification. Howevel. the desigrler explodes it into its various elements and applies the corresDondins formulas. the weight of which exerts a varying horizontal pressure against the side walls.6 Contoiners. It must have sufficient strength to withstand the internal pressure to which it is subjected. for example ASlvIE.
000 =.0064 = 20. assuming an allowable stress of 20. (30 x 106X.030) (2.262 t/r" plate using the top edge stiffener. or use i'i6" E Checliing the deflection of this plate values are estimated from Table 1to be = . There is another method of determining A de the scription of this follows immediately. Since the ratio of plate height to width is .300 psi obtained Problem 1 continued on page .=3$\ 1LH l"pt FIGURE 3 Fil A F E::p B Since the ma.4375):r . still case the bending stress and deflection would be reduced toand A^ = .lm =.6) (120r (30 x 106) ('5)3 = 4.* = 15.t4 = .t02 and y = .{.437".3" Since this deflection wouId be excessive." Bob'! (. The top edge is free.512". dobr tr =  _ (.102) (2. Checking the deflection of this plate .. Figure 2.000 .0642 p hx m (with h expressed = . using formulas taken from Table 1 in the Reference Sectioo on Beam Diagrams.000 psi ^ Amd = YPbJ Et3 (.0642 (2. having the greatest splln between supports: 120".'.6) (120)':  20. drmu==: MM6 by considering the 5 The ratio of plate height to width still being .4..37" It might be advisable to go back to the [. Figure 3. values are estimated from Table 1to bep = .lbs in inches) FIGURE 2 The modified tank now satisfiesthe condition4c on Table 1.'\.191 b p 120 . Tank with Top Edge Stiffener Z.14) (2.'(imum bending moment here is M* = . Considering Plate Section as a Beam A narrow section of ihe tank's side panel (width m = 1r') can be considered as a beam.262 = .800 psi instead of the 15. This is recognized as condition 4D on Table 1.300 psi = 1.6) (72)'! (1) = 865 in. because the critical plate is supported on aII four edges.  bending stress and deflection. and y t=\.6.0064) (2. inwhich thickness.. a stiffening bar must be added along tbe top edge of the tank to form a rectangular frame..\ *e= t" 2 7:. the other three are supported.030 Then the required plate thickness is derived from the maximum stress formula: Bpb2 or. or use t/r" = .92" o.6) (120). t=1.62 / stqtionoryMember Oesign Since the same maximum slress fornrula applies It is necessary to consider only the longest sidc plilte. a'* = Ypb4 Et3 (.1=t=q::=\ .6) ( L2{))r 2t).
uniform load At center: (max) o.=Or= _''r' t.. (3 12a. tr (Spanb) lmax) or=flT#*fT:. = . . .0443 o aa ^ "" = T? At midpoint of each = +j894 . (max) d.2870 p a2 (maxt da = _ ^ (max) o.0138 o aa edge.* (2A) Edses supported. .{) Edges supported. ..) SQUARE PLATE (3A) EdEes supported (and held down).63 I STRESS AND DEFLECTION. 12trPr'z At center: (max) or' __ . 13a{) ar + 10) t'(3+2d':+3ea) .tt . = = Ec ( 1aA t^r_p_!l (1B) Edges fixed. unuorm load At center: uniform At center: Load J!04e: '.1705 p t'z(3 _ .695pri Et3 . uniform loa. uniform load = o. +3) At center: d.075 p b. N T I l_ (38) EdEes fixed.075 ^ '*'= At edge: I .1705 p ba Etr(6+4a'16ca.EF. 4AA n rz _ . Cylinders ond 5hells TABLE / 4. O.d (28) Edqes fixed: uniform load At center: pb: (10a. psi CIRCULAR PLATE ELLIPTICAL PLATE b a (1.Contoiners. {approx) A*.. FLAT PLATES* Subiected to Internol Pressure (p)..t^2 At 2 edge: =:r: tt<  (Span a) o.
0 .4872 .ETif?Ti.080 . unilorm load At center: .116 ..5910 610 2 110 6 .3834 .5 .0906 . 4932 ..5688 101? .0267 .042 .0251 . 0964 .0260 .0 & For edges supported B Y . o770 .+ 1.069 ..00027 .0 .0209 . +aro . 056 . 3078 .320 a3) At midpoint of long rmax)ob=Ffficr0pb' .0 .382 t2 a'  .0284 D b{ or = ..041 .0188 . 4542 .8 1.+F b' (.9 2.0138 .287 4 0443 .3486 Jtoo .0 1.027 2 f .l ypb' .25 p bj 1: the following subtables for values of B and 5 1.38 .0530 .067 Table 1 continued on facing page .4158 .' edges: .225 + . .tpb:(1 + 2ar T  rrr) At center: p A.r4:2pb{ Etr(l+2rId3r"'.7500 .024 .0164 . uao 3. .286 B .26 2.4974 .4.0083 f 0016 .063 4.0 .0240 .. T$le I continued RECTANGULAR PLATES l lJesign a (4A) Edses suoported: uniform load I o t {1 + du (48) Edges fl\ed.4680 .6 4 / 5totronoryMember . 0843 .3318 .EC See At midpoint of short edges: ./ lpbt Etr The following values apply to Condition 4C.6 17 1. 1 'It 1Q L.4872 .0226 .1064 L422 For edges fixed B .00083 .0616 .4794 . .5448 .0277 (4C) A11 edses supDorted: varving load one edge to a maximum of (p) psi Load increasing uniformly from zero at at opposite edge (triangular Ioad) B pb" t2 .031 .5r6.022 1.0?0 .0035 . = ..069? .05.667 1.00046 .
ngular toad) fIL l'" otr. 067 4. at the middle stiffener M.033 .Contoiners.6)(72X (1) (12) the distance between the two stiffeners. isa=. _ . both above and belowthe stiffener. 040 2. Problem I continued height which will produce the minimum bending moment inthe panel.O f . therefore the method of considering a 1" strip will be used.064 . The MM6 ornr. lt becomes a continuous panel.0147 p h.. entire plate width.) This dimension (a). a B .058 ." Fpb' t! Tpbt E t.ected for simplicity.200 psi OK z/.069 .lbs Trying %0" This method of isolating a 1" strip of the panel and considering it as a beam wil.5 .37 ..16 .39 . Figure 4. and *.0625 p h{ m ^ EI (30X 106) ( 5)3 t eq.6)(72)' (7) = 198 in..57(721 = 41" Then.070 .92" obtained by considering the entire plate width. The reason is that the stiffening effect of the surrounding panel has been negl.11 . The plate thickness in the tank being considered can probably be reduced by adding such a stiffener around the middle of the tank.= .0 ..0 . The previous method of considering the entire panel is recommended for its accuracy and for a more efficient design wherever it can be applied.0147 (2.' instead of the . and of course will result in a slightly greater stress value than actually exists. There is no simple formula for this..r== [. Adding Another Stiffener When a panel is divided into two parts by a large stiffener.0 .' Jtr+e^"^ T^^ I F':::.JD 3..28 .ff. m = .1 :. (Again use formulas from Table 1 in the Reference Section on Beam Diagrams.\ .050 .\ _ first step is to locate the stiffener at the FIGURE 4 .20 .l l* lh_'' I t l I 1 ) The foilowing values apply to Condition 4D. triangular1y loaded with a rather high negative moment at the stiffener which acts as a support. Tlblc 1 continucd Loacl iRcrc:Ising uniformty from zero at top edge to a mrrimum ot (p) psi at bottorn eclge (trir.0625 (2.026 1. Cylinders ond 5hells / 46_s .l indicate greater bending stress and deflection than actually exists.57h=.  st' _ (198) 6 (%a)2 = 12.* = .
in a thickwalled container generated by a figure of revolution the decreasing variance ofhoop stress from the inner surface to the outer surface of the shellwailmustbe considered.p=p (mar at inner surface) Uniform internal Pressure in all directions d. rn.:L Uniform internal radial pressure onlv (p).) is zero.'+0k) t . there is a Iongitudinal stress (o.t. TABLE3STRESSESIN THICKWALL CYLINDERS d . the inte rnal pre s s ure parallel to ihe siructural (longitudinal) aris is balanced bythe external force against the moving piston and by the resistance of the cylinder's support.tdius) and no . p 4. IN sHELt The . Theseare: In any of these containers. the internal pressure (p) along with the weight of the gas.". STR E55E5 lA8LE 2 FORMED BY  CONTAINER SURFACES A FIGURE OF REVOLUTION fRE 5' fOPH UU'E THIN WALL CONTAIN€R' TE N S ILE 5 = internal Pressure. Psi o.r"=Dll ' o"r' the hoop stress. =Pl:: '\Irrl /'^1 r I ti" \ rr3\ l (max at inner surface) (max at inner surface) For containers having relatively thin shells (generally considered as less than 1070 of the mean .) This stress is referred to as longitudinal stress.rl)rupt chrnge inthicl(ness orcurvrture.p = tensile stress in the radial direction.) This stress is referred to as tangential or circumferential stress but is commonlv called dmp = 1. on 1P %r'fr *. the hoop stress is assumed to be uniformly distributed across the shell thickness without serious error occurring in stress calculations. psi media within the container produces three types of tensile stresses inthe container. (A circumference is the curve formed by the intersection of the shell and a plane perpendicular to the ]ongitudinal axis of the container.p).) !!nd anybending stress may be oeglected.6 O / 5lollonqryMembe. in. d.) and (o. Table 3 presents formulr. (A meridian is the curve formed by the intersection of the shell and a plane through the longitudinal a. De5ign CONTATNER SURFACES FOR/rtED BY A FIGURE OF REVOTUTION r.'+ d. liquid or other /r"2 \ ro_ tensile stress in the direction of a meridian. Inthe second condition. THICK. = mean radius of the meridian of the shell. = thickness of shell. in.filble 2 vtrious contr'iner shapes illustrltted in :rre formed by a figure of revolutioo. the rtditrl tensi[e stress (t'J.. d. P'e 5.xis of the container. 3. and the resultant longitudinal stress (o{.. The biaxial tersile stresses (o1. where: t. r! = mean radius of a circumference of the shell.s for calculating the stresses in two common thickwalLed cylinders.. (max at inner surface) \ ri:/ r r. Ln the first condition. in.) in thinwall containers can be calc[Iated with the basic formuhs shown in Table 2... 2.s she11.4.WATTED CONTAINERS In thinwalled containers. o"o = tensile stress in the direction ofatangent to a circumference. However.
?tlJ. One example followsj Determine the size and amount of plug welding necessary to hold a y2" tY\ick steel liner to the 78" thick steel shell of a dryer.WALL THICKNESS OF SHELLS Subjected to Internql Pressure (p).Contoiners.l) 2o. but other conditions may require primary design consideration. or kiln. ASME COO€ . Some of these contiiners are included in I'igure 5. t. Turn io next page for Table 5. heads.""::::" t.356 ri and p ) " t" = where Y = .sEcTroN 8 Any pressure container of any importance unubtedly must conform to the minimum require_ ments of the ASME. Cylinders ond 5hells U / 4. L:r general this covers containers for pressures exceeding 15 psi up to a maximum of 3. The drum is 96" mean diameter and is fired from the outsidR.}\ Thin shell .000 psi.:..665 o.6_7 NFIR ED PRESSURE VE55ET5 6.7 X 10d psi. ( /: n and p (. Under normal. psi (ASME8: Unfired Pressure Vessels) CYLINDRICAL SHELLS (UGz?c and UA1) t./irL. conditions the^outer shell is at 850"F and the inner liner is at ?5OoF. = allowable USc23) UW12) stress (See ASNIE Sec. E rt(VY.l OTH ER CONTAINERS Z.. 8.t*. % ri and p ) . psi o.Ep 2@ilP. par par E= joint efficiency (See ASME Sec.6p Thick shell where z = oj!tP orLP t"= ri (!Z   when t.e weieht but exert low side pressure.:f the rffb"* inH*i:.AR STRUCTURES Some structures are similar to conventional cylinders. NON. so itwouldbewell to use iSUe Section 8 (Unfired Pressure Vessels' as a Euide. 7. the coefficient of thermal expansion of the steel is 'in.when t.95 x 106 The modulus of elasticitv at this level is E = 18.CRITICAT CONTAINERS Problem 2 Many containers are not critical from the standpoint of withstanding pressurized gases or ofholding fluids without leakage." 8.385 o. E ll.'npr. Figure 6./oF. Assume Poisson's ratio. = . rable 4 presents the rormuras ror calcuratins minimum required wall thickness of cylindiical TABLE shells end sphcricel she[[s. e) r Thick shell when t" ) . At 800F (average temperature of the two). S T . where: p = internal pressure. r. 8. They may be designed to hola discrete objects which have considerabl. and having a diameter exceeding 6'.3 U liner and shell are free to move independently Problem 2 continued on page 10 . i. SPHERICAL SHELL (Uc27d and UA3) .Desigr Ideas.:''. 4 . '.385 o" E > 1) .
_2(o.885 p r.. and not greater than th c integrol heod = .25 t.1 Heacl of other pror)ortions = minor axis: inside depth of head minus skirt) where: tt. E th = ri th = 2(o"E pri (1/T 1) . .l r  /r pd.8 . oJ .4.06 r Head of other proportions .E+p) FLAT HEAD (UG34) t* = twice required thickness of spherical shell or 1.665 o" E and p ). j (o.l P"' x =*l : +J*:l o[ \rnl \il I ] TORISPHERICAL HEAD (UG32e and UA4d) Standard head (rr.30 lop weld th=dr .1 p) where: 2o"Ep '.356 ri and p (. (.Ip) .  15 groove welo . t] _ .665 o.E. = where knuckle radius)  rr = ./.1p where: u =][r HEMISPHERICAL HEAD (UG32f and UAB) + Thin head  when tr. K p) = 2(o.68 / StotionoryMember Design 5 TABLE  THICKNESS OF FORMED HEADS Subiecfed fo Internol Pressure (p) on Concove Side (ASME8: Unfired Pressure Vessels) ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD (UG32d and UA4c) Standard head (h  where h = d.
6_9 DESIGN IDEAS FOR WELDED SHEET METAL CONIAINERS ffiL wL r . Cylinders qnd Shells / 4.€flmili\ \PF F .Contoiners.
ulder the condition of uniform and uniaxial longitudinal stress within the proportional limit. the following are derived: oL=E€L+ v(Ee"+vot) =Eer" * vBe. Fig:ure 9..) as used here is equivalent to the meridian stress (o"') discussed previously. Longitudina[ strain is AL €L=€i62=ErE  Circumferenliol exponsion and from this formqla. where: under streas d" Vz" liaer ol 750"F /a" shell ol 850'F FIGURE 8 urder stress oL €3 E3 OL t! FIGURE 9 . the difference in expansion of liner and shelL is as represented in Figure ?. Circumferential (lateral. the corresponding stress is ot"  = Eer 4 zo" From these. as in Figure 8.610 / 5totionoryMember Design . But the liner and shell are attached.4. FIGURE 7 of each other. Problem 2 continued Longitudinal stress (.=Et +vat. Poisson's Ratio This is the ratio of circumferential (lateral) unit strain to longitudinal (meridlan) unit strain. + vzot Longiiudinol exponsion Vt" liner ot 750' /a" shell ot 850'F Za" shell ot 850'F ?. the corresponding stress is o.9S x lo4in./in.rould be at some intermediate point 2. scrain is €.r.9S FIGURE 6 x 10sx 10OoF = ?.=€l €.1 ==  EE  and from this formula. and must move together. and the effective movement v.
600 lbs (Shell pushed oll lhe woy bock) Finol position of liner ond shell p la\ Ata tL.625 o.=A"o" = (%" X 1") 21. x 7. = 21. if each is pulled in or out with a strain of ?.8 . and X 1") 21.625) = = r. and Pr.6ll =Ee.8  7.760 lbs shell: ab ThG could have been measured graphically from Figure 10 to avoid the above work./f:. = 18.95 x 101 P to.) o.Confoiners.600 lbs (on 1" wide = 13.250 psi = 10.=:.625 lbs (on l" wide strip) Ta" .95 (y) y = 7..) 1v) iagram .600 + 10. eL) (") ?.95 x 10' in.95 21.6:5) x 104)(18.95 7. * or.600 P 7.. Figure 10.625 10. in order to locate the 6nal position (point 2) of liner and shell when attached.250 psi.95 X l01 (B) y 18.625 In the present problem of expansion and contraction in both directions . Cylinders ond Shells 6 (rr. D / 4.8)(10.9b X lO{ ir.4ur. FIGURE IO .95 X 104)(10.250 psi strip) And.95X10ax t0 { = (F) and or 7.7 X 106) (7. From similar trianeles + .18.600 x = 14.250 psi.95 Therefore: x l0r ory=7. P_ (7.7.95 = 04.625) P (18. the forces in liner and shell.) (y) and x 4 y = 7.Expans ion and Fo rccs Points L and 3 from Figure 8 are diagrammed with the known expansion and forces P.95 x l01) P  P. x 10' P = 14.=1.625) 6.8)(10.43 E e E€(1 +.600 . and x 104) = (7.600 x r0r ory 7.95 x 104 P r8.43 (18.95 X 10{ 18.600 x or 18.  (Liner pulled oll ihe woy out) 7./in. + E(6" zE(rt.95 X  )i Forces Resulting from Thermal Changes Assuming a 1" wide strip.8 .95 X 10' P are as follows: 7r" liner: .520 psi (liner) P.600) (7. the tensile (axial) stresses resulting are dr =:= P A. 14. Pr=Aror = (7a" = o.. oL = ar = :j: or 1V' 1.43Ee or (14./in. 6 7AO ' V2"  Xl" = 18..95 X tO'r P 10.
the pull perweldwouldbi deJ eased to 1.520 psi %" liner is  weld is The resultant tensile stress in each 7:.lbs I r4. The longitudinal pull must be carried by transverse fitiet welds at both ends of the liner.020 psi.id{) P tl. gecauseof thJ thinner Liner..0?0 psi...520 psi.612 / StotionoryMember Design ri.' would increase the bending stress in the liner to 7. = 7. The bending stress inthe Iiner due to these concentrated forces would increase to 11. =Ar.9861 We are concerned with movement in two direc_ tions.125 lbs/in. these end welds must transfer a force of 6?60 lbs/ linear inch.?20 psi.d) _ = If the plug welds are 4.ut 18. and that in the sheli (db) would decrease to 4.s" X t. No.=.500 psi = 9rai tfd2 :"vv ooa^ ( Vc\2 n) ' Alternatives Although the work is not shownhere. +s the distance between plug welds increases. liner .044  psi  OK d = _:_=::=: P A 44 11. 9 = l4l M=+(}*. End Welds OK Treat a 4'r width ofthis liner as a ring and deter_ mine the bending stresses due to the Joncentrated forces (P) applied by the plug welds at 4'.041667 radians cot d = 23. or round it off to 2260 lbs Tensile (axial) stress found previously in liner = = 13.l increase. ifthe LiIIer were decreased in thiclfiess to /r".')\   23.r FIGURE I I M 764 S/s = o" 4. the bending moment in the lineraswellas the sheli wil. .ot tr48 psi (13'520)(7r) Roark "Formulas for Stress and Strain" II Ed. 0 = 2' 23'=. the force (p) would be decreased to 4.. the tensile stress in the liner (o"i would increase to 16.986t 2 \. and would result in a totaltensile stress in the_ liner of 20. This force inturn stresses the Vz. longitudinal and circumferential.r" X 4" ring ({" } (rr ")j .4.774. Usingplus welds on 4'r centers.044 psi when the welds were spaced at 4'r.041667 754 in.7 \z = 4.. the plug welds taking care of these forces.apart e26ott48 :)/ .590 psi as against 18. p 154..i Bending moment in ring  = !jorp .524 psi  = (4" X 4") 141 = 2256 lbs.but incr€asing the distance between plug welds to b. .. thickliner.7:10 psi (shell) Stress in PluE Weld internsl pressure ^ cause Tyi^l"nt in the Iioer is__ (p) necessary to lh: this stress d Section modulus of . Using the original /2. J =_  ^ 66 =_Ln. Total tensile stress in the or.1 lz"dioweld = Bending (tensile) stress in ring of liner tj Pprug *"r. FIGURE I2 where: zp = lr1leeo" 96.. In the case of the %" liner. circum_ Ierenlral lntervals.dia plug .3?5 lbs.. giving a total tensile stress in the liner of 27..500 psi. The cir_ cumterential has already been discussed.
As Iong as these two end coonecting welds ho]d. Welded hopper costs less thqn bolted design. and the plug welds will not contribute in any way to this transfer of force. thus the skipwelds shown here qre odequqte. load. but must be very conveK.lcr Lo elirstic:rllv strrin or eLong:rtc it along with the hottcr and more rigid shcll' Based upon r\ws. We have considered the condition at the higher temperature level which occurs during the operation of the kiln. Cvlinders ond 5hells / 4613 to 13.15" flat fillet./in. which is stightly Iess than the 6760 lbs. i. this tension result 'ffifo*"'o t/a' shell FIGURE I3 ing from forcing the Liner to expand along its diameter or circumference. Il other words. the plug welds will be stressed only in tension. maintaining a throat equivalent to the /? " thickne ss of the plate for a short distance and then gradually sloping down. the longitudinal tensile stress on the liner wiLl be maintained throughout the length of the 1iner. This would give us 173 x 4800' or 6400 lbs/in.Conloiners. l . This me4ns the fillet weld should not be the conveotional .520 psilvhicir is requircd inor. 5tiffeners requireminimum welding. See Figure 13. : of 4300 lbs/linear inch. Undoubtedly there wilL be less difference in temperature between the Iiner and shell at the lower temperatures. The lower temperature levels must also be checked. i i. a t:r " fillet weld has an allow:. It is knowo that this same fillet weld when loaded transversely is ti strooger. but this advantage will be offset because the rnodulus of elasticity (E) will be hieher.
4. Piggybocktroiler unloqder presents some interesfing froming problems. Weldedsteel conshuciion is used exfensively io eliminote points ofhighstress concentrotion/ to trqnsfer forces more uniformly.4::J.6 14 / 5lotionoryMember Design q ! D a. ond to ochieve mqximum economy while meeting funciionol ob iecf ives : .r'l .
the various stresses must be combined to determine the T*iToT normal stress (d*^ tensile or "op. internal pressure in a shell produce s two tensile stresse s of sIRE55E5 1.r\ l l:" u.. .) as well ai axial. This stress is com_ monly called the hoop stress. Fofiri.ong with its weight. ' + "_r. Designing hangers or brackets for suppofting a shell such as a pipe. The more commontypes are the following: 2.es. The support should not restrain the stressed importance. These stresses usuaily witl"le io*. / u+'.p ' 1. 4. Many types of stresses are involved in any sup_ porting structure.shell causes bending stresses in the ringof the shell (trom the bending moment M. and the Longitudinal force (Fz) causes longitudinal shear stresses.' "" . ca=use tangential (o"p) and longitudinal (o. THIN WALL CONTAINER' fENstLE JTREJi 2. ohp = tensile stress in the direction of the meridian.5ECnON 4. indicating that some type of stiffener rine snould be attached to the shell between supports tJ ubstantially increase the moment of ineriia of the shell section thereby decreasing tlre UenOing str.*1Tpl:.""). a simple stuOv of the individual stresses will indicate *t it po.. al. d lr.6. both of whictr act tengentially to the circumference of the shell.tioir oi the hanger is underdesignea anO st oulJ'te strensthened.""_ sive) and maximum Shear stress (r. "^p'4 d"'O". IN SHETT FROAA INTERNAT PRE5SURE As explained more fully in Sect. $ry radial force (Fr) acting on a section of the. I/..' ZiTiiq. tf tte re_ sulting stresses are excessive. tank or pressure vessel re_ quires consideration of two important factors: forces when combined with the working stresj bf the shell must not increase the stress in the shelt above the al]owabIe limit. This is called the longitudinal stress. The radial force (Fr) causes radial shear stresses in the shell. shell so ir becomes too rigid to flex under uormal changes in workiog pressures or loads. The following discussions identify and analyze the effect of various basic stresses and relate thlm to material thickness and curvature. c. CTLNOER . 3. the bending srresses may be ex_ cessrve. After proper analysis of the forces involved. to as the tangential or circumferential stress. but is also referred o.. The additional stress of the support 2. BASIC FORCES AND 5TRE5SE5 . 1._ The internal pressure of the gas or liquid in the shell.e) tensile stressesin the she1l. tensile stresses (from the tensile force T). both adlaceni# the hanger. 2. = tensile stress in the direction of the tangent to the circumference.2 The Design of Hongers ond Supports For Shells ond Similor Secrions I.i I ".
tues: longitudinal component (F:) having the folJ. inches t" = 16i"Ln""" of shell. EFFECT The tensile stresses o*r. and clln be ctlculated PAD/AL . The value of f" is equivalent to the force (lbs) on a ltr wide ring of the shell.6 s. having a distribution similar to that of bending forces.. (t) Otsrnraunou I TI I HAN6€F A € /nh r.however..e)(atze)l 'b. The assumed distribution of the radial forces (fb) due to the action of the applied moment is indicated in Figure 3. Vot. Before analyzing these forces. observing proper signs. It is reasonable to assume that the radial forces applied to the additional shell width (e) would decrease linearly to almost zero at its outer limits.z. 4.owing FL=Pcosd F.1 l6fl. I I e 'rb FIGURE 3 . 191i.R/BU. Aer ErIg.APCE (f) D6.into separate analyses of the radial and moment !orce distributions. maximum at the outer fibers and zero along the neutral axis. {iya. with the formul. Von Karman. = radius of shell curvature.nd repeated here. inches The value of ue" should be li. No. The longitudinal component (Fz) of the force (P) because of its eccentricity (a).mited to a maxi. 5.igure t) may be resolved into a radial component (F. PAD\AL F1RC€ Mrr=Mr+Mz A study of stress distribution inthe shell can be resolved. side of the stiff where: FIGURE I If these compotrents are applied at some eccen(a and b).mum of 12t". The radial component (Fr) of the force (P) is applied directiy to the shell.f.47 2 / 5totionqryMember Design o.as presented in Table 2 of the pre_ ceding Section 4.) anO a va. and the radial component (Fr) because of its eccentricity (b).. ASME paper AER8519C.'.r = Psind I ! L width (e) of the flange on ening web is approximately .uctures. OF HANGER OR SUPPORT WETDED TO tr 6./0N 3. The shell with stiffeners can be compared to a curved beam with an extremely wide flange. Von Karman+ suggests that an effective * rrAnalysis of Some ThinWaued Str...t*'a+z'i.@.l l' FIGURE 2 each where d is the angle between guy cable or suppoft attached to the shell and the horizontal.' i'15' t xt' l+ z'!'t e(lti) SttENr E t d VI g au' F lr. This assumed distribution of radial forces (f") due to the radial component (Fr) is sketched in Figure 2. the engineer should detjrmine how much sn€II beyond the hanger is effective in re_ slsEtng Inese torces..=Tl d r. Figure 1. eombine into moment Mh and apply radial forces to the she]l.e SHEIT The force (P) applied to the hxnger (see !. wiII give the total moment acting on the shell fiom the hanger: r.r.e. they will produce moments applied to the she1l section by the hanger and having values: tricity Mr = bFr M:=aFz Combining these values. i. .
aanous sierca eeoht FoecE aa€ F nfii:""ii!::.Lctlrfldc TE4ttLsSn tt /t 5dEtL ?. the moment of inertia (fy of this section is catculated.+ti OF ADDING STIFFENING RING TO 5H€tT For additional stiffening of the shell porr. rtngs m3y be welded to the she .tt*r . o 5.rorcg lF.' t 4' r. . determining .l Iu ttts ca5q r.l .l ca.2p..isequivirlcnrtothc t.em 1 FIGURE 4 moment in this the radia] forces at the point of support.reful to watch the signs: f...7 _3 ')74g.'haullEoFo. found and later combined with any other stresses.)rcc rlt)s. tEu =t0.{ Topic 2. d.. .t{. . . EFFECT Stresses o"r and o"u are added to d"p to give o" total tangential {or circumferential) stress in a section= the of critical shell ring. llorttrdr JaeuJtcrpt l $r i r6'e " E.f. tr: 511s64 S. Eo '..n. /b fu' e.on each side of the sup_ porting e 4 y4LU€5 FOR t(z o.. rzs' 434n. OF THESE FORCES UPON A SECTIONAL RING OF THE SH EtL r. .!i1ft. !+ .t  .:.4%n. P zsor. 'i.i . 1 xrr6Eft c.a?n./..' :n ' 'l# f" ffii. principal stresses f 9. t( \\ FTGUR E f 5 t\\ \\\ X\:z:a )) ..a toopr' I . rucces rsEFFECT of Hongers ond Supports / 4. Figure 5. Probl.ft"" rlng resulting the bending Duulup from PART A: Four hangers are used for guvinE a smoke stack with its axis in the vertical poiitiSn. 6.e4. "f Uaving the greatest See Sect.:!fJ!_ "r. /od. p.toral radial force (F) applied ro rhis built_ up secrlon ls the radic./// 4.In..UU foe f4//6Er'/t/A L F04uau foR 8E/yt/^/6 !/.. !##*). frvhtta lnlp tu Eooon.250t.? TAELE T€/YJITT FORCE T /tt0t1r€/t7 FoR.'.r. Determine the total radial force acfing on the shell as a result of the force 1p1 applied to"the hangers.1f*11" of algebraic difference.support: rediaiforce {Fr1 apprred at thts point of with e not to exceedl2 r.l force resulting from the ptus any l"lgllidll'l . tofF: Foi / wcH Eto€ ptAl6 zAOlAL Fa?CE' l'/:a Lrv//E Jtr/olv B aulr up ..l d. ?..1e 5 rii I iil Gtcuutve kouL foea ltano to tl&ical examples that demon_ of these formulas for calculatingthe Torat f. o.2 1"'41 /t1.o or li €rraorc The maximum shear stress is equal to Vz the the.. =ti.i.:. the addirionsl widrh of the shell on each ring assumed to be effecti ve ln resisting these ".. t5.i.ooon. 3t [he suo_ As before. th".:"..o.h.two. The resulting radial forces appliecl on re shell must be added. Faont Foact lll IFN' irri . hot Jrot /htyoa FIGURE 6 Q.a6G.r.. tou. i)n :L .**....*. I h. t64 /rL D rc '/D9 l/4tu€5 FoR ring. .r.:.za9 I o. P. ft . Tbe bending stre""". being cr. ! wrdc rlng ". The. JlEullpu'c.6 A = area of shell ring cross_section or built_ up sectron S = section modulus of the same section.l.!f. . ln .orces (fr) normal to the shell set up tangen_ tial tensile forces (T) and bending rno"oi" 11.4 /. /(J 2."h. in the ring of the shell.. The following are e. Figure 6.d.. strate the use stresses in a shell."9. )t N.usriel€o w p. Frd + q where: 'T ..3/a R€J U Lrtl/ c l€/t sllE y/?ES 5 RE5Ut//t6 8&A/NC SrnE : T F.. %".J /Lt.""1:: ot the shcll. Pr. 2.
To accomplish this... Irh .o5 7 ... the properties of this section are as follows: d'Jr. a l4n6ERS Cacutnaalrn:uJtcss n StLt hot l 7€tNA.) stresses at the hangers.aaaear. (s.J.4. lvith Lcnsilc lbrcc ('f) rnci bcnding momenL (NL) per 1" rvidc ring of this shcll resulting from rudial forces (fr) rpplicd at the four hangers.. / 0 6 /w.ts i   STREJJS WfH//\/ FEA51N OEs/GN O.!.Wtr .. fir) .lA = C5' i' ros? i Bz.. Pp?stt/.. it is necessary to siiffen the shell in this region. p. cal_ culille lhc tensile (o. . EFrftTMt JltEU.+. Determine the total radial force acting on the shell as a result of the d.000pt q.arrc I 0.4 / 5iotionoryMember Design t). tryov /tL' r.."' [. 5.80op.50a FFOA PART A A kn€. e./<as/ ' z'ctrc s F'd i .6/ .'Z''i'/65orsr fro/ lA a LE I 5€cr/or'/.=.e.X 2" rine stiffeners are added as illustr3ted.. ' .oso = 545 /b/a.. ro..o. A: Four hangers are used to support a verti_ The effect of the bottom ring will be considered since it will apply radial tensile forces to the bulltup ring and shelL section.504 FR2/rt PARTA 4 0.2td.600 ro. 50.33 ra.. t090'%///.282 'In?i t 1n.ffi. /3.) per 1" wide ring ot ris shell 4. 5 cal 12" stand pipe.1."l FIGURE FIGUR E .l \. calculate the tensile (o.rr . T5ag.too .a. u&.* 6 Toret Peotnt Fonce F. ctre !. 9000t2)J4.x: 4... + dcl." !1G:€'::''3T ) ' lts '.f) and bonding moment (lv(.'oop' I P." .+ '.sJ2in..ngential tensile force (. 44 .i .. o PlMG SECT/O// A h. Figure g.'o FIGURE IO 2*'1.9'%ta.J3 ..l forces 11../67 l6t r. 2.oo bl a.r stress (r. 7 0t/ TOfAL HFN. . 6oX!. as e .. ln.2. /3 ..9o. Using the method of finding moment of inertia by adding areas (Sect.) stresses at the hangers. I b. looo lb' lF\. / 12/65 & .2.600' t ..".'tooJ.o. ' slf3!.) c. J€. 116 .. oc.2a. ?5. alrn G).n' an oliircraal fp or s.\ilT B: lVith tc.Er' 1=. 4.".2 8f 'Y/U .€ a. 3.) to beFIGUR E Concl. tZ1 /. two %. rpplied to the tour htngers.3.\R'l' B. '4.5oo x ..i 5ca.1  fiber of the shell adjacent to the hanser shows our antlysis of the shec. FP0/r1 TABLE FIGUR E 7 4 FPOM TABLE tl Kt = { .?AI ATS = Ix  FA?CE' AFPIE JEtftotr hlail m H4d6€e In ANO NEUTRAL O /b.1 .'E .3JN. O".*..u3 5 ll. )/ z)2 \t ' :...600to' E'P.7 resultirg from radic.rt rA 4.) ard bcnding (o. gtOt4 a" "4tb4 ' 5.lN /. t r_!i tIT lla+1.544 =  O . . /.5AO ?. Since this bending stress in the ringofthe shell 8 O./t.'1 7 \l \ Problem PART 2 (f\ I dr.a€ flo * tt : rr ri r<.€ f .500 /.6oo/b.P'e. d"4\..6/3in.. o e/.1 = /.r.'>. OF /NERT/A ASOAT //EUT.K force (P) applied to the hansers.5.'tooutus S= 0):4)' .rJ/ =i! = THE/V d4. t a to " 4 a.I\^ t. / '.. o.aze. (txcEsslvE) HFN oc^.72.... /' .'IO ENT /. tlF _fl u. ot oY*.745 + '#: .%r.#..3).ry 4544P.. &2." o. s.usion: Combining these stresses in theouter is excessive. otttlctt? e. !:# dd&€ ttELL 6. 11 P.0.R/nc T.q5442a THEN  6.r. /..nd bending (. F'ffi .oeu t" . t. Fisure 10.__i ll_1 L.000th ttaf tlDa 4(/5 MLL 8€ t1 t 705 r'.nqr.0/8/ t r !8. and resulting from the The radial force (F) acting on the ring section vertical force (p) is attauL4flfia tedAt Fataas ApauEt fo 5/t4L f"' k' .
iz = /r/r.aoo.. fao.666 Kl . /b. ll ... rng over the entire cross_sect ion of rhe ..t .7 _5 i'li.n.\lt'l' C: tiecalculrtion Hongers ond Supports of thctensile (o.E2.":i.. wefindthe m&\i_ mum :tng.btn.l" ] ".F .ji : . tti.nq.9d bu d'"' qr'q"' t9o t aF t 1690 d. a ^.ftot oF '. shear adjacent(r.c .69oP.rnese to the 3::. K.cbstressofo'p= 1.a ..J' W/TH/N I2 :085/6N 0.fi.i.I. E KaoH ft F4.:r.''"1_T_. "oi^.H#t#:i*ix# t057 Oc.ttt . T/JF^ . = /.l.t TAaG f lsoo !c.) and bend_ Oc" / 4.o/aL. 6 45 i./...""." toirJ*iig rH€ ..E45r1695 . /ra8a = . o^. .) hange r.^ :1:I"".o I 4' FIG URE 4 q . !lZ! a@o t 6...'. za.1:*.rp€r.0 flolE: r4r 1.1 . /r..:_oT.os1 s4.f.888psiinthe shelt wilt bg reduced when constOereO to be acll l_"_T.'./t4.1. I3 TYPICAL HANGERS AND SUPPORTS i.. /YEW x F .. ASOO Z.. tr/sJfe /'JO ilt_ up ring 5TR. Stress stresses in the outer fiber ofthe to be__ .""""" fPo/tt 74arE / ar rhc hirnsers yi"ro" tr..K REASON FIG. 6cp 99o psi asoo.pM 7ealFz) r /..... ton€i P/^t6..tooo A (.
qnd qchieved design flexibility. ond lower weight. lower monulociuring cosis.4.7 6 / 5totionoryMember Design $' fi)*' x Conversionofoilwill service pump housing to ollwelded high strengih sleel improved quolity of moteriql with higher physicol properties. .
ltical.t rh€ b. . .B tan+ Th.. in valu..I'.nd th.rsh! or rA. This means Less material is required for a gear housing of required strength and rigidity.h: I:i. Figure 1.sEcTtoN 4.r on th.! an.^ F" ahis also p. rhtr: E .:!ing. stronger gear housing at much less cost. The resul.rf. This pressure gen FIG. fabrication. !. of h..i!.d byth.g = aWa + bWb + cru. A 4step sequence saves time and gives reliable results in designing a welded steel gear housing to meet the major design requirements: 1.l !. acting along the Iine of action normal to the tooth profil.lical 8€. times more rigid than gray cast iron.nd thlu.rch h:ll of thc 8c. lvhere space or weisht con_ siderations are involved.050 x HP DXRPM = F.B=F.. Horizontal stiffness of housing Torsional.r a couple on th€ F. This Froduc.qual rnd oppo. r".nd th. plus the design freedom of welded steel.rRns. b.ult rlom . 126. witl result in the best service performance.. o!h.A=FrA tan O F. 2.rion .tt by rh.odqc.r half: F.. 2 BASIC FORCES ON HOUSING FROM GEARING Th.d by rh.tang.h. FORCE5 OF GEARING ON HOUSING C/ACLE/ ' plN/ON ) FIGURE I aN6LE tI ppEssuREt  \ t\ .! i. cau. = Ft tan d rinc. These direct savings are possible because steel is 3 times stronger and 2 Z. b. ca.^Fi i The load transmitted by plain spur gears is the normal pressure (F") between the contacting tooth surfaces.aling.tid !.ndth!uEt Iron H. th. g.d at the pilch ci!cl.a<ri4t Ah.e. holizont.a€tion.!! th€r. . v. is : lidc thlurt appli. t. it often means greater strength and rigidity than could otherwisJbe ob_ tained.t!!.crur. DESIGNING FOR GREATEsT STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY Housings The cost of gear housings may be reduced as much as 5070 by designing rhem for welded steel construction.. .acrion .olial r.r .t is a more compact.r.^=F""=!:! 2d.b d Fra tra=In th.t th.8 How to Design Geqr I. s. Vertical stiffness of housing 2. better Looking.: Fr" IrA F. !h. stiffness of housing Compressive stiffness of housing _This procedure.Ec i! no .r.!ringboA.
forces into couples (C) by multiplying each force by the distance (y) from the point of its application to the neutral axis )f the housing's side member.4. rL FIGURE 4 t where: 1. there is an end thrust on the shaft (F) causing a horizontal bending of the side member. Figure ?. REOU IREMENTS . for the vertical force: 4 li^ Fa u"'r" r" = Yn t::(3 48 E F'. A few of the symbols used in the design of gelrs and housings areHP = horse power transmitted f = pressure angle. inertia {I*) for the side member of the housing. Figure 2. _ 4 K"r) L The nomograph.3) K. Convert the horizontal radial. These values are totaled to give the required moment of inertia (I") of the side member about the vertical neutral a'xis. Fn4. this may be a factor and should be considered.ii t. A more complete discussion of gear forces and gear design appears in Sect. Positive forces and couples require positive moments of inertia.) 13 K.4. Treat each vertical force and couple separately and use the nomograph. = positions of gears on shaft 4. 2. {+ Eijl \L/ t\'' . c. if helical gear a. usually 14'4' or 20" D ' pitch diameter of gear.. F4"l FFIGURE 3 where. Stiffness of Housing {f the gears are of helical (bur not herringbone) type. 6 = points of force reaction 3.. etc. inches RPNI = revolutions per minute of gear d = helix angle.a"l _. Figure 7. Total these values to get the required moment of Forces and couples are positive if they cause the side member to deflect downward under load. but.. Step 3: Torsional Stiffness of Housing The end thrust of the shaft (F"). in heavily loaded.T2 K" _ 4 b.9. = + r" =  rtl' *"1. to find the required moment of inertia for each of these Ioads (I. See Sect. Shear deflection is not investigated here in this discussion. Topic g.).. 5.= C. can be used to find the individual moments of inertia to resist these side forces.82 / 5totionoryMember Design and iirr the co ple: e[irtes several new forces on the tooth which cre trr. K=. acts at the level of the bearing and not at . short sections. .nsmitted bacl( to the bearings supporting the gelrr shaft.t. Step OF HOUSING 2: Horizontal Step 1: Vertical Stiffness of Housing The crosssection of the housing must have sufficient moment of inertia (L) about the horizontal neutral axis to resist the bending moments of the vertical forces of the weights of the shaft and gears (F*) and the tangential force ofthe gears (F.) as weU as the horizontal radial force of the gears (Fr. b. ifhelical gears are used. l:l \L/ K.L r{.
_ Tr(N + O + P) + Tz(O + P)+T3(p) L P) Tr(M) +Tz(O+ ^ _ . Figure ?. The torque (T) of each section of the member is the product of this end thrust (F.) where d is the allowabl. use the value of B and substitute into the second formul.Geo r Housings / 4.Tr(M)  +Tr(P) in TL (M)  L Tz(M + N) + Tr(P) L Tz(M + N) Tr(M + N +O) L Positive forces and mombrts give positive moments of inertia. These values are ^hir ihad fF^h qfa^ t . the maximum value.I force (F. ln /r\ \Li (couple C") .ar twist. (Do not confuse with d used in gear desigr . use the value of A and substitute into the first formula. lvhen the side of the housing is macle ofa single vertical web plate. and negative values give negative moments of inertia. one radian = 5?. trVhen a force is appiied to the member.T E.a.R E"d For more accurate values.T orla=_ (1) . additioocl stiffeners or brackets may have to be used directly below the bearing lbr p roper support.) resulting from the horizontal end thrust of the helical Eears found i.. MOMENT OF INERTIA NOMOGRAPH AND FO R'Y\U LA5 FIGURE 5 'here: Use the nomograph. Use this nomograph to get similar values of moments of inertia (Ir. the two formulas of the nomograph have been simplified into the fo1lowing formulas.l &Kis of the member. For any given value of K where K = t/L.).) /A) (2\ .r helix angle.. to find the required moments of inertia (I. in radians per inch of length. F"LrA \L/ C"LB = (force P.83 tltc horizontal neutral ir.e unit angul.or this twisting cct ion. Step t: FIGURE 6 Tn'Fe y The bearing support must have sufficient width to receive the bearing. When a couple is applied to the member.) for the side member. . and the eml)er must have sufficienf torsional resistance . Total these values to get the required (I. Compressive Stiffness oi I{ousing The section of the hoqsing directly belolv the bearing must be trelted ls I columo and have sufficieot stiffness to carry the weight of the shlft and gears (F") as well as the tangentir. the constant (A) or (B) is found in Table 1. 4.\is of the side member. Use these equations to find the resultant torques the various parts of the member and design for The required torsional resistance of the member is obtained from the following: d = . 'fhis cxuses twisting ot the side mcmber.3 degrees.n Step 2.) and the distrnce (y) of the application of the force to the horizontal neutrJ.) of the side member for each vertical force (P) (caused by the weights of the shaft and gears as well as the tangential force of the gear) and the couple (C) (caused by the radial force of the gear).
to. badt P.aui.! 4qqi.1t a. ada Lh. sr"(9 *wfr @1 el4219..th etut ed. @'.d(lbsJ C'caaL/.9?h e4aa) o.84 / Stqtionqry/nember FIG./.&''"n t 'tu/ I ^.h U4 r^i. to oEt/act 170t.t!34st 2.: Ftn: Pqqd @. u?h c ) to tind I b. 6 t ....d Ci P .t/t! .@qd$ Flu. or P q c._a!_@z @ \l.s.002 x 10ro I .120 r roa .d6ta"<.ap 4v ceh drd.. Z @@t t:.E ia!: ' b. I.ato ? ki) rcdr' t 'n''2t" 6"za*4 drt) fu!4 9@4b. of ltta 7: loF @ d: ar.3 to 9. lin l6t) L. x. Desig n 7 MOMENT OF INERTIA REQUIRED OF SIDE MEMBER OF HOUSING (For Eoch Lood ond Couple) Egu!4@iz!d fe.1 L 2:A6Kil) wEAe E^L.4& /6.4.*aF4. l6tdt trE* d/@3 b. @o@ @ + t T t3: @@ P. Flu.d.on o.b (bi 6.i 14c e e ./ (.iel o t@t!.15O /6. o/ A..r& ot ta.d @daa ortr..l d iizrt.ad r@ qd + t 1 ..CONSTANTS FOR USE IN SIMPLIFIED FORMULAS (For Finding Moment of Inertio) 5.4494!AtAtsEeeE TABLE I . Sr. b<at c 9'noh cd.do'n A Dvot tid lD t. . .
114 tbs Pinion 1800 RPNI clockwise 6.1_4E_q9ll!l:i 16 = (do!vn) 420 + Vertical reaction of tangential force (126.1 li F" . = D (337\ (2) j_.a = r33 (to right end) # End thrust of Helical gear F" = F.ffi) .' pitch diameter pinion v.8 = F( tan = (365) (. driven by a S0_Hp noLor.*ur .5?z) = (to # . 52 lbs 450 RPM counterc lockwis e FIGUR E 8 PINION Vertical reaction of weight r_e = li(lqvb d _ (5)(52) + (10)(32) _36. 512 lbs sha.l determine the design. Figure g. .nFIGURE 9 '1" /.ed.How to Design Geor Housings / Dcsign il welded steel housing for this helical 4ear reduction unit.L .= 'on o 365  Fra (584)(t0) ( 16) d O l* (down) tupt Eorizontal reaction of radial force F.050)(50) 126. = 2.t.337 front) F"= 337 (to back) # Horizontal reaction of end thrust F"D _ (337) (6) _ 63..r (2) (16) (to left end) ^ F.(to lefr + end) 133 F. In this particular example the front side of the housins is The loads and forces on the back side of the stressed the greatest and wil. Helix angle r/ = 30o. (24\ 253 (16) (io left end) = housing would be found in a similar manner. llold to a unit deflection of .4*wua' . 2d.g 5 Gear 24i'pitch diameter gear \. 1fi'"K@.. tan d = (584)(. Pressure angle O = 20w.00001 in.050 '' = DRFM HP = .*d./in.ft w't. 32 lbs shaft wt.364) . 4.it. The various loads and forces can be diasrammed as in Figure 9 and then total.6mmbl.1# 16  (down)  aW" + bWu d =!lllg.
A Total 34.Jbs.zo' Step 2: Horizontal Stiffness of Housing The worst condition would be to have end thrust on one side member from just one shaft.4 ina  Step 3: Torsional Stiffness of Housing where: Tr= .) The foliowing section.4. Use nomograph. T = 1685 in.8 6 / Stotionoryrrl6mber Stcp l. Figure 10.2 in.375 .lbs.ooool + 25.2 8. Design Housing 323.3e7 ./linear inch (. wiII meet aII of these reouirements: . Verticrl Stiftness of Use nomograph.696 in. In this case the required moment of inertia would gg l' = 34.{ p?n9ih.000011'/in. = allowable unit angular twist. Maximum twisting action.0000002) = 1685 I' = 48 in.Tr = 337 X 8 = 2.a Iy = 34 in.1 106) (. the thrust from the second shaft being taken by the other side member. +337 P 40" L lK= L .0000002 radians.d wnere: d (12 x 70.2 in. radiars per inch in Let d = . The required torsional resistance (R) ofthis side member will be  have these properties: The crosssection of this side member must R=l= E.25 . p6: 7?d .{ .
{ A gear housing must pfovide the following: 1.%6)r (16)(l)+ (3.t(. (2)(14)(.000) (2)t3t25)(l4)' t2 = 2.5 . (3. 4v. since the formula for torsional resistance is__ within the allowable deflecrior. long .9 _Z 1: Chccli [or P Co m I) r.%J: dF_ (y.6 sq..6 rhe *___I' + = (2)(14) (. A container for the lubricating oil 3.r (2) ( l) (%6) (16 . Proper cooling of the oil Ample space around fast turnilg gears should be provided so as to result in minimum power loss through oil churning. In other words. =_ 785 )' + (2)(+)(?..a l2f@'t= *"' and.5)+ ' (.3125) (1. r = 593 in.F  tr )r = 89 in. lhe required tength of seclion below bearing would be2.t0. a section of the side member olJy.css ivc Stifhross of ous l n!: A= {4) (l l_: /glo \Li .Geor Housings / SLcp FIGUR E IO 4. AIDS FOR BETTER DESIGN OF WETOED GEAR HOU5INGS STEEL ^ ! t t r (b  t )! (d bt 4d11 1'r 1. {l) r.31:5)l ptates.00001 ) (.594)' 33 in. In certain cases the ability FIGURE I I . in.{ _ (2t(4)t .would support this U"rrtng io"J 5.000.1). Rigid support for the gear train 2.
etc..: round pieces for geirr bllnlis. . lvluch money can be r. For i fillet weld hevinq full pLare strenglh. Avoid close tolerances lvhere theyare not absoIutely necessary. fillet welds of L/3 to I/Z full strength would be more than sufficient.d steel. for_ example.l permit oii to be completely drained. Design the housing so that the gear assembly is easily accessible. IinJ cun be welclc(l to the outsiclo of the housing under sevefe hctt conclitions to dissipittc some of the hert into llre su r round ing 11i r.A.rn hls to l)o cut out..lityfor welding. For butI we lding oI rhick plates. Bearing supports mly be flame cut from heavy plate. piece (rectilngulirr picccs for pads. a.tLher ample housings. or be sreeL [orgings or steel casrinqswelded tl)tt thp (ur..irn. Use a fewer number ofpieces to decrease assembly and wel. Be sure the proper stze end rmount of weldins is shown. also so that as much ofthis may lle sssembled as e unit outside of the housing ani then installed into the housing._ round holes.)ut lf I seeli.'rirngFl Lhis so .:. into the side plates of the housing. reiflforcements j. ctc. Do not use a premium grade of steel unless necessary. this impro. [n mt]iing the fl:lnge sections of thehousing. for ex FIGURE I2 FIGURE I3 .)r. preferabl3r as a single completed unit. irj leg size should be about 7r of the thickness of the thinner plaie.ding time. in the housing where required and make the rest of the housing out of mil..t)f lhc 11()usinq Lo cilrrVlllvlvthe helt ml!.res appearance and reduces welding cost. Design the housing with properaccessibi. con_ sider whether {r hrge thick plate should be flame cut to form this or should be made bv cutting long flat bar stock and welding together. [n most cases fullsrrength filler welds are noi necessary and in a design based on rigidity.. det{trmine lh(' lrr)fsepr)wer citpitciLV ()f tile unit. Stiffeners and diaphragms require very little welding and are often overwelded. stiifeners. This assumes that the weld extends the ful. slanting bottom to the housing lvil. Form housing sides by bending corners and eliminating the corner welds.. Excessive weld size is costlv.). tt.\ eil be ujcd [.l length of the seam and is on both sides of the plate. select proper joint design for minimum welding cost because this has a great effect upon cost.vasted in trying to hold dimensions that are not required. lVeld a section of high tensile steel.
The outer edges of the two rings. Usually portions of the frame are designed to wirhstand the forces resulting from the weights whi.te. are machined concentric with the stator inner diameter so as to hold the two end bells that function as brackets for support of the rotor. The end rines are frequently flqnged for more rigid . such as the torque transmitted. Ilc some cases the shell does not cover the full lenqth of the tie bars: and flat bars. or of the shel1. Feet or legs are wel. It is possible. placing too many V belts and operating them too tightly on an overhung shaft can greatly increase the forces over what is normally allowed on the end bracket supporting the bearing. This shell maybeweldedto the tle bars and either left open at the bottom or closed com_ pietely with a longitudinal seam weld.longitudinal bars (four ormore) suppoft the stator from the shell and. and functionel i!_ pearance. and tie bars sometimes constitute an intesral frame made up of channels and flat plares weldJd tosether.ch must be supported and the forces due to normal operation.e.lls. In medium ard large rotating electrical apparatui. Welded steel construction is extensively used in electrical motors and generators for size ani weiEht generator housing is fabricared with straisht vertical side w3.ded to the shell./or end rings. BASIC DESIGN REQUIREM ENTS Fig. spacer or tie bars are welded directly to the stator.y to the stator.SECTtON 4. previously rolled and welded into circular rings. even though they are overdesigled for normal opefating conditi ons.r "ot the end bel.ls. Or. A steel sheet is wrapped around this assembly to form a protec_ ive shell. or directl. In a typical motor or generator. the shell. 2 Tie rods ond oufer shell often qre integrol ports ofmoiorfrome ond musi supporf end beorings ogoinst end fhrust.9 Motors ond Generotors I. carried down and flangdd to be bolted or welded to a base plr. the motor or Fig. to the end riogs. are welded to each end. SCOPE OF WETDED STEEL CON5TRUCTION reduction. For exampl. In general these basic requirements must be designed into the frame and enclosure: . fabricating economy. This method produces members of required stren#h and rigidity. 2. etc. Improper mounting of a motor under an extreme vibratinc condition (such as a vibrating screen. however. or crusher) iould break off the supporting feet of the motor. It is difficult to determine the actual service forces on the frame of a motor or senerator. The bqsic force is o resull of forque from the rotor. The.uppo. I Most medium to lorge motors ond generotor housingsore built up by we ld i ng. to overload the motor far in excess of normal operation.
This may be on the end of the frfme.. generators seldom produces any distinct design problems. The most important consideration is that of axial end thrust (f") . The common practice of providing louvers inthe shell around the motor or generatorirame mayde_ mand special considerations.tly with a thin sheet wrapped alound the frame. xza**Y / t\ l l t Ji P lll l.r . The torque (T) from the rotor exerts a resisting torque on the stator field coils and laminations. = ls. the Frome Stotor Stotor bor T p 6. Forces (FR) and (FL) on bearing.n ) will diminish as the radius (r) and the number of parts (n) increases.ting apparatus. This force on any partlcul. The importanle of this factor is dependeot on the gage of malerial used in the shell..ar part of the frame T (F = . but more through feer or legs commonly Iong [ne oottom ot the frame.' I t.poss wilh. 4. and relctive function ofthe shell as part of the motor frame. 2 / 5totionoryMember Design 1. 3. The use of welded steel construction in motors and. and must be transferred through the supportiBg stator Dars rnro tne trame and out through the feet. End belis must hold the rotor shaft rigidly and accurateLy in relation tothe stator inner diameter. In this respect they are brackets for purposes of desigrr analysis. END BELL DESIGN Various types of end bells are represented bv the sketches in Figure 5. and force (FF) on feet of frame result from belt tensions (p) ap_ plied to pulley on the end of the shaft.9 mcgnitude of forces resulting from operxtionofthe rotr.. The frame must be enclosed to some extent. which may be in either direction parallel to the rotor shaft and which produces a FIGURE 4 . 2. Support for the end bearings which support the motor. Support for the stator rnd its field coils. This must hotd the rotor conceniric 4.:i.the stator aod be capable of withstanding any ible end thrust. Some means of mounting or holdingdownthe motor or generator.l l 'of'o_ I sd x+y r. ! 5o FIGURE 3 3. the size and shape of cutouts. usua. In some cases it is totally enclosed.
^.. = outer radius ofdisc (or radius of bolt ci rcle) ri = inner radius of disc (at joint with hub) Stondord commerciol dished heod @ @ {tt /ilN Siamped out of lighrgoge sreel rlor olore ^ rlonecul io shooe Open frorle fob.! 17ri.lue must be assumed fbr this end thrusthub End thrust may be caused by numerous factors such as the we ight of the motor if vertically mounted.a. If the unit is for more genera.z Outer edge iust supported Max at hub 3F" t26 r.fixed" if it is continuousl." r^"."'J r. I For simplicity use the si.) . or if it is relatively thllk anA bolteJ to the frame. The left vertical a_xis ls used in reading the value of Kr for the radial tensile stress formula.t) + 13r.).s:r"!r.{.l use. ValuesofKfor substi_ tution in these formulas are read quickly from the curves shown.. Most end brackets can be considered as circular flat plates fixed and toaded at fte fruU.=i+[r :1tt!  a" '.(l)l 1grn2 . lf the motor or generator is desigaed for a specific application... and: r.) and a\ial deflection (1.Motors ond Generqfors / 4.26t}r'2 . TABLE I . in Table 1 natural or Naperian logarithms are used.2 log" ".7r. and the right yertical axis is usea in .ealing the value of K: for the deflection formula. _ +wror"L 2?gF. Fixed qnd Looded ot Hub  Outer edee fixed Ma\ at hub ". vibration caused by multi_groove sheaves on an overhung shaft.) du.END THRUST ON END BRACKET Considered os Circulqr Flot plote.2.atively thin. I =##[ru2.('":)'] 1.toend thrust (F."1 + iri2 6.y welded to a heavy flange.:.ons {chonnelsl FIGURE 5 For ease in computation. orthe actiooof shaftmounted speed reducers.80r'2r'2 log.' ros.rom roiled sed. some vr.9_3 l)cnding sLrcss that is m&\imum in the disc tt the joint. the mrKimum posslble end thrust mlty be easy to determine.cored . The outer edge ij considered to be simply (supported" if there is no flange..(r.mplifiecl formulas and cuwes on Figure . misaligned V_belts. The outer edge of the end bracket is consid_ ered to be .  r33r"a . or if the disc is rel. the simplified formulas of Figure 6 may be used to solve for radial tensile stress and axial deflection..#*. fatie i presents the formulas fordetermining radial tensile stress (d.
gq g1et .6 "rm vl*r:9.=.0 '.'trtus' HP in theformula equals 20070 oi ttt"'oto"'" 200 horsepower' or 400' 200HP molor Service focror = 200% 8OO RPM Torque 63. 63.4. 2.*Rr Rz (due to weight) = ffi=zss'alus 11 4100 4 = 1025. 6 Rqdiol tensi le siress qnd qxiql deflection.2 2.4 1.4 lbs FIGURE 7 Total Rr = .f t.0 lbs 1984. riorhenko.o.8 uesrgn . 4.8 t.2 Rotio r.4 .000(400) iET6 = 14.2 1.tesign is best presented by taking an actualproblem' ilcu""e Z.0 ./ri Fiq.6 ## " lr t t. Theo'v of Piores o'd Shells 2.ldipred f.9 4 / 5lotionqrYM€mbe.000 in. = 4100 lbs.000 RPNI n = 4 supporrs  HP W. DESIGN OF FEET The approach to analysis of a proposed foot .ibs Reactions (at the bott'L Rr (due to iorque) = ) { = Rr=R.8 . The objective is to determine if bending attd deflection will be witbin allowable limits' "tiess ] the service In uslng the formula for torque' the nominal multiplier to factor is ipplied as a i""""p"*"".4 2.
tlb / ln.333 in.touv  A"\G.= .e.2'1"\ 2\ cq EI l"' = .4 "ir.1' Havins found this angle.4 lbs.e=32.bb/ m.. I g" )*2. = Rrcosd ur. See Figure 8' ln order to find the bending stress in the foot' first determine the moment ofinertia and the section modulus: = 6430 ::='. x 2. (4")(3.8" = 3600 inlbs Moment d@grcm formula: Smd = Et r  a 5 = 16 13...2" )' M = = 1284.'..1n.5 FIGURE 8 =.."""""* ? \ I lo+Jv f .4) (.) + t=i.4 lbs x 6430 inlbs The angle d.rss s hsrs = t/2  = . Ir = t1Tsmd = (1284." Il(2. in..2. and the force components of the reaction (Rr) areF. Vertical deflection A.timum bending moment (M).845) = 1087 lbs M D . ." Bending stress in foot = (1284.9)... its cosine can be found from tables of natural functions.531) = tt6z IOS Althougb the designer might wish to have these values foitangential and radial forces' they are not used as such in this example.= l=. I\ f3 (4) (1)3 12 r / oannt'* \ i lo=".87") + z \ Er / sooo"+ \....4) (.0090" OK Aqo 89. formed by intersection ofthe vertical centerline and a radial line drawn to the point at which the foot joins the shell' canbe found from the M = 1284.690 . The maximum deflection of the beam (leg) equals the algebraic sum of the moments of the slveral areas ul:der the moment diagram slope taken about the point ofdeflection (at Rr). Tbe reaction force (Rr) is all that is needed.1''33) = . which is the reaction (Rr) times the horizontal distance to the point of supPort.lbs = 9650 Psi OK legdue Then check the vertical deflection of the qAreato the bending moment' by means of the Momento methld (see Sect.i]! r r"t x .8")(1.531 .' I c = "=i.. Checking Tentative Foot Section Try a 1" x 4" bar (b = 4"'ndt = 1") anddetermine the ma. . I ettnu* .
in addition.' OK Various other types of feet or legs are shown in Figure 10. the radial force of F.155" or use %6\ z +!si1]f Vertical deflection ^. +3sl!9E]4800 (4") z2 = .4.3" Tz a" M*=9600db(l+:) 2 Since M" must be set equal to the externally applied bending moment (M). *Lz2" Rr I l u= 6430 intbs 9600btra * 4800bo: = M 9600bt o _. Hence. = 108? lbs is to be considered.008?. and with a doubl. Size of Connectiug Weld In most cases only the bending load is of any significance in determining the leg size (r.8")(1. it is occasionally used in order to provide additional clearance under the motor or Eenerator./. this acts on thetop weld in the same direction as the force (F) from the bending moment but onthe bottom weld it acts in the opposite direction.8?") + / rn nn"+ \ + If.800 x 106)(.e bend may be more cos y to form. .3 on Weld Size to bef= and the 9(i{){) o lbs/linc{r inch tirrce is totll alrwable F=9600t:b  The resisting moment of the weld (NI") is force times distance: 3.rtr"r. SeeFigurell. The elloweble unit force on the weld is found from tables in Section 6.r) of the fillet weld joining the foot to the motor frame.= i [ffii r /renn"+ \ (2. may be added to that required for F.M (lJ " { 4800 b 4800 b M = 3600 inlbs Moment diagrom u2 +2ta  M 4800 b and: Only the positive root is of interest FIGURE 9 2(r") +. uses more weld metal. \E/(3'3")(2'8")+ /:rAnn"+ \ \ffi/(2'2r')(3'e'r) 86. the additional requiredweld size for F.9 6 / Slolionorytvlember Design Checking Alternative Design Although the following design otTers poor accessibility for welding. multiplying out and solving for fil let weld leg size (o) =t.333) . FIGURE I I *. The foot for which stress and deflection were first determined can serve as an example.800 El = (30 86.
EFFECT OF TOUVERS CUT INTO SHETI ' L 1087 l6s 2 (4") Louvers are sometimes needed around motor and generator frames for ai. or as access holes through which to bolt the end of the frame to an engine or other support. the enclosure or shell can be considered to be the frame. the enclosure or shell inwhichthese cutouts are provided serves structurally as the frame supporting both stator and rotor.) willbe always less than the reaction (Rr) and is unlikely ever to be of sufficient value to have a sigrificant effect on the required weld size. 136 9600 Adding the size of weld leg required for F. Figure 12.Motors ond Generotors / 4. This discussion is centered on this class of apparatus in which.d weaken the frame's shear carrying capacity. and in some smaller units. for practical purposes. Additionai force on the weld is 5. l0 Some iypes of welded feet for motors qnd generqtors.l shear (a) woul. a hole cut into the side ofthe frame in a region of high vertica. depending on where they are located.r to escape around the fan.014" = . L . but have little effect on its bending moment = and: 136 lbs/in. to that required for F .169" o1g!!ll r_r11%1__N The radial force (F.155" + . cutouts weaken the frame to some extent in regard to bending and torsionalloads.9 l Fig. In such mits. In the following example. In Iarge rotating apparatus.
r carrying capacity. and the forces developed within the one are shared by the other. r\ hole cut in the top or bottom portions of the frame in a region of high moment (b) would weaken its moment carrying capacity but h. Figure 14 shows such an arranqement.4. A seriqs of holes cut around the frame. n Generotor D FIGURE I4 E Louver oreo is probobly in o region of sheor Sheor diogrom Louver oreo is probobly in o ( +l momenf .rve little elfect on its sher. Sheor diogrom FIGURE Momenf dioqrom I3 Combined Motive Units FIGURE I2 Frequently two power units are attached to one another. Figure 13.9g / 5tqtionqiyMember Oesign carrying ctpacity. will weaken the torsional strength and stiffness of the frame.
Figure Properties of net section l.(3) I^/bl = \b l* *t .FIGURE I5 J Seciion AA FIGURE I6 This is a statically determinant beam: the mo.l l'""'l f":. If the cutout louvers are in a region of positive moment.l l"""'l are proportional to properties of the net crosssection.ment distribution does not depend on the relative moments of inertia of the frame and engine.= rb il I l:I  Ln I \b+c/l I . . Bending of frame The effect of cutting louvers around the. the bending stress in the top and bottom elements may be found: . resisting the horizontal compressive force (F") resulting from the . in the negative moment region.. the bottom element would be in compression. It can be assumed that the moment of inertia (I) and the section modulus (S) ofcutout section (AA) Horizontal Compressive Force The critical element in this case would be the one stressed in compression because of the chance of buckling.... the top element would be in compression._t. It is necessary that the element in compression have sufficient strength that it will not buckle. Hence. its section may be treated as a Iine. formulas for properties of thin sections appiy: Properties of whole ring (without considering effect of cutouts) Since the (D. The shear diagram and moment diagram can be constructed if the load distribution of the frame and engine is known. I (4) From this. The element or conneeting (leg" between two adjacent cutouts at the position of highest stress can be considered as a column..frame can be further evaluated by eonsidering a narrow annular section (AA) taken from the frame. frame's thickness (t) is small relative to its diameter.
this cutout may be so propor_ tioned thatt a tbr ' '. \./ = [. It will be assumed that the ability of an element to resist vertical shear (V") is proportional to its stiffness in the vertical direction. See Figure 18..al dimension of the cutout (d) for the usual properties in finding the slen_ derness ratio. thus reducing the allowable com_ pressive stress to about 8070 ofwhat would normallv be used for tension. + ::12 lrlJ sin! d Then the slenderness ratio 1L\ / d \. or to its indi_ vidual moment of ineftia about axis xx (I. r.) of each of two elements lying in a horizoi. it will be necessary here to substitute the radius of gyration (rs) and the axi.). It would be welt to find the slenderness ratio (L/r) of this element and check its allowable compressrve slress to see if the actual compressive a" value of 83.6 5 .. Shear Force Radius of cvration lr vA The shear force on elements between cut_out louvers can be found in a similar manner..9 lO / SrotionoryMember Design FF v..'3 s6.) about axis xx for any element. n"'o .4.sin2d . Figure 17.. . sindcosd . Con_ sider the annular section (AA) taken from the frame...rtal plane extending through the axis of the frame is (since d = 0' or 180') I tl r tb' 12 t 0 The portion of the external vertical shear (V*) carried by each of these two elemenls ts  .2I.0.cos2d * I. for any given angle (d) is equal to I" = I*. As ..z P . (7) and since: guide.. This would be a reasonable allowable.. IT 112 _ The moment of inertia (I.. sum of all the moments of 2I* (for d = 0") inertia  It can be shown that the sum of the moments of inertia of all the elements is FIGURE I8 Ir =:i24 {b2 + i!} .. the moment of inertia about axis xx (I.. I /tir l!rl r  L_l_l I I Tll FIGURE IZ Secfion AA bending moment..lre=.r =JI bt3 )! o....t8e t/ " 'o From this..289t l..... = i2L = ":t2 ll. stress is within reason. Figure 16.
(1:]) ..t of torque Here the circumferentiaL force actinE on the 12 t is s b2 nl UI .. and Ft from torque . ..(10) Effects of Combined Load These two forces .. . 63.V" from vertical shear.(rl) Bendins stress in element This effect of vertical shear force on each of the two elements in the horizontal plane.000 x HP RPM where: I i rl* _ tb3 element as a resul. Torsional Force The effect of torque. .Molors ond Genorotors / 4911 wherc: Bending nronrent on element n = number of elements between cutouts .will act together on one side of the frame and must be added: Bendins deflection of element The effect of this combined load on the bending of 'his element can be diagrarnmed as in Figure 22. Figure 20. on individual elements between cutout louvers.. LE FIGURE JE b 'l d F I9 Momenf diogrom FIGURE 22 FIGURE 2I . (14) .. is illustrated in Figure 21. The effect of this combined load on the shear of this element can be diagrammed as in Figures 23 and 24. is illustrated in Figure 19.
Theory of plates and SheiLs". p. From this an a1_ lowable displacement of the side ofthe frame can be developed for use in ttre above formula.l area of radius (b) and acting a. FIGURE 24 Shear deflection of element FIGURE 25 Radial deflection ^ where: cFd AE." = 3 f. the condition considered is a radial load (P) concentrated ona smal. 2nd editioo. = t'"'= f' .n eKrmple which exactly fits the particular load condition found in Che frame ofa motor or generltor.. or the force applied to the side ofthe frame thioqli a sup_ pofting leg. _t T l. . " . The following. this might be the force applied to the top of the frame by a lifling lug.5 = l'5 F ". RESISTANCE TO CONCENTRATED LOAO Sheor slress (r) diskibuiion FIGURE 23 Shear stress in element t.4.1  \:i::iiL.* = 1.. .5 ll"1 r'r3 l  \rI' = 12 X 106 (modulus of elasticity in shear) Circumferential bendine stress Total deflection of element A=Ab+4. frame "..' oI tn the study of stresses and deflection of cvl_ inders under vrrious types ofloads.5Fd btE" c = form factor E. . 1. 2nd Edition.s u Formulas lor Stress rnd Strr.. 1. 506) may be used togivean indication of the stress and deformation of the frame actins as a shell under a concenLrated force (p).. As shown in Figure 25. it isdifficulito find ..in'.9 gtorionoryMember Design 12 / t ilb ' 6. .eoes t"r.t a point remote from the ends of the frame. p. =_ r Iadrans In all cases there is an air gap between the rotor and the stator and this must be heldwithin a certain percentage during the operation.' A. . For example. (18) This would represent an angular rotation of the of0..nru] .(T) *.. taken from Roark. 260 (see also Timoshenko's '..
IMPORTANCE OF STEET Supports bility in the design of housings.ightly without appreciable increase in cost. is obtained by mounting the shaft and bearing directly in the housing wal. MOUNTING OF BEARING SUPPORT FIGURE 2 The simplest of bearing supports. Al. By using welded steel construction. Figure 2. Tn most designs. This can be done where wall thickness is sufficient to provide the necessary bearing area or can be increased sl.ignment and parallelism of bearinA seat surfaces are usually critical to the pertormance ofthe equipment's drive system.sEcTtoN 4. and the lowest cost. the shafts are hung wilhin a housing and extend through side walls it each end. The required accuracv can best be obtained and maintained bv usine steei in the housing and in the bearing supports. The length of needed bearing support is usually considerably longer than the plate thickness of thi side member need be. frames Welded steel construction provides great flexi_ and other The following examples illustrate various ideas for developing designs of bearing supports as used on transmissions.10 How to Design Beoring I. 5reeL's high modulus of elasticity (E = 30 X 106 psi) and availability in hightensile strengths are great assets. there is no wasteofmaterial inachievins the optimum strength and rigidiry where requiredl Section 4.l help in determining wall thickness of bearing supports and weld sizes. Figure 1. For additional bearing support ifneeded. This information wil. housings and gear boxes. 2. I Efficieni weldesign offers mony odvonfoges in o heovy geor housing of this scole (bottom holf sh own here).  .8 on Gear Housings provides some basic information on bearing forces. bosses Fig.l. machine members that must incorporate bearing supports.
SPTIT HOUSINGS FIGURE 4 The insert can be made in severa.l. the support canbe solid. FTUSHi\AOUNTED BEARING SUPPORTS FIGURE 3 An insert can be fillet welded to the side wal.rll is simplificd by usinga shoulder or step.l to provide a continuous bearing surface. rectangular stock.4.ed before welding. For a slight addition in mc. has its Limitatiors. efficiently in several different ways. Intricate sections required for oil seal. Thehole isthenbored with in a transmission or other housing can be handled Bearing supports necessarily located at the split FIGURE 6 . For small bearings. Where extremely heavy bearing support is required.chinin. Figure 4.ng while the opening is being prepared. the insert could be easilyflamecut to shape from thick steeL plates. Figure 3. Designs for bearing supports flush with the wall can be engineered in several different wavs.s require_ ments for loading. Since a butt weld is required instead of a fillet weld at the flush surface. wavs. Simplest in construction and lowest in cost is .llJ. The side wall can be beveled if necessary by flamecutting or machini. or sawed irom solid stock or tubing. Special care is needed to align the insert in the correct position with the side of the housing. it is simpler to bevel the inseri duri. With fillet welds inside and out.ng machining.he addition of a steel collar by fillet welding the collar to the side of the housing.s. The hole inthe side of the housinE is flamecut or machined. Figure ?. Chips from boring might possibly become wedged in the crevice and tendto force the collar away from the side wall. t hc pcoblcm of rlisninSthc insectpcrpendicul:rr to the side rv. the remaining half of the housing assembly in place. The desig!. however. such as flamecut from steel plates. chitnges for misalignment in fabrication ar.I / 5tof tonorym€mber Design cxn be added to the s ide wrlls by welding. the bearing lupport has greater strength and resistance to bending.rted. The support can also be made from steel tubings split longitudinally. FIGURE 5 3. For larger heavier bearings. Figure 5. Ilx the final boring of the boss a slight irregularity may occur as the boring tool leaves one surfacl and Starts the next.r costs. Generally. 4. Figure 6.s and lubrication needs can be developed by use of steel castings fillet welded to side wall. therebv elimin. Extratimeis needed to Locate the collar in proper position. This type of boss is determined by the designer. the split bearing suppoft may be formed from bent plate and fillet welded to the housing. alignment and ease of manufacture. either the side wall or the insert must be bevel.
Similar results are obtained by merely cutting to required length a standard steel channel available ai anv steel warehouse. Figure 8. P PorI5 / {. Thewebis fillet welded to both the insert and the side wall of the housing. F IGURE 8 veloped by fabricating a web from steel pLate in the For heavier loads.rvJ 5. HEAVY EEARING TOADS Stiffeners ccn be used for heavy loads. Figure 9. Figures 10 and 11 show how maximum rigidity can be incorporated by the use of stiffeners where bending loads and thrusts are developed in several directions. The simplest stifferer is the addition of a web below the insert. additional stiffeners arede form of a channel.NN FIGURE 7 ocolrn9 J (. Efficient use of stiffeners can slve on the thickness rnd lveight of side walls where high compressive and bending loads are i nvolved. In many cases. webs or stiffeners are inserted between bearing suppofts to tie the supn^rtc f^dathar FIGURE 9 FIGURE IO FIGURE I I .
in support of a shaft running parallel with the surface. / Jro. in order to increase rigidity . .1. l3 Severoldesign ideos for mounting c loselyspoced beorings where olignment of seoting surfoces is cri iicol.tonqry_membe.Figl ure 13 shows several possibilitiesl Supports for closely spaced bearings canbedeslgned as a single unit. welded to the side plate and finish_mr.s usedonaprinting press shown io Figure 12.ned frombarst5ckor tubing. The contour J. u€Jtgn A typical side fra.chined rn place.elism of seating surfaces.rme_cut by mechine. while keeping fabrica_ rron costs to a minimum.'\AOUNTED BEARINGS Bearing supports must often be mounted to the top panel.nd openinos 1l:1cc:rately fl.me a.of a base or otherflat surface.. CLOSEIY sPACED BEARINGS and improve parall. Flomecut from thick billet 7. Figure 14 illustrates some of these design ideas. Th in tube or pipe Fig. f Flomecut rings rom thick plote . is Diophrogms which support beoring FIGURE I2 6.' Numerous possibilities exist for achieving the nec_ essary rigidity or strength.' w . Searing su!pons where needed are machi. TOP.
mqin heod. cost l2olo.lO5 Fig. Converting cqst iron '. Additionol benefit wos experienced during finol ossembly of the chopper becouse lhe porl wos eqsier to hqndle.Eeoring 5upports / 4. l4 Design ideos for rop mounied beoring supporis.'of o foroge chopper io steel reduced weighi from 289 pounds to I iTpoundi. .
ond orc welding.lO . bor stock. . heovy wolled iubing .4.chonnel .6 / SlotionoryMember Design Fobricqted beoring brockeis for motor generotor welders effectively use siondqrd sieel shopes .
li.."*t ""crory 0. BASC PROBT w \ FIGURE I €^ s \rt . nat are 1::i: yl""r. """.i. .. ""' f. See Figure 1.t resutts rviir.y... 0""*?i'ni".J. the inherent smooth surface of steel plate eliminates the n€ . i'}'::!"i?"'":ffi"". Ll order to reduce the surface to Ou .f. ARE THEY NECESSARY ? .n:"gl# are required.J.ig io iorce of the pad."#j""'ufl 3l""ixl:jff Jiilx.?.Many ..1fi]xqbolts"...ro pull away iLf.1"."":Tt":: T:"i:li:H directly to them without . paner because of angular distortion.oi""fig"nm"nt werdrne In most cases.the havi ::. 2.%'.'r ns a *i'#ff.:"Ti.:"". SeL Figure 3.:li: lffi?::or""iun""n*"iii* FIGURE 3 around rhe outer edge of the pad may tena "1..machine designers indicate bosses and pads on.:'""$ panel cutting inough tt reaJs .. m&tty as a carry_over from casting design. tr.ur: lace requires machining to provide Jnootfr. compJnentsarea to be joined..TiJ" rrii:Tithickness to permit l:JsJ'aTl: .:i.sEcTtoN 4. "f S..o'i""J.i*1""0J'if lrfi FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 . j"#i"i.Trr. sG..other.their bases.":*.(2). The characterisric roughcast.iir"t bosses or raised sections are provided..Ji n:'il:E.Tfi "#ff :"A.ilfi .i..of the weldment.ff 3.til?ii. fhictness anj width of plate are the contiolling f""to"" f*"] _ou.j#.:x.l nts..Tffi *ff ff&rH: "..ft face.e figrrre +.l How to Design Bosses ond pods I.::".:.in"J.ffi T:il:' fi :*.T"'.l:[: l:[ :*'.:?":i"j[.i" iig :n:[:l.tfv f"o_ ilr" 11: ^"..
in the weldei design achieves increlsed materir. In some ctses where holes must be drilled tapped. ltere the thiclier section needed to receive studs or bolts is produced bv welding an insL'rt of rectlngulsr crosssection int.de. and its equivaleor in steel. it may be de_ si.dth of the weldment. However. See Figure 6. Here agr. 4.n".. Figure g. they may be formed from one plate and the cornerwelds alongthe Iength ofthe base are thereby eliminated. this plate. satisfies this condition by having the <boss thickless" extend the entire wi. cast boss. might FIGURE 9 Figure 9 illustrates another welded desis"n tech_ nique of gaining additional production economv.E NEEDED .ge.io maintaining its curved contour2. frequently must have its entire surface ma_ chined to provide the same limitedarea contact with an attaching unit. various units of a drive system are mounted on the same axial centerlinemotor. After the cut hcs been mr. These units usuallvvarv in height.Frequently. speed reducer. etc.d material for subseq'uent machining. If the thin pad has sprung awey from the panel.rable to weld a thicker plate inserted into the supporting panel of the steel weldment. shown in Figure 9._ tion. For more €ritical applications. the thinner pltte of the panel. Since the top and sides of the base are now of the same thickness. SeJFigure 5. The vertical forces on the pad usualty govern this Wc/dmant FIGURE 8 FIGURE 6 The next three sketches show a typical cast section with a machined boss around i relatively large opening. the. A design alternative.danger of the pad lifting away . though somewhat thinner than the conesponding cast se. Plug welding extreme]. scrap material from previous weldments can be efficien v salvaged for this purpose. This will give soli. but in most cases a weld on each side ofthepanel is sufficient. pad may springoutwlrd agc. the cutting tool conceivablv misht tend to separste the pad from the panet end'forci smelt turnings into the crevice between surfaces. tool pressure during mtchining m3y force the pad bacK toward the panel. The weldment.any.'IAULTIPTE /!AOUNTING EIEVATIONS In many machine designs. reduces the amount of machin_ ing needed to produce a mating surface adjacent to the opening. THICKNESS WHER.l efficiencv bv placing the right emount where it ls needed while reducing both weight and necessalry machinins. for example: 1. Th.y wide and thin pads at various points will hold them tightly against the main panel and correct this problem. Figure ?. iawei . FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 cteclslon 3. especially for boring or drilling. Pads may be flamecut from plate. Some applications may demand a :199 wetd befween ruuTo insert and panel.'and wlrl eltmlnate.112 / StotionoryMember Oe sig n This can marlie it difficult to prDduce o flat mounting surflce after machining.4. or be used to advtntJ. l]anel.
. units of varyingheights can be manufaciured FIGURE I2 ii l I l. a mounting pad is supported on brackets out from the main frame. Efficiency and flexibitity features of welded desrgn permit economical placement of bosses or pads wherever they are most useful. i. I il . These supports may be fabricated as a subassembly and then welded in place.such as I sections. thereby Two separate weldments have been integrated ments.lt _3 from bar stocl(. Where bases have to be tailored to meet varied require into.".Bosses qnd pods / 4. Uigl. i :ll i il jil i FIGURE I O p"o"uidine sraDre support oI component members at differeni levels. FIGURE I I . or mede of scrap material saved from previous weldments. I il li. In Figure 12. f channels. ounting supi porrs can be constructed from standard iolled shapes. xnd formed plates.ngi""l to stocli and llrter ilssembled in a vsriety oI combinations to meet the customer's requirements without delayi ng shipment. See Fisure 10: """tion". This _technique may be especially useful in Dotorpump bases and similar applications.a single unit in Figure I1.
plus welding.4 . lified fhe consrruction of mo shopes ond lhis oilpump for bqse.11 4 / SlotionoryMember Desion Stqndord stru cturq Formed simp I steel. . Welded sieel construction provided on economicol soluiion to lhe problem of providing vorious mounting elevqiions on this mochine bose.
requiring four separati pieces.12 How to Design Mochine Brockets I. It is natural that when redesigning a casting to welded steel. steel sections can be ZSqo th" ""oooy.mitations. Redesigning on the basis of calculated loads per_ Figure I shows various types of steel brackets fabricated economically with arc wel. tf. Extremelv thin sections can be used.c principles of their design are outlined in the text that follows. a simple redesign of the cast bracket (A). Materials canbeplaced where they can carry the greatest load with the least section. For purposes of illustration. The basi. producide_ signs can sometimes be made with about % the original material needed. the components can be bent to shape. formed.educed by 4070.ding. virtually anydesign approach is pos_ sible. The steel designer is not restrictea by pattern and molding li. for welded steel is shown below (B). STEEI PERIAITs DESTGN ECONOMY Brackets and similar components for positionine and supporting other machine members. With welded steel con_ struction. and operating mem_ bers of a machine. lec_ tions can generally be b07o the thickness Lf cast iron sections. transmi ss ion devices. components of the bracket can often be sheared to shape. 2. Theseoresheored relotively thin stock. 1 from . reducing the amount o] weld_ ing and thus further reducing manufacturing costs. Although the design nearly duplicates the configuration of the casting. size of cast iron sections. and looks beyond the firsfconcept to see what can be done by other approaches to the problem. Figure 2.SECTtON 4. Every pound of metal. In other cases. utilizing highspeed fillei welds mode in the downhqnd poririon. tockwe lded. offer mani opportunities for improvement of design For equal strength. For equal rigidity. thedis_ cussion uses the simplest type brackets to suDoort motors. This is not an efficient desisn for weldeil steel however. DESIGN EVOI. materiil is . elthoueir this may be considered an acceptable first step. and Typicol brockets os found on monymochines. l /ith steel.e alert designer does not restrict his thinkingto pre_ conceived ideas. can be put to use effectively.For example. fig.UTION mits more efficient use of material. . ond then fi nish welded. the desigrer tends to adhere clos"ely to the shape of the original cast part.
A bracket (C) serving the same need is cut from a fltaodard (I" beam by flamecutting the web at 45'.4.. In one redesign (B).ght. the box section (A) is fabricated from two side members. It represents a weight reduction of 4O7o and cost savings of about 5070.ng. This design utilizes only two pieces of steel.sheared. lighter material bent to shape and two stiffeners welded across the bottom to prevent wobblinE. with a sti.ffening \^/eb added by fillet welding. Material thichxess can be reduced about 5070 when redesigned (B) to dupiicate the shape of the original casting. giving two similar brackets for one length of ( I" beam. identical loads can be carried with steel having half the section of the original casti.'ri I r?4\\\1r. Where clearance is needed through the center. bent andwelded.rt\lt .rimum structural rigidity at minimum wei. Figure 4. Similarly.\\\ ' I (A) (B) fabrication costs reduce the material savings. several different approaches can be taken in redesigning the cast iron machine bracket shown (A) in figure 3. Figure 5..t redesign (C) uses even 3. The bracket is a plate simply bent to shape. A true savings is realized when a completely different approach is taken(C). required relatively heavy sections as a casting (A) to maintain necessary rigidity. The long bracket.122 / 5iotionoryMember Design (A) Originol Costing (B) First Redesign Weighi: 40olo less Cosi: Abou i the some FIGURE 2 (C) Second Redesign Weight: 4070 less Cosir 50o/o less . FIGURE 3 brakeformed to a channel shape. The two channel shapes are then butt welded on opposite sides with fast downhand or automatic submergedarc welding. BRACING OF HIGHLOAD BRACKEIS On larger size brackets. a more efficieD. box sections or diagonal bracing can be used to attain ma. However. ..
The bracket is then allowed to rest the clip. shapes. corner reinforcement of sim_ ple machine brackets can be accomplished as in Figure 7. Where removable brackets subject to high Load_ ing are involved. immediatelybeneath the bracket position. Where desirable. the channel is fillet welded to the top and side of the machine bracket. Sawed dr flamecut from standard struc_ tural. FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 :l . (A) (B) ^w FIGURE 5 (B) FIGURE 7 Figure 6 shows another way in which a channel member can be utilized to fabricate a machine bracket. Design B is for brackets for internal support. side members are brake_ formed to channel shape and steel stiffeners welded to the inside as shown in design B. Figure S. A seat clip (B) is welded io rhe side frame of the machine. Design A is for brackets supporting a post on an industrial truck.ts.Mqchine Brockers / 4. removing the high vertical shear ^on 10ao lrom the bol.lZ3 (8) (c) FIGURE 4 with diagonal bracing. the desiga idea shown in FiEure g can be utilized.
costlier process.4. os shown obove. .124 / SlolionqryMember De sig n Very substontiol sovings con often be mode by designing relotively simple members for welding rqther thqn some slower. Brockets. ore good exomplesof conversionpossibilities thqt conpoy off for the desioner.
a welded steel flylvheel can safely operate at higher speeds with substantial reduction in weight and cost. For increased rim energy (Er). Because of the low tensile strength of cast irons.000 ftlbs oi energ'y.ns"f1 IN KK N n m Welded steel N flywheel 520 lbs ] 8OO RPM Groy cost iron flywheel 3400 lbs 360 RPM FIGURE I . it is important to plice the flywheel on the highest speed shaft possible for the amount of energy which must be stored in the rim. turn at a rather low RPM Steel. each turning at different speeds. the maximum rim radius (!. the cali iron fl1rwheel must a.sEcTtoN 5. IMPORTANCE OF SIEEL sound. therefore. is not limited by low tensile strength and casting defects. 6.wheels for developing the same 100.wheels must be restricted in speed to keep the rim from flying to pieces. In many machines several shafts are used. For a given required value of rim. 1) shows the relative sizesandspeeds of fl1. have a large rim radius (r. For lowest weight and cost of the fl1wheel. A comparison of gray iron and welded steet flywheels (Fig. it is desirable to make the flyrvheel as small as possible and run at higher rotating speeds. it may be necessary to place the fl]'wheel on the slower turning shafts. Becaule of its higher strength and uniformity of material. Rolled steel answers these requirements. It is important that fl]'wheels be built of a In order to store the desired amount of energy in the rim while keeping rim stresses low. rim weight varies as the cube ofthe rim radius. and c. is preferable since the steel wheel can be run safel. high strength material.y at higher speeds and stores more energy per pound of metal. energy (Et). For flwvheels with the same rim sectional area and of samL material. b. trVhen designing for low manufacturing cost. A welded steel flywheel.). be massive.1 How To Design Flywheels I.) must be reduced as the speed of revolution increases. on the other band. this will allow the rim radius to be increased. dependable. cast fh.
lactas a . in. For eximple. In most cases this area can be represented by 20% to SQVo. =r:mV: = I/: nr lf rrr.For exaynple. usi d ' = shear stress in flyvheel le8 size of ihait.r. this section) mean rim radius K. Ilx this = = i FIGURE 3 il '..oke.:6l_/ (r_ros \ Since: F = ma !V. Ar cre6s4a"1. having a shearing strength of S0. centrifugal force is tbe prime consideration. = thickness of rim. fatigue cycle {See Sect.5. in.') l1]L . Ex = Vz l\h"\ (50. in. psi aE.met?l multiplied by the area of the shearediOge. the work done by a punch is the average force of shear_ ing multiplied by the thickness oi the ptate being sheared.2/\ 12 60 / 845. ftlbs = 38!!=3!U! *:*' Ek. len8th of spoke. = K= .12 / R ototingil e mber Derign obtained from the following: Er.(.lb€ width of lim.eter bole in a t/r.ot the product ofthe maximum shearing force and the thickness oftheplate.m. is AEr=Er. RIIA ENERGY Er is usually obtained from an aralvsis of the energy fluctuations per cycle.500 r RPMV . force on rirn. lbs forc6 qn filbs = Err  In designing flywheels. 2). S= = W. the rim acts simply as a revolving ring with just an axial tensile force resulting from the centrifugal force of t}Ie rim.2 ft/sec. there is no inward radial force applied to the rim by the spokes. w'r" = 845.h€el rorarion.500'(RPMr2  RpMz)2 c = dist€nce of neutral arb to ourer 6b€r of section.= tJt (%. = Inern Edius of rim. = pouads g hence:  . Fatigue loading. the portion of the rim between the supporting spokes wil. o PNt1. L RPM = = M' = RPMr = RPM! = RPM. (oft€n assumed = r" for silirplified computarion) b€ndihg momenr in lih ar s.000 psi) 9. in. F.lbs = 1604 ftlbs  = W. = KL.! coefrcient of sp€ed fuctuation enersy stored in . ^ .. = 6ller weld. n = trumber ofspokes or arms in fl).i" r= t+: On the other extreme.€) AEr F. weight of flywheel. K: r.polc.. lf the. lev per min initisl sp€€d of dywheel rotation 6nal speed after energy is given up mean sp€€d ideal case.2 3.t"u of rim.. in. lb€.t F= rzdiat \32. 't .whe€l r. in.ximuri shearing force is the ultimate shearing strength of llrg. = r. 3).1416 ( r") = 19. and is the quantity of matter W' = weight. . CALCUTATING STRESSES IN FIYWHEELS !itn. the energy required to pulch a 1"dia. This ma..242 in. ifthe spokes are absoluteIy rigid and do not stretch (see Fig.'thick plate. or the change in energy. in. The proposed flywheel's kinetic energy .onr1 crosssectiond area of spoke. =  RPM. W. where: = mg m = mass. It can also be showr that RPM. in.'?RPMz " ItlDS l Energy given up by the flywheel.3 W. in. O[ one extreme. and equals the force of gravity (g) acting on this mass (m) British Gravitational Units W. in. and s€e Formirla 17. / W' \A t/2tlt!.zg and . t. if the spokes offer no restraining action (as in Fig.= torque. in.rErz DEFINITIONS OF SYMBOLS USED IN FLYWEEEL DESIGN d = srr€*s (retlile or b€ndiis). and is measured as the area under thE forcedisplacement diagram. 1b€ ratio of rDinimurrl to maximuD load. ultirnate shear strength (r") is aot knownl it may be taken as% of the ultimate teosile streneth REOUIREO {duL 2.2. . = T section modulus of spoke.lbs speed of fl)r.0OO psi. would beEr. d = di4ierer of dywh€el dive shaft. m = wr. Tbe stresses are sratically indeterminate. in. = = c= Er = = A. = ratio of rim thicknBs to {S€e Thble r) K1 =E = ratio of rim width (S€e Table 2) ro tu rhickness = !L t.3. = TrtF where the force = 32.. = enelgy 6v"n uo 6y dywheel.
Formula 1 assumes no re_ straining action of the spokes and gives the lpaximum value. or Rim and Tensile Stress The rim of a rotating wheel tends to exDand as =_ L24.400 t. speed increases. The actual value would be less. Since the actual condi. rh uniformly loaded beam with fixed ends.RATIO OF THICKNESS TO RADIUS OF RIM + I K. decfeasing with greater spoke restraint.) and nunber of spokes (n). = rim tlickness meon flm rodtus  t. " Formulas 1. the Ioading is due to the centrifugal force acting on tbe rim. the actual vilues willbe somewhat Iess. RPMr2 .. hence it causes axial tensile stresses in the rim. 2 and B are based onthese extreme conditions and thus represent maximum valuei.13 I .tions will be a compromise be_ tween these two extremes.Flywheels TABLE / 5. area of spoke (A.
hence.w r. ob= r.14 / R ototingMember Design TABLE 2  RATIO OF WIDTH TO THICKNESS OF RIM . both undergo the same amount of strain (e). Assurnins now that the expanding rim pulls the spokes out.16. Nevertheless Formula 2 represents a maximum axial tensile stress in the spokes. and therelore both have the same tensile stress (o.long with it.=..m. the actual would be less with greater rim thickness (tt and number of spokes or arms (n). Uniform loading of the segment by centrifugal force causes a bending stTess in the rim. rim width tr Spoke Tensile Stress stress in the rim if unrestrained..400 RPMr2 r.? RPM12 I24.5.re .  " . n'Kr  . Actually this condition does not quite exist since anv restraining action of the spokes will reduce the exl pansion of the rim and therefore reduce this rim stress.2 RPMr! 6300 6300 n2 t.=r% ry vvr7Tvv =8  .=re rw v . A solid disc would be considered to have an infinite nrifiEer spokes of (n = co) and the resulting bending stress inthe rim would be zero. ot =+ The above Formula 1 gives the maximum tensile Rim Bending Stress The rim segment between adjacent restraining spokes acts as a curved beam fixed at both ends.3 r.rq _.=% *r=re Kr=9 I . Formula 3 gives the maximum value of this stress.).
3 FIGURE 4 r d3 required section modulus of spoke s sS= L24.. and = (RPMr .4oo i. = Kr: Kz r2 AEr 476. the spokes are usually des igned to about 7.3 (RPMI! ius  RPMrr) r. based on the energ'y (Ek) which must be stored in the rim.!_5 Kr is the ratio of rim thickness (t. 1. stress..33\ \ Y/ rd3 . On thinrim flylvheels.400 fl . = l.(8a) required section modulus of spoke  S= S= 124. B:rsed on tangential force on flywheel rim: re Resultc. RotatinF Disc The maximum stress in a rotatins disc is the tangentia.s.l..000 d3  r.all of the spokes are assumedto carrythe tangential load.).How fo De:ign Flywheels / 5. This means the total tensile and bending stress in the rim rr RPMrz " _ 12..) to mean rim rad_ See Table l.500  "s I which is the max.2 RPMI2 I2411OO .1. Therefore.400 FL nS rs .7 rrr) 49?. 315.400 F L n (124. (eb) (r).sses in the spokes. usually can be used peatedly to simplify the flywheel calculations. The result is a torque which causes bending stresses in the spok. and the resultant (cr) should not exceed the allowable stresses for repeated and impact loads. Here for simplicity.33\ notlI __l Y/ \ FL '. (max at hub) this ratio. = t.800 \ *_9 Jt \ n: Kr/ Rim Energy The crosssectional area ofthe rim.. Table 2 shows ihe general effect of changing Kr is the ratio of rirn thickness (t.t IIInl. Spoke Strength A sudden change in speed causes the flywheelto absorb or deliver power. C is the coefficient of speed fluctuation.3 t. of the required torque strength ofthe drivinE shaft. RpMrz\ "'?\ r24. tangential stress at r = rr The tensile stresses in the spoke (2) should be added to the bendingstresses inthe spoke (E) or (6). On thickrim flywheels.onoftll r.8 n (124. The vltlue of Y.? RPMr!) _ _ 3(r^2 RPMrr\ .400 6. which shows the general efer:t of changing this ratio. once conrputed. Based on shaft strength: "'_ r.. half of the spokes are assumed to carrv this load.000 AEk 238... and thus L has dropped out of the formula. we assume that lengthoJspoke = r.:E. Nlost machine design texts assume the spokes to stretch about 75Vo of the amount required ifthe rim were free to expand under centrifugal force. /r 165.t ldb = i:l rr.) to rim thickness (t. W. is found A.2 RPMrr) /_ o. Kr is the ratio of rim width (W.) to rim mean rad * Where the flywheel also serves as a pulley.).RPMr)/RPM... from the following.nt Rim St ress would equal about % of the rim tensile stress (Formula 1) andt/ of the rim bending stress (Formula 3).+\oloo'xJ /.3 RPM2 . and is maximum it the inner radius: RPMr2 (3. + .400 or t RPMr? 0rr=tlz_Irl. the (angential force on the rim creates bendinc str. 1/r.000 C r.(11) which is the max. ius (r.r. radial stress at r = y'iii For solid disc: rr = 0 and max dr = max or .
786) = 5.608/ 1 33 _ qnTihr (5000)(4)3 = 1.608 6.2 speed fluctuation for rock crusher dr = 5000 psi allowable combined tensile and bending stress r= 5000 psi assumed shear stress in shaft d = 4" diameter of flywheel shaft .3) (12.r. (1. = K.875) = 22." 1. spoke. A2 = 2.lvheel design = in Figure 6..1' Ar( lrr308 Hence. _e / ^vrerr. and the rim thickness is to be 307o of the mean rim radius (r_). = (2) (5. 2: DETERMINE DIMENSIONS OF SPOKE J= . = (1. = Kr r"'  C = 0.: t..25)3 ^= b :___j__j_ 6 tr9.r " W.54) (r.AJ Based on strength of shaft: lta) Kr 6. * ".To design a welded steel flywheel for lowing conditions: lE.t( and A.3 or (100.: shown These dimensions produce a fly.ftlbs.2 1600b 1800 . = (3.000) (2 + .\ / 133\ Yi /t \ \ . = t00..Q9 in r. = t.03 in.000. which checks out: (2) (5.25) = t0. = 1800 the fol_ The dimensions of the rim are cnus flywheel=Err_Err rhc energy to be given up by t.5 in.2)..z. Step = (.30 Step 1: DETERMINE DIMENSIONS OF RIM n2 (t.30) o.1i2) = 3. Six sp:kes are to be used.608) ]il. use 2" x 5%'.J. hence _ n=6 Kr = .75) (5.57 = 1 ++(6)' (.ondIlll .786 " or use 3:i. FIGURE 6 .79 C Kr2 r.8(6) (5ooo) {13) r=tu/zvfr RPM TY _ 407.83" or use 5ils" A. RPM.54 3 .r9rrtrrmoel u€stgn .W.
.) F.62) 20.zst +(5 fll A M. sn and check bending stress in rim ll49in3 M.03) (4140)  .62)' (1800)! and check the rim's tensile stress F.8660 (18.28)(4140) l:.830 6 _ = 18.436 \ 3. A.0304(IJ'.500 tbs Properties of the welded connection.400 = 4.0889 (18.D.62\r 03041::::l + I.5 /  .800 in. = 2(b + d) = 2(2 + 5. _ = 75. treated as a line:  3410 psi 5" = bd + d: 25)= 3 )tz"=a l* I Bending moment in rim at spoke (M.5 1. nl = = .. = .42 1820 psi = M Jw Total tensile and bending stress in rim dr=3410+1820 = 5230 psi OK = 530 lbs/linear in.400 I = = (22.25'.* i r.62)r (r800)r 124.. = r2 RPMr? 124.=dA"=A.Ic T='.0J\ t.  124. ort. The torque on the flywheel hub is obtained from the shear stxess in the flywheel shaft: FILLETI!ULDStZ[. or .\T truB The moment (VI) on the spol(e and the connecting weld equals the torque (T) xpptied to the hub of the flywheel.How to Design Flywheels / 5.8660 F" The ma\imum tensile force in the spokes would be the stress found in Formula 2 multiplied by the spoke area (A. = A.140 psi sPoKD .1 RPM r: 124. .4?0 in.800 11. hence the moment on each weld T n 62.Jbs is and check the spoke's tensile stress  _ 62.500 10.U INE Axill tcnsile stress in unrestrained rinr (12.lbs OK psi Axial tensile force in rim (F.r F.) = t2t (5.100 lbs (12.../22.t):t 1.^ .rao + r.).400 Step .lbs = 19.19 Stcl) :l: CIIUCK TIItS DESICN r".100 22.1: D ETE tt.400 .03 = 43.5 t\ r0.r& .760 = 10. IU.500) (r2.\ltoUND According to Timoshenko's formulas: Axial tensile force in spoke (F.830 in.6 rd1 wnere:l=andc= d (18. r.500) 75.7 in.l6 (5000) rr (.0889 F.= .500 lbs = There are six spokes and conneccing welds. = 14. S.5 " Forces on the weld may then be found: Bending _ 20. assuming for simplicity that the lengthof the spoke = r.75 / = 18.
For greater web stiffness. Sometimes rolled sections such as rt<p. st iffnes s.'permits rollins In this design.id disc web.110 / RototingMember Desig n IABLE 5. keeping rim width to 2" al.nvheel is a rim attached to a sol.lows flame burning of half sections. It is possibie to cut the rim in two sections and nest the sections so there is little scraD. To sawe rolling. the rim may be flame burned from heavy plate. rim thiclar.5. FABR ICATING FLYWHEELS AND THICKRIM PULLEYS __r 3L" _T Keeping the to sbape.l f^r fha cn^lza. butt welded together to eliminate rollinE.rvheel is to serve as a pulley it must have a wide face. formed channel sections may be welded to the web. "or if the scrap value is more than the cost of cuttinE. I beams are Holes may be cut in the web to reduce the weight if the material can be used for hubs or bosses. If the fly. The simplest fl.ess to 1y?. Two webs can be used for sreater .
or in meeting special service requirements. K 2 (OOn/rr Total force on weld .How io Design 'fe ns ion F : :A" F ly wh ee ls / 5.. re\ <l)Orl =ifP = 3000 lbs./linear in.67) 2 f.2\2 /1. Required leg size of 6llet weld f. Fatigue cycle tt/J l\= Izvll 7660 lbs.. = (. The result will be q rowcosl.=fr. \. = 530 + 3000 = 3530 lbs/linear in./linear in. sofe qnd efficient flywheel.+f. . fatigue type of Ioad and will "reduce the allowable strength of the weld. This .or use %'. t 3530 i660 = . \2 + C/ l2 .21 \2. Welded steel flywheel (rig hr) for enginedriven wel counferpqrt (left)..ry the_force in the spoke and connecting weld.1 ll AlLrwlble force on fillet wekl / f. 50" sieel f lywheel hqs been tockwelded ond will be mounred in motorized positioner for finol welding. d i ng generotor sqved 3570 in monufocturing cost gver cqst iron with no socrifi ce of inertio properties.461. This produces c. FABRICATING HINIS Table 5 shows some proven ideas that can be considered in holding material and fabricatinc costs to a mioimum.8\' \2 + . The fl^uctuation of flyrvheel speed (RPNI) will vc.2 J Z.
. pletion.5 . Photo ot left shows sheove spider ond geor spider neor com Photo below shows the finol ossembly ofter moc hi ni ng.1 12 / RotolingMember Design Arc welding slqshed costs in fobricoting the componenis of this lorge geor ond sheove ossembly.
rim FIGURE I . lbs/linear inch of rim width (wb) wu = uniform radial force. of circumference When this is divided by the width of the belt (Wb). more dependable pulley at less cost. and disc must be capable of transmitting the power from the beit.sEcTtoN 5. FORCES flei weld. w. The welds joining the hub. transf€r torque load number of belts on pulley torque t.lbg belt speed. lbs/in. . 4. or of that portion of pulley rim contactcd bv beli span betwe€n disca supportins pulley rim tull width of pullel. fpm \c'orrt. in determining A of disc faclor Sovemed by rh/r. resulting in some deformation. The tensile forces in the beli.ansmitted by pulley. inward on pulley dm. if applied offcenter to the pulley. This means a better. in.s of puuey rim w = unifom ndial force. 2. irt. By recognizing the various stresses in the operation of the pulley and designing for these stresses.2 Design Steel Pulleys ond Sheqves plied to a pulley when in service ard these must be considered: How lo DESIGNING FOR sTR ES 5 Pulleys are subjected to a combination of stresses resulting from the centrifugal force and the tension in the belts acting on the pulley. The tensile forces in the belt result in a uniform inward radial pressure against the face of the pulley rim. in detemining d of dbc value of: nm' girven  R = : lbs/in. b€lt to puney n = number of spokes or arris supportiiig puley im ! = {r) radiu of puley lim (2) radi$ to ceni€r of fillet weld thloat (3) Bdius to disc outer edge rh = radius of hub OD = vidth of Vb€lt at outer surface ftom rim s centitugal belt tensile force causins inwad radial pressure asainst pullev rim maximum belt t€nsile force (tight) minor belt t?nsile force (slack) centritugal force acting on the b€lt initial belt tension net belt tension ne€ded t. lbs/in. outwaid on pulley im. resulting force. = thickne. disc to hub b c deDsity of belt material (r) 180 0 (2) factor govemed by rhlr. ON PUttEY RINA FROM BEIT It can be shown that the tensile force in the belt causes an inward radial force (R) having the Definitions of Symbols Used in Pulley Design = p = a= teg size of 2.€ of puley disc t. Stresses may result from the centrifugal force acting on PuIleY Parts. There are several types of forces which are ap l."tioo o€ pa lley width of beit.= a = inctuaea angle formed by arc of belt contact with p'rlev in ndians in formula O = a4ular deflection. Maximum strength and rigidity can be achieved with minimum weight by using welded steel fabrication. will set up soEe bending stresses in the disc. rr r^ = distsnce of neutral aris to out€r 6ber of s€ction f = coefncient of fiction. 3. rim. = uniform radial force. 1. it results in a uniform inward radialpressure of: E! of disc inner edge = = radius mdius of pulley rim rh = mesn td = thickn€. steel may be used to the best advantage.
zo I tc 34 t.5.30 l. 84 I. t6 I l4 l.b/ l9oo 2000 2100 r. this portionof the belt tension (FJ will not contributeto the inward radial pressure on the pulley rim and will be fiction.6t 1.38 t.54 r.64 1.62 t14 l. the centrifugal force is of sufficient magnitude relative to belt force. f= d= coefficient of included angle formed by arc of belt contact with pu.09 r. therefore.z1  .67 l. =Dsl t24.zL zzoo 2300 2400 r. 46 t.030  x it can be shown that the following expression is true.4l t.I2 = .= 63. ial Pre'surQ There is also a centrifugal force acting on the rim resulting in a uniform outward radial pressure of: t. Since a running belt is tight in one direction (Fr) and slack in the other direction (Fr).l? 1. belt to pulley deducted.36  .030 X HP i""_ .68 lSoo o l.9l l. z3  .50 I.z6 1 24 l.?0 r.40 1.55 1.!c The centrifugal force acting on the belt results in an outward radial puI1.lley rim. which equals the width of the pulley rim in contact with the belt and subiected to the resulting radial pressure (wb). taking into account the coefEcient of friction (f) and the angle of belt contact (d).99 z.84 t.30 I200 l3oo U 1500 1600 1700 140 0 .ley rim circumference not in contact with the belt is greater than the net radial pressure on the rim under the belt. and that due to the centrifugal force acting on the belt (F"). Fr=Fi+Fr+F" . most machine desisr texts show the following formula for belrs: !I HP f r = rI . FrF" where: =erc .37 t. . 14 l.40 r.I5 I.30 r.6l .r tansbn ' Since: FIGURE 2.I? l.t a.35 z.1 6 r.64 1.19 r. that w" on the portion of the pul. radians The force (F) in the belt contributing to the inward radial pressure against the pulley rim is thus(4) F" = tension on the belt due to centrifugal force. using only the width of the belt (Wr.l0 r.lz l.22 / RototingMe mber Design rad Hefe a narrow crosssection of the rim is considered as a beam. In such an instance.26 t.56 .30 1.29 r.::. In some pulleys.rXRPM 63.93 I.26  r. r 54 .lt l.3l t. I I. (For steel) The centrifugal force offsets the belt force to some extent and w" may be deducted from wb to obtain the net radial pressure (w) on the rim.29 r. 50 r.50 I.47 140 1. that caused by the transmission of power (F').40 l. w" should be substituted for w in the fo1Iowing f ormulas when applicable.400 v' tr( o'7. zz 1.40 I. l * t. as determined by lat€r Formula 8 VALUES OF te _JTABLE'I COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION (f) .32 1. 40 I. ?8 t. This shows thai the maximum trelt tension (Fr) is made up of three forces: that caused by the initial belt tension (Fi). r RPM' w.16 r.:::=== I er.03 r.24 zz z0 18 I to l. .45 1.09 1.33 t.42 1.23 t. ] A' \ 14 93 . 16 t.tI .46 l.7z t.l2 I.14 r.36 1.?6 l.).
They wiII be greater if the initial belt tension (Fi) is increased. simply multiply the result by (1 + k). lbs b = belt width at outer surface The tensile force in the belt due to centrifugal force (Fd wiil be b2 rc=los12 RPM'? . I I IABLE 2 groove angle 2Q 300 3Zo 340 360 380 e quivalent coe{ficient .40 of friction . The uniform inward radial force (wr) caused by a flat belt or Vbelts may be found directly by Formula 6 if sufficient information is known.* t' lras . 4). The above three methods will allow the uniform inward radial force (wb) acting on the pulleyrim to be found. _ Since the net force (F) in the belt = Fr  F": Belts * .F" it will be necessary to calcul. There is an opposite uniform radia] force acting outward (wd due to the cedrifugal force of the rim itself.. Because of the tapered groove. and the uniform inward radial force (wb) is found from Formula 1._t_l I et' I 35. .ate the additional tensile force in the belt due to centrifugal force (F") and. The net force of the belt actingonthe rim of the pulley (F) can also be found in the case of Vbelts by Formula 9.800.030 wh . the difference between wb and w" must be used. simply by usingthe proper equivalent coefficient of friction for the belt (f.030 / 5. the maximum permissible as: working load per belt is given Fr This force (F) or pressure (w!) is the minimum value for these conditions.). the net tensile force of the belt actinq on the rim of the pulley (F) is the difference bel tween these two. 1.000 ["t' + kl leL . to use Table 1 or Nomograph l(Fig.1l = density of belt material In the case of Vbelts. if large.50 . 2. Since F = Fr .. friction is greatly increased according to the following: N = number of belts One machine design tert suggests the equivalent coefficients of friction for Vbelts shown in Table 2.= Ic Wr tr p 12 RPM'? .('*it)'] "" (total) For Vbelts Vbelts may be considered.Pulleys ond Sheoves 63. For that portion of the pulley where the belt does make contact. 63.ll In most cases the maximum allowable workinE tensile force for the belt may be found in manul facturer's literature and this value (Fl) mav be used directly in the design of the rim. and the effect ofcentrifugal force of the belt (F") is calculated by means of Formula 8. this factor in the bracket would then become = 145 b.. see Formula 4.2_3 r= Since: x HP I erd I rx RPM [er. . ff the maximum allowable working tension in the flat belt or Vbelt (Fr) can be found in manufacturer's literature. 3. In the portion of the arc of the pulley where the belt is not in contact. this becomes X HP RPM . The uniform inward radial force (wr) is found from Formula 1.kl or.200 IOS I /A\ r'? Wu sta  1l p See Table r for values or [Jr'l ler'. FIGURE 3 Summary: Forces on PuLley 1. to deduct this from the manufacturer's value of F.. only w" acts. This can be handled by increasing the required (minimum) initial belt tension (Fi) by a factor (1 + k) where k is the increase expressed as a decimal.
would act as a beam under the For slower turning pulleys of high horsepowe.. wb decreases and w" in "o"st""t greatlY.c 1.FRICTION FACTOR' FLAT BELTS zGT 2 {e 2.60 drc o{ balt conlact 1.8 24 '2.8 2. 3.E 1.3 I..9 e t.6 3.u !.l3d 3 3. 4 .ra t.J i" (c) but each in much lower stress and deflection so lui" """"rt" rim may be used' that a thinner 1) (NomosroPh FIG. it would be seen that this section' when isolatedfrom the rest of the rim. is set in 2270 of the .u l. BENDING OF RIM CROssSECTION Il a crosssection of the rim were examined.2 .4 2. just the inward radial L"ii p"""""t" iwr. zza t.9 2. becomes very large and w" becomes of the pulley increases (assumrng As the speed irorsepowerl.22 t.r' very smal!' wi.24 / R ololingM ember Design When the pulley is at rest there is no outward raaiai centriiugal force (w")..9 coeff icienL 2. 5) may be used to find action of the uniform radial pressure (wb)' The following Table 3 gives the maximum bendins stress as *"11 "s the overa1l displacement or dJformation for three tlpes of rim support' A single disc is used in (a)' Two discs at eacb discs outer edie of the rim are shown in (b)' Twowidth.5. or NomograPh 1 (Fig.2 I.zc t.2 of friction f z.) due to the initial tension in the be1t.t. creases Table 1 maY be used to find values of: ["t'I Il _ Lef.t4 Ltz a I . 160'l /Zo) +. a) may be used' the Nomograph 2 (Fig.4 4 l.6 I4o'LEo.:.t z z ?. net belt tension (F) for flat belts or Vbelts.7 2'6 2'5 2.2 ffiQ I zeelI'iio' I I8o'+t.t8 t.3 3.
T I r 1I T + + T I F is that portion of tansion in belt uhich causas radiLl Praesur' against Pu/laY rrm.37..030 HP / et'] I 2T I I T '+204 . 5 i. .  t452 .Yvb r. .L .lV5z *f'..iqHP I . rZ @ TABLE 3 fz .15 .=a..of rad tus a tlley zy 'incha) NET BELT TENSION (Nomosroph 2) u.w W.1t.31./o''wW4 (7) /7) \_. .. lpo I + .5000 zoo '+ 4ooo to . *f.25' ti '"v Wa+ 6).tJ Wo Y @ UU V .) 5O r+ (n/.z lO'' tr Ha. ' 40 aF T T 1 T + tooo goo itoo ql a 7 6 .5 {'t_ looo t200 I +OO 7+ 6t1I 300 40o zo + + + luo _+_ _+_ 4 600 F @a 500 1600 t 4 e fT I I I T w 800 zo@ 22OO t lr tf +J + 1.08'tOP wWa4 @ o€ T' @ @ Ftc.Pulleys ond 5heoves / J.= 52.  t..T + /o 9 r AF.to 500 4Oo +E + T Rp/ loo 200 1_ + +3aoo aoo* 2oo + +' + zo r*+ + a + r 400 500 700 I ' a10 600' 800 900 90 *+ & :r + t r T zooo .soo 100 2400 l l 3000 +o@ 2800 t r= if + 3oo 5oo0 @oo 7EEF (e"// 63.lC Y u./ balt 6p6ad 7f Y/ Y/ I r I I los.") +.
wb_. may require a more precise method of calculating bending stress.26 / Rototing/V\enber Design greater ( > ) or lesser ( ( ) than the distance betwesn sqpporting discs (Wa).1 it can be more conveniently stated as .dses of the rim.=M"=*(*. M. the rim will be reduced down to 19% and the overall.. . uniforrnly loaded. Centrifugal force (F") on the belt.* = Ma=M" = .?08 Wa wa . Mc  I I = t zr.... . See Figure 6. Refer to Figure g." = when Wu lr.(r3b) Since the bending stress in the pulley shell (rim) is where: c = r.+H) )r. the tension of the slack belt (Fz) may be of greater importance in determining the net force (F).. fastermoving belts. Large Pulleys Large pulleys that carry wide belts under considerable tension.L=dt: l....) is con_ ... (13a) = 180' .The trolled maximum by this relationship between belt wiAth anO span between discs.708 Wa nr. the portion of the rim between the spoiies will be.. Belt width (Wr) will usuallv be either Here. .Inrn2 FIG UR E 7 4.Sini .rw. which is a factor in the case of smaller. FIGURE 6 U two discs are properly spaced (c). BENDING OF Rlrv\ SEcrvtENT BETWEEN SPOKES If spokes or arms are used to support the pulley rim. FIG URE 8 where: whend=180"_d F = V(Fl + F'Toi when d "FJ tF.. ( 1. (14) M. deflection down to 2. . uniformly loaded as a beam by the raiial pressure (wr).03625 F Wa when Wr ) 1.wr) (12a) = . is seldom of rconsequence here. bending stress Treat the_whole pulley as a simply supported beam.670 as compared to (b) where the two discs are placed at the.5.708 Wa M". See Figure g. bending moment (M.. See Figure 7.3 i. The following formulas apptf when Wr.
500 . o= .000 Kr l_ 3.47 X 10'0 . Then consider this moment (M) to be applied to the pulley disc when the outer edge is supported (see Fig. or to one stiffened by the presence of belt grooves or a continuous rib connecting spokes to the rim. 10r 10e 10s 4.us (r).0833 8 . The maximum bending moment will occur over the spoke or support. the following two . say 10% off the centerline ofthe pulley rim (see Fig. the mean radius of the rim can be used as the value of rim radi.298 Rim Deflection K. n. If the rim is not stiffened.rTz Rim Bending Stress TABLE 4 (max over spoke) o = : wW12 Kr psr o =  w12Kz psr Rim Deflection (max at center) ^ A=_ wW/Kr r tn.17 x 1. THICKNESs OF PUILEY DISC Assume that the disc of the pulley should be thick enough to withstand a bending moment caused by the application of the belt tensions Fr altd Fz at a point.0488 . 1. l K.357 .27 Mornenl diogrdm Uniform lood R = *bW=+ FIGURE 9 T*'11s.04 X . TABLE 5 Number of Spok€g the spokes.Pulfeys ond Sheoves Frxed encis / 5.wfKr.868 . formulas may be derived. The maximum bending stress occurs in the riE over Table 5 wi supply the values of the four constants (K) for a given number of pulley spokes or afms. The maximumdeflection is at midspan. ff the rim is stiffened. The following formulas are used to determine both the bending stress in the rim as well as the deflection of the rim. the radius to the center of gravity of the rim should be used as the value of rim radius (r). 10b). =tr. 13 W = width of rim supporting uniform load . based upon Roark's Under these considerations. Rim Bending Stress K. 10a).293 X X 1010 1010 X (b) F1+F2 FIGURE IO 5. The formulas of Table 4 apply to a rim of flat rectangqlar crosssection.
45 (4) '. tending to cause a radial .(F.65 .35 3a) :: .lod Et3 n AoarK .a"fii pullay :l p . rh r l0 6.1_ .B9Z 7 . tb (a) ((fi r)w (b) tor tz . I I  PULLEY DISC DEFLECTION AND sTRE55 (Nomosroph 3) @ @ r" .7t3  a 9.iD I 'i 7t n* r' + '5C' ! 2o. 585 FlG. '20 ca.948 2.40 r. .210.50 .iffi+#" .531 ..500 z. %Yz .28 / RototingMember Design "Formu]as for Stress and Strain' II Edition. TABLE 6 (assume edge s srmply supported) (Fr ^ '= d *Fr) rW ro"Etr.2oEt tcnsion zS 2oo+ lhs tbtaJ w r I @ 50 . Ed.d from 3 .50 .r l5 5 Nomograph 3 (Fig.30 .a .068 .8.55 . pages 189.50 14 widthof nchas +2.__.418 4.to  . au 8.5. a limited amount of end thrust (FJ should be assumed. balt l . 226 r1. End thrust.209 I.063 I^ 489 = 6(Fr + Fr) W 16.70 .o". 11) may beusedtofind these values for deflection and stress.c4? 50. p /85 4 2/o 1 adapta.852 28.35 . 989 z.25 .60 .:i J_ 5 of disc radius @ Uickncss of disc 4. zL9 Table 6 of values for a and B are from the same work by Roark but were modified by Professor A. Holowenko of Purdue Universitv. Check for End Thrust When using flat discs to support the pulley rim. * r) w.557 4.{.390 . ziFT I +F" _5 E'. R.623 2. .
830 r84.8?0 4ZI .400 150.230 35.Tzo .900 60.500 t64.400 38. based on the exact metho4 is Problem L  r=.000 252. may result from angular misalignment of the pulleys. 600 t. ZOO 7 /8 ' .000 206. 500 8l . 500 45.500 ?8.000 l19.000 tz7 . 500 101.200 95. See Figure 12. 550 3 3/8.000 345.720 rzt.300 68. Inches 3lr6" 5/16" zo. .) = 8 " Speed of pulley = 600 RPM Belt density (p) = . misalignment of the belt.500 278.5 " Belt contact (r) = 180' = r radians Coefficient of friction (f) = 0. For convenience.282'.29 TABLE OF ALLOWABLE TORQUE TRANSMITTED BY ONE WELD (INCHPOUNDS] Leg Size of Fillet Weld. ?00 238. 800 39. ?00 I40.300 I I?.) = . can be used as a guide in checking the proposed design for disc resistance to end thrust.400 99.400 147 62.000 a z" z. 500 I11. Belt thickness (tr. On such pulleys the hubtodisc and the rimtodisc welds should be figured separately.800 tz9.9oo 3 73. 500 7 99.700 I I3. 200 2I8. where rhe radius to lne center of the fillet weld throat is larse in comparison to rhe weld's leg size {d). with related formulas and text.800 52.050 96.ItO 68.035 lbs/cu in.300 298.090 r7z. 450 24. 500 140.t14" 62. Both the above Formula 1? and Table ? Provide values Pulley hub radius (rr.000 I r 58. 000 98. the allowable torque transllilted by the weld ar the hub may be found from Table ?.Pulleys ond Sheoves TABL E 7 / 5. 400 44.300 3 5.950 l8 .) that is maximum at the inner edge of the disc (at juncture ofthe hub). th.600 46.300 l8 6.) = ? " for one weld only. lr/4" 11.z00 r46. lor larger pulley diameters.' 3/4" 56.900 500 ?4. 00 78.50 Width of belt (Wr. t00 306. 6.000 250.400 64. The graph shown as Figure B in Section 5.100 I lz" 9 /r6" 5 18.000 I19. following lormula is used: T=2zg600orl Width of pulley rim (W.6A0 2. AMOUNT OF WETD REOUIRED The two main welds on a pulley are those joining the disc to the hubandthediscto the rim.500 84.).200 86.300 47 . For simplicity on very largediameter pulleys.35 = 27 HP PuJley radius (r) .4 on Gears.s its torque arm depends on its radius. Because the length of each of these circumferential welds as well a. the weld at the hub becomes the most critical due to its FIGURE I2 smaller radius (n. ?00 84.*9' rh' (17) To design a flatfaced w€lded steel pu1ley to meet the following service conditions: Horsepower transmitted by belt factor of 1.300 54.000 ) t314" 26. the radius (r) to the center of the weld throat is assumed to be equal to the radius of one of the members being joined.000 95. or other abnormal service conditions.' 100 7/t6' 29. The formula for the torque transmitted safely by the weld at the hub.930 tensile stress (o. Allowable bending stress in rim (o) = 5000 psi .) = 2.n+T = 20 HP X service = 12" . g0o 34.ZO0 200.e6ool t.
correspondiag values are obtained: _ = the % t.030 x HP I eru I r rRPM ll . or i0.andp=4. greater pressure w" governs and " rim thickness OK.= 63. 63. radially outward "".2 . =F+F" = 298 + 101. r RPM2 t.40O FIGURE Here the ratio I3 _ = \Jt Wc= .75 (12) (600)' (7)' (5000)(124. To do this.. is. Step 1: DETERMINE REQUIRED RIM THICKNESS The net tensile force of the belt causing radial pressure (wb) against the pulley rim istD.68 psi. o = .400 8. Wb2 t. the tensile force due to centrifugal force (F") must be found.o los Since (12) (600) (4) F =FrF.E. the maximum bending stress in the rim is found to ber.5 = 400 Ibs (in tight belt) gainst the pul.ley rim (1' wb = 298 tbs The resulting radial unit pressure inward a is and since (o.26) From Table 2  = rur.. (8a) F" Wl tr. From Tabl.5.035) ( 12)' (600)' 35. in whiclt the outward radial pressure resulting from centrifugal force (w") is substituted for w: d=.ur  (Fr Fz) Wt r l0cEA . RPM.200 (7) (.400 = 400 /or\ .l] Ie" _ 63. the actual pulley radius is not finalized until after other calculations are made in which a certain radius must be assumed. Figure 13.55 psi.75 124. Ir designing.75 I 4 = 4oo tbs rua. r RPM2 r24.030 HP F  f I .e 3. r RPM' tzl L24. 2: DETERMINE REQUIRED DISC THICKNESS It is necessary to know the tensile forces in both the tight and slack belt (Fr) and (Fz).55 psi The section of the rim not under belt contact is subject to centrifugal force only: t.12 = f 2 = Ir  r RPM 63.= (Fr + Fz) Wrr ^ Since the deflection ofthe disc due to belt forces.400 Fz ' /64 lbs F1 fF2 OI r RPM.208 .6. is .75 w Wb. + Since wr = 3.400 (v4) (12) (600F r24.r.255" or use %" rim thickness r12 Therefore  and.:::::l:j_l (12) (600) a2 nen = 400 _ 936 = 164 lbs Assume the pul]ey rim can be adequately supported by a single disc. = 35. most pulley rims are tbin shells.030 (27) (1.2. F. assume a single value for pullev radius.400)  j_=:j:=.030 HP  = 298 rrrr a r RPM = 3.2lO / RototingI$ember Dasign SICP For simplicity. a=1.282) (. p r. Wr2 o 124. from Table 6.200 .
two webs or discs.lbs for just one weld Assume a %6.tbs which far exceeds the calculated torque.r and ribbed to foim six spokes.01._EFfr_ td = .A should be held to a rnaximum (400 / 5. Since steet has about twice the modulus of elasticity of cast iron.n = Z.lbs for two welds. the two outside portions of the rim will be loaded as a cantilever blam. fillet weld to be used. or T = L42O in. This will greatly reduce the bending streJses and 'lection of the rim. while the inside portion of the rim (Wa) wtli iave its maximum bending moment at its center.In designing for be hub thickness might 1: by the greater rigidity of steel. being free to ro_ tate freely by means of a bearin! on tie shaft. A tubular sec_ tion of necessary inside diameter and wali thick_ ness could be cut with a power hack_saw to the Proper length. 050 in. Figure 14.6) (400 + 164) (z) (r2l (u. The old sheave was cast as one piece. .0r) _63.pulleys ond Sheoves and assuming. fillet weid is OK. See Figure 15. The cantilever portion of the rim (a) wiII have its maximum bending moment over the web support.'_ + r64) (7) (12) mitted by the welds joining the disc to the hub is__ r0 (r. It can be shown that the least bending moment will re_ sult if the spacing of the webs is such that the overhang of the rim is approximately equal Lo 22Vo ol the rim width under the belt (Wr). disc thickness Check ihe stress in this disc (16) o _ F(Fr + Fz)Wu 10 r td. Tbe sheave serves an idler function.5" at the decreased. the only dimension which maybe decreased in order to take advantage of the stiffness of steel is the rim thickness. as obrained fiom TablJ O to.2) (3 x 10?) (..2_ll of. the required thickness . The maximum allowable torque carried bv one weld. DETERMINE REeUIRED RIM THICKNESS Because of the rather larse width of the rim (10").).030xHP . 70 (4. can be used to join the rim to the hub. Since the radius and width of the rim must remain th€ same.. linits being within the 3: CHECK WELD SIZE AROUND HUB The torque carried by the pulley and transProblem 2 = 2840 in. _ By using two webs. ab6ut %" thick. having a minimum web thicl$ess of 1. isT = 72.ii and <^r = %e". and it can be assumed that the sh&ve transmits no torque. rim thickness additional to that permitted merely Step welded steel fabrication... while the portion inside of the web support wiil be a beam with partially fixed or restrained supports. for fabrication from rolled steel. the steel sheave would require just 5070 of the moment of inertia of a similar section of cast iron for equal rigidity. thus allowinq Jome reduction . the bottom of the grooves. .236" or use %. Since the moment of inertia of a rectangular section of the rim varies as the cube of the thickness. FIGURE I4 Cost lron Pulley 1Y2" wr = 500 lbs To redesign a cast iron multi_groove sheave. The rim has a thiclmess . = Step 2420 psi allowable OK. aud thus the assumed yle '.of 1.
.5. or This is assuming that the same type of beam is considered in both cases. = =.516X103 (a) Therefore.  (11c) A = t3 t.dbo!l it can be stated as a function of the rim's stifrness 31. assuming the same type of beam.37 X101owWr. t.25" thick at the bottom of the grooves.6.275" .866V 4 /. Figure 16a it can be stated as a function of the rim's stiffness 1.=.=4or tl a: FIGURE 'I6 E=rr%. ther.22 (1. = 1.2'12 / R otolingIY\e mbor Design Tl3/.38I ft. However. the thickness of its rim can be stated as a function of the rim's strength.3 of the thickness of its rim can be stated as a functlon of the rim's strength = 507o t"3 L = r. the steel rim would be 1" thick at the bottom of the grooves.866 Y o" . i luat d= t2 t.38r . Figure 16c. in other words both the old and new designs using just one web..3 103 The cast iron rim is 1. ifffi ot (Iua) o = .1452 w Wt. Since 7970 of this is 1". (c) . . is an o  (11a) A = or t. = or . there is an additional advantase inthe steel design because two webs are to be rised instead of just one. to the twoweb desiEn with only 22Eo of the rim cantilevering out." lVz" 6elore mochining bore Hub th" t FIGURE I5 { T.46 X ^6Pa^iahI6 fa^f^F Considering the proposed steel rim as a beam supported at two points. or & . ^^^ =.l*_e"__l Cost lron Section Welded Steel Section 5070 of the steel rim would be tbe cube root of the cast iron thickness ort. the required thickness of the Based on equivalent strength 13 steel m  = !.25 X10r0wWb.75 w Wr2 tl /wwb. in which 5070 of the rim cantilevers out to each side of the web. Going from the singleweb design.381 Considering the cast iron rim as a beam supported at midpoint./=t .1 r.25) r.
P u lleys ond Sheqves. sr""e.516 r.. ^.7 5" before mochininq _r I FIGURE I7 Based on eq uivalent stiffness + _.^ .5" and an ID of r v. r ne hub is made by cutting ofJ S. x2.nsth of r nls nub gives support to the bearines. ro avord this.".46v 2 o" lFa%itl t.i. cnaractertstics of the rim are thereby changed and the required rim thickness sfroufo U"" ref ig""rJU] using Formulas 10b and 11b. Designs A and B called for considerabie mach_ ining from a 1. 2: . folm:d by_ rolling two rings out ot f. Thesewelds are very seldom stress_relieved . v ...'.first welded steel design is shown at A. . . desjgn C calls for a .516rF " r.1s bar stock and butt weldingthe enOs togetirer. vide the. = h" for required rigidity. lTll9.' of thick_wall .ro"l 14. Jorn the web to the rimandtothe hub... design C's weight is only 460 lbs. *11"... .i:"_d proper4" r. .S.10""""0 _.:^tl:.46 E E. rim thickness below grooves COMpLETE THE SHEAVE DESIGN T}le disc thickness can be determined as in previous problem..e_ quces weight.flanges for guiding tire belt whent" "r"_ ". t. bore size. the b. However._ Ihe srnce combining the flange and web disc will savJ some machining and welding.IurthgT economies can be made inthedesiglas by the design evolution stetchea in Fi'gure i. ifr"at B. shown lrii avoids the use of thick_wall tubing n"... "itfr" iolled werqed to the ends of the rim to provide the"io. . rolls and gears usuallv us€ automatic submerged_arc weldine to quickli..rEoE t. Fabricators of pulleys.ows % ' for machining to the re_ quired L1'. fUese yith a ii. r o t nrs all.1"!.rTtiy: O9:ig" at D can be considered.rim blank with just enough stock tolllow machining g"""r"" plus.350 or use %...y tubing. The.n has a rhickness of 1. flinees. Design B has an initial weight of 630 lb.. and also the required filletweld size.iji. alle.2_l fro"*l i2" std pi . and eliminates the purchase oT more costl.28 (1.F" thick rim blank i./ 5. = .25) The second welded steel design..J"" s[ci. = Step .
214 / R ototingM e mber Desrgn Complete geor blonk for mqrine drive is fqbricoted economicolly by modern high speed orc welding.5. .
a single disc isused each end ofthe roll. it may be necessary to bevel the nore in Lhe disc (c).iy al support at the bearings. rhis grextly increeses 3.ue! cutting the disc and does not require a longer shaft stub. or the polar moment of inertia for twisting. sloolrnC. The nomograph.. iFl large rolls are employed by lndustry for and as a circular plate. F.. Since a shaft would contribute very Sometimes a hole is cut into the disc. However. FIGURE 2 extending the full length of rhe roll _. The nomograph .The bearing force multiplied by the distance at which it is applied from the centeiline of the disc. uniformly supported around its edge and subjected to a bending moment bv the shaft. Fig']f e at will quickly give the required thickness oI olsc lor a given radial tensile stress.. UsuaUy the shalt stub is s."i "erre. orner purposes. Fil. laminating. Iigure 5.... and the outer shell of the roll is presseJ over this.. This metnoO s. FIGURE I In a welded roll. For Remember: the rotating disc reverses its stress every halfrevolution so that the allowable fafizue strength in tension for a complete m.3 How to Design Steel I. screening. it serve is omitted.zing. . Short lengths on eacb end S"""i.. and the resulting bending siresses fouriO. 1.let welds may be usedr but fo. heavier. DESIGN .5ECTON 5.. . Jince it affords help a straight section on which to assemble the discs oulqr shell.AngularTiltof TrunnionDisc. and the shaft stub extends through anO is welOea on toth srdes.nd weight and cost of shafting requiredi tberefore. lit e oftte mo_ ment of inertia of the entire roli for bending. the specific application. be considered.onsidered r l\ir UX E J . mrght :hlft in assembling the roII. this tfrictness wil1 increJJe. Thisdisc maibe r..sal. all of the parts act together. conveyori lllii9ll' ruamentwinding. . :lte roll the is seldom {abricated in this mannerFor normal bearing loads. Such rolls are economically fab_ ricatedfrom steel with the aid ofmodern high "speed arcwelding processes. quickly gives the amount of angular de_ ection resulting from the bending moment on shaft. pulveri zing.heavier bearing loads. printing.bearing loads. is the bending moment. The thiclness of the shaft"can b.imply bltted against the djsc and a single heavv fillet weld joins the two (b).Stress in Trunnion Disc.gut" I desjgr . See Figure 2. FR EEDOAA Rolls Many. the to keep this tilt within the maximum alto*aUle io. or bevel the end of the shaft (d) in order to get more of a groove weld.as in Figure 3 (a). The inner shaft probably takes much oi rne oendrng load instead of transferring it through the discs to the outer drum. The two discs are pressed onto the shaft. Tl" lrom a period for a roll reflects design thlnklng before welding *as used extensively....
s t i Sdit Y.s *sg* sssRgg$g$ s s tBs9 l'B.\ d\ s 'D\ qqqqqq o IDN lr) PT 516 *t' qqqqqqq{ & q s .uD \ e\t$ (.t fI R{€ 6S > .32 / RototingMember Desig n SB.Y s.r F.. ]QYXd . F dt.. .5.i.\i ! FF$g a\d .i:si .e!. o .9 a\l sbs sit $x0* NE i\ cl U 6 z l '7 l\ 3s€ \+x . E t ti t ='rxl\.i s. \tQ .i {t.\o i\^' Sr& .
/bs.zJ r.9_3 Moment app/iad to trunnion oinp/y (hch pounds) Thicknass of disc (nchas) I I I I I I I . radiat rng outward from the shaft spaced a given distance apart.45 .55 /oqooo lqooo i r + __i E .9./. UsualJ.//z' R in."Z+ E^L D >tr./5 .tded on the disc.y the inner disc and shaft stub are welded FIGURE 6 r lL'UKt / . T.ld [o oe placedas both sides of this disc if on rhe shaft ex_ tends through the disc.k 7lT F) i't /v4(st. STIFFENING OF ROTL needed.:.d9e.ANGULAR TILT OF TRUNNION DISC / 5. aF 6n. two thinner discs may be used. Usuall.40 ..to '>.6 x/O3 dagraas = See Table 6 Sec. For heavier loads. which would require excessively thick discs.a) . N I II . This allows a we. 5. rz r ol )_ 7.28 for Values of c . Figure 8 (a). For additional strength and stiffness when together as a subassembly..y the disc and the shaft stub are welded together a subassembly. Thts unii rs then welded into the roll (b). Prob/am: Fixad ends .€ fixed a@qooo 4Ooqooo tt6 E3 I I +5 _f_J _r_ 2 f2 . e. brackets may be we.ooo """'"/ Nr.hanca ^ t /' looo = O . The outer disc is rhen slipped over and welded in place (c).60 . 5 . M find /O" [=. tJ1' .' E+% a+ (degre.5teef R olls FIG. Figure stub. See Figure 6.30 ^ .tuPPortcd odgos . 2.as) .
s.S When cast rolls required stiffening of the shell.11_i1 z E' lTdz icd/ haar Aw. When additional stiffening is required in a welded steel ro11 to maintain a perfect circle with a lighter outer shell. the rings can be inserted near the centerline ofthe roIl.5i2gle of wald d6c of Nc. Treat the weld as a line and use standard bending and torsion formulas to find the resulting unit forces on the weld.ssum. The resulting force per linear inch varies inversely as the square of the radius. Figure 9 (a). Figure 10. it was easier to use longitudinal ribs. This explains why for critical loads. Vectorially add these forces which occur at the same part of the welded joint. slngle fiLlet welds may be used on the disc at the outer shell whereas groove welds or double fillets may be rec{uired at the hub. SHAFT.ld Foparty propzr? 'lD * of wcld banding tb M Fq.zfnu tr A2 a. WETDING OF SHAFT STUB TO DISC AND DISC TO SHETL The welding at the shafi is more critical because the small radius increases the force from the load TABLE 1. internal rings (b) intermittently welded to the inside of the shel1 are recommended. 6r tAz .34 / R ototingIV\e mber Design FIGURE 8 \ ) 3. See Table 1.Trd A"27f4 . 2. 10o64 f. These will sive constant stiffening of the shell as it is rotated.TODISC WELD I. to find the resultant force on the we]d.w. The simplest method to determine weld size is: 4. rather than transverse rings (b). I A ( (B) FIGURE 9 {bending force from the bearing load. FORCES ON Loqd Condition )osign furmulo br fvca lb/inch on rold . and twisting force if any torque is transmitted) and also dec!eases the length of the weld.rt s g_ . INTERNAT STITFENING OF SHEII. working outward towards both ends as these are welded in.t aod pald carrics ytholt load /r\ va.5.
6qre rz definitions of ud" and Po)ar section modulus Vertical shear J" .! = 250 lbs/in. Weld size is then found by dividing this re_ 'rultant value by the allowable torce tor rft p". = 94. This becomes a fatigue situarion in w.7 in.Steel R olls 3.F _ 63. 001 FIGURE I2 Area of weld A* = 2zd . Figure 11 shows pertinent Section modulus 42 Jr =_+ 2 rLt. .Ibs * s J. every time the roll rotares half a revolu on. lne bending forces on the weld com_ FIGUR E IO !t "! . ri . rhat is..030 x Hp .:9pl. lll $ :ri Problem 1 '. . the mrnrmum force is equar to.:.lar plelery reverse. SIEP 1: DETERMINE PROPERTIES OF THX WELD = I RRn lhc /ih S' . To determine the fillet weld size to use in joining hub given a bearing load on the t^o^ ^di:".3 in. c = r \4)2 = 50..:.D"._ _EFM /111 ?\ E' = +D1 Twisting lOS/ ln. find its properties ro Tab1e .. drmensions. or 1.2 on Fatizue.atinC rhe weld as a line.hlch K = 1. / 5.. trunnion ot 6300 lbs and transmitted torque = 150 HP at..1"_ type of weld. ff.:::::':F ror the. FIGURE I I Using the formulas in Table 1.3_s ReTembg:.I00 RPM.j" reversal of force. See .:: J'1 Step 2: ?f DETERMINE PRINCIPAL FORCES ON WELD f B : {. in Seciton 3.^^fr:. Consult the table ti 1ryb**19 Fatigue Vatues for wetds. =2t(4) 9< t" . find the principal forces on welds: Bending S* i.formulas siven in. 1.500 in.= rd. (5t/1\2 F"l I   (4\2 = n l::! + t2 l = 111.a negatrve value of the maximum force. The torque transmitted through the weld is__ .
Because the steel maybe placed exactlywhere it is needed. Assume inthis case a com2.f. Under heavy loads. t.a shell. allowable force would be m&x = mln 1 and the .. to handle cable of 1. as being = o b t.000.0".!:'.zin. 3: plete reversal of load.5. In this analysis.Ianced drum. StEP 1: DETERMINE RADIAL FORCE AGAINST DRUM methods to obtain a better ba.2. it is possible with good fabricating A larger diameter drum will increase the life of the wire cable as well as its usable strength. Background on Drum Construction Welded steel construction of the drum has the advantage of stronger and more rigid material.36 / R ototingMember Step Design FIND RESULTANT I'ORCE ON WELD Diagram the three component forces.az +liEsdF + dSor(still treating the weld as a line) DETERMINE LEG SIZE OF WELD The leg size of the fillet welds joining hub to discs of the roll should be 4: = ViTSilt = 1950 lbs. A thinner shell may be used. (allowable) The actual resultant force on the weld is thenfR =VTr. assume that N = cycles and use the correspondi.zin. the turns of cable are treated . See Fizure 14. The tensile force in the cable (!).: t r.L P. but there is a practical limit to this size. retain its round shape without squashing out into an oval shape. lx this example the outer radius of the she1l wiII be 9.5'r diameter.) FIGURE I3 o L+V2 = Step 3390 lbs. The cable manufacturer can supply recommended drum diameters for a given cable diameter. . = 5090 (1880. Characteristics of the cable call for it to be wound at a 9.: (250) inch of nlct werd 2 .l . 5090 r. as shown in Figure 13.r*v\ f.?5rr mean radius of turn. creates a uniform inward radial force (p) against the drum about which it is wound. Net tensile force in the cable is 9..1 Since this is fatigue loading. It has been suggested that the drum diameter should be at least 500 times the diameter of the outside wires of the cable.. thus reducingthe ineftia of the rotating drum which would help when the load must be accelerated or decelerated.000 lbs.58" or use %" \ Problem 2 FIGURE I4 To design the drum for a hoisting winch. because of weight and cost limitations of the winch. it is wellto groovethe drum so that the cable will fit as closely as possible and . 000 l"=. 3.ng formula from the Tabie of "Allowable Fatigue Strength of WeId Metal". Sect. = 1950 33?0 .l. hence .
Fromthis. psi rm= mean radius of turns of cable on drum. The minimum shell thickness (t) needed for a critical buckling pressure (p*) of 2% times the working pres sure (1030 psi).5) 615 psi _ ' Et3 4lI x v2lrx For steel this becomes pq = 8. TimosheDko. Roark.s as a lons tube. p=p2+p3 = 544 + 486 = 1030 psi DETERMINE THICKNESS OF DRUM The drum is considered as a shell or tube sub_ jected to external pressure (p). but F = obt Treoting fhe coble os thouqh it js o shell und". If this tube is relatively short. the ends will give added suppori against buckling and the indicated crjticat bu&iins pressure (p*) will be much higher. = Qr/ 4)b F = tensile force in cable. 2nd Edition. It is known that in an analogous cylindrical shell. Formul.00495r trfi Resulting stress in the shell under this pres_ sure must not exceed yield strength of the steel.e manner. of cable o = tensile layers wil. in. i" iif. The analogy is skerched in Figure 15. with no allowance for the stiffening effect o? the ends.as for Stress and Strain. According to (ftrength of Mi.bF _l_ Coble under tension.l tend to force the preceding Iayers into a smaller. . b = width of drum per turn of cable = dia.75) (r.5) = 486 psi . For this reason only the effect of outer two layers will be considered. p.= 2% (1030) 2580 Dsi .24 106 2nd layer of cable P2  F = i rnD 9000 (11. 906.05) (r. reducing tireir te. lbs In this particular problem. required shell thickness would bet =.3 This is similar to the tensile stress (o) in a thinwall container shell due to internal pressure (p). the stress isPId 7 :11r f .5) (+) = 544 psi t! ylig! 3rd layer of cable P3 This is the critical external pressure on shell buckling might occur.terials. the following formula is used: Step t = thickness of comparative shell of same crossSectional area as cable (per width rb"l.Although each succeeding layer of cable should add to the pressure againsi the drum. drum offers resisting pressure t i.diameter.ionr' = pr. in. the outside p. _ 9000 (r2.ision.35) (1. thelr pressure against the drum will be reduced. p. " Part 2. and to .b (p) inlernol pressure is (p) FIGURE I5 where: (or compressive) stress. Themore conl servative method would be to treat thi. psi p = uniform internal (or external) radial pres_ sure.:rnO 2: F _ = 9000 (e. t"n. will be found: = .5teel R olls / 5. the uniform external radial pressure acting inward against the surface of the drum islst layer of cable Pr . 602.
I MC 11744\ (. which still requires the yr.oo4e5 (e) /tE6 = .640 t2 . Substituting this value for the g" radius in the formula and reworking.375) r= (rlX)'=. This rim must withstand the horizontal components of the inward force from the cables. of circumference ^ = 9000 9. ano d =.1.68?5r'. Assume a plate thickness for the disc. in this case %". Here.' pl.0351) 18.35" I force components isM = (421)(3. Step R= : F lbs/in. 3:  = ?29lbs/in.35 DETERMINE THICKNESS OF RiM The end disc of the drum can be extended to serve as a rim or flange to keep the cable from spreading out. FIGUR E I 7 3.5.59". 9000 12. = . the minimum drum thickness is found to be FIGURE I6 The inward radial force is t = .75)3 (.35 . T I ll . gives a drum thickness (t) of .612" or use %" thick plate This thickness would bring the mean rim radius down to 8.0351 in.orsr i".05" _L r Using the above formula. where horizontal force components found by vectoral analysis indicated above are taken as loads on the beam. Figure 1?. with this pressure.?5) = 1?44 in. See Figure 16. 9000 11.35) + (446)(.75 924 lbs/in. = (1){.ate.3S / RototingMember Design a"r"1 12. Consider a 1rr wide radial strip of rim as a cantilever beam supported at the drum shell.05 = 815 lbs/in. the bending moment due to these horizontal Ibs .a psi OK .
" Roark. The radial oad .applied (o.'i^i?{llilJ*'f n1"""L"Til. *"r.  = ."u rl = Q Aa?r /d ['[Tl '. This would indicare the ir.li. case 22i 26 r'log.. 195. the inner edge being fixed and supported.630 psi OK FIGURE 20 . thick enough so as not to require end !:_ addi_ / 5. thickness of the disc jo . designs B and C.l lil r I flL(Jl FIGUR E 6" std pi I9 and o. p.Consider the disc as a circular flat plate.3.Assume the cable to be pulled 20o offof center.." . disc. I"q"^":l^.H:. 2nd Eclition.i . end and the resultjng end thrusf to be taken UV :r.11 L3 7 o.) rensrle stress at the inside edge (= hub oD) is found by thefollowing formula.6875"  F" = 3080 lbs roge _j_ log.4774F' t2 ft2  uzl rz 4 T rtz (For Steel) In this case r = 8. = . Figure 20. rhe resulting stress would increase .r6i_ mulas lor Stress and Strain. If this thictness wJre r.. Step 4: CHECK THICKNESS OF END DISC See Figure 1g. 3080 lbs F FtcuRE l8 . with a uniiorm around the outer edge. aOa"pieb from.i'"'"..4774 '"""" (3A)2 /1nanrI = 4. Y.""T:r. """ svr" 10" 33.Sreel Rolls tional stiffening at thJrim..
which is reasonably low. and additional ribs or stiffening should not be required. DETERMiNE WELD SIZE The procedure discussed earl. Design B uses a %" thick shell and %" thick end discs.400 psi. at the hub. for full strength welds. In general.ate. or an approximate method used. Coble winding drum presents unique opportunify for sovings through good design onolysis of siresses ond the proper use of welded steel . For discs of %" thickness. length or both.3 lO / RototingMernber Design at the inner edge. Step 6: COMPLETE THE DESIGN Design A in Figure 20 uses a %" thick shell and 3/" thick end discs. Because ofthis. Each bearing hub is flamecut from thick plate. the stress would be 5200 psi. a legsize of about % of the thickness of the thinner plate should be used: this should outpull the pl. no additional stiffening should be required. and.5. This reduction in the amount of fillet welds may be either leg size. if both discs are assumed to be effective in resisting this end thrust.ier in this Section may be used. just between the two dis cs. for attaching stiffeners for ex Design C makes use of a length of 6" diameter standard pipe for additional stiffness between the two bearins hubs. to be 4630 psi. to 7: of the usual weld is required. Step This indicates the resulting radial tensile stress 5: ample. Because of this reduction in thickness. where full strength welds are not required. . %" thick stiffeners are added inside of the shell. usually about 7. this stress increases to 10. For rigidity designs.
The various forces acting within the gear. while achieving maximum material and manufacturing economy. F.3640 1.000 2. The rim may be made of an allov steel and heat treated to a given gear tooth hardneis for optimum strength and wear life. This pressure generates several new forces on the tooth. force and pressure anele of the gear teeth. allowing the designer to efficientlv use the steel that most economically develops tle performance desired in each portion of the gear. Dissimilar metals are easilv welded. BASIC REOUIREAAENTS Gears must have the necessary strength and rigidity to withstand a complex network of stresses resulting from the various forces applied to the teeth. (helical gears) tan 14lz' tan 20' = Fr tand = . all ofwhich act on the components of the gear and inJluence its final. design. while a lower cost steel will provide the strength and rigidity needed jn the arms. the desisner's objective is to design these components to aicomplish the transfer of forces without failing. Steel weldments will meet these requirements. F.SECTTON 5. THE HUB The gear hub must be thick enough to be keyed to the shaft and to provide a sufficiently rigid support for the gear arms. arms or djsc. The force transmitted by a gear appears as a pressure (F.) on the gear rim as a function of the tangential. Centrifugal force (F") on the rim and arms of large diameter.4 How to Design lorge Steel Geors PITCH ctRct€ FIGURE I I. structure are the following: 2. Tarrgential force (F. Radial force (F. high speed gears. Since these forces must be transfemed bv the gear's hub. End thrust (F") on the rim of helical gears parallel to the gear axis. and offer the designer greater designflexibility and significant economies in weight ind cost over onepiece castings or forgings. Figure 1. = Frtanf 3.050 x HP DXRPM x HP 33.) between the contactinsteeth surfaces directed along the line of action normal to the tooth profile.2586 = . ^ Ilr= 126. and rim.) on the gear rim from the torque. 4. .
in. this hub Length is 1. in. isolated curved beam with fixed ends. in. and Ioaded at the pitch circle. where all properties (M. at the point wheie thjs force is applied.Jbs V = pitch li. force (F. I . I. and is that portion of the rim intersected by the centerlines of two adjacent arms. but tangential force (F. lbs tsngential force on tooth.) and radial. fpm W = width of rim.25 to 2times the shaft diameter and is equal to or greater than the width of the rim face. n = radius of hub. % of the arc length in from the end.' T = tllque transmitted by gear. in.L n. Torque is not used directly. The radial deflection of the rim resultine from the tangential force (F. lEi end thrust. analysis is made of the bending moment and of the deflection of the rim resulting arom the radial force and the tangential force acting respectively at the tooth surface.S 3. S. str€. When designing for this moment. F. = diameual pitch. in. ir. leg 6ize of fiUet weld. c. since: M = at. L) apply to the arm or its crosssection. circle usually equals the thickness ofthe tooth at the pitch circle. HP D E F. Tbe rim segment analyzed is considered to be an = = Fi = F. lbs M= M. to withstand any axiaL tension resul. = pitch diamer€r of gesr. N S P RPM L= = = = I= = = radial folce on tooth.lbs maimum bendinS mornent due to tsngential force. material's modulus of el$ticity.e normal to t oth face. This arc length is represented in diagrams in the lower part of Figure 2. in.e velocity. 1€n8th of memb€r. BENDING OF RIM BETWEEN ARIIAS M =::L n. in. THE ARIV\s Gear arms are subjected to complex loading. in. They must be strong and rigid enough to transmit the torque between the rim and the hub. . This point is approx.significant wobble of the gear on the shaft as the result of surface deformation and fretting corrosion caused by excessive unit pressures at the hubshaft interface. t. (2) ladius of center of fiUet weld throat. Ibs hoEepower traismitted mornent of inertia.) occurs when the radial forceisappliedat midspan. in. = nunber of gear arrns r = (1 ) radius of center of gravity of rim below roor. F.) .ting from centrifugal forces. lYggested by the Nuttall Works of Westinghouse Electric Corporation.=CtJ c The len$h of the hubmust preventany. in. THE RIAA The gear rim and its support must be rigid enough to minimize deflection caused by the radial force (Ft and the tangential force (Ft) actingat the tooth surface. bendins moment. in.5. = o= d= .€r minut€ of gear = s€ction modulua.) occurs when this force is end of the rim segment. ln.lbs number of 8ea! teeth force (F. Maximum deflection of the rim below the point of tooth contact and resulting ftom the radial force (F.. circle.leads to excessive wearandevento tooth breakage. Usually. The arc length along this rim segment's center of gravity is used to locate the points at which tangential force (F. The maximum moment caused by the tangential aDplied at the = revolutioD6 F. in. reaches a mDiimum value when the foice is applied near midspan. and to resist any side bending due to end thrust if a helical gear. in. ilt. is The minimum thickness of the rim below the root r ' i/N'" =FVz* 5.s. = thickn€as of rim b€low te€th. A formula for calculating this value.lbs maximurr bending hornent due ro radial iorce. lbE actual pressu. in.). Deflection of the rim from either force induces nonuniform tooth loading. = M. psi helix angle if h€lical sear.= 6= c e deflection. whichif severe .42 / RolotingMember Desig n and. = moment arm. The bending stress in the arm canbe calculated as follows: ['.) cause maximum stress and deflection values. the total torque is usually assumed to be uniformly divided among all the arms (n.) . The torque (T) produces a bending moment (M) on the arms. degtees = dist"nc€ of neutral axiE t oute! fiber of section. 4. Analyzing these forces separately shows that the radial. degre€s pressun angle. DEFINITIONS OF SYMBOLS A In one approach to designingthe net rim section.ever beam fixed and supported at the hub. in. Each arm is then treated as a cantil. n. force (F develops maximum moment at the end of the rim segment when the force is applied at the position indicated.
The combined expressions are__ M.) af FIGURE 2 The points at which the radial force (F. It is also assumed that the tangential force is carried by just one tooth.tvt) respectively in the rrm. x2 SENON mO E t t5 MAl eMa E^]O WHEN AN6ENN4L FORC€ 15 APPLIED A7 ENO (F..) produce maximum fiuriai"! tan_ _o_ 3ent (.tsATLOR Xt.1__T** ! 'fo I r = of !3nt9r.L rhe sreatest.riJl" a.Lorge Steel Geqrs Sendina / 5.+ksFte) Moment Arm (g) of arms na 4 5 6 I CONSTANTS FOR GEAR NIM FOITMULAS K2 *'rii!. to the center of gravity ^rthe stiffened rim cross_section below the (x_x) root can be assumed to be The moment k3 .. force for maxim.0051 . alvt a7 ffl#'1:!04'.0r48 ..t { I .#ltitli?. rorce is applied.*=krF.n..=frtr. "i?il"".0035 8 10 .. 4HEN F.) .0084 . Therefore. kz and k3.. is_ distance from tle pornt on flre tooth where the rnrs. of gravity !a_.0012 .r+Fre f""i.. should be substituted into the TABLE NuInber . and gential Jorce (F.. according to ttre numUeilf (n"). Values of Constant (k) . are rather close ro.. u RADIAL DEFLICTION Of zNI A7 POIM oF EaoaL FoecE(+) 6 max.*u o.0023 ..€acn other.0095 .eol*"t"T:Tff"!?r:: arm (e) for the tangentiat force (F. This applies also to the location of the radial tangenrial j9rce.0. see the sketch ofetf._9d the tion (A) of tie rim section. The influenceof the gear arms on properties of rne rrm segment between arms is represented in the rorm_ulas by the constants kr.f. 6ENONG ttfiENT t5 Ntax.0052 ..092 . which agaii is on the con_ servative side.4!1s a.144 .t?0 . Values ob_ tained from Table 1. their moments can be added to_gether to simplify the analysis.4_3 Oue to tangentidl torce (F!) s t] .rim section below ioot Clrg11. Til.: proacn is conservative_ rn upper right of Figure 2.
50 .) acting across the rim width (W). Ado. 00?8L25FrW3 EI . T\vo discs at each outer edge of the rim are shown in (b).5 4..J l = o##F L" fron r' r:r 4 tz frz (rz rr') (/.05 \N i\ .r W.l /J . A singl.0l3021FrW3 trI . this results in much lower bending moment and deflection.o? z . FIGURE 3 7h.03125FrW . 125 rrw @ . BENDING OF Consider End Thrust on Disc of Geq.O .lls" RoaTk "ForhvlLs fo. 2r2 .ra.44 / RotofinglVlember Design TABLE 2 FORMULAS FOR GEAR RIMS SUPPORTED BY SOLID DISCS where w =# F.dge fixed.0000425rrw3 SOtID DIsC In determining the deflection in a gear rim supported by one or more solid discs.1FrW3 o @ EI M: .0 RAnl v J.06 < .4d .l" lL\ I .00033?. this further reduces the bendintr moment and deflection. r'l dr=ffi Uoz\'z) to? n.0t 25 3..08 Tinoshcnko "Theor! of Plades L 5h.0242FrW .5. Threediscs are used in (e). Table 2 gives formulas for the maximum bending moment as well as the overall displacement or deformation (from highest to lowest point) with five types of rim support. lN* )t'  € 'E Consider disc as outct c.x l.60 . one at centerline and the other two at the outer edges of the rim.125 FrW 6 = .J . I\Mo discs are shown in (d).02 s .in.ptcd stress ./0 .DMax A of use lrt. ooo343FrW3 o M.09 . with one at centerline and the outer discs set in 14. r\E rN ) . centered discisusedin(a).r4 s \ 5 1/. a crosssection of the rim is considered to be an isolated bea"m under the action of the radial force (F.innei W innen edqe .e.5V0 of the rim width. These formulas assume a uniform load over the full width of the rim face. but each is set in from the edge 22Vo of the rim width.70 s. RI/IA SUPPORTED BY 6.07 \ ii .dee fixcd and supportzd . Three discs are shown in (c).0r05Frw . @ M=.
000 252.300 165.tch.) is assumed to be equallv dis_ tributed between the discs.100 29.700 t13.050 96.000 306. 8.200 81.300 298. Figure 4.300 54. weldarthehub.500 73.one tooth resisting the full bending moment re_ sulting from the radial force.000 t 2l.1s0 56.odified. it is well to assume a certain end thrust and to desicn the disc to with_ stand this force. and its inner (hub) edge fixed.500 99. the following formula is used: T= 2 z' 9600 r. For convenience.Lorge Steel Geqrs The relative rim thicknesses required to resist the same force with the same stiffn. good engineering judgment is needed in decidins to .300 58.7 00 34.830 60.000 27 164.200 206.lowable torque trans_ mitted by the weld at the hub may be found from Table 3.800 t29.000 250.600 4?. ?30  47 . The end thrust (F. if more than 6ne is provided.4_5 gdge fixed and supported.450 TABLE OF ALLOWABLE TORQUE TRANSMITTED BY ONE WELD (INCH POUNDS) Leg Size of Fillet Wetd.400 84. 3 TABLE O 1i. andthediscto the rim. on the basis of. 400 162.400 45. ?00 238.ss are repre_ rented diagrammatically.300 101.900 46.800 60. (t90 172.Iength of each of these circumferential welds as well as its torque arm depends on its raOius.500 8.1O0 200. This depends on rel. The formulas and curves on the graph. For example.hat 'xtent this conservative approach might be. the al. 40O Is/4" 2t/4r 26.870 362.For simplicity on very largediameter gears.700 86. 950 r5.930 198. for the upon transmitred safely .300 r27 .600 84. 400 4.600 .1. A/IAOUNT OF WETD REOUIRED ing gears.0?0 421.000 186. Figure 3.F" = Frtand r.000 95.550 25.400 35.950 20. Bicaus! the.300 95. On other types of gears. 700 140. as well as the deflection.500 24.r 7.ative sizesofthe two mesh_ / 5. basedtorque an exact method.use 1O%of the tan_ gentral Iorce. 500 68.400 52.000 345. the weld at the hub becomes the most critical because of its smaller radius (rh).s actual moment of inertia. etc.2O0 t 46.230 35.300 62.000 111. Th: .500 Lr?1200 140. the U_the end lnrust rs.500 78. For larger gear diameters where the radius (r) to the center of the fillet weld throat is Iarse in com_parison to the veld's leg size (o1. Figuie 5.frlT*l./I6" r/4" s/16 1/r6t 9/16r 5/8 3/4" 7/8 tr.500 7 2.900 45. the radius (r) to the center of the weld throat is assumed to be equal to the radius of one of the members being joined.500 78. on the tooth geometry.000 119.500 68. Here the disc is considered as having its outer (rim) FIGURE 5 .000 1 19.800 39. the by is__ r = 7e6oo f(" *+)' FIGURE 4 rho I t' rh+l 2l A conservative approach is to consider this arc Iength to be equal to the diametral pi. Since this decision influences the value of the crosssection. can be used to determine the maximum stress in the disc at the hub. Both the formula and Table 3 provide values for one weld only. Inches 3. Moment of lnertia The greatest problem in this analysis is to aceu_ rat€ly determine the arc len$h of thl rim segment wnrcn rs ro wrthstand this radial force (Ft.000 150. 500 99. p rL/4 18.900 38. 800 3r. 200 218.000 184. The two main welds on a gear are those ioininE the disc tothehub. ?20 64. EENDING OF GEAR DISC DUE TO END THRUST gear being designed is a helical gear.200 7 4.
= F tang = 16.25 FIGUR E 6 L".S Tt0' /trt.350) (23) (6) (16.6 in..Jr For simplicity and conservative desig7I. Bending moment on the arm = (22.zt. assume the radius of rim section's center of gravity to be equal to the pitch circle radius.. Figure ?.46 / R otoli Problem ngIV\e mbe r Desig n I Check this proposed design of a gear for stress_ es and deflection: where: number of teeth (N) = ?0 diametral pitch (P) = 1rr pressure angle 1p1 = 260 nunber of arms (n") = 6 horsepower (HP1 = 1696 pitch circle radius = 35" overload factor = 1.3640) = 8. _(t)(10).l f^r^a Step s _td.140 lbs Ft u =Ar. r = 35.'.350 lbs Radial force F.25) (70) (100) = 22. 66 x 1.l FIGURE 7 _ (22.6) = 5.5.3 where the web along the neutral axis is neglected because it is ineffective. supported and fixed at the hub end. Step 3: Determine Bendintr Stress inRimsesment Between Arms Minimum thickness of eear rim below the root . = os no Bending stress in the arm FIL n.350)(. Step Here: 2: l*a.000 (1000 1: Determine Forces on Gear Trnopnfi."n DXRPM _ 126.165 psi which is well within the yield strenglh of steel. Determine Stress in Gear Arm Treat the arm as a cantilever beam.
sup?ort the rim..12" 12" t3 t = rr.'.*=krF.q3. making it stiffer anA lowerine iis oenolng.8) The moment of inertia of this built_up rim.s center ofgravity to reference axis x_x.8.0 "=* = 6.0l I + 104.0 6..a (r' Amnx FIGURE IO s=!=qo=s.0 in.0084 Maximum bending moment the gear rim be x1o =i! cb'.0052 kr =.8r' be From Table 1.l.s__ e to a tooth The gear design can be altered so as to better . Amax=:(k2F.s crosssection is obtained by the moment_of_ele_ menrs method.rtia .lbs + (22..3.6'?" 7!6!u'utrat ftlmqx FIGURE I I FIGURE 9 M.600 in.0 + 8.Lorge Steel Geors circle. or whole tooth depth.sso) (2.r* = r35)2 ks Fr e) Go._4i .0 l 54.4_7 be__ qt_Er.0 18.or use 2. the arm spider a continuous disc so as to achieve the effect of a builtup rim. must / 5.000 psi whicb is a reasonable value. stress.qinc_e the proposed tooth profile provides depih of 1..0 .oio. the moment ^"'.0 + 1. kr = 6 are found Et2'! t' =.I "/N " F/'?* Setween Arms pqlermine Deflection of Rim Sesment  .0 M=Ad + 24.nT 1 V2 arms is..ttn8r'48 + 525 671 =.0 13.. The maximum deflection ofthe gear rim between x 6 = l.144 kz =. treating the 2 disc elements as 1: d 24.0 Total 3 0.0 r=lY1cl Is Bending stress in the rim + 24.0 ='3:3* . FIGURE 8 .18.8. Ftc Rim crosssection's moment of ioe. . "*"ffi I2" I = . One way to do this is to mak.r+Fte = = (. where d = distance from element.= 8.0102.144)(8140) (ss) 103. the constants for n. Figure 11.
Step 5: Determine the Bendin tion of the Rim's CrossSection Check the bending moment on the rim's crosssection on the basis of the rim being supported by two discs set in at .q /// . FIGURE Then: 102.8 in.3 102. 4.8) = .4 in. between the highest point to the lowest point on the rim.000343 (8140) (r2)3 (30 x 105) (9.3  = Bending stress in builtup tained by substituting the lower section hodulus into the original equationo == rim Bending Stress in the rim.(kzF.' oK FIGURE I3 M*.. See Figure 13.s crosssection above and below this neutral axis is ^ Dbp== I 7.48 / RolotingMember Desig n Thus. .0008'. = .600 16. 1.3J .2 I= S 9. Therefore. Deflectior of segment of builtup rim Rim deflection.r" = M = * A30 rim 2 At d= +.6 = = 44 535 psi OK = 6.0241 F.7 in.5. oK In this case.a approx.rakrFre) I ri EI .0008" is tolerable.8 I2 I ^ DLonom == o = = 5'1.2./1/: The section modulus ofthe builtup rim.7) _ (35P (2007) (30 x 106) (102.22 W (see Table 2): =.0000165. is obtained from the Table 2 formula for a rim supported by two discs set in at ..000343 F.1 6 102. W3 A=j.355 in. a deflection of . is ob(S) Bending stress M S M s 103.20" Section modulus of builtup J?'ih ry/..240 psi  Bending deflection which is less than half the original figure.6. '. between arms. between arms.0241) (8140) (12) = 2. is obtained by substituting its moment of inertia (I) into the original equatlon: The overall deflection of the rim crosssection.2 n. W = ( . Distance of NA fto.8 6.s approx.6 in. Figure 12. = I* M' (+ 6)r 30 = 194.lbs Step 6: Determine the Stress and Deflection of To check bendins stress and deflection of each . the moment of inertia about the entire rim section's neutral axis isIx.'\ F. the design sequence is continued on the basis of using disc(s) rather than gear arms.r Assume just one tooth to resist this moment.22 W./.
180 psi Maximum deflection of the disc O_KzF"12 Et3 (.3 = (. can be p]aced in between the two discs to effect an lbeam section for the rms.933 4.o ocE which is distributed between two discs: ::.lbs OK Bending stress Kz = .400 t24.. problem . Figu_re 15.. is1.5 psi which indicates that centrifugal force is at this speed. (100). Figure 3.. t2 _ (4..030. is then__ (r) to the radius of the disc's inner edge (rh) is:_ The ratio of the radius of the disc's outer edge M =i= 2 _ = (373)(26) 2 r32 _=_=4.850)(3. and loaded Consider each arm as a simple beam fixed on with F. assume this force (F.5)' I40 psi OK _ (. Fl3 FI (373) (26)3 12 (30 x 106) (124.r0 (22.092) (1I20 lbst restz Deflection of arm Maximum deflection of the arm.400 no 98.. %" X 6Uo" . _ = 12 R P M. orl_' F.933) (1120 lbs on one disc) = 4. 124. resulting from end thrust..3 iha each end. tg = .625) 124. =.092 Maximum bending stress (radial) at the hub Kr F. this ratio provides the constantsKr = . 84. oK = .350) .{ L r ti :  '. resulting from end thrust.) FIGURE I5 I x. (35).000147.).3) (30 x 106) (. Stiffening of discs _ Web plates.850 in.U From the graph.Lorge Steel Geors / 5.due tothrust../ lrc5 f'oJ tl ' l"ii"'t$i =f* ..4_9 disc. Tbis Some stiffeners or webs should be placed be_ tween the two discs perpendicular to them. = 2235 lbs 6 373 lbs Bending moment FIGURE I4 Yaximum bending moment at ends of the arm.5X is excessive. Thjs will givethegear sufficieot rigidjry in line with the shafifor endlhrust forces.) end be about 1070 ofthe tangential force (F..
rrt where: = Conclusion: Two 7e" fillet welds around the hub.895.Jbs r00 ts The allowable torque transferred by each weld T*=2z9600r. = 2.d ontheoutsideof each Since the actual torque to be transferred is only hub. the allowable torque would beT. o = leg size of fillet weld r = radius to center of weld throat 9. Just one ihd Assume there are two %" if r^ fh6 h.000 in. on the outside of each disc joining it to the hub.030(1250) RPM 790.030 x HP 63. FABRICATING HINTS For two welds. Lorge steel .000 in.rh fillet welds around the disc join . Figure 1? illustrates just a few of these techniques. I6  FINALIZED GEAR DESIGN P rev io us Cost Design \ NV \N /j ffid \iA ra\vl New Welded Design geors fhot ore fobricoied with the help of modern orc welding meet the severesl requirements ot lowest cost of monufqcture.4 lO / RolotingMember Design Step 8: Determine Weld Size wel.lbs Welded steel gears allow extreme flexibility in their manufacture as well as in design. = 2 x 2 29600 (.n 63. FIG. are adequate.5. There are many ways in which to reduce the material and fabricating costs.375) (8).
into Place welded cylinder vertical on a positioner and fl. andbuttweld the seam.idth.Lorge Steel Geors / 5. These rings are fillet welded to the web and then bored in tandem.ate in two halves.4_ll FIG.amecut into rings of deslred l^. 17  IDEAS FOR ECONOMICAL GEAR FABRICATION (A) Roll wide plate of proper thickness a large round cylinder. one half on each side of the wlb and each half a complete ring. . (C) cost. This produces several rims at low Here the hub is flamecut from thick pl.
'itttl I l. . with good beoringondgeor lifeos ossociqted benefits. soving weight ond cosi of moteriol. Geor olignment is qssured for monyyeors of service. geor housings os well os geors con be mode economicolly. Efficient beoring supports permiis lightergoge plote.5.4 12 / RototingMember Design .*a .' '.! With orcwelded construction.
whtil. rvrany orrlerent welding processes may be used to produce... The^arc. molten metal solidifies. then allowing the meral to solidify.: sumrblc i.rde. qurred ro reduce the metal to a liquid state is pro_ duced by an electric arc. and metal.lic salts in the core ofthe electrode. the shieldinl is intended: 1) toprotectthe moltenmetal from th.yi"used is affected by such variables as tle constjiuentJ ii e. union is compieted.1 Weldobility of I.DED ARC WELDTNG PROCESS Sreel .. either with gas. cr^ter. which produces a tltp"l"_ ture of about 6S00"F at the tip of the electroie. 2) to add alloy andfluxing ingredients. transforms the electrical . In the arc welding process.: ured rn watts and kilowatts.lectrode coatings. however. The energ. the type of current (AC orDC). the sunaces to be joined are welded together alongtheir entire length..* As the. This shietding is accomplishedweld de_ throueh vanous !echniques: a chemical coatingonthe ele6_ gases. is rormed by bringing the electrode close to the metal J be joined.sEcTtoN 6. heat at extremely high temperatures.. a Iimited knowledge of the basic u"" *"iOingp"o"""" is advisable.thg uir or gas in the gap to ttre passage or :J:tT:: the curuent. The amouni of energ"y availabte is the product oi ttre amp.. . the metals are joined inio ^ homogeneous piece. consists of joining two pieces of meral. The bond between the metalJ is proO"cJUy reducing to a molten state the surfaces to be ioinei and. This current may be either. Y:. The arc is an electrical discharge or spark sustained in a gap in the electrical circuit. Arc shielding varies with the type of arc weldlng process used. The re_ of. but tt musi be provided through a source which can be controlled to satisfy the variables of the welding process: am_ perage and voltase. the seam or joint to be w:elded.bonding..i:I:T jioot'* weldjng elccrr. In all cases. ir unonconsumablc_ rhe hcxt rnd n separrre weldjns rod rhe The electric arc is the most widelyused V'/elding Mochine AC or DC Power Source ond Conlrols Eleclrode Holder .res il0 ttre voltage flowing through the circuit and _.lqilS esraDlrsnrng a metallurgical bond between them. for others.n""gfin. and 3) to control the meit ot the rod for more effective useofthe arc ene16r.. the intense heat re_ . EleJiricai power consists of amperes and vott"ge. Thearcis formed between the work to be welded and a metal wire or roA calieJ the electrode. air. aod many others.through the applieation of pressure andlor through fusion. . inert placed granutar nuicompounJi. The tremendous heat at the tip oflhe electrode melts filler metal and Ur"" ttus liquifying them in a common pool called"t"t. In all modern arc welding processes. !ro9" yilg.areas solidify.. ln gfder to evaluate the weldability of steels. rne direction of current flow. FIGURE I The arc welding process requires a continuous supply ofelectric current sufficient in amperage and voltage to maintain an arc. welding."^. the arc is shletded to control the complex arc phenomenon and to improve the physicat properties of the posit.bv . Arc welding is a fuiion pro_ cess.alternating (AC) or direct (DC1. fillcr mc[al isdeposited byir con_ 5:::. By moving the elec_ ::1s"r]9 rrode along. THE SHIEI. ' Exlruded FIGURE 2 of energy for the intense heat requirld for source fusion alplicalions. vapor or slag.
Weldability ofa steel refers onlyto the relative ease of producing a satisfactory joint. to decrease the rate of coolinq of the weld.040 hosphorus The commonly used mild steels fatl within the preferred analysis Iisted. Aaalysis ofthe electrode core wire is accurately controlled to produce good welds. thick sections cool more slowlv thin thin. but since the plate metalbecomes palt ofthe weld. the mill has no difficulty in meeting the minimum yieiJ strength required.12 / Joint Design & Produciion 2. Above toble for generol guidonce.000 psi with 32% elongation in 2". When higher currents are used to get higher welding speeds. TABLE 2 . thjcarbon or aibt content will probably have to be increased in ordei to maintain this yield strength.40 Silicon Sulphur P . This tends to broadenthe ranse Highstrength alloy steels and most ofthe stai. . invariablv reduces welding speed and increases cost in . More control must be used in welding thick plate.Obo7o These steels all have a tensile strength approximating 67. The thicker plate. although the specificatiou limits permit as much as O. Use Lincoln Preheot Colculotor for ony given onolysis of sreel. However.SUGGESTED PREHEAI & I NTERPASS TEMPERAIURES (OF) When Using LowHydrogen Elecirodes or SubmergedArc process Of Corbon Sreel for Good Weldqbiliry Sreel Exceeding Any One of the Following Percentoges  PREFERRED ANALYSIS Will Probobly Require Exrro Cdre I . Some steels are more suited to highspeed welding than others. as well as in the development of welding processes.  parison with !preferred analysis' steels. slower cooling from the critical temperature results in a lowe. A steel is said to be ideally weldable if the required weld joint can be made without difficulty or excessive cost. because of their slower cooling.loy content.6. For plate thicknesses in most common use. select an easily welded steel that doesn't require expensive electrodes or comDlicated welding procedures. on extreme thicknesses. however.ate analysis is also important. welding procedures can be modified. control of the pl. Preferobly use Lincoln Preheor Colculotor for ony given onolysis of sreel. may have a higher carbon or alloy content. a thin TABLE 3 SUGGESTED PREHEAT & INTERPASS TEMP ERATURES (OD When Using NonLowHydrogen Electrodes of <weldability" with respect to steel analvsi. For steels outside this analysis.050 .035%. electrodes and fluxes.ing after being rolled while red hot. It must be recognized that continued progress is being made in metallurgical control of steel.. WELDABITITY OF sTEEI. or auoy content increases this strength.30 . Uighercarbo. foi very thi ck sections. as already mentioned. WETDING OF THICK SECTIONS Plates and sections as produced in the steel mill undergo a rather slow cool. Sulphur content ofthese steels is usually below 0. preheating may be required. The design group would do well to standardize on as Iimited a number of steels as is practical. Their use. Plote Thickness' 3.less steels also can be welded routinely by standard procedures. but higher Ouclitity. For generol guidonce.r strength.om A weld will cool faster on a thick plate than on plate. more of the plate metal mixes with the weld. If possible. TABLE 'I For a given carbon and al. Table 1 gives a ringe of carbon steel analyses for maximum welding speed. Because of iheir sreater mass. Most steels can be commercially arc welded. Both of these factors will work together to produce a weld of higher strength but lowerductility.
therefore. Position of welds (flat.) w27 . and land (root face). If the.77/h. and choice should be made with this in mind. root fusion is more difficult to obtain and smaller electroaes musi be used. (amperes).. ' Joint preparation includes the work required on plate edges prior to weLding and includes beveling.ity. Jcn rrems as .F. weld qualitv does not suffer but more weld metal is required. and amount 6. horizontal. The engineer must realize that these problems are pre_ sent and should include them in his consideration of the joint designs. etc. thus slowing down the welding p"o"u"" 1. . FACTORS AFFECTING PROCEDURES Design t^ ha narf^rha'i cosr.i . Backup strips are used on Iarger root openings. .rne accomplishment of this task requires a knowledge of the factors affecting tire type of tvelJ The main factors to be considered are: . . Arc speed. iro_ viding a land. and shoptech_ niques are best determined by the fabricator. All three preparations are acceptable. all are coridueive togood welding procedure and good weld quality.or €very w€lding job there is one procedure wnrcn wut eomplete the joint at rhe lowest possible Figure I indicates that the root opening (R) is the separation between the members io bujJi. Type and size of electrode. Type of joint to be made. Arc length (arc voltage). vertical. current. Type of current.N FIGURE I 'aN %N%1iN "  '._uo. the type and size of electrode.N r FIGURE 2 W//:/AN ]J 8 1l \. polar_ arc characteristics. ffru the angle of the bevel. increased as the bevel's included angle is ddcreased. A large nunber of the abovementioned factors be determin€d by actually welding a sample joint. the larger the root "mrli". is usually based on '"o"t.Ns L_ . 5.sEcIroN 6. Root opening and joint preparation will directlv ^arrect we.A "oo! opening is used for electrode accessi_ bility to the base or root of the joint. .root opening is too small. 3. thi! increases weld cost and will tend to increase %. and overhead)."l. root opening. distortionFigure 2 indicates how the root openingmustbe l*If the root opening is too large. oDenino must be to get good fusion at th1 root..tn. Selection. polarity 4. 2. .2 Joint I..ld cost (pounds of metal required). included angle.
In Figure 3c a large root opening wiII result in will burnthrough. will be gouged out before welding the second side. Backup strips are commonlyused when allwelding must be done from one side. Figure 3b shows how proper joint preparation and procedure will produce good root fusion and minimize back gouging. Spacer strips may be used especially in the case of doublevee joints to prevent burnthrough. the weld will bridge the gap leaving slag at the root. They should not be directly opposite one another. in which case the joint must be back gouged./or gap is too small.6. Feather edges ofthe plate are recommended when using a backup strip. Excessive back gouging is then required. The backup strip should be in intimate contact with both plate edges to avoid trapped slag at the root. Figure 4d. shown in Figure 4a. . are generally left in place and become an integral part of the joint. b and c. FIGURE 5 Short intermittent tack welds should be used to hold the backup strip in place. Backup strips. This Gouged will Side Be oul Eelore Welding Seco0d In Figure 3a ifbevel and. or when the root opening is excessive. to prevent burnthrough. Backup Strips Backup strip material should conform to the base metal. Spacer strip may be used. Figure 6.22 / Joinl Design & Produ<tion FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 "Spocer" To Prevenl Burn Throuqh. Figure 5. The spacer. and these should preferably be staggered to reduce any initial restraint of the joint.
. A feather edge prepaiation is FIGURE 6 The main purpose of a land. Accessi_ bility _can be gained by compromising betwe"" *oi_ mum bevel and minimum root opening. A land is not as easily obtained as a feather edge.parts of the joint and insure Plate edges are beveled to permit accessibilitv FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 %N%N FIGURE 9 FIGURE IO Nol Recommended . Figure 8. a nominal weld reinforcement . Figure Z._. figure S. pigure 10. Additional buildup.o large. to all. Care should be taken to keep both the width and the height of the reinforcement to a minimum.s€rves no useful purpose. since a gas pocket would be formed. while a land will usually reouire two cuts or possibly a torch cut plus machinlng. Figure11. 2. right. and will in&ease rne wero cost. more prone_to burnrhrough thana joinrwitha land. A feather edge is generally a matter of one cut with a torch. is to pro_ vide an additional thickness of melal. Figure z. _A land usually requires back gouging if a l00yo weld is required. EDGE PREPARATION a fAather edge. lef!. in order to minimize any turo_ through tendency. especislly if thegapgets alittlerc. . lpproximately Xe" above flush) is a]l that is nec_ cessary. A land isnot reiommjnOed when welding into a backup strip.2_3 Weld Reinforcement On a butt joint.Joinr Design / 6." oppo"ld to good fusioi throughout the entire weld cross_section.
penetration is incomplete. chipping. andthe contour should permit the electrode complete accessibility. Figure 12. and thus back gougiag. This may be done by any convenient means: grinding. To consistently obtain complete fusion when Figure FIGURE I2 '% FIGURE I3 FIGURE I4 FIGURE I5 . 14. AIso a J or U groove requires a land. or arcair gouging.24 / Joint Design & Production % N %N Y \') . Figure 15. the minimum recommended bevel is 45".6. back gouging is required on virtually all joints except single 3vees" with feather edge. Without back gouging. welding a r r'> %N Back Gouging FIGURE I I U and J versus Vee Prepqrations J and U preparations are excellent to workwith but economically they have little to offer because preparation requires machining as opposed to simple torch cutting. Figure 13. plate. Proper back chipping shouid be deep enough to expose sound weld metal.\?\ Degree of bevel may be dictated by the importance of maintaining proper electrode angle in confined quarters. The latter method is generally the most economical and Ieaves an ideal contour for subsequent beads. Forthe jointjllustrated.
Joinr Design
FIGURE
/
6.2_s
I6 
PREQUALIFIED AWS JOINTS (MANUAL WELDING) Comp leie Penetrotion Groove Welds
SINGLE
(welde d From ofle Side Using Bocking Strip)
SING!E
(Welded From Bolh S ides Wilhoul Bocking Slrip)
1=
DOUBLE
(welded From Bolh Sides)
f
r,,,to
r.
1=

Mox.
SSUARE
BUII
' t*.r lFit ll 220B'
ft'fifl r.*.l_
220BAl 224 A
t',tox.
1=f
t\../ i HliLJr_
vtE
d
45,
?20E
tR
?20EA
W.ldinE Posirions
Limitolions P.rhnr.d
3q
220Cl
20'
Flor ond Ov..n.od 0.ry Fror ond 0'..hcod o^lt
u n lim
1=f' uox.
t=
ited
l*t,/
BEVEI.
45.
..Tf"r]+i
llf*".
220D''z
r
Linitorrons Fot Joinrs
z2oa"1"f 22oaa
0",,
;;Til;"'
t , lP lP.'i .d t.ld'ioPorr'onll a5olr/.lArIeo.irio.r luir,iir.d
"".
"'."."'
l*'o'.r
fa+ft: I
^I
Pdhro^.
t
= Unlimited
I
220Nt'2
t=
Unlirniled
LI
u
2?O
ta'
i
?20M'
+r. I c w 2e iGiiiiio.t
rr
Linilolrons For Joinrs
o
t
o't o
P
ot i t i on s
coa ontr
NOTE: The
2. Use
joints shall equal size of the fillet weld reinforcing groove welds in Tee and corner welding second side (Par 505i) 1. Gauge root before oI
t/4 but shall
be
3/8" max'
'
tfris weld preferably limited to base metal thickness of 5/8" or larger' When lower plate is bevelled, {irsr weld root pass this side'
6.26/ Joint Design &
Production
FIGURE
I7

PREQUALIFIED AWS JOINTS (SUBMERGEDARC AUTOMATIC WELDING) Comp lete Penetrotion Groove Welds
SINGTE
(Welded From Both Sides Wilhout Eockinq Slrip)
SINGIE
(Welded Frorn one Side Usinq Bockinq StriD)
DOUBTE
(Welded From Eolh Sides)
w.ldr ulr 8.C..r.r.d d
Joinr
SSUART
BUII
er i c
cL2bs
r'7 Irfzfi T+ \ ,,/ l.+tl/+
BL2aS
BU2S
vEt
i] [\w.6 m.,v.rainq o r.,orr On. F.rr on Orh.r Sid.
Otr +
rJE r,
8{3aS
3(t i) i (t+)
o.oilr.. Sid. BL
9.ftli4l  \'l I :i' ili;il,il, .1 Fo
v.ld Arl.r
'
ro
I l.ch tnct \€O'e .t
B{J3bs
r*.#i
i":>r6r'
B12 bS
+
BtvEt
arc or s{!h.rc.d Ar.fill.r w.ld 8.ctim l.td
TC{4S
u
BU7s NOTE: The
size of the lillet weld reinforcing groove welds in Tee and corner joints shall equal 1. Gauge root betore welding second side {Par 505i) 2. Use of this weld preferably limited to base metal thickness ol 5/8 'or larqer. When lower plate is bevelled, first weld root pass this side.
t/4 but shall be 3/8 max.
'
J
oint Oesign
/ 6.27
3.
TYPES OF JOINTS
. stgn condition
groove.
The type of joint to be made depends on the de_
maoe uslng various edge preparations, such as: square butt Vee. bevel. J, or U. Certain of these joints have been prequalified by the American WeiJ_ in€ Society (AWS) and are illuitrated intwo cUaris, Figure 16 for manual welding and. in figure fi io1 submergedarc automatic *eldirrg. The choice between two or mo.re types of joint is not always dictated solely Uy ttre Oesign iunciion. The choice often directly afiecis tt ror example, Figure 1g illustrates "oriotrv.fainn. " t[is influenc;. lne choice is to be made between 45e fillet welds or some type of T groove joints. F9l fullstrength welds, the leg of rhe filler , (") weld must be about TEVo of the plate thickness. . (b) Full strength may also be obrained bv double bevel.ing.the edge of the plate 45u and spacing the ptate so the root opening is h" toallow for complete penetration. The amount of weld metal compar;d to the conventional fillet weld varies from z iEo tor i 1" to 5670 for a 4" plate. For plates up to aboui .plate ltl:" thickness, the extra cost of beveling the plate and,lhe !_robable need to use lower wetAi"ng curreni in the 45" groove tend to offset the lowei cost of w€ld metal for this type of joint. But for heavier plate the reduction in weld metal is great enough to overcome any extra preparation cost. (c) Full strength may a^Iso be obt ained bv beveL_ tng the edge of the plate 60' so as to place iome of the weld within the plate; a 60o fillet is then placeJ on the outside. The minimumdepth of bevei and the additional leg of fillet are both Lquat to eSZo oi tfre plate thjckness. For all plate thicknesses, the am,eral T",T1 9_f weldfillet. i 1?pproximarely half that of the convent)onat Thjs joint has the additional agylntaqe that almost high welding mry b" used as in the making of the fillel weld ".lrrent
and may be one of the following: lller. plug or T joinr. Thesejoints may b1
of Full
Toble of Relotive Cost Plote Skength Welds
(o)
nl'ls" r^i
rot
c4'1.1
1lyr22Vz3
Plote thickness, in.
FIGURE I8
shop for guidance of their engrneers in quicklv selecting the most economical *"ta. Nutu.rify iii varrous costs (labor, welding. cutting. handiine. '' assembly. etc.) will vary with
"^"t
""ompanv.
4. WEtDtNG
sYt\ABOt.s
 Ail of this is shown in the graph, Figure 18. The erossover point in this chart betweenlhe con_ ventional fillet welds and the 450 full penetrated T groove joint is about tr2,. plate. Thl 6O0 bevel, partly penerrated joint. with 60o fillets appears ro oe rne lowest in cost above 1" in thicl(nesses. The rel.ative position of these curves will vary accord_ ing to the welding and cutting costs used. ,It would.te a good idea for each company to make a similar cost study of the welding in their
. The symbols in the chart. Iigure 19, denotinE the type of weld to be applied to a particutar weiJl ment have been standardized and adopted bv the American Welding Society. Like any systeiratic pran ot symbols, rhese welding notations quickly indicate to the designer, draftsman, production su_ perli_so!, and weldor alike, the exact weldingdetails established for each joint or conneclion to satisfv au conditjons of material strength and service rel quired. .Adalting this system of symbols to your engrneerlng department will assure that the correct welding instructions are transmitted to all concern_ ed.and prevent misinterpretation of instructions, and resulting production cost increases_
6.2g / Joinl Design & Producfion
o o
o
E
;:i
!i!;. T
t
r
i
).
l;j"
]
ii
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J1:ll. After the sh f.".3lot'"ut'o" or these svr. 1570 are groove welds and 5Zo regri.'"{fi "i..H."iltri}i? H'ij}j: *i.:+11""""""*#"""*T:Jii.ff[".1.{ & N . thesystemof symbols i""#l..+rlu.lll . drawings."r organrzalron.#:::'y::l'J'.:i":??f.i to anv set of conditions go"e'ning a .eapproximaterv Therefore.) ..*d._ ll"l( .ll welded $ .J*."\*lJ "..." fillet "ir""J"i jnusr be adapted ro each particular Basicaly..lob' til./F f+.*i..bJr . around 80go of.F] .h. .K DH.__Il.lx#. .u :Ir. :::"ii*"Jff"":*l*r. it is wise in on the"'?":".iTt ..f oint Design / 6.i1"i..29 Although at first it may appear that many dif_ " ferent.l._l 'b.."iii.ryPICAL APPLICATIONS OF AWs DRAFTING SYMEOLS FOR WELDS r'1 twrl.bors to FIGURE 20 .rj:l"# .t"r:""Ji.. macJlrnery structure connections are made by welds.."ll.fr .ii.i[J':fi 'jii. symbols are involved.
6. .2lO / Joint Design & Production Cleon qrcwelded design from top io botiom in this outomatic dioltype ossembly mochi ne permi ited the builder to stort production of the c hossis before mony of ihe mochi ne's design detoils hod been finolizeo.
4 t assuming.gt."q"i"" frifJi weld leg size % ro yz of thairequired f* . Specifying the correct size ofweld is the first step in obtaining lowcost weldins. etration. IIVIPORTANCE OF WEI.. and based on the thinner plate. has equal or Since strength than thi piate.' results in wel. the slresses are usually of a rather low value. " design. the size of a groove weld may be needed for estimatins or other reasons.3 Determining Weld Size I.For mild steel. this welded joint will out_putl the plate under any type anddireciion ofloading.5ECTION 6. b) fiuet weld for full length of plate. it ls nec_ essary to match the weldmetal strength to plate strength but. the weld as such does not contribute noticeablytothe stiffness ofthe built_ up section. it is diffjcult to com_ it is sometimes assumed that 'rhesc tuv. a = Vat to 3. a groove weld. size ( % t to % t) usual]l. This de_ m_andsa simple method to figure the pr6per amount of weld to provide adequate slrength ior alltypes of connecllons. both sides welded full lensth.r Aw\ecomn. and c) t = thickness of the thinner plate.I proportioned ""ng" fillet welds.nsferred dependent on the al. weld size should be Ooubled. a) fillet weld on both sides of plate. In strength connections. This ].n. This means.. i.. .l this assumes: being joined are of different gage.e^ 6diJrDd conp wi. However. The weld size is stiII torces which must be tra. groove welds must be all the way through the plate.RULEOFTHUMB FILLET WELD SIZES RIGIDIIY DESIGN FULL STIENGTH W€LD 3370 2.b. if the two . When the member is designed to mainlain a cer_ tain amount of stilfness or rigidity. made. 10020 pen_ If for some reason the weld is only made on one side ofthe plate. RUI.te. il. that a rigidity design would .%. therefore. With fillet welds. or in other words. it is necessarv to be able to determine the proper weld size. When welding alloy steels. properly made.d ortoo large a weld. it is necessiry tirat the leg size of the fiUet be 3/e of the plate thicknessl l"=3/4t STRENGIH WELD \u )/1t) Flt. the stresses in the adjacent plate are lower than Yl to ! ot the allowable. as before. (r.hough theyare pute these forces and ln many rigidity designs.e. it is possible to have too small a wel.this is primarily a mattei of proper electrode selection and of welding technique.D StZE Overwelding is one of the major factors ofweld_ ing cost.E OF THUIVIB FOR FITLET WETD SIZE OF FULL In order _to deveiop the full strength ofa plate by means of fillet welds.th"r" i" no better need for calculating the stress in the weld or at_ tempting to determine its size. as a rule of rhumb. TABLE I .
THICKN E5 5 OF THICK PLATE JOINED MINIMUM LEC OF t SIZE FILL E T WELD /2" incl. Thick Plates The American Welding Society recognizes that thick plates offer greater restraint.rv welds transmit the entire load at the particular point wher. lbs perlinear inch of weld. throat. the mtx jmum shelr stress occurs on the 671. thc meml)er {ails.5I/v\PI. DETERMTNING FORCE ON WELD minimum weld size of s/i". a plate thicker than 6" would require a Typ€ of Loading Lre load at ARY WELDS !Ls/! I lhis poirt t. For rigidity designs. Prima. Remaximum heat input provide sulting superjor weld physicals. Transverse welds have forces applied trans over 1 1.. the given load is divided by the length of the weld to arrive at the applied unjt force.nner p Iote.i onrhe'f.Y a =4 S l. coMPRESsIVE oR sHEAR LOADS ON WELDS For a si mple tens ile. ht the case of fillct welds./i n. over 3/4" thru 1 1/2" 5/16" 3/8" 1/2 d.r" throat.E TENSIt. Secondarv welds simply hold the parts to(r) @ ffi T a *.e thev are loca.e ss 4++ r=l 2Ar ln r=T A = arca contained wilhin medirn line./2" over 2 t*u 2 1/4" 1/4" thru 6" 5/8" Minimum Ieg size need not exceed thickness of the lh. thus lortnini: the meml)er.32 / Joint Design & Producrron TAELE 2 MINIMIJM WELD SIZES FOR THICK PLATES (AWS) ER geth^er.ted. Table l gives the leg size offillet welds for various plate thicknesses. yet in actualpractice this would be made irr several passes. TYPES OF WELDS a. Values have been adjusted where necessary to com 5. I{ the result is too far olf. based on formulas #1 and #2. b. tne Iorces on lh( sr . In the casc offillet rvelds. applies to closcd tubutar section oniy ..E. the throat is stressecl in both shear and normal (in tension or comDression). com pres s ive or shear load. 4. ov* 1/2" rhru 3/4" to ) 3/16" / 1/4" c.z A partial solution to this problem would be the following: Since the first pass of the joint is the most critical. the proper leg size of fillet weld or throat of groove weld may b1 found. From this force. it should be made with lou'hydrogen electrodes and a rather slow travel speed.{85} r E LDS 1ow sr. The weld must have the same property as the membef at this point. the fillet weld may be reduced by using intermittent welds.io throatversely or ilt right angles to their axis. +r' I 1.6.M SECON TC J . weld contour.. then the weldles size is read iusted. If the weld fails. the weld becomes lhe meml)cr at this point.tcltlS :tre low. B€NDING in the weld without first linowingitslegsize. a and good strong root bead. As a result they recommend the minimum fillet weld si zes in Table 2 for various plr.te thicknesses. TC J*. In mosl (tses.llel to their axis. for example. This is not a complete answer to this problem. For 3n equal_lecced filler. Eachpass would be equivalent to about a lie" fillet. rhe mlrrimum sherr stress o"cur. For an equallcgged tilIet weld. and produce a faster cooling rate for the welds. DARY \{ oeer ne .Some design texts suggest assuming a certain weldIeg size and rhen calculating tlre strcss in the weld ro see if it is overstressed or understressed. the throat ls stressed onlv in shclrr.  d. andthemaximum normal stress occurs on the 221!. ln brjef. 3. Parallcl welds have forces applied para. and have the heat input oi approximately a a" weld which may not be sufficient unless the plates are preheated. ply with Awsrecommended minimums for thick plates (Table 2). OR TWISTING LOADS ON WELDS The problem here is to determ ine the properties of the welded conncction in order to checkihe stress welding heat input into the plate to givethe desired slow rate of cooling. This table is predicated on the theory that the required minimum weld size will provide sufficient TABLE 3 . based on the thicker plate.
r". . rhe following is a sjmple method to oerermrne the correct amount of welding required for adequate strength. tts per tinear inc'tr.. these same conditions exist in is. involving bending or twisting _^. having the DETERMINING FORCE ON WEID Visualize the welded connection as a single line. It only a line Decause q. sC q. """. 1.'i" oa . .y ot the.lbs : in .: Weld S ize This has the foll. result in a foree on the weld. p"i. the force on the weld . these st"nd. It _ls true that the stress distribution within a li]l:l y""td is comptex. . .*!# n Ft tro. "s 4.rdesifr formulas results in a unit stress. that the area (A*) of the welded connection now becomes just the length of the weld. This method has the following advantages: is considered. a treqnng weld qs o line.it'o'ar*ur s* ' ta . Tld l E:^ r the weldad l'\connection I trcatad os rb'1 I:l_T.rb.* . tt etii".F !..il. resulting stresses must be combined and. € rn..For secondary welds. Example: Bending ftandard desigTr formula Same formula used for weld (bending stress) (treating weld as a line) 1." ..n ar of determining the force on the weld.. a M lbs o=." stress L M " S..#TI. Notice. due to eccentricity oI the apptred torce. notch effect of the root. Forces are considered on a unit lenqth of weld.lb+d)r d? areas LJ I u. # r. .instead of stresses. '+14 l s.notnecessary to consider throat .11{ the .. weld (this cannot be done unless the wetd size is known). /A u)' 6.y . wel.r inch. same outline as the connection] U"t no crosssectional area.= :D ln.: to determine properties i able 4 is used loads of the weld . the problem becomes a much simpler one .:. but standard design formulas are used to rrnd the force on the weld.r+.1".#.1. Some decision must be made as to what throat section is going to be used to determine the pl9iu:. terms. This rs a method in which treated as a line. oe_ nrle teng"th and outline.::ll i *' r6d+dz .2 . r*. By inserting the property of the welded connec_ rron treated as a 1ine into the standard design formula used for that particular type of l. y:rd.._ i.. TABLE 4 / 6. 2..owing disadvantages: .of 1bs per linear inch of weld.d. rzb rdl . these f"".tj s* . . having no a. In contrast. .3_3  PROPERTIES OF WELD TREATED AS LINE fr.Ji.rea. 2.E:j# . Table 3).'!"i+'"+# Jr.r. Figure 1. ror several types ofloading. when the weld is treated as a Line.use of. but a 1n?. shape of the fillet. l:rstead of trying to determine the stress on the . lbs per linea.r"".... Usually some objection can be ralsed to any throat section chosen.+i _*l *3i r.. the weld is not treatedas lrne..!l .9b1"..._** . etc. Properties of the welded connection ale easily found from a table without knowing weld_iej 3.. a lino (no arao) ...dl the actual fillet welds tested and have been recorded as a unit force per unit length of weld. this can be rather com_ prlcated.ting tfrelnotiy problem of combining stresses.2bl+{bd2.iH . fr"*. however. The. 'tii0.
2 weld r 5.. two dimensions are needed.I weld r= . obtained irom Table 5 (steady loads) or TabLe 6 (fatigue loads).I weld e600 (Aws) i = . Portiol Penelrolion IA\ E60 welds to combine two forces and indicate the DroDer Fo. for twisting.kips/in. the allowable parallel load which is lower must be used. for bending.( a l. by the allowable strength of the particular type of weld used (fil). For any given connection.\ ft" .2 weld r r .800 (Arsc) tension tronsverse to oxis of weld or sheqr . f.Gl.800 (Arsc) joint.40 d. ol basc nretal E60 weld 13.o Fig.et or groove). of some 13 typical.600 (Arsc) E70 or SAW  I weld E70 or SAW . each at right angles to is equalto the square root of the sum of the squares of the three forces. the resuLtant is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of these two forces. Section modulus (S") is used for welds subject to bending loads.200 (Aws) or 5AW . treated as a line.ld . m&\imum bending force is at the bottom.200 E70 .\w The chart in Figule 2 can be used for fi1letweld leg size. s4 qs E6 v7 . It contains the section modulus (S*) . 2 Fillet weld leg size for combined forces.y a transverse load applied to the weld (either iillet or groove weld). Determining Weld Size by Using Allowables WeId size is obtained by dividing the resulting force on the weld found above.60 o.r00 'For bevel  2 weld (rension) (AWS) E70 or SAW .34 / Joinf Design & Production force on fi et we.ALLOWABLE STEADY TOADS ( lbs/lineor in.6. of weld) TABLE 5 E50 or SAW . . each other.s) Porollel Lood G. and polar moment of inertia (J*) for twisting loads. width (b) and depth (d). welded connections with the weld treated as a line. If part of the load is applied parallel (even if there are transverse loads in addition). deduct first 1/8" for etfeclive throat. For a joint which has onl.ET. All forces which are combined {vectorially added) must occur at the same position in the welded joint.use toble for iension porollel to oxis of weld or compression  Tronsverse Lood E60 or 5AW I I . .jn.r portions of the welded connections.600 (AtSC) or SAW  I weld some os p lote or S.2 weld 15.n one force applied to the we]d. these are found and combined.AW I3. i{ done by manual electrode. IJ there is more tha. the resultant t.=v?\f. Fortheunsymmetrical connections shown in this table. (3) If there are three forces.(For l" weld thickness) E60 ** .. the allowable transverse load mav be used lrom the table. and polar moment of inertia (J*).. Section moduli (S*) from these formulas are for maximum force at the top as well as the bottom Fillet Weld ( = lrt. If there are two forces at right angles to each other. of bas€ metal (sheor) (AwS) l3.
lr" standard formula d has usedthe = M/S. he thus finds the firce on tf. One.. rbiin. lO/ = Leg Size 2 ta . Using the same load (M). lnto the same formula.10 K €9 d= 1n oon psi P. Now. psi ?500 By Fillet Welds (t\ Butt Weld In Telsion d: _.= t!gg o"i i 13. 1b) Use Table 4 to find th" p. 2 0d re. Butt Weld Compression T:of *..i.i.or*. Substilutinc the load on the beam (M) and the prope.. Find the value of each of the forces on welded connection at rhis point. In Tens ion Connected By Fillet welds But not to exceed Base Metal 2) 5F Psr P.zS* . (The. 8800 d lb..000 cyqles But Not to Exceed r) J 2 P."1q. Iinear inch.ALLOWABLE FATJGUE STRESS A373 And 436 Steels And their Welds 600.treating it as a line (S*). Combine (vectorially) all of theforcesonthe wero at thls Dcrnt_ this resultant value by the allowable for""i. Adapted from AWS Bridge Specifications..i.3 _5 . 2. 9) Compression Connected P.3. . 000 cycles Base Metal cycles 100. hehasfoundthe bending stress (o). i . weld treated as a line.t Y PSr P" psi Butt Wetd In Shear \t (9 2 .op.000 ^".srandard design formula to find rhe force on the . Most welding oT machinery is done with electrodes in this groip. the required weld sizebydi.important advantage tothis method.! riq. Determine 5or6. fi od i= geX. .l 000 '' T 16 nci .. Assume an just designed abeam.tv oi iiiS oeam (s) rnro this formula. . he substitutes the property of thE we]d. K = min/max P..000. ooo "= . . = Allowable unit comprcssive stress for member P. Find the position on the welded connection where the combination of forces *ltt rc _Jmuri. f = M./in. For strength he :lqi:::i.: _ 4. L.000 2.viding . = Allowable unit tensilc strcss for member.000 psi Fitlet Welds . is that no new formulas must De used.= @ o_ 17. obtained frtm iable 4. rn.r 60 )= I 5100 ". .. . .t1.860 designation applies to all weldins eleclrodes capable of producing weld metal havini a rensue slrength of 60. inaddi_ tlon to its simplicity.000 psi. TABLE 6 f or A7 Applying System to Any Welded Connection . V Y' 6 x ilSr* o"' .t0 ^ @.e *efj iii per.1. . (a) UseTable the 3 for rne. nothing new must be learned. There may be more than one whictr stroutJtre considered. The weld size isthen founO bydii viding the force on the weld by the allowable force. P.Weld Size / 6.
The bearing Ioad is 6900 lbs. assume a eomplete reversal. J* = {n..5 in.j. 000 cycles and use Table 6 formula. In this case.2+f"2 = l. or: (63 00) (25. Bending _ 5090 1+lz lbs/in.58" or use %" \.. Torque transmitted is 150 HP at 100 RPM.\f.2) = 250 lbs/in.5) = 1880 lbs/in.lbs Step 1: FIND PROPERTIES OF WELD. (allowabie force) = 33?0 Step 4: NOW REQUIRED LEc SIZE OF FILLET WELD AROUND HUB CAN BE FOUND. assume service life of N = 2.030 63.^ aq4 qont ( /r\ 10 0.25)' I I Since this is fatigue loading.+f. (acrual resultant force) = ?' ltz I4\2 + (5. l lresoy 1 12s9y. z (4)3 2 = 100. hence K = min/rnax = 1 and: f _ 5090 .l nT = { 1asry. NPM 100) {b=lsL_C> l inch o{ flilctrcld = 94.000.lzso fb.'188o .12 g" _::_I_1 7 f2 z I tti I n l*n. Step 3: DETERMINE ACTUAL RESULTANT FORCE  63. FIG URE 3 Vertical shear _ Determine size of required fitiet weld for hub shown in Figure 3.3 . of load.7 = 451 lbs/in.6. INSERTING PROPERTIES OF WELD FOUND ABOVE (use Table 3).36 / Joini Design & Producrion Problem 1 Twistins 'I.500 in. TREATING IT AS A LINE (use Table 4).030 ( x x HP (150) AND ALLOWABLE FORCE ON THE WELD. 1950 lbs/in.'13 2:::2 . fu= _ M S* (6300) (8) ( o )  actual force allowable force 11r. = . A* = 2zd =2r(4) Step 2: FIND THE VARIOUS FORCES ON WELD. .
"ur"y " pRopERTrEs s_rIT AS A LINE (use Tabie oF WELD. (2r5+10) fvt'ts7) fs. = :(18.9OO = 385. ftep 4: NOW FIND REQUIRED LEG SIZE OF FiIIE:r WELD CONNECTING THE BRACKET.w. + (26s0)t 3540 lbs/in. D_E T E _ J* _ (5)' 2(5 + 10) (2 T UAL RE SU LTANT F ORC E b_t d)3 _ b.OOOlbs ..int ? =V = (%a0). (b + d).000)(5) (385. A_ into horizontal and vertical components by proper value of c (see sketch). _wrsrrng Iorce is broken . = 20" l?650 ) l\IEITrNG_llopERrrES oF WELD FouND BOVE (see Table g).Wef d 5ize / 6. to filtet weld for fo"joi 18.: ON WELD.368" or use %"N .P9. l2 Vertical shear f".V.000) jA'FFdiFIGURE 4 (3.000 lbs.. the size of requrred .in".9 in. (5 + l0). tfx / Nvt Twisting (vertical component) _ (180.3 A.9) 2340 lbs/in. actual force allowable force _ 3540 9600 = .. _ = Tcr (180. tz _ (2 x 5 t0)3 Lz + (2b+d) (5). TREAT_ _FrND iNc a). l'o I l. is where combined forces are maximum. _99L9.000) D _  itiRMrNE A C 2b+d = 900 lbs/in.IlmrlHE vARrous FoRcES oN wELD. the^bracket shown in Figure 4. D:i"l.3_7 Problem 2 Twisting (horizontal component) /o'IB. r *R3:.75) = 1750 lbs/in.
This is why stiffeners are I ? 3 Simpty c0pporte.5 stressed These flongetoweb welds ore in horizontol sheor qnd the forces on them cqn be determineo. bearing supports. the real purpose ofthe weld between the flange and web is to transmit the horizontal shear forces. and the size of the weld is determined by the value of these shear forces.y a desigler is accustomed to specifying a certain size fillet weld for a given plate thickness for the weld to have full pla. or to transmit any unusually high force between the flange and web at right angles to the member (for example.3S / Joint Design & Produclion 7. Fig. However. etc. iures lhe qmou nt ond Momsnt 0iagrdms . General Rules Outside of simply holding the flanges and web of a beam together. their actual size sometimes determined by the mlnimum allowed because of the thickness of the flange plate.te strength. Normall. A study of Figure 6 will show tha't 1) loads applied transversely to members cause bending moments. 6 Sheor diogrom Pic 1N Lood Diaarat locoiion of we ldi ng required io tronsmit horizontql sheor forces beiween flonge ond web.d unifor m load Sirnply supported conccntratcd . 5). these welds may be very small. 3) If there should be a dif ference in shear along the length of the beam. The (leg size about 3/4 of the plate thickness) in order welds are in an area next to the flange where there is no buckling problem and. this particular joint between the flange and web is one exception to this rule. 2) bending moments varying alongthe lengtb of the beam cause horizontal shear forces.). HORIZONTAT SHEAR FORCES Any weld joining the flange of a beam to its web is stressed in horizontal shear (Fig. in order to assure the proper slow cooling rate of the weld on the beavier Plate.nds conccntrdtad la rl' Fig. therefore. lifting lugs.6. the shear forces are usually greatest at the ends of the beam (see beam 3). In order to prevent web buckling. 2) It is quite possible for portions of a beam to have little or no shearnotice the middle portions ofbeams 1 and 2this is because the bending moment is constant within this area. this results in a thicker web. no reduction in allowable load is used. and 3) horizontal shear forces require welds to transmit these forces betweenthe flange and web ofthe beam' Notice: 1) Shear forces occur only when the bending moment varies along the length. a lower allowable shear stress is usually used.oqds Fixed. It will help in the analysis of a beam if it is recognized that the shear diagram is alsoapicture of thL amount and tocation of the welding required between the flange and web. from a design standpoint.
coLU'.vgn rhey are welded intermittenrly lhouSh rhe rest added to the ends. the shear diagram remains unchanged. Finding Weld Size The horizontal shear forces acting on the weld joining a flange to web. Welds in rop exomple musl corry moximum sheorforce.Wef d Size / 6. 4)the mulxlmum shift the diagram so that moment is less. The moment diaEram for thi. consider the welded frame in Figure 7.8 tical portion ofthe frame. at the point where the crane bending moment is applied. Horizonio I sheor force is moximum olong Fig. Vavilln). lbs/tin along beam.4 Fig. in.s loaded frame is shown on the leftharid side. What is taken offatthe middle of the beam is sometimes welded continuously at their ends for a dista. 9 Exomples of welds in horizontol sheor. in.H "il:::. Figures 8 and g. To apply these rules. ihere is no sheor on welds in botlom exomple. it is very high and more welding is required at this region. However.39 Fixedends will .. Fig. lbs in. Using the horizontal shear formula (f = neulrol qxis.'. this would require a small amount of welding between the flange and web. so th. the moment diagram shows a very fast rite of change.. rl . Even though this does happen. mav be found from the following formula: where: w l:!. Intermittent weld_ ing would probably be sufficient. of flange held by weld. = distance between the center of gravity of flange area and the neutral axii of wirole section. The bendine moment is gradually changing throughout the verl n = number of welds joining flange to web Locoie weld ot poini of minimum siress. Thesheardiagram shows that this results in a small amount of ihear in the frame.moment of their length.nce e.i the amount of welding between flanee ind web wilL be the same regardless of end conditions of the beam. 7 Sheor diogrom of frome indicotes where the qmount of weldino is criiicol. I = moment of inertia of whole section./\' f = force on weld. Use continuous welding where loads or moments are applied to a member. V = total shear on section at a given position L = area. even though intermittent welding may be used throughout the rest ofthe fab_ ricated frame. Since the shear value is equal to the rate of change in the bending moment. oif!:k co. sq in.
' by @clds '1 a 1A ? .31O / Joint Design & Production Nomograph to Calculate Weld Size TABLE 7  INTERMITTENT WELDS The nomograph in Figure 10 maybeusedto find the required weld size where two welds are used..q!. $acr.:rs ..os.8 l.6..5 kios (har.ld ptata hzt.a to cantrcid of fta. " ia.+:4 \ \ prD.REQUIRED LEG SIZE OF CONTINUOUS WELD For Joining Flonge to Web of Fobricoted Beom II d+.r.16. sizr .lcuLl ba o!t'r Chact A'ws to r{z i+ thi5 Dc<tr minin'e.r dzl. 25 .€e) .(rcmant o+ incrtid otrhola Jcct'dt d.*J_ . in. 2156r (orco ot Jlat. 1' _ calculated leg size (continuous) '" actual leg size used (intermittent) Length of intermittent welds and distance between centers.l 51.J_ I\ .a "iZa "t wo ril oo drr'.r b"6t:t" ol th'ckDa53 o+ tlonga Plota.nis<itinuo'u: .liJist. _ Vay   t9.^dl{cb siz4 ror tha rollowr\g conJilioFs V. 60 51 50 43 40 37 33 30 25 2D . one on each side of the web. aid" at dab)..23o i6.1 I I . i""J o: ' *piJu. 410 38 310 ' 2t0 272 Fisure l0 .4ociionl I .+ to+ t.. I t?i+ @* flange pldta ha. ' 4_6 35 36 37 48 4_9 . To 15 66 If a continuous fillet weld istobeused. When expressed as apercentage.1S6. ' t 5 a a1t / 50+ "iE . read the weld size as a decimal and divide this by the actual size used. .iii..d qy ' ''t' seal. Length ond Spoci ng Continuous weld.qe la u A ot s"crio') .iii:'i. Table ? has various intermittent weld lengths and distances between centers for given percentages of continuous welds. this will give the length of weld to be used per unit length. For convenience. If intermittent fillet welds are to be used.z I J .a...t". 24 .2r .oli .aqe flhole Eutral atis of distanca frdn *etds J r* ureo a{.ititiitiitis"t ta.t' tYi . read the weld size on the righthand side to the next Larger fraction of an inch.
.YaY leg 9....& . .+ oroo.to' e" . taking into account the information in Table 7.lds.tet weldleg size if continuous) and the right axis (actual intermittent weldleg size used or the thickness of web). Therefore. r't= Ncld (zw.tc cad 13. 9. l nc rtio of ll ndr p t4t4 Langth ot wc. Be sure that the actual weldleg size chosen on this rishthand axis does nor indicate a plate thickness greite r than the web of the girder. Sizo {rom 6. fial..lds . o+ {illdt w'ld n. o. hold 3+ lt" r.. The righthand axis is the size of intermittent fillet weld used. .k Dlato. OOo psi r. it is bast not to pottoo smatl thcrc r'al b..oson.d.J I Pro s"to' hngth..to to . .tds) V . To use this nomograph. Momcrrt sizc ! n q.. us./ l 5' 6 1' r!' r a)<aripl4 1.t t4dld ba a7 (4"tory.G 1n wald or.'G.rved.6 !r I a wald Tablc lrtttc oa no strass on . of v{fin. in this Vay case.7. Figure 10.ht.0 .4 gulde. Cont inu dcLat mintd.r c.5hcqr(Kipc) .Weld Size Fisure I I / 6. Sometimes the allowable shear stress in the web of the Dlate girder is held to 13. draw a line betweenthe left a{is (calcuLated fiJ. then move irpward along this axis to the actual web thickness and use this value to determine proper weld spacing.) f.ld contrnuoo5 4G 16 ndt cr<c4d thickhaJs of thin on d thi.loanc lN.. b.9 .. It is important that the leg size of weld used in determining weld spacing is not so iarge that it will overstress the plate. The middle axis is the resul.u.ucld ta d ) Pmtlcm fiA4 dtnount.3 ll . 112 co'. a. The proper weld spacing is read on the middle axis.r5 t.^ 4'7:!:if"":l1i:LT. lf so.ad wc.na.f . Lag siz.8 Fill4t wald Lc. 4to aad rault hL tc.1"cLs..4 7 /c z' /> o/'/ 'rc ""(. The lefthand axis is the required continuous fillet weld size determined from the formula: 2x9600xI or from nomograph.]'/.3..000 psi. the maximum Ieg size of fillet weld used for design should not exceed % web thickness. saiags ia xaA casl Nomograph to Calculate Intermittent Weld Size The nomograph in Figure 11 will be heipful in deciding the spacing of intermittent welds after the required continuous weld size has beendetermined.o . h.t *. numbcr of . AIso on this axis is the required length of intermittent weld for 12" centers...g lntarmittant stzq ia ( Evcn though J .5 I . ah.. *ooi1!! an.) 2: J/^ D. z caa D. cho. tor prqcti(al r.r istancc ). 4 \aoz ii"r'iura' i":r::I#X[.REQUIRED LEG StZE OF TNTERMTTTENT WELD For Joining Flonge ro Web of Fobricoted Beqm Raquirad thickn@ss of Thinncr Plaia so Shaor strcss doag hcrt c...ting weld spacing expressed as a length of intermittent weld and distance between centers.
Therefore. A %" fillet Horizontal shear force on weld . For this reason the size of intermittent fillet weld used in design calculations or for determination offi web thiekness.312 / Joint Design & Production 3 Problem iEleifitt contrnuous leg size enti6s size For the fabricated plate girder in Figure 12.375" n = 2 welds submergedarc automatic process. This singlepass weld is easier to make and there is little chance of it being undersize. Problem 4 A fillet weld is required. The shop would Like tochangethistoayle" weld.. 7s" intermittent fillet welds.. the true fillet size is measured by finding the leglength of the largest isosceles right triangle (a triangle with a 90. This change would permit welding in one pass instead of two passes. ._ force atlowable Iorce from the weld size of%" (. However. or flat. from which a line is drawn to weld size of 9'io" on the right axis. intermittent welds may be used but must not stress the web above 13. intermittent welds having J. providing same strength.6._ 12r' that is. unless the work is positioned. may be replaced with %0" welds.000 psi.3? 5) weld usually requires 2 passes. or here: % of '/r" (web) = . Figure 11..ity.so be worked out on the nomograph. 4' long on 10" centers.333" The percentage of continuous weld length needed for this intermittent weld will beuous right axis through on the middle axis. HOW TO The without convex. This point on the left a\is becomes a pivot point. length) which can be inscribed within the weld crosssection. on the Using the nomograph. A 2pass weJ. = 1720 lbs/in.5) (24. Two gage types are available: one for a convex fillet. SIZE OF FILLET WELDS 'V\EASURE size of a fillet weld is difficult to measure proper gages. The gages shown in Figure 13 give quick. a line is drawn 8. determine the proper amount of fillet welds to join flanses to the web. FiIIet shapes are concave. I6%Ea in welding time and cost. In this particular case. tothe left axis. the leg size of the fillet weld need not exceed the web thickness (thinner piate). another for a concave fillet. Because of the greater strength of the y2"fillet.a a = 27 .corner and legs of equal.Vav rr = l[(189. They may have equa"l or unequal Iegs. however. Required leg size of weld actual =. with the legs in line with the original surface of the metal. y2" fillet ivelds are recomfrEided because of the thick 23/e" flange plate (see table inserted in the nomograph. 11). set on 12r' centers. easy measurement of fillet size. Fig.e ?) V = 189. It undoubtedly would be faster to use %" continuous fillet welds and make them with the This may al. 000) (2?.5 in2 v = 24. 4" long on 12" centers. =  L720 9600 l anrl This would be the minimum IeEsizeofa continfillet weld. the answer of 4'i10rr (Lengthof weld. with a saving of approx. Figures 14 to 18 explain their use.768 in.eg size of Ta" and length of 4". using Figure 11.000 lbs I = 36. then distance between centers) being read on the middle axis where the line crosses it. where: = 54Va Hence.d requires more inspection to maintain size and weld qual. FIGURE I2 3/ 8'r N 4r' . use (see Tabl.. In other words. the lengthof weld must be increased to spread the load over a greater length of web.
WRONGI RIGHT! WRONG! THIS GAGE INDIC TE5 riE suRlr{o tHE L€0s ctvEs OF FtLleT SIZE 5/14. Notice thof the lorgest isosceles right triongle which con be inscribed within the crosssection of the fillei is determined bv the shorter leg's dimension. Both will indicote the some size fillet. or convex.313 I 6AGE FOR CONCAVE FtLLETS MEASLTREsI rxts OlStrNcr. in this cose itmeqsures ihe weld ihroot.rHl5 ts tze rs cREAtER GHIt coRRECT SrZE 5/t 6' FI!LE' IRUE INOICA'ION OF FILLET SIZE l c^cE FoR FILLEIS G CE 5/rt GAGE FILIE'5 toR CONVET Fig. l4 Wirh equol legged 45o fillers. Fi9. slightly concove. l8 Right ondwrong methodofgoging o convex fillei. it would be opporenf tho f the verti co I leg is smoller ihon the botfom leg ond thot ihis isfhe truefillei size. The concove gqge wo u ld give the impression thot the fillei is lorger thon 5/16" ond this would be incorrect. Convex fillets moy be meosured with goge of type shown on the right.( i. Fig. 13 Two iypes of filler weld goges.Weld 5ize / 6. 16 li moy not be reodily opporeni whether the qbove fillet is flot.FFILLETS x\ OAGE FOR CONVEI MEAsURES F!LLErs v16" THls DTSTANCE F \ cacE $_ FtL! FoR CONCAVE ETS \l'/r6" Fig. Concove filleis ore meqsured with o goge like the one on the left. But by checking the filletwith bothrypes of goges. Fig.+./1" l/r tS0sceL Es Rr6HT TRtATGLE g€ rEL0 cio555EC10X FILIEIS cArl lNscRlSED vttHtN llcHl! TRIANCLE INSCR/AED IITHIII rELD CRO5!5€CtON C N XOi 6E 5/16" FTLLET 5/16 rsoscEtEs RroHt tRt X6LE C N A€ IXsCRISED TITHIN vEtD cRosgsEclox FILLEIS 00 {oT usE OAGE FOR CONCAVE FILLETS oN coNcAvE FILLETS FILLETS oN coNvEt FTLLEIS Rig ht ond wrong method of gogi ng o concqve fi llet. l7 Fig. WRONG! Nor 3/g' 3/8 ISOSCELES RIGXT WRONGI xor 5/ta INsCRIBEO 5/16" tsorcELEs RtcNT TRIANCLE CAI{ NOt 6E YIiHIII 'ELD cn0s9sEctrol{ DO NOT U3E ltGHl! r. eiiher type goge (concove or convex) moy be used. l5 Meosuring convexfilleis. . in this cqse ii meosures the leg size.
314 Joinr Design & Production Problem 5 5" sld pipe 20" dio T T 37 6.208) (6%) (216) (108) Determine the leg size of fillet weld for the base of a signal tower. /€Er\ AA aa aa 'l3 I" = :::. TREATNC IT AS A LINE.3 = Step 4: NOW FIND REQUIRED LEG SIZE OF FILLET WELD AT BASE.208) l/3:0'l(360) + (.lbs 146 i"l r (6s/a\3 1 14 in.3 r ' ' I' = ::r8 200.5) (29tj..3 Step (67e)3 3: "M = FIND FORCE ON FILLET WELD AT COLUMN BASE.'? . 1370 lbs/Iinear in. ^ I" d. Figlre 19.25 146 in.5)3 6 = 1386 in.600 psi t"J) l@ \\*/l \ / t .3 8 Total I" = 1500 in.3) (. .6.208) fljg)(288) \ 4i 2: \4/ + + (.208) {5s6) { 160. the minimum fillet weld size for 1" ba^se plate .5" 36V' 40" dio I 20.3125") 1: (r&14 23.000 in.143" but use %s" Nall around.000 Bending stress in pipe (column) \  I = = Mc (200.:6 .5" 288" FIGURE I9 6" std prpe Step FIND THE FORCE INVOLVED. Moment acting on tower due to wind pressure: M = (.'oa uFl HE EE rffii _ (20..208 psi./ 2 * actual force allowable force 1370 9600 1500 = r0.000) (3.20s) rr \ 4/ in. assuming wind pressure of 30 lbs/sqftorpressureofp = .1. Step = 200. FIND PROPERTIES OF WELD.lbs :o'?) (216) + (.
Bending force on weld FIND pRopERTTES :SJil:!AS A LINE. t_s" U"". / / 1 i" m..=.4s..= + 25ina tr/n V//(Z v \#.) l.re LOaO . =o = 2940 tbs/b.3_ts em6 z Axle of troiler TM I rY  t'/ I r'"1 Treot weld os o line €trFIGURE 20 ffi .r4o\ . ff =  . _ (1549)(6) ^ 5w =_ td2 2'.000 in.h". ailowaDle lorce ATfdn _ 2950 9600 = 1540 lbs = . TREAT_ "M s. *gqj! r'n.. 1 M = ::c Step 2: lbs/ir.t. = ACTUAL RESULTANT FoRcE oN _ (20. to have equivalent strength of member._lbs Step ^M d _ 10. ain2 =JA* _ = 1540 P A A* = zd 9ih 2r 245 FIND THE FORCES INVOLVED. Determine size of fi1let weld on wheel spindle.u (Y.000 in. = and: 10. _ actual force w_l_:_ WELD. ING IT oF WELD.Weld 5 ize / 6._tbs 4: NOW FIND LEc SIZE FOR FILLET . lood _.tr WELD.= 2950 lbs.111 ^^ uvv psl.. Vertical shear on the weld f.') in. rhe bending moment is__ zv.25 in. r. lS uDl(Ilown_ 20.. stressed to an allowabte of ]l^.Gt. Figu.308" or use %0" \ .000 psi) (.
=Vitr+r. This subjects the connecting weld to some bending forces as well as to uniformly distributed transverse forces and vertical forces. Figure 22.f+r* = y(moo + ?sor. Vertical force p f" =: \l \ffiT E F'. FIGURE 22 Step 1: FIND THE REQUIRED PROPERTY OF WELD. The crossbar is welded to the vertical member of the lifting element. Assuming a fatigue cycle of K = lmin stress/ (max stress) = 0 and required lifeofN = 2'000'000 cycles. 5=oq+A2 = 3070 lbs/in. This whole unit tends to pivot about the lower corner where it bears up acainst the lower crossbar. Bending force to 5090 . Step 2: FIND THE VARIOUS FORCES ON WELD. The re sulting ho r izontJl force (Fh) at the upper end of the fork is taken by the top crossbar..83 in. 5090 r.3 16 / Joint Design & P rod uclion f. TREATING IT AS A LINE. the allowable force on the weld is '= rw2 = 5090 o lbs. Figure 21' The maximum capacity is assumed to be applied Determine ihe required size of connecting weld 30" FIGURE Fh (15. or = 7ro " N . Fr. the horizontal force (Fh) is applied at the tip of the bar at some eccentricity (e) io the weld's center of gravity. Treot weld os o iine I Transverse force " Fr' = 7bu rDS/ ln. s?5. _ (6000) (3) = . Here: Iifting element oi fork truck.M =E. ON r.bffil on at the outer end of the fork.D THE ALLOWABLE FORCE.) = P (30") = 2P = 2 (3000) = 6000 lbs In this case. . br _ (3000) (8) 6=%" HEI [#r = 375 lbs /\n. Step 3: FIN'D ACTUAL RESULTANT FORCE WEID.. A}.603" or use %" N can be assumed that this load of P = 3000 lbs is distributed equally between the two forks' this leg size of fillei would be reduced to half' or U it l?:631 = 2300 lbs/ in.6.r (from Table 6) = (u/"1l4l + Gl2 3 Step 4: NOW FIND LEG SIZE OF FILLET WE LD./in. actual force allowable force 3070 =7.
800 in. tutral Axis Momant diagram Shear diogrom FIGURE 23 to bold the sections together..000 lbs.000 lbs n number of welds . And if it again can be assumed that the load is distributed equally between the two forts...._Cr:.Wef d 5i:e / 6. or o = %z"oruse %" N 8 in. flange plate to the Lth. per 10 load would be__ r= . N .ooo tbs.3_17 can be assumed that the actual number of is only N = aUout eoO. the vertical portions have a constant bending moment and there_ _.435" or use %0.. the allowable 2 minutes._ _.O90.tO PROPERTTES SECTION. 281.37. 750. the welds on the vertical portion only have have a changing bendingmoment (M) and this causes a shear reaction (V) of ?50. .{ ^ = (4"1(54't\ = 216 ia. This ieans that the main requirement for welds occurs only inthe horizontal portion. web plates on a large welded press frame (Fig./ S:g_li rtl.S CRoSS_ y=11. v. tfiislee size of fillet would be reduced to half.__. 4".U it 3070 7070 1919' r_K/2 = 70'70 a and the required leg size of the fillet weld would be Problem = . fore no shear reaction.9"_2l' V = ?50.' OF FRAME.000 lbs) vertical load.ooo in."y:1"" (represent^ing average lift every qhr day.OoO cyctes f?. whith must withstaid a 750ton (I. I = 67.Although the horizontal portions of this frame Determine the required size of welds to jointhe t(!J=iJr.500. M. for anyrs). lbs. \_.
The decision as to whether afil]etweld or some type of groove Tweld wiII be used depends mostly on cost.800 lbs/in. = 11.91 (a) 45o fillet welds Force on each weld is t/2 x L7. ?80 13. 11780 !. 600 fiilet partiallv Denetrated ioint Force on each weld is th x 77.500. f Step t2.000) 60 = 12.6.5oo "L :_ _ 4: DETERMINE SIZE OF WELD. !9!9 o. FIGURE 24 .. _ lbs/in. Compression (assume 7 50ton Ioad spread out over 60'r of frame . " s _ Vav In f..200 = 8600 lbs/in.000)(216)(9.9Q9 _ .318 / Joinl Design & Prqduction Step FIND THE VARIOUS FORCES ON WELD.+fJ (6 ?.73.t2. (for a leg size of I'r) leg size is: ./in.67d ForceJnlointlsI?lzoo tEE/in. Allowable load on this joint is 13. = 9600 1. thls will be more than adequate.200 = 8600 lbs/in. Allowable load on this weld is = minimum throat is + _ 1?. l'. throat If full penetration of the 1%" plate is desired.500 c .500 lbs/in.200 lbs. (for a throat of 1") (b) 45o bevel T sroove ioint (c) 600 bevel. 33r' is:. 1.=V'T.000 1eg size or 1" leg size.. 000 lbs/in. 8 00) (750.2 webs) p f.9) (2) = Vftl€oot + (1r5ooF = 17. I/: (1. 200  " u. Horizontal shear 2: Step 3: DETERMINE ACTUAL RESULTANT FORCE ON WELD. Ailowable load on this weld is 9600 lbs/in. lee size. See the foUowine iLlustration.
overhead for plate preparation. js difficult to specify and control."turi.e.ei on a particular job.. The simplest type of cost eitimation"is a Job that. etc.rocedure agatnst another? Or. The amouni ofreinfo""". Three items which are difficult to tie down.. size of . and c) elec_ 2. werdrng. A more complicated welo may require a handling time factor.. yet greatly affect the cost of a weld.o"al ror specitic joints and read direc y in lbs per Toot of joint. is it needed io compare one p. The joint speed is then found by dividinf rnrs deposition rate by the amount of weld meta'i required (lbs/linear ft. A stight i""""r"u jn*loJi "_ouili opening increases the amourit of w"la metaiio'.i 10 be ordered for a particular .i. . required. botir for .quickly. are these:' . For generally examplei making a v'e" leg size fillet weld is desired. single_pass fillet or groove weld.1. increases the leg by ZSZ Uuitfr. a weld varies as the square ofthe weld size. In order to arrive at the labor cost per foot of joint. rn both examples. and S provjde precalculated weishts to rhis amount manual welding as well as the submerged_arc proc_ ess.. it is sufficient to assume a rea_ sonable operating factor due to the downtime be_ tween. flux...Table 2 (weight in lbs/linearft1 has oeen developed. however. To simplify thes! computations.This handling time is affected moie by ttre ioU. . is Lhe chiet need one of determining the amount of elec_ trode to order? A good method of cost estimating should give the final cost. . as well as the job._ The operating factor used.o""O""J to follow in such a case is to compute tfru s. relrevrng. tric power. b) electrode.F1'jrTi". Sometimes rnese computations must be based on the size and configuration of the joint. This section includes yarious tables and nomo_ graphs which are helpful in makins true cost estim_ates. studied. 3.4. Thismaybefound in prepared data on standard welding procedures.i. 4. i. "f ig"uJline percenrage increaie in *"ta meiaii! usualty surprising..). i. wheie the welding dollar is really being spent The final cost includes at least these items: a) labor and. Unfortunately there is no one all_inclusive rTul" bJ.nt".ob.?l. islt needed to es_ timate a new job for bidding? Or.:i. electrodes consumed ard to apply this to the actual arc time. Designers or associated personnel frequenflv have to compute the weight of*eta meiaire{tr1'.i. it is necessary to knowthe speed at wtrictr ttre lornr can be welded. included ang15 of groove. where a orrrerent procedure may be used for each pass. of. and sometimes stress].requires a long.a"ea' is incr€ased by 56Vp. '. 'l Th9 cgst of welding is directly affected bv the ^_arnount of weld meral reouired. yet indicate what portioi of the operation is more expensive. amount of reinforcement. This downtime is aflicteA by the weldor.^ Next comes the long..cleaning.. multi_pass weld.sEcTtoN 6. which all types of welding jobs may be . and these depend orithe neeJ for such a study. convert this into pouDds per linear foot bv mu[rplying by the factor 3. For estimating the weight of rnanual electrode . rgment and perception.. 2. the deposition rate (lbs/hr) may Ue ae_ termined from tables and charts for given weldine .oot oj:eninj or fit up. yet tfre rts variance can substantially affect the ranre oi oi weld. The amount of handling and cleaning time. metal. is 'rstactory without the estimator applying his good ."v"rv f"* pJopjl realize the great increase rn weld metal and cost that results from a slight increase rn weld size.ectional area of the joint in square inches ana ".*tly add another 5070 Tables 3. the ratio of actuat arc time to the over_all welding time. the entire thickness and length th. For example.*.4 Estimoting Welding Cost l.h.ti. The normal p. No estimating system. Computinq Weld Weiqht COST OF WEID ETAI Table 1 includes a number ofuseful formulas for determining various cost components. rnen_ . cosT FACTORS There are several methods which may lle used to sludy welding cost. The cross_sectional area. than Uy the welding. e. its use is illustrated in problem l. and gas. asseml onng. The amount of filler weld metal required. this varies with size of weld.For special joints for which no information is available..". as a matter of either cost estimating or determining the amount of .
= J ROD MILEAGE lb rod melted ft weld ROD CONSUMED PER FOOT S lb rod =ilmelted 6000 M (OF) = NLROD CONSUMED PER HOUR in of one weld . Ez = overall deposition efficiency lb weld deposiled D Er = rns11i.USEFUL WELDING CO5T FORMULAS SPEED TIME JOINT SPEED 72 hr ft in mtn min It rrl 60 nr tn/mln  I 5.1i[":i cj lo roo consumed w. = (in weld/rod) J = (lb weld."="li.Er APPRO)qMATE MELT OFF RATE _ E(arc volts) I(weldinq current) _ lb rod melted 1000 hr A DDRAYTNNAiIF SUBMERCED AUTOMATIC WELD "\C'F ARC NE c oo6q T rFwl .. "' +n4.ECTRODE AUTOMATIC WIRE & FLUX per lb of deposit c ft c n =S 20L ((oF) rb=3D(oF) 1200 M w NLSEr Cw 'i'r = .42 / Joint Design & Production TABLE I .. rocl L./lb) gas cost ($i/hr) 20G c lb 5G 3D ratio of flux to wile (Ib weld deposited/min) (in rod melied/mio) = IlT (lb rod consumed/min) with stub (lb rod melted/min) no stub W.s El nr 6000 M (OF) NL.= J qLRFI C tb W+RF Ez c fts labor + overhead (g/hr) wire or rod cost (91b) nux cost (f. = (in rod metted/rod) L. = weight one rod with stub (Ibs) = W.6.T = time to melt one rod (min) = weight of one stub (Ibs) Er = deposition efficiency Ib weld deposited D tbEa rneGd = .rn r WELD COST per foot of each pass LABOR OVERHEAD MANUAL EI.+Is. r.+1 s.$ : fi. JOINT SPEED ROD MELTED PER FOOT ROD MELTED PER HOUR ft 60D [. erric iency =. . M lb rod rr consumed weld 1200 M Ib rod consumed N L./ft of joint) OF = operatiug factor 1OO/N N = number rods/100 lbs I = weldiDg current (amperes) S = (in weld/min) = L"/T .
Esfimoting Welding Cost / 6.] r ta ::E E i5 .rI J! :::::::::i: qqiqi{iqq : i : : : 3 : .i:3nq:iiiqqq4q:tiiqqiicq:tq : I.P:. gi!i:3!::3. N J.t.s F eeriiiqqqr:::::t:i::::::::::::: AqaqClqqllliqcqqq{i::t::t:::::: iiCsqq:l::l!iiiiiqciqiii::i::l! a F g i'.' ='x =^ t:A :::9ef s55F:i.:. ^* ..j i r .d NE ig til t.:.Ee nFFF€..1N€ " i.83859:::9:=9itisiii:.: toi :3!::5f. J + "j .se9?a: >Eg = .EEEEES::::::9:::9Fitaixd{!3 ::!. .6! :! a991q9dc9N@6@66 !9499:€ :.. S5 B 9::": i:.::t:gq.<{ /: .:2 O I *3J i n.:5 5 . : : : esiiilqiq qlii{ qr i:1:q::::: : :: 5:::: ::: I: qEqiiirqqq4::l:1::::::::3:::::3 q .99!r'a1 g3 I :5.:: a:i 99{{€64 o99:!^]!'!!. i9:I!. ".. .t r"1 !'E . E i E: 3€: e _ . .5: S3..lCEll3SF:..4_3 AEi .1 1:::14 9:".
zo' 30" reinforcement l.ntorce.e. >_]] t IPft S=*rl * 30" I zoo reinrorcement I reinrorcenenr reinforcemenr .einforcemenr 3oo I zo' reinforcemedi I reinforcemenr 3oo I l.WEIGHI OF WELD METAL (tblr of Joint) .6.enr TABLE 4 .44 / Joinl Design & Production TABLE 3  WEtc HT O F WELD METAL (tbslr of Joint) * + 3oo i ># zo.'.
Widlh of Joinr WEIG HT OF WELD METAL I I 1J I .4_5 TABLE 5  (lbs/fr of Join0 Reinforcemenr: l0% W.Estimoting Welding Cost / 6.
4 DC Dcl 2 Welding Current (ampe re s) .6.o6 . per {oot of joint) Polality I Polality 2.at .03 .05 . Using SubmergedArc Process weighr of We Id Metal (Ibs.WEIGHT OF WELD METAL (lbslr of Join0 Bosed on Procedures.Q h7 .6 1.07 .46 / Joinl Design & Production FIGURE I .' 5t64 250 (inches Travel p€ ! minute) Speed 63r*t 562 (zso600) 342 (ooaoo) 700 (aooaso1 aoo r.& .a2 .JlE*t 900 p*'*o"l looo uoo t200 1300 .o6 .o t.8 1.o8 .
red by the joint. Essentially. consider the following joinr design (Fig. For example.7 Since lbs/ft w r = %" . dependins on the polarity used./min. and the correct side of the W4g!I_9Il{9lO_Ug!e! s cale. depending on the size ol electrode used. FIGURE 2 This joint can be broken into componenr areas A. 4): dt mi Sincet=%"rndd=1" read from Table 2: 1. B. the total weight becomes 2. .?? Ibs of weld metal per foot of joint.318 lbs/ft Since included angle and is 14o 2: d = 1rr read from Ta6le . gives the pounds of weld merarpertoot r€qui. Figure 1.5): joint. The resultant weight of weLd metal is . "r.4_l With Tal:le 2.mputing the Weiqht of Weld Metal Based on *"**. Where the straightedge intersects the right scale. Totaling these. For example. the line drawn onthe nomograph represents the procedure which uses 590 amps on trz"electrode at a travel speed of 30 in.41'l lbs/ft joints.Esrimoring Welding Cost / 6. 2): are known. it is a simple matter to determjne the weight of weld metal that will be deposited per foot of joint through the use of the nomograph for submerged arc welding Figure 1. Be sure to use the proper side o[ the Welding Current scale. FIGURE 4 * .. There is one note of caution. read the amount of weld metal per foot of jo int.334 read from Table 2: FIG URE 3 lbs/ft Adding these. Referring to Table 2. there ale no estabt*"" lished welding procedures. As an example. the conrribution of each of these component areas to the total weight of weld metal required bythe jointis sjmplypickid off '. can eliminate a lot of hitandmiss adproaches to the selection of the proper procedure.e chart as follows (Fig. Simplv line up a straightedge through the point on the lelt scale tirat represents the welding current being used and the point on the middle scale that represents the travel speed being used.10lbs per foot of joint if DC positive polarity is used. 3): Problem 3 4d iusti ng. The contri_ butions of the individual areas can be found in the charl. consider the following submergedarc automatic joint (Fig. or . The nomograph for submergedarc welding. "r* " the normal method is ro find an esrablished procedure for a similar joint and alter it slightly to accommodate the desired joiRt. When such is the case. into standard geometric areas._Prggqqures Amount of Weld Metal to provide the Required d nwl r y_l c D Sincet =%"and d = l%" read from Table 2: . it is a matter of diuiaine ti" crosssection of the area to be tilled with wetd metal.r"rtuUprocedures for aparticqlar job There are no established procedures for this Probablv the closest is thatforthe followine jojnr (Fig. computations based on joint design are easy.19 1bs if DC negative polarity is used. CandD.
OPERATING FACTOR The selection of a proper operating factor (OF) is difficult. /min labor & overhead. rvith l00Toopeiating factor./min speed is 16 in. 56. In this case. Total cost of welding using 9!S operating factor Total cost of weldins usins 30 70 operating facto. In other words.. electrode A would have the least cost and would save 4. scale. The following is his cost study: A welding engineer is interested in replacing his . Travel Speed: 16"/min 3. the simplest thing to do would be to slow down the welding speed enough to provide the amount of fill required. it is a simpLe matter to adjust the voltage to provide the desired bead shape.6.00/hr Totat cost of welding usinE 1007p operating fact&: 10./it of wetd speed is 18 iu./min. rl\rUKE : Power: Alnperes: Volts: 29 Electrode Size: /at.404 1bs/ft on the DC+ polarity side ofthe weld metal.9 Q/ft This indicates that. therefore. Then.4g / Joint Design & Producrion In adjusting this procedure to the rew joint. Even though some difficulty METHOD A '/{" electrode A @ 209/lb uses Z # encountered in obtaining this value. @ 149llb rod/ft of weld uses # rod. which is an estimate of the speed which should be used to provide adequate fill in the joint.404 lbs/ft of joint. and procedures.4 9/ft This indicates that. it is determined to be . Consider the followine: METHOD B Ta" rs electrode B 7.00/br Total cost of welding using !qql6 operating factor: labor & overhead. electrode B would have the least cost. Draw a straight Iine between them. and would save 6. consider the fol. Locate 670 amps on the lefthand side of the welding scale (for %r" electrode) and . it is necessary to establish an approximately true value rather than to simply ignore it or assume it to be 10070. 28. with 30Tooperating factor. and yet affects the final cost more than any other single item.6%. This intersects the travel speed line at g". 96. To do this. the operating factor does affect the welding cost sufficiently to be considered. use the nomograph to determine the proper speed setting as follows.lowing example. With this much of the procedure fixed. first determine the amount of weld metal required to fill the new joint in the manner outlined in ProbLem 1. Since one might question the practice of assuming the same operating factor for various electrodes present E6012 electrode on a certain job with the iron powder E6024 electrode.. it is reasonable to assume that the 620 amps would be about right and.17a.
/min speed S meltoff rate M = speed S 10. and using the same operating factor of 8070.06 minutes: E6012 ELECTRODE E60?4 ELECTRODE operating factor = ( operati[g factor = 50% 1. .2) {16. this means a downtime of onlv 1.6l/ft + 51 = 26.5? minutes per rod.06 minutes./ft 7ro"E6012 rod @ 375 amps AC Y6" E6024 rod @ 375 amps AC meltoff rate M = ?% in. the operdtor can lift up his helmet faster. knock off the slag faster.. this represents a downtime of 2.9 = = s.8?.30# rod/ft leg fillet . adjusting the operating factor accordingly. A more accurate method would be to use a fixed downtime. insert a new elec.770 by using the iron powder But this analysis reveals the followinE: The arc time for the E6012 electrode per rod isl. using an average downtime between electrodes of 2. i. /min = 9 in. It might appear at first that simply substitutins the E6024 electrode i nto the holder would decreas6 the downtime.e 9/ft Total 26. ry.2 3L. 43. Assume E = tDs roo consutTred = soq.ng ln la. /min = 13 in. /min length lod melted Lnl = 16n Iength rod melted Lm = 16" time T = 2.30# rod.= **{***9:= 1200 [fii{i}.(1200)(? 3/4)(14. 2 (/tt or a saving in labor cost of 21% by using the E6024 etectrode. 2 in. pick upand insert the next electrode faster. clean the slag off the weld. S E3 (1200) (10.bor of electrode E6024. Of course this is not true.49 E6024 ELECTRODE 94e" leg fillet .9} (218) (16) (13) (s070) = a.06 min/rod Assume a 5070 time T = 1. 57 min/rod opelating factor (OF) Iabor cost and $6.l 2I.00/hr labor and overhea. using a 50% operating factor.r f/tr 'Iota. etc. by using the E6024 electrode. On the same basis the arc time for the E6024 electrode would be 1. Reexamine this cost study..= zo'z 9716 ffi.e.d (L) labor cost or a savi.. = 2r.5 + (2.rode into the holder. rod cost 1200 rod cost M M NL*SEr w .Estimoting Welding Cost E6012 ELECTRODE 913" / 6.06 minutesper rod. 30.3 Q/ft or a total saving in labor and lod cost of 16. This downtime between electrodes includes time to lift up thehelnet. etc.Si minutes per rod.7 + 4.5% labor cost labor cost t6 L /rn\/a\ s:lory= iiffi.9) (2rs) (r6) (e) (e0%) w N L.
. t$t B " \t$\ ns.i..'t{ tii b{ \ ffi d \ $ H $\..P. '. I I I _>= U. >: >= ^o \JO \ \ x' €\ rrO di Su .l 9'> \ o .$d$HT \ \ \ \ *i F i} \.i ./.it.v oo I ro <.p iJ \) qt 6 +J rtv \\ .s.. r:: "! b iS 3' \ $3AEg$$ s\ iB . {i *'i5 *..Y d N ...r €I :p P: !n ..iE 3S!* T$i 3: P. P'd : \c SE : E* uo f+r ...oSeeStIs o >.'..P\ tt.\ srF' v) $ \e .64lO / Joint Design & producrion (j '*i... ir $sitlt €i rEi i [{. v* . 9'X 9' o d . .
the siven welding current. would sive a more true picture ofthe welding cost. sufficient accessibility so the welding operator can easily observe the weld and place the electrode in the proper position.49 lbs/hr rod cost 8. may be used to quickly read the labor and overhead cost per foot of weta. so the unit cost is less.9 9/lb = $1. Of course the number of units turned out per hour is greater.4_ll Notice that the decreased arc time with the E6024 results in a slightly lower operari ng factor. " .00 97.g Q/rb rod cost 7 . and from this find the arc Iime.37 x ]. modify his estimate accordingly. These as sume a weldable sieel. It is impossibl.1. treat the submergedarc automatic welding by finding the total. apply this to the total iengths of each type and size of weld on the job.57c) (218(16)(9070) = 8.34 lbs/ mrn). proper fitup. 3.570 instead of s09s. The nomograph. proper position of plates for welding.Estimofing Welding Cosr / 6. This method is especially useful when there is no standard welding data for the particular joint. and welds sufficiently long so the length of crater is not a factor in deteimininE weld strength. Time the actual weLd or job. 49 x 76. g? lbs. Determine the deposition rate from. labor cost = 6. Under these standard conditionsl the wel. COST PER HOUR As a matter of interest. One might_further suggest using a downtime per eleclroOe and a handling time per foot of weld. Convert these values into weight of weld metal per linear foot. Figure 6. in terms of inches per minute. FaiIure to provide these conditions requires a substantial reduction in welding current and immediately increases cost.e to put a qualitative value on these factors. if availabl6. consider the cost per hour for these two procedures: E6012 ELECTRODE E6024 ELECTRODE lod consumed per hr 6000 M rod consumed per hr 6000 M (oF) NLE: = {6000}(? 3/4)1507. Problem 4 Estimate the welding cost on the drum shown in Figure 7. a time studyofthejob.44lhr It can be expected thenthat the cost per hour for making the same size weld will increase slightly with faster procedures. there are three wavs to estimate the actual welding time: 1. If standard welding data is available intables.d should have acceptable appearance. therefore the designer or engineer must learn to anticipate such problems and.4. pounds of weld metal required for all of the joints (9. In this cost estimate. whichweare trying to avoid. 2.?4 lbs) and then applying the deposition rate for the particular welding current (?00 amperes = . giving the arc travel speeds for various types and sizes of welds. Obviouslv the incrlase equals the difference in cost of electiode consumed. 43. These figures.2)(43. bv observation or consulting with shop personnel oi other engineers who have actual welding experience. Most weiding procedures are based on good welding conditions./hr E3 (oF)_ (6000)(10. and total for thJentire iob.44/ht labo! cost = Total = 6.00 10/h! Total = 97. although the joint dJes cost less. clean smooth edge preparation. . EST}IIAATING ACTUAT WCLDING TINAE After the length and size oI the various welds have been determined. z.) (219)(16) (s0%) N L. butitwoildmean makins 4. 5.0/hr = 9I.
/min.. use % of the arc speed from the standards. and general inaccessibility. These travel speeds normally are taken from standard welding procedures.6. 6?# 9. ta !A" I L tFIGURE 7 l'"1 tl The cost study of this drum.10 min .0 min Total Cost at $2.00. 3/4" butt 1. use a fisure of 6 in. ?4# @ oI weld metal 63" of butt 63'r of 7/2n butt 700 Amps (. Treat the manual welding by totaling each ofthe different weld sizes and applying a speed ofwelding to these.42+ 33% OF 90. apply an operating factor of B37o to the arc time.65# or @ min.0 min Assemblv 90. if the standard for the %0" fillet weld is 9 in. ossuming ioint detoils thot provide the following weld metql volues.0 min 2rof 3/ 8" fiUet Manual Welding @ o 252r of 3/L6i 264' of 5/16r fillet @ fillet . use an operating factor of 5070 for the manual welding. For example. weldins around the edges of plates.@ 8rr/min = 31. but in this case To cover the handling time needed to put the pafts into a positioner for the various positions of assume the welding current to be reduced about a third because of short welds. Since lhe assembly time is figured separately. t tnrn @ 50% oF 1s1. Therefore for estimating./min = 44./hr labor & 2OOgo OH 331 $ 33. and 59o of r/z butt butt .5 min 6r'. 34#.0 min a c./min) 29 ?.@ @'@ @t @ @t @ zltt of. using Toble 2: SubmergedArc Automatic Welding @t"@ @toO @.412 / Joint Design & Production automatic welding./min.
ing At affcct of tre/ds a"bove aeut.In making a weld. t\ The enormous temperature differentlal in the arc area. Fig.erir.. To anticipate the movement of material from a straigbtforward analysis of heat is difficulr. creates a nonuniform distribution ofheat in the part. Suggested solutions for correction or elimination are based on both theoretical analysis and the prac_ tical experience of fabricating shops.//.SECTON 6. such p:op.e &ld shznkagc ot Pa//hg affa.l gtla? dittetioa ol litht aA todgtn@l shdaka$ of */d ADgptar ditttti. Allthese fac_ tors have a definite inlLuence on the desree of movement.tt. See Figure l. Groph is for mild sieel. and the stiffneis of the steel plate itself also rnust be considered.us or elasrlcrty decreases. WETDING FACTORS THAT CAUSE }IOVE'\AENT .itaffects the rapidly changing conditions. X*lr fe P . Restraint from external clamping. I / >"i x 3q.a.a/ axis 'E/d Fi9. internal rei straint due to mass. Pu. I Properties ofo meiol cnqnge or elevqfed temperofures. Designers and i engineers must aniici_ pate and provide control ofthls lhrinkage to achieye the full ecouomies ofarcwelded steel construction. rne perlod ot time during which a specific condi_ tion is in effect controls the impoitance of rhat condition.5 Control of Shrinkoge ond Distortion I. complicoiing ihe onolysis of weld shrinkoge. the coefficient of thermal expansion increases.a ol butl rmlsft. the thermal conductivitv de_ creases./ a. the modul. 2 An imbolonce of forcas resulting from shrinkoge of weld deposit tends to couse ongulor disforfion or bowing.x.e: as yield strength decrease. As the temperature increases. E :S LD! lc Y. the heating and cooling cycle always causes shrinkage in both Sase m"trt aiO ieii i"Illl "i9 shrlnkage forces tend to cause adegree ol distortion.t ot tfl/ds ba/otf ne. and the specific beat increases. . id \ \ * ! Finally it is necessary to consider the factor of time as..
aszs sh. speed of travel. EVIDENCES 2. th.c.@ th. Dimensional stability. THE INFTUENCE OF OVERWEIDING Overwelding increases the shrinkage force. 3. The moment of inertia ofthe section. 3. See Figure 3./d dacr. . These men usually do not realize that weld metal increases as the square of the leg size.4. When longitudinal shrinkage acts in a direction that is not along the neutral axis of the member.52 / Joint Design & Produciion oe.. 2). t] t.4 d. d. Overwelding can be caused inadvertently by a chain of events. AND CAUSE OF DISTORTION When distortion occurs. will minimize this condition. having just been criticized for making undersize welds. the shop foreman. Figure 2.4 quently distorfion Fig. D.\dg. the result is bowing or cambering (also shown in Fig. u Fig. A solution based on correcting the combined effect is the only practicable approach.. These variable conditions are further influenced by the welding process itself. or '. or using intermittent welding techniques. When the part reaches the shop floor. This generally can be cataloged as longitudinal shrinkage and transverse shrinkage. Further. I. it appears as a shortening of the weld area. F. 4 shrinkoge o li q nmen Ports ore often presef so thot weld will pull them bqck into correct . Distortion results when a condition of nonuniform expansion and contraction is created. marks the piece up for the next weld size. should it be necessary. resists this contraction. The distance between the center of gravity of the weld area and this neutral axis represents tbe moment arm.ngth a/ *.i.. angular distortion will result. It is obvious that distortion cannot be analyzed by viewing each one of these factors separately.@3in9 /. O. welding current.. iftransverse shrinkage is not uniform throughout the thickness of the weld. the weld shrinkage andtheweld costbv4 times. The shrinkage force acts about the neutral axis of a member.rt. 3. wisbing to play it safe.3 Excessive is frecoused by overwelding.owing factors: 1. produeing a shrinkage force. makes real sure that these welds are still larger.'hhaga lo.. joint desigrr.. and the tendency to distort.@in1 l. The weldor.9 tiz.atding bcrca.6. reducing the weld length.k&g. The resulta 74" fillet has become a %" weld. Different welding procedures. The aPparently harmless %" increase in the leg size has increased the amount of weld metal deposited. The weld along with some adjacent metal contracts on cooling. Distortion can be anticipated by evaluating the foll.r@ca rhn. Distortion of members occurring after welding has been completed is discussed in Sect. type and size of electrode. 2. The designer may specifythe next Iarger weld size because of a lack of confidence in welding. preheating and cooling ratesaII these bear significantly on the problem. The I of a section also resists straightenjng. to. Anlthing that reduces the amount of welding such as decreasing the leg size.
4). tlatu'v ZSsd 516". Effect of High WeLdinE Speeds The volume of this adjacent base metal which contributes to the distortion can be controlled bv welding procedures.k pt6t /oG sA.a (l . Even thoush a shrinkage force. S). By makingthe welds with the submergedarc automatic welding process. Fig. weldlng should be balanced around the neutral axis of the member. 5 Boloncing weldsorweld beods oboui the neutrql oxis of ihe member. indves prebending the member or presettirig the joint before welding. thereby reducing the shriDkage moment.o_ ment (d x F) becomes zero (Fig. and this adjacent base metal tends to shrink along with the weld metal. reduces ongulor distortion to zero. The effect of welding current and arc speed on adjacent base metal is illustrated in Figure?. 7 Vorionce of welding technique. the deep penetration characteristic of this process further lowers the center of gravity ofthe weld deposit and reduces the momeDt arm. F..eedArc Autahati. al'_ most all the volume expansion must take place in thickness.rinkage . thi.automatic and fullyautomatic submerged_arc welding equipment.. The important difference Iies in the fact that the higherspeed welding technique produced a slightly narrower isotherm. CONTROI./343 b) +. d. The heat ofwelding causes the metal just adjacent to the weld Oeposil to expana. semj. Approximately the same weld size was produced with procedures (a) and (c).D SHRINKAGE weld shrinkage pulls the member or connection back into proper aligtment (Fig. tu.5 _3 4. equal to zero. building up shrinkage stre!ses in the longitudinal and rransverse direction.o_ gressively decreases distortion.. surfqce isotherm of 30OoF is shown surrounding welding source. Whenever possible.ld Fig. In this way the net effect of One technique used to control weld shrinkage Adjacent Base Metal Shrinkage of weld metal alone is Dot sufficient to account for the amount of shrinkage sometimes actually encountered. this heated section undergoes volume contraction. On cooling. However. The Fig.=5ubm6. the sh. t 06p 25 6tt Jb/e dri<k plat Frequeutly the neutral axis of the member is below the center of gravity ofthe welds as sbown in Figure 6. reducing momentorm ond net effect of shrinkoge forces. does exist.Distortion Confrol / 6. this metal is restrained Uy tne relafiveiv cooler sections of the remainder ofthe plate. This makes the moment arm. . In eoch cose. 6 Deeppenetroiion welding processes ond proceduresploces the weld closer to the neutrol oxis.::==:. measuring outward from the edge ofthe molten pool. OF WEI.Higher welding speeds througL ttre use of popderedirontj4)e maaual electrodei. or vaporshielded auiomatic welding equipment reduces the amount of adjacent material affected by the heat of the arc aod p.
000 Joules/Iinear in.. The charts in Figure 8 throw some light on This helps to explainwhy a given weld made with more passes will have slightly greater transverse shrinkage than one made with fewer passes.ota' ca. The vertical joint used a verticalup weaving procedure.. iesdirectlywith Fig. it required 6 passes rather than 3 of procedure (a).s. one in the vertical position and tbe other in the horizontal position. Th'e horizontal ioint used a series of 6 stringer passes at a speed of 6"/min. 5. of weld Another condition can be observed by using conditions (a) and (b) ofFigure?. This.ative. 8 Tronsverse shrinkoge vories directly wiih omount of weld deposit./A. helps to explainwhy sheet metal always presents more of a distortion problem.056' f longe width ond weld size.000 Joules/linear in. TWo butt joints were made.a.. However. cokt.t in ]ess distortion.rc.d A. 9 Worpoge vor 4ctu4/ A'. v = 85./46' . o* s. Figure ? (d). arludl y'.r Itunsra.ti. using a Eultiplepass groove weld. TR. In the weld on sheet metal. This slight difference is also evident in a comparison of the quantity of welding heat applied to the plate. of weld For (c). procedure (a). (25 v) (170 amo)(60) . The same welding current (1?0 amps) was used in both joints.f mi" r. A further reduction can also be aehieved bv using larger electrodes.6.EL60 = '. ugo (35 v) (310 amD)(601 8rrlmin = 81.hq) cqstant ptata Nckpss{"!' Fig. g passes at a speed of 3".tuLl A.t1a' b' e. qnd inverse ly with plote thickness./min. The transverse shrinkage can be reduced by using fewer passes.ong with the weld...a./.lculdtad A . 6".aJ.05' @lculdt.td (squca k.cqsv. this hetps t6 explain why in general faster welding speeds resul. The faster welding of (b).. t/ s b!4.riqet t.a/.se cdtracttbn  .03/' z' a. procedure (b).ANSVERSE SHRINKAGE Transverse shrinkage becomes an important factor where the net effect of individual weld shrinkage can be cumul.54 / Joint Design & Produc?ion width of this isotherm of 3O0oF can be used to indicate..035' .. .06d 4.the amount of adjacent metal shrinkage al.utatad A '. combined with the fact that the thin sheet met'al is less rigid tban the thick plate (its rigidity varies as its thiclaress cubed).. and the net result is an overall cumulative shrinkase effect greater than that for (a).o9' .tjdl.a/culatad . and therefore distoftion. it is noticed that a greater portion of the adjacent base metal is affected as cornpared to the weld itself./min.olat. For (a). produces a narrower isotherm.
using the fo rm u lo g iven. = total crosssectional area withinthe fusion Iine.r0 where: = . J33 ka f*'1.cal calculation of aistortion. 4. _ ln some instances when equal welds are position_ ed sjrmmetrically around neutral axis ofamember.5 _5 by its moment of inertia. I = moment of inertia of the member. The amount of distortion isdirectlvcon_ trolled by the magnitude of rhe shrinkage a"s indicateJ 6"it = o. It is believed some plastie flow or upset occurs in the compressive areanextto the weld area after the first weld is made. a certain amount of distortion still occurs even though the magnitudes ofthe shrinkage moDents are equal and opposite.oo5 A iL'. . In the lower chart transverse shrinkage. of all welds. The relative effects of single and double Vjoints are seen in the upper chart. FiAure E. the crosssection of the fused parr of the joint is considered rather than simply the area of the weld rn plt I . A:'u A.loa" @t. L = length of the member.. 'liip ..ot. width of weld . in.q/eld area. Z... BENDING OF LONGITUDINAT 'IAE'\ABERs Distortion _or bending of longitudinal members resulrs lrom development of a shrinkage force ap_ plied at some distance from the neutral axis of the welded as indicated. for a given plate thickness.he two values verifies the formula used.. l0 Actuol meosured distorlion corresponds well wirh co lcu lo ted distortion. The large included angles only hetp to iI_ lustrate this relationship arrd do noi represent common practice. t. . ANGUTAR _ DISTORTION The formula O for calculating warpage is3 0. Measurement of actual distortion verifies the formula for theoreti.v three exceed the American Welding Society allow"able (1% of the width of the flang!).aoi+dt Fig.a A. this condition can be coffected. Calculations show that transverse shrinkage is about lOqo of the average width of the crosssection ofthe.utat.. member. from the first weld. The close agreemenl between A . is seen to vary directly with the crosssectional area ofthe weld." 6.tuo/ z. Onl./ot I. A = resulting yertical. ai iuus_ trated in the grooveweld sequence. in. Where the submergedarc process is involved. ""..Distortion Control / transverse shrinkage. d = distance between the center of gravitv of the weld group and the neutral alis oitn. in. assuming welding the full length.AZi" aLllalad A. Figlre 9 gives both the actual and calculated warpage for each of eight different flanges. : cat.!l4t. =. Where multiplepass welding is in_ volved. in. is not quite offset by the second weld on the opposite side. Because of this upset. It should be noted that these were overwelded. A and the member's resistance to bending member.*' 4. in.10 X aver. Both charts assume Do unusual restraint of the plates against transverse movement.4.d ""*.02 W ot 12 A. Assuming no unusual initial stresses. the initial distortion. Figure 10. .5. the follow_ ing formula indicates the amount of distortion or bending that will result from any longitudinal welding on a given rnember. movement.la^^ciiad 6. fillet . .
weld sizes rnoy be voried to help bolonce forces. the welds are not slznmetrical. The equal moment arms in this situation should result in no sweep of the beam. which illustrates a masonry plate welded to the bottom flange of a rolled beam. on the top side. Similorly. in this shape and depositing the second weld. I lY they are both in the flat position). should bring this plate back into flat alignment. Notice (a) the heating of the top side ofthe member by the first weld initially causes some expansion and bowing upward. In most cases this sequence is based on the type of fixture used and the method of moving the girderfrom one welding position to another (Fig. deposited on the opposite side. On the rigbt. Many long slender members are made by welding together two lightgage formed sections. The sequence for automatic welding to produce the four fillets on a fabricated plate girder canbe varied without major effect on distortion. Waiting until the first weld has cooled before making the second weld olr the opposlte side. See Figure 11. Pass 2. Figure 12. sections welded up from two chonnels. the girder is usually positioned at an angle between 30" and 45. The two we lds ore then ollowed to cool simultoneously.ihoi/y aftar aldiog 6ti ll bouad up.ands rarlr il.slightl! \r'/ eftar . 13). The net result will usually pull the plate slightly beyond the flat position and Pass 4. usual]y results in some final bowing since the second weld may not quite puli the member back. On the left. per canta. and aIIows both welds to be made attbe same time (since du. increases the shrinking effect of the second weld deposit and the member is usually straight after cooling to room temperalure. disiortion con be minimized by welding first ihe ioint neorest the neuirql qxis ond then the loini fqrthesi from the neufrql oxis.56 / Joint Design & Production Here Pass 1 is on the top side.6.oaaraction ol top tz To ovoid bowing of long.ghrry bt€d up duc to . . Weld (b) follows since it has a greater moment arm. In both cases the weids wiLl produce some camber but this is usually desirable. thin box 'tg. the wider masonry plate extends slightly on the left. Frequently this problem is of no major importance since the sections to be welded are large enough in respect to the size of the weld to prevent the occurrence of this upsetting. advantage may be taken ofthis difference indistortion by Iirst completing the joint nearest the neutral axis (it has the shorter moment arm) and then welding the joint on the side farthest from the neutral a\is (taking advantage of its greater moment arm). I I Where welds ore noi bo lqnced obout the neutrql qxis of the section. ihe firsi weld is protected ogoinst cooling until ihe second we ld is comp leted. ol gravit! largar amount of xald natd oh lcgar Fig. on large sections the second weld on the opposite side is just as effective as the first weld. Turning the member over quickly while it is still. As a result.oolad .chtzf botts uP . When a single automatic welder is used. does not quite pull the plates back into flat aligrEent. therefore Pass 3 is added to the same side. In cases where the welds are not symmetrically balanced about the neutral axis of the section.it g *elding. top expands . so weld (a) was made first..
f6. .!di6 nh ndm.. siiF6 a. pnaA af. i\\\ ffi ard. steel wedges whereas. OF PLATES Various methods have been used for pulling ptate edges into_alignment and maintainingthis alignment during welding.r....dins easier_ and siightly faster.S " ry. o. r+! rbS a. Drtrrd rm S!k.& o. piht ur{o x.ru. Driving a steel wedg€ between each clrp and the second plate brings both edges into common welded members. (e) sweep of girders: (f) deviation from flatness of girder web.c d u. It also permits bette. . peening.d!ur.h. tn aLAnhant this lhi. Welding rhe clips on one side 9.*B}.rS m. (d) devittion oI camber oI girders.ldl?.5M L_U } quence for fobricqtion when girder is sup_ ported by inclined fixture (top) or trunnion_ type fixrure (bortom). o lanrrh !tun ro oeP}h o. d cdi rd ! cu4n 8.r Permissible AWS tolerances for most welded members are il. they con loter be knocked off with o hommer.rn Ifl I 4< *da. l4 AWS permissoble toleronces for only.a . : llr t..r H..>' Fig.ning of Jotnt os .c . Fig.d!oh srri.. lf clips ore we lded on one side only. lnrS posrtion is desirable since it makes wel.. rS n_ '&a= so$ te. I ) lI '6' ..'.^. in._ backs with bolts previously welded to the plate. ment of weld chp along o1a edae a.& . (b) camber or sweep of columns.ange.f this figure.. tends to expand it. pressu.i. and atright.^c\s "i"illl lr//i tlili 0.r o. " alignm€nt. ofrr2.6. if properly applied.h4 t5 a.rrrr mr s :t" r.r Cci. 15) calls for welding small clips to the ed'ge or.0istortion Conlrol / 6.tion of larger welds when necessary.eame rcot op.p unti/ ._ hr'dd. PROPER ALIGNMENT mplifi es removal.lustrated in Figure14: (a) deviation between centerline of web and centerline of flange.a.rti!. control _of bead shape and the produ.5 _7 r'r4r Driotrd 6n.lhis expansion occurs only near the surface.d Gtd. c .d lsMNo' urrbi:i. a.itting the welds to be deposited in the flat position. pressure is applied by righrening ihe stron. In the top part of Figure ./y so it mav oe removad aasitv Ntth. till.6nd. tion.r'd or {.r.rd. d. si Fig.iBt.v'd's F4 srr<lri.. l3 Proper welding position ond se rr'. 16.a hammqr. {". l5 Smoll clip ongtesond wedges con be used to economicolly mointoin o I i g np lqtes during welding.is tr. c.*" '. DrNe a dza/ nedgz Oirot ct..khass b. warpage of U.** a{. However. tiliof flange. PEENING AND FLA'IAE SHRINKING Peening is used occasionally to control distor_ Since the weld area contracts.dgeso... (c) at left. 8. one ptate.'r'i. The most widely used teChnique (Fig.re is applied by in the bottom part.'::".
If the welding is not symmetrical. br n. Making welds of the same size at the same distance on the opposite side of the neutra] &\is of the member. ihe plotes being pulled up by Fig. through localized heating with a torch. Unfortunately. J.ans or ba. strot gbdck meqnsof yoke ond wedge combinotion. this area of the metal expands abnormally through its thickness and upon cooling tends to become shofier in all directions. Is equal to about 1070 of the average width of the weld area. The section so treated will become shorter and stressed in tension with each successive application of heat. Bending of lonF members by longitudinal welds can be partiallv controlled by: 1. Increases with the root cluded angle. distortion varies approximately inversely with the square of the flange thickness. SU'IA'\AARY AND CHECK Transverse distortion LIST 1.tdad is th. c. Use of the smallest leg size for filletweids.thts pr&ssur. For welds of different sizesif at different distances from the neutral axis of the membermaking the welds that are farther away smaller. IO.5g / Joint Design & Produciion fldla {or<zd into olignm. An additional disadvantage of peening is that it workhardens tbe surface of the metal and uses up some of the available ductility. Use of a double bevel.lnt. 2. For this reason. As a result. b.! ba cpplid by o1aaa. haaviar ptLtls. this result is achieved by: a. 4. 3. and for the opposite effect. Beveling the web ofa Tjoint. Flame shrinking or flame straightening is another method of correcting distortion. Is directly proportional to the welding heat input per inch. V. b. by supporting the member at the ends and letting the middie sag. *y'gc o 16 q1gs plores con be ligned ogoinst sirongbocks. 4.t lv lo tha platc . of bolts tcmpora. bo lts ore welded to the plotes ond run through the strongbocks to fqcilitq te o lignment. since the distortion varies approximately with the 1. Supporting the member in the middle and letting the ends sag. Balancing welds about the neutral.co a. 2. Breaking the member into subassemblies so that each part is welded about its own neutral axis.n pu//ad trgit/y agatnst thb p/ata.td tf. h. The heat causes the metal in this area to expand.. 't.Rs.7he pBssu. Angular distortion can be reduced bv: 1. or U for butt joints. Prebending the member. opening and the in 5. na. 3. axis ofthe member. Upsetting or expansion of the weld metal by peening is most effective at higher temperatures where the yield strength of the metal is rather low. this will reduce The bending of a member by welding and its straightening by flame shrlnking is analogous to the case of a stool which will tilt to one side when the legs on one side are shortened but will again become erect when the opposite legs are also shortened the same amol. 'ttug driveo in bottr. and this expansion is restrained in all directions by the surrounding cooler metal. a. Joules per inch. Fo. 2. the moment arm of the weld and reducethe angular movement. Use of thicker flanges. bajng appliad t! t ans ol a. 5. Jokc and tha strcng ba<k. Deflection is directly proportional to the shrinkage moment of the welds (weld area times its distance from the neutral axis oI the member) and inversely proportional to the moment of inertia of .6. peening does not accomplish the desired results. Depends on restraint. most of the distortion occurs later at the lower temperatures after the yield strength has been restored to its higher value. or.n! and h. Increases with the weld area for the same plate thickness. Alternating welds from side to side. that is.or.3 power of the leg size of such a weld.
weld two srm ar members back to back and keep fastened Welded steel construction of ore bridge roil clomps reduced cosi w hi le increosing strength over previous cost steel design. so Lhat the welding of each section is bal_ anced about its own neutral axis. Assemblv procedures that help control distoftion: / 6. Weld the more flexibte sections together first. U stresstelieving is required. Arrange the erection. fitting. Although a highmomenrofinertia for ttre member is desired Lo resis! bending.dins welding. in each before finai assembly and weldlng togethe.e. 5. 12. 6. to offset expected con_ 8.re final assembly. 3.11 werolng. Make allowances for contraction when a joint is assembled.roBefo)ewith DacK back some prebending. Smooth opero iion of clomp demonds good olignment. Use strongbacks. so that they can be easily straightenea Bei. 9. clamp two similar . and weldins sequence so that parts will have freedom to move ii one or more directions as long as possibl. obtoined in monufqcture by use of iigs ond proper welding sequence. [or[ron.5 _9 until after stress relief. . once it. 7. it also makes the member more d. 4. has become distorted. Flame shrinking may be appl..l 11.Distortion Conrrol the member.ied to the tonger side ifweldinghas Ueit ttre memoer.ifficuJt to straighten. Use jigs and fixtures to maintain proper _ up and tlignmenr during welding fit . Preset the joint traction. members . U possible break the member jnto prooer sections. Clop the member in position and hold during 2. Prebend the member to offset expected dis_ Use subassemblies and complete the wel. 10.
high production techniquesore opplicoble even on Iorge press fromes like these..' . ' . tfAr .65lO / Joint Design & Production f^{ .{ g> 1. Welldesigned fromes hove high rigidity.t _1. . permitting closer fits on slides ond better confrol of both die life ond stomping quolity.${.'With modernwelding positioners. Welded steel con5truciion meons better press oerformonceot lowercost.
l.ll:."rl". Shear diagram above reference line is (+) Shear diagram below reference line is () hrn* 1g1 wFlElt Reaction to ieft of (+ ) shear is upward (+ ) D)\ nl Rl {n Reaction to left of () shear is downward () Reaction to right of (+ ) shear is downward () (+ ) Reaction to right of () shear is upward _x fn Moment above reference iine is (+ ) Compressive bending stresses on top fibers also tends to open up a corner connection Moment diagram on same side as compressive stress Moment below reference line is (l Compressive bending stresses on bottom fibers also tends to close up a corner connection Angle of slope. d clockwise rotation ().On. As indicated.Relerence SECTON 7.J.1 Beom Diogroms ond Formulqs "."Jn.1 . For some conditions.llowing are suggested: The Ptgp"" signs. the .* beam diasrams and formulas have been found useful in the desisn of (+ ) and . are not necessariry indicated in the formulas. counterclockwise rotation (+. positive negative (). .next page is a vjsual. these are keved bv number to the type of beam and bycapital letter to the'type of load. fo. These are keyed to the basic beam diagram and are the effect of an impositioned as close as practical to the diagram. influence curves are included to illustrate portant variable. index to the various beam diagrams and formulas. .
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^ :lll' I E s < r a. (! l* F} i iE .l c') .\\\\\\\ Fif Fl I . ilx : rl.o H 1l .d !l i= o. r9 tl ol qt z xJ 0. r.lt !l _ te .i Ee>:. lH ^li .rl:l F. r!! _  .o *16 lH 6fj *16 + tl IH It ..r .l 5 .1 dxd')< Ftrqtr :Pf:9 VV FI iF:F .F !t 6: dY dl tl :tl t=xl 6E d.3 a'(! .l  lcrj Al.1 : tl rlt! .t.ol ' ol ..tJ tlG 4lH p16 *rc il= o.8 ^.Beom Formulos / Z.. .YP9 iEE 11.F .l= rl^ al$ jlr'l ^lg lr 6lN F] > l ' rr x ll i rr> . E? l > lH d o.]llrl . J.llt "ll. lt %l :lI loi R.Ei 6 VV x cl dc ' .l ll t:\ to I llI I d tl Fr j: 6tF .t. '. i y  1.  :t tt *p .
UB F F 6. !o Ol :.r t B .O I t 5 tl > >>> ^dp: 9VV ii /\v ll c . x\/c.o x >AFr 1lllll l6l tr: j Ilrn f o. s s F 5: l. rr X "l rl . H H H FI /i\ t<l \9/ *ltFtl F= .sF r fl tl I ?1" 1l tl o.7 .r XV ::x e4 :..rz H*EI pl > B / i Ot xl Ol rl^ lt al tl a.A c.lt 3 i irE i F.\  .EI .o li or llN + d rl^ + :d r I + "l B I 3 t E .9 3 x x\/ (.) : :.: v /\v : Fe : i bl ! 5: s s.1 1. v n. + tlN 3  <. I g icr I I 9 x II tl d II .cD(x\/ sl I I f.1 .5 €E x9 6C fr I 1 tt Jr.. Ei 6= t i A :i r r .{>E> tt 3l rl j II . tl tl rJ o l] r tttllrl t A'T E.l Crl 'l F.16 / R elerence Design tormulqs + f I :. F=. sl.. . 4 1+ 3 r: 1>r tl Fl 6 ri I l\ I r: 1 ^l tH  ? d I j 't 5 i... lrd ttc\ tl * .> #l' + 6 6+ + .l + I o.
s E<j &>i:: ll rl... o lH \llH d >lrrl rla: >19 Bl9 lo El* rli coll I xlH t@ rolco Ir t6  + : llllllr' !. $ I ^ dl xlN + FI FJ I >Eoi> II = E F l I 3o IsJ >lrl >t A  Eg Jo.l_Z b! B : =lr o.. .t* l*' Fr tE1 J t.iie€ . r.tl 3 . 3<=4. I 31c..la 3lN l.d.1* . t d9 c.:co> pl 3l lc. *i .l lcr 3 llJll. := :: aF.? =lr #l€' T "l= * t. tr 7* ^x*6 : l \ry /A\ I ..I^ I F.1 I rr 'l. ilF. .i: i I" ll(: '' jll.13 llG 'lX EiEl$ rl .tH Fllr._.'\ N ld 5x I .N H. v .Becm Formulos / Z.rl .l^ S $ 3l.' .lH  :'.. dY x! 3l i d.. rll l I I .lc..r  > " Il Ilr c\ lrrJ .al> .cF.\ Fl^ .r6tH x llFl "t I s< 6l 611 x3x3 Ed.11 PLi Jr I Nx ll 6x + x .
ll : .. . c(X} x "x I c ll:l Fl I tE al r":trllet . "lc <x 5ll >e z € I  a .: :9) F!: d li a8 <a al trf€ if oo El.= I le l<O Eil 6 tr >'.7..18 / Relerence Design Formulos vio <E :b rr s :+"." elH .r id q al> HIE .tr. .lrt] lr.l lt ll rr cl:>44.sr4 .* Elco ^l d6l N Ei E E C) 9.ol3 I a. Il: alP tcn :lo' f lG ro t. [ gF I EFo : bo r: '.i a = a'i F" 0.
l_9 .55 .65 . @ Influence Lines Effect of location of middle support (2) upon reactions (R) and moments (M) left spon .50 .45 .60 . .70 Position {o) .75 of middle supporr R.Eeom Formulqs / 7.
11O / Reference Design Formulos I I g '< lr 1'\ . c+i a= =6) LVf 3 Q o) <E 5 < 6c c0a t\ I T /.d 'rlEl * 1.Dl 6^ I tl 'l( + I tca F rFl a e l^.\ \9/ I rj Fc l t: \l . tl' Elr.l lmr >l B 3 d6 paz F .l lH .r >l: t= tl F..tr tr Y q *l* ll r ilo " t_ trlBi Frl li l* It ll lr lc6 x _ t_. _l^.i 'r ll' I o.7.:Fl I: 6l ox 5>\ t A =< I lcD E< a 6t F. xlFl .lco it( =< 1l\ E>E< x ^ n 3.
l FiiiSr " v*liV.: !0 6: F oq sT: ii o.t:  br E' IE . il.lii tl t/ gs +N L .ls !. j j < €€ < d : 5Y E it* "l?t i r .x q) E \ I t{ Er t<l t ? + 3 r* >l _? rl.€ V Fl e .rln 9t .a9 orE *E x0) iGi 1t\ Eel xtl ol   €i. rlr r1e ".. :E€ F JE ct .t ' tl= jFl 'B t!r  '' =3t =l lvEl .x /?\ (<l \9/ r_____Et______ { _k_ l tEl IF1 tEa E \EI E cr .:.l.1 E <ol x oFr >l x +i : rr l"l >33 n 1 "l .ci cFrl genQEg .lp olr . Ei '' ..i b! _'tF t.3 .l_ll g E l + > at t tt tt 6rr trEj> ErF 99: E:E xxf * El* ol.4 T l= i I "l.t ol F Jl }li Ilx 6ti a:a nI nv" 6d€ ' .Eeom Formulos / Z.E).lE.. I IIH d rE:lc .) E. tq E. r!a g t' t^l t :g _*1I ol : F={  E .6 E *g T:.AE' a .6 >E: .'. *l !l 3l.x . . sti rlE :ii^ ^. Hs "rl: sti d l> I o.i ir. l.H EI t* Fs* E! 9gr tl H H H EI t+ rrll €€ lFl Iro "r l(o I t. i3 €E i E. d>  /rl =t4r H sJ i llI t: <s E ! s.
003 . M1..l2 / Relerence Design formulos Influence Lines Effect of position of force (F) upon moments Mu.. M2 and upon A 62.3 .5 .7 Position (o) . .1 E 0:z .004 .4 .8 of opplied force F .6 .
' 1: = r'1  tv A E {'F EI 9l :l N 6.l: ..) 'EqF cE 6Ch Y. l{ o! Bi J:'l'i*.::\ o ii o I E++l o . .1 9 :ilil r Fi ... ..:rr i' ' = x.l^ .o cl_l > 'r o.1  .E I E >t >r it* ll ::> 6 : 9 +16! o <l :l = llJ et 9 . sl lj rl. +2 I I I !5.l! i...i_/ Fl 16.o.:l 'lR el ^lr + ! E .___ .tc.r .t _13 "I"l a I II + . atr d! t ol *tj 1> E __rl F r FPI :t . :I ?8 I 'aa@ !r9.I . <il I al lr.Beom Formulos / 7 .'1 l"r  >E .U' EC: 6. lF.a >l .ol +'+o.E_____ tr I tr R t! t*l _1E.o o(E l" d<5 E€ lt] :l 3F: 'tl kl 'l l i k1 I i: ++ >l >l ./ : ' H l l_. ll J y x pf €*>' qq >r.r 1l ll! X r .r ilv .l lor ':lco sl j Lo x t '6 e d .. 5l . ..Y sl I Ft E= ol 9l I H lll d tr H l H I l I J_l h NEI It IA tv I ( <) :i \9. _=i l: li S +l I 9El + a t3 ^... +!l^ ll^ _' dl *l Jt :l.l t5' I'A + =F PI EI ll3 >l €l z.l xli: rr>:> llfl ' 'l.r .t .E nl €l I I i<..
j >d "l or Fl r!l_ 6l..] lt& It ln: .l) at rol al >lJ L t+l " 2 ..l .l rl< +cr ) I a:z .. tl tr< :^c ti i = _. { .t I I .".g 3 t'l oto tr c E r *b !..n X:..l oE itt. =ltl ^ il  "t I v_totol + or 'r i N' " l. t . lfl V 9 . .€ < € lrc lQ IN lro a '1 tl j ti t:l  :l + > d d+ 6 vns v )r x \/ x lr 1' I €5: i d 6x 6 ns x \/ 6+ iE 6 x IT ti F ..7.o I rliilii ': I > =li ilR >lr >lH s El r=l rrEr q t:: lt* e il: :.o 6lJ o": t +.F I r .o + ..o l : xl F I'J I clJ + I >l1 zl .l :. .n n 9 cs = i i '. .6 . z T I {= !t €t t< IA ll 'r \< ll 6r I a I .* (i tl I lo t . + + .5€ I I I + '.:: z v>n tl > .l14 / Reference Design Formulos ^l tI I .\ .l I t.
3 +.5 . \ \1 lnverteo +.8 Influence Lines Effect of position of moment (Mo) upon M1.Beom Formulos / l.0 Position (oJ of rnoment M" .6 . M2.7 1.  ii.l .l_ls @ +t.2 ..8 r .0 +.4 .9 +.a >\./ .6 . M+ and M_ .
o lE s cl c{ .d E I E _9.ovc! oxx3g9::9 +++ 6HEqqqq ltllllll sanlo^ .I o o o. c 9.9.7.9 ..\ =t E PI .: .4 E : E o E = o E E ! ll . .d * .116 / Relerence Design Formutos al :l i .t z d / i.
dtr 6d /=\ (i) \:v . 6(n .117 *dd .Eeom Formulqs / 7.! o.
t o6. e > Fl : xlkl tlco l!' .) g 6 .'lE ll ll ll "rl B i r. q: dd3 E .lE >l?' le *Ill s ll il* ' ll lt r:! \:" + rl(o ll 5 5 .l9l 9l EI I tl + 6 d+ dE nFl o* '9 n.r co x I : _'r i ol.7l18 / Relerence Design Formulos {\ to rf J c\E:. r d.t< za a ji ll 3a x 7J e Fre t4 c.l6'l H ll ll ll + I F > > B16 & oo x.4 '.l.: { r.1lr)C Ft(p i tl E d d ri ll i.iJ.l.J_ l=l tr E a A Htr t/ 9l vEl I El fi= f IE r 6\ \/ {: F .E n'r x iix fix >E 3 '1rrFrl o rc{ ' + x Frl Bl ll EE f : F: l_' d x 6x .Yi lFl x I :1.l rl I E: d> > tlN t IH ?> xl? Its1 rt6!  (0 Itl J.. d1 .  I ll . c\ + t i'16 ll ll i 3 p ! .oi 6. eg 6# 0) T 1 :Ptr9l 9I r 4iF 66 Etr d..tS .lHl lrr 6..1: cn ? . ee :li jl$ i Ejli :."?" r .. IF I ____E.
t t . lEr ..r ix I '& d I Lc. I : \ L_ I I Yo  r a..dxx(D 6F \/ 6.t tr1? dr< iB q 'FF_ I EF : lpl lNl  +l. 698 .* t@ ::l'cl ror \ lr_r lF . lcl tl __r t^. Ittl 6l .6F b! ^ : iBF€ .: ll .6 tlt ss: + ll ll ll tt it = j: .i.6 <catr: : pl e9 E l.ilJ >li= la . .l_19 6t _ +x .i ol x. lA ' + d r t.Beom formulos / l.! rr c(te.l(D Brl *lo lo oil I It :od.:.c E tt ^ l'D .a\ {<l v/ .:": : J i. a..ij 3 +l sJ blr *lr "l .< xJ .=> . :l xf E{ v E.:t dd!j I lt E ll 16l fl I dt o c\l t6t l+l I c'. :': :ls:t .b. dJ '.lr.H^ . :l: > F. o.at r{ l(l) Ea E: '64 6 u 3 v 0 h cgi i d 6e :q 8! I te o t d . l> 'r dln ! Y . Gl (! lcr .ol . i 9a lt .> . IEI ..:l: llH ile * rI tl E9 ./ 66 /':\ . !o .lt :!"i!ia < 3<ll 9x *b. x 2 + rg . ri 3 EE d..<l \9.
l a . ?^ N.te'd.g di :o .l F(ol ':'TFl F1 ..:.q Nl xdr. .t'r *tN lco 3l =.l llll j> z . ) {61 /G'\ \.l "t oo rl^ it Ico z j 6> :> X t j  5 F= .:9 . jc h< Bb .F de : 6l FI c. _ 1 '.<t qri.8F !lI:r^'lx:lX'lx ll > ll ll drl tJl=} Nc. L r_ )i d.:r 3..ol .+ t. rl d ll e..12O / Relerence Design Formulos I t^ I I tl I I ts] F.7.:dddr.+ d1or_ir 6 xlrr rtH :lrr ^tH lr d lrr Ltx .) E><d o6 *$*e.r I ro rlN 3t . .j.a. I E> + J ltll  . .9 F.r./'EEll tr!rt: o9(Dy 9a9tgc 7:.ar .
r._ Elx d F E ir 0.r d ilg T ilG ri ..1. xl 51r<l Fl > E> il ilg =.1.1 6 S xl tj* 'kl:.r... {.: .il* il il il '/ 1rl..' ! !l..lI E lt rl l   : I .=l'.o' a Tl ll J lEIll l:t I I Fg {lE F"'T'EEI I llf  : j a El e H l= s\\Fl xlEr\:::j . 4t .. :t5l'q I c\l 3lor xlllt r..4 .^l ja (! tr t d .t.r I ? 1.Eeom Formulqs / 7.. x xo0 > l:r _ lN S .L.elor lt tl  c.r I + x > i tj 't.) .l * ll H <dd +>F_ rl I L ._tl____E_____I___x l'l* ..it6 +3+ 3 3 fi € r rll ==F  I > g vlH ^lH ':..t* jrr ._l t =E i\ >: 4_g I F A =lAr*  .t lca B 'n.g =l.l.CaE trbaE Bi €i . E ll 1 = cs.tF E1 l:r E+l I€I F J =51 IEIH EI lt Itl E<.J.1Zl +:: 1"1.E o (Do  rF io +r+*.:PXo! '' = > 3 1.r =l.l 'riiF a6: oJtrE e5 3&i IEH TI E H iI E ruE.lg '1 ? x + t 3 .
f. Ar and Arare the areas under the positive moment diagrams of the lst ar and arare the distanc€ of the centroids of the areas of the positive moment diagrams to the Ist and 3rd outer supports. all of the momenls may be found. =u Mr. Ir and Iz are the moments of inertia and 2nd span. and the negative rnoment due to the restraining end moments over the supports.t * \r. 6Er. The above moment diagram may be considered as made up of two parts: the For any two adjacent spans. Mz. and 3rd supports. 2nd. + EllI. the following relationship is true: . .122 / ) Reference Design Formulos \7 THEORY OF THREE MOMENTS Consider the following continuous beam: Moment dioarom positive moment due to the applied loads. where: Mr Lr Mz sE Lz\ /Lr r. Lr and Lu are the lengths of the lst and 2nd span.7. By writing this equation for each successive pair of spans. and Mr are the end moments at the lst. of the 1st and 2nd span. 6E M: Lz Ar ar Ataz +EI.
Eeom Formulos
/ 7:l23
The.momentdiagam for a simply supported, uniformly loaded beam is a parabola; and a concentrated load_produces a triangular mom"it aagr". The following shows the area and distan"" to til;;;?;il ;6;;;^.
w
uniform lood
ll
Area
f__]
L
I
concenlroted lood
_l
____}{
Area
A2/SML
Distance to centroid
A
=L/?ML
a=L/2
Distarce to centroid
a=m+L
3
7.124
/
Re{erence Design Formulos
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Reference sEcTroN 7.2
Circulor Flot Plotes
pLares.
dr
The^fotl0wing table of formulas is for stress and deflection of circular flat steel (poissonrs ratio = . g)
= tensile stress in radiai direction (psi) = tensile stress in tangential direction (psi)
t = thickness of plate (i.nches) r = outer radius of plate (inches)
rr = inner radius of plate (inches)
E = modulus of elasticity (for steel = W = total load on plate (pounds)
gO, O0O, OO0
psi)
p = uniform load on plate (psi) M = couple or moment applied to central portion
log. x
(inch_lbs)
log to the base (e) (Natural or Naperian logarithms):
= 2.9026logrox
A positive sign for the stress _indicates tension on the top surface and compression on the lower surface
Adapted from Roark !'Formulas
for Stress and Strain" , and Timoshenko "Theory of Plates and Shells,'.
7,22
/
P.elarence Design Formulos
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eb 'd! . >ttl Btt l"i B at fl .!i €E .7.24 / Reference Design Formulos . dEE 90/ <.1 LI <il B c I  3l.! : .: + + F rl:Fl + + F + I 11 c{   .l >_ "ll + I *_ \:__ t1 .. <ia i' Y. 9! i6 R:.:. Fl^ i.>lb =l: l6l rv lttl b'< z gss.I'ir! r .
703 3.88 I .26 .o Kr Kz rr Kr Kz I=l.44 .175 .81 3 l3 l4 t5 t6 .0r83 .23 . oi't 4.417 162 179 .0938 .501 . 320 .0023 t 2. inner edge 6xed and supported unuorm loao over area TABLE I VALUES OF K FOR MAXIMUM SIRESS AND DEFLECTION FORMULAS Kro12 KrW t2 t2 Type of disc 5 Am.00343 .04 .r =  Kzpt' Et3  KrWr'? Et3 Ty pe of load r Kr 199 .454 .o/ z .414 .087i .660 r35 .3r 4 . 7 i.664 r 250 .04 .19 .25.JVJ . 105 r84 .448 .0237 I .00077 .0062 .345 1 .l6 a af.001 29 I P P P P .r0 3. .o rr Kr 1.428 .437 I .0249 .480 Kr Kz .0139 UJlJ 1 t30 .51 9 .710 . "dq" fixed and supported unllonn load ovel area 6i \_/ Outer edge supported unltorm load over area n\ \:/ Outer edge supported.30 2.r3 5.724 .557 't Kz Kr .410 53 .217 .062 1 ''' 19'.00504 .172 .27 3 't.405 .].88 .0810 .730 2.^Kz 136 .t2 I .205 t.734 .238 .740 .17 1 .0242 . /fi \l Inner edge supported unllorm toad over alea 6n \_/ f1e.19 I .48 .80 P .090 .492 .336 .00510 . 194 .592 122 .259 .54 .69 2.824 .830 .293 1.30 lt t2 l.34 . v6 I .0064 .491 't .745 JJU l5 .00199 .480 . f=z.51 .234 .7 02 i.l0 .704 .031 3 z.99 z.Circulqr Flot Plotes / 7 .2r .7'to 2.02 Kr .338 .20s 2.220 1.291 .902 .0325 ll0 See rclated graphs on following pages .673 I .yed and supported unuorm load over area fi} \__/ Outer edge fixed.45 not I . I .22t 341 I l0 .564 . inner edge fixed Uniform load over area (f S) \/ Uuter edge fi.59 .
.KI cuRVES FOR VARTOUS PLATE_LOAD CONDtTtoNs d= Krp12 K'W t2f =  Bosed upon volues from Timoshenko.zr.7.26 / Reference Design FTGURE Formulos r . "Theory of Ploies ond Shells' t+''l /4r"' at  _i Rolio r.
K" CURVES Krprt Et3 FOR VARTOUS PLATELOAD CONDtTtONS ^ KrWr2 Et3 Bosed upon volues from Timoshenko.2_7 . 'Theory of I l .Circulqr Flot plotes FTGURE 2 / 7.
45kr  '1t' where k = (. k=#T.28 / Referance Design Formulos Outer edge supported Couple applied at hub Outer edge fixed and supported Couple applied at hub At hub (rr). TABLE 2  VALUES FOR STRESS AND ROTATION FORMULAS Max d = 3lA E t3 M"* (at hub) = I]A r t2 (at hub) SUPPoRTED EDGE o FIXED EDGq @ Reissner r ll Table from Roark "Formulas for Stress and Strai. Maxd.= 69M . t1 3M 2('45rrr)l = 4rrt12 lr * r. Max o.a tog .).7.n" . a AND F FOR StMpLtFED o.o*2(rrr) 40 trrrtz kr where At hub (rr).28 I r + r.
ol*llTlhnn". h  !'lL rrrrrrrrrrrrrn 'T'o Section DeCIIOn lra L TE"R 4E.ry (.". t( Iffiltilllililffiilrlffil]]lll]n Torsionol diogrom rl2 28"R.'."* Section a: Section b: T .R l I  .R T L L T"= Tr (b + c + d) + T. (c + d) +T3d r#L r. T"c .= 8E.* ^ tL2 Un.R ^ Lla. k_o____+F_ b*f. section c: . TL !_. i ilil]IIJllilfiittirrT]Trr.R eference sccTtoN 7.n/.) and dr=tu= '" 6E.c. Tr a + T! (a + b) Whena=b=c=L/3 T'''1. At support.R . = L O: TzcTra rO=JT'.) ft^ftft \YW .l"a I  Tu= Tra+Tu (c+d) +Tsd ^ T"a E. lar ra Whena=b=L/2 Tr(b+c)+Tzc a: T.R a:\. 1 Ar ..l". .r_Tub+T"a . ^tr>r>r"r>^^ z '. 4[ffi. Tad T  Tra  Tz(a + b) L  Tr (a + b + c) E..TTfrfTrfmffmrm I Td L T"= TraTz(a+b) +Tsd L ." _tt T= I I :L r.E.3 Torsion rz ql Members T=T .
007 .2 / Reference Design Formulos FIGURE I . .0020 .016 .0009 .BEAMS ON A HORIZONIAL CURVE.006 d"+=+ hr:2al .005 .012 .na .::::q::*7 thE On '.008 .018 .00t 7 .'fr.017 T. .0008 o o o.0018 p. F"o=#{i. .00r 2 .020 .0014 o .0015 .0006 .0004 .on.''.019 Side view .002 .0001 20 25 30 Angle (c).i"* .009 .00r 0 .00t 3 .l+.014 .001 .003 .4 .0003 .'.00r I F 'olo . degrees .0005 .0007 . UNDER UNIFORM LOAD (*) .01 1 .0002 .0016 .01 5 ['7 T.0019 .'"i = r2 .004 .013 w l" '^'Xt+ ti"7 Urw +zcoslzl _ r.
4 Frome Diogroms ond Formulos I I P t TI I I  _J +1+o/t .Re[erence SECTON 7.
(tt = ^ a JzaMo 3c(M.+M{)l '=6El r" * i' l aMr c(M.) Rr=PV Rr=V Ms = Va Mr=Rra=a(PV) f 2a .7. .42 / Referenca Design Forrnulos +o A +\ r_ fl  0 = zero It lbtl l 'I (Use actual signs of moments. +Mr) 2EI" 2EIl.  .)f + v.. TJ 3 I 3Mrbb@ (Mr  Mr) M" =(Mr M. '=tl.jbjl LL' r. Pl I.3b I . Ir.
6d Lr' I I Tl At bottom. M2 = :: 2 P... LIr I. Pb lIr r 3b At center._Pdl I" 2 I b .43 (Use proper signs for moments.Frqme Formulqs / 7.Mr .I .  3d I M. M" = T lBb . *"Pc(bc)ftl 2d rYrb ' = lvrc d F Pc(bc) b l3b. Mr=M"a Pb 4 d (Use proper sigas for moments.) At corners.2d LL .) Atcorners.Irl I M" At upper come$. .
'_____________ \ra" r Ma= aP1"Pd' 8 "rowJ. v.=(M" + sM") 48EI. At center. o. t'.ll]x.la. Mr=PdMt 2 T. = 2M" P lr Dellection of frame: (top half only) A b.) l @ c I T1 T I A l' I cl I I At center.la.ll . ^ = :__ (2 Mb + M") .44 / Relerence Design Formulos F_b_____i At top corners. zero) Mb = Mc  :: 4 ph Point of contnflexure: (M. frfTT P ifflit71'" rnlernol pressure At corners.r"tt (1"{" At center.v": z =lL " .M.7.*19 (blrIaIu(bIa + 3dI") + bI"Ia + 6dIrI") kbt I nlu l_l_^ I At bottom comers. (always positive) M. Point of contraflexure: Deflection of frame: a = 9.tl.' " (trI' = zerol [.r" .
+.EI o Vertical movement between a and b.12 r. A" = il i:. Timoshenko.rll Ert B \2 4'''/) tPlt.5 Thin Curved Bqrs t Deflection at b: eD3 2EI Ah tp.2T.R efere nc e SECTION 2.12(t2t+2rL+L2 tvl=x 2 nr +2L . See "Strength of Materials" Part U.3 =..+ r l=L. pp. 440442 I .3 / \l 6) r Pr2 lYro=tl I 2L  t2 \ Z \ZL+nrl M=M"_II(maxmoment) 2 (41 P.
52 / Rclorenca Design Formulos TIST ADDITIONAT DESIGN FORIIUTAS HERE FOR READY REFERENCE .7.
r''" 'Y+' '^\fi^' 1 ..045 ')\" I Pq F.866 I . '\/.000 + .707 .289 .100 . 182 r\ .4 V A )' . l.500 + . mornenl oxrol lension lM=KrPrl Number of Forces Tongentiol Tensile Force in Ring Volues of Kr Bending Moment (*) moment = tension in ring's ouier fiber YOIUeS Ol n2 .2/ / + .l\ V 3() 4 At opplicqtion of force r Holfwoy between forces Ai opp lico tion Ho lfwo y of force between forces 0 .500 .071 6() . lensrle stresses in inner fiber.6 Thin Circulor Rings UNDER CONCENTRATED FORC and bending moments (M) in the ES Forces (P) normal to the shell set up tangential tensile forces (T) ring of ie shell.207 1.Refe rence SECTON 2.089 _ . 188  .306 + .318  . .Y\. uo) .
a*$.r28 Adapted from of Materials.060 z6J t. Timoshenko . + px2  a) +" tu .i=*ta.39r .l = . M' = Y t.629 .927 .870 I .sa'z(b _ pa.*r. I' and Iy come from this quadrant s = length of quadrant of rilg s h=Jy..' part II.r where s.os o s ry = t x.049 .0 .'r] At ary point c..vJ/ 0 IJJ 148 .4?8 .Bpar Mb=apar M" o/b B 1. M" = M" * py! Thin Elliptical Rings .os If the then above ring has this shape: a =r t t .237  .7 Thin Rings UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE (p) rto.=f ftr.4 . 1 .576 3.Re[erence sEcTtoN 2.
l4l0 1.75 1.38 3.2975 1.40 2.31 3.0099 0.ll5l t.3481 r .38 0.32 0.05 0.68 3 69 r.81 1.54 2.f.41 0.6678 0.4762 0.4947 0.25 2.9858 0.9282 1.3083 r.73 1.61 2.41 1.03 r.8713 0.0000 0.r5 t.18 L 1569 3.21  .1823 0.19 2.2613 .20 'I .8020 0.8755 2.72 3.04 3.3788 3.2355 1.1655 0.8629 0.1086 .82 1.l3l4 3.21 2.2776 0.1740 0.3988 2.88 ?AE .7275 l.98 1.67 3.41  .2700 0.3716 1.34 3.1537 I .1988 0.31 2.0919 3.65 r .0543 1.Ol 2.9203 0.9670 3.0296 0.04 2.2698 1 .3l t.0852 1.46 0.5247 0.8879 0.29 3.56 1.lI I.8458 0.5188 0.94 1.67 1.7701 2.s539 0.0210 0.69 0.87 3.3436 0.9083 0.51 t.33 3.1725 1.74 .Ol 3.0392 0.2809 1 .2070 0.4574 0.44 3.37 1. 3.6981 0.l7 I .3148 0.26 1 .7467 2.& 1.3920 0.64 3.5710 0.8l r .16 3. 3.68 1.76 1.0508 1.0750 1.75 2.2837 3.58 r 0.4796 0.2151 1.6259 0.00 L"g 0.1 I I .43 0.70 0.7561 2.24 3.44 0.9243 0.78 1.50 I .u I 1.l0 l.71 I.0583 0.1442 1.7 6 l.3584 l.42 1.1848 1.95I7 3.20 2.9361 r. z5JO I .77 t.22 Itt 1 0.7031 2.l9 I .09 o.96 1.97 1.7747 2.6729 0.39 1.2390 0.74t9 2.1506 I .2469 1.98 100 r .7885 0.)) 0.03 2.02 0.3293 0.98 1.72 1.4637 0.47 3.10 r.73 l.26 2.86 1.6523 0.r053 I .43 3.6627 0.91 0.1398 0.3137 I .A7 1.6313 0.0488 0.9322 0.52 2.0438  .63 1.9002 1.24 2.2149 1.0818 1.3075 0.7930 0.6881 2.30 0. Log L0l 0.2927 0.9969 2.71 0.ta 2.3712 1.95 1.35 3.15 0.0152 2. I .27 2.41 3.1310 0.24 0.t216 .4700 0.5653 0.62 2.8544 0.62 1.14 3.64 2.2865 1 .0225 2.3558 1 .O9 .2726 1.M 0.76 1.0986  .6831 0.3376 I .8920 0.78 3.2326 1.42 3.0886 1.451 I 2.28 1 0.0578 1 1 r.6152 0.5988 0.8065 0.3686 3.8587 0.66 3.7514 2.21 3.8671 2.49 I .45 3.2669  .30 2.07 2.88 1.68 2.8154 0.8198 0.3403  .9r 23 2.02 3.0367 I .7324 2.10 0.46 r.11 0.0296 I .8109 .3507 r .08 0.39 r .36 3.2238 1.7178 0.1817 1.1694 1.3507 1.90 2.2624 l.88 l9 1.07 1.3646 1.3853 0.1663 t7 3.48 3.23 3.26 3.4121 0.0784 1.28 2.8242 0. Log No.3002 0.3221 0.0473 1.2030 3.60 2.35 I .9933 2.7227 0.17 0.3164 1.48 r.23r r 1)A 0.0682 1.64 1.4383 2.57 i .9042 0.3r r0 I .1378 I .4055 1.9439 0.5595 0.08 I 1.5766 0.32 3.9708 09746 0.2413 .6366 2.39 2.20 3.0260 2.23F4 t.71 0.40 r.l4 I.6t 1.66 1.80 0.29 2.5822 0.14 0.3271 1 1ta'7 1 .6419 1.36 1.84 3.28 3.89 l.72 1.70 t.2442 1.01'16 1.8329 2.1474 1.3455 I .1600 3.8961 t.60 1.79 1. 2.0403 I .2179 1.0332 3.02 r.57 2.31 0.1222 0.8246 0.80 2.80 3.47 2.74 '1.35n 1.5878 0.2528  .77 0.A6 0.90 0.0006 2.1 R Miscelloneous Tobles NAPERIAN (NATURAL) LOG TABLES No.1756 1.1044 No.30 3.6471 1.84 1.3661 I .0043 2.9632 0.05 3.5481 2.06 t3 .0080 2.2546 .4 2.l6 I.96 2. 3056 r .25 3.0953 0.93 2.7608 2.21 3.3784 1.7080 o 0 0.01 3.6043 0.7793 0.0716 1.1939 1.1632 1.77 3.0677 0.9783 0.06 1.46 3.OO Log No.8372 0.8838 0.5365 0.10r9 1.05 r.47 0.3533 I .69 t.1249 .8415 0.37 2.4253 0.9478 184 t.6206 0.06 3.4e24 0.6780 0.9163 0.91 2.7 4 3.4187 0.08 I Log No.43I I 0.94 I.12 0.12 3.63 2.54 Log No.3t9l 1.A4 2.1969 I .5128 0.7975 2.37 3.3218  .22 2.2090 I .45 0.1909 1.97 2.4886 0.2892  .5306 0.92 2.00 3. Jv 0.3838 .70 3.5423 0.44 2.5068 2. t8 t.t r 0.2296 'l o{1 1.A' 0.6098 2.09 .0198 0.J r .15 3.2267 1.65 2.2742 1 I.3737 1.1878 I .85 1.9A21 0.9594 0.l I l9 r.2060 1.0647 3.2585 I .3762 I .3214 1.3001 .3350 0.65 1.0862 0.efcrence sEcTloN 8.04 1.5933 0.92 0.t.9555 0. 1.43 0.13 0.1484 0.49 0.3324 1.7129 0.99 2.67 2.07 3.2641  .2947 1.23 2.3429 r .03 3.7655 2.Ol88 2.79 1.3365 0.3029 I .2208  .27 r .6931 0.2499 1.4447 0.5008 0.22 3.2231 .60 J. t2 l.32 .1346 3.78 t.3610 1.r3 l.1242 .1t33 0.27 3.7372 .16 0.8502 0.19 0.17A7 3.95 2.66 2.7839 0.83 1.2920  .1999 r .2754  .9400 0.2470 1. t570 0.94 2.13 0. 1906 0.19 1.9895 3.
6390 5.4422 4.21 5.5r r.02 r .30 I .78 4.7867 I .8469 1.9301 .64 1.27 1.8946 6.72 4.22 6.7'l 5.6S64 r .80 6.50 Log I .4586 t.9373 I.9021 r.7951 1.8326 1 .27 5.7716 1 .7t 6.8871 6.06 4. 1 1 Log No.22 1.46 5 r.6790 r.35 4.81 1.72 1.74 1.87 5.4656 1.8500 .28 5.02 4.71 4.61 4.82 6.79 1.95 4.7047 5.4446 4.70 4.83 5.4327 1.67 1.65 5. 6.4279 'l .6544 r .08 5.92 6.4110 I .8779 6.97 5.8961 6.8991 6.6827 I .04 4.8886 6.83 1.24 1.05 1.7475 1.94 4.07 6.30 1.7509 1.4907 1.t4 4.7527 1 .5369 1.76 5.12 / f.56 1.89  .84 1.5974 1.6014 r .8017 . 4.8856 6.8t8t 6.6553 I .4679 1 1 .9387 1.5769 4.04 5.85 6.7299 1.6448 1.6467 1.8421 I .76 l.00 6.9430 1.5581 5.62 1.7579 I.44 4.7967 1 6.63 5.62 .9272 1 1 6.701l 1 5.9199 I Ot11 .67  .5872 4.44 o.4303 1. 5.58r0 4.3938  .5497 5. l0 1.6771 5.7102 1.59 r.5195 4.43 6.42 5.68 4.8278  .5304 t.7029 6.41 6 .8213 6.94 6.07 4.4839 4.49 1.39 4.1I 4.26 1.51 1.88 5.98 4.5831 4.36 6.8840 6.8532 1 .6054 5.5239 4.8703 6.06 5.9359 .6974 r .5107 4.5851 4.5728 4.19 1.4398 4.09 1.52 1.78 1 .7352 '1.4159 I .7 647 .8405 4.93 4.4207 r .8390 r .03 4.67 4.29 6.53 1.20 6.7174 1.8.6154 .4085 I .6582 5.7492 6.45 6.22 5.9066 6.64 4.6332 .03 5 I .5326 1.7 664 I .63 1.8718 1.7440 1.69 1.8931 6.6808 1.81 1.53 I.495I .9242  .5282 1.7681 1 r .4493 4.8437 I .12 5.65 4. l8 4.4748  .6658 1.4563 4.00 4.882J 6.6351 5.97 6.5644 1.rI 6.12 l 8lt6 6.66 1.4884 1.6993 I .4929 I .7 561 1.7084  .48 4 .5790 4.8001 6.8733 4.8132 I.75 1.5994 1.4861 1 .8625 I .9286 r .16 l.5217 4.61 .7 .86 5.52 1.99 1.6734 1.96 6.6273 .7370 6.4816 5.8374 r .54 1.7457 6.6620 I .41 I .8810 6.05 I .8034 I .09 4.01 Log No.7766 1 .6312 I .42 1 .7246 6.8294 I .84 6.3962 I .94 5.93r5 1.8916 6.8687 I .26 5.74 4.4996 1.4770 1.9095 6.4793 'I 4.25 1.5347 1.8262  .3I 4.7918  .4974  .6639 r .26 6.09 1.6901 I .8165 4.7984 6.77 4.64 1 1 1 .02 6.33 4.88 .50 l.81 r 6.40 6.O4 .88 1.23 5.23 1.7800 1 6.8901 6.9445 .4725 1.38 1.49 .84 5.75 4.95 5.5665 L660r 1.4036 I .4183  .8749 6.3987 4.67t5 ' 5.90 4.8764 6.]l 1.82 1.5892 r 1.7783 r .63 4.4061 I .59t 3 I .5063 4.87 1.12 5.20 5.87 6.8976 6.6956 .46 6.21  .7192 1.5129 4.6525 I .5602 1.7210 5 5 5 1.69 4.5518 1.47 6.24 5.6233 I .59 1.9416 1.08 6.9155 6.8516 1.32 6.9051 6.6214 1.8656 1 .8197 6.14 t.05 5.58 1.55 1.9402 1.8641 r .6506 't.r8 5.5707 4.08 4.3863 No.56 1 .16 1.7387 1 6.45 5.70 1.72 5.7t 38 1 .5019 4.9169 I.57 1.5933 1.9257  .7 544  .37 4.37 6.8148 t.44 5.8610 I .6194 1 .6253 1.17 1.00 Log No.21 t.93 6.7596 .01 Log r .4255  .7817 1 .7317  .80 I.77 5.40r2 t.4540 4.95 6.83r 0 r4 l5 I .65 I .6134 5.03 6.4231 1.8342 .liscelloneous To bles NAPERIAN (NATURAL) LOG TABL ES No.8795 6.60 4.8547 6.91 1.62 4.89 5.61 1.45 4.5261 I 6094 .34 4.17 1.7156 1 .t9  .40 4. 6.5o4t 4.9036 t.98 6.5539 1.43 5. S6 I .36 4.29 1.7851  .7120 I .41 1. .07 5.43 4.5953 1.20 1.7 405 422 1.9t 6.3888 4.40 5.17 4.24 6.86 I.90 1.4134 4.S066 I . 13 1 . 1.68 t.58 1.90 5.8579 't.5173 4.85 1.79 1.99 6.435i 4.8245 't .8358 1 r .4516 4.9184 6.4702 .9006 6.47 4.6371 5.5476 1.5686 4.6845 .97 4.6677 1.7834 1 I . Log 5 No.60 1.5412 5.30 6.5390 l6 4.93 5.7334  .7884 r .46 4.8485 I .66 4.61 14 r .23 6.60 .9140 6.6034 I .7934  .4375 4.42 4.8229 6.6409 5.78 1.7066 I .18 I ./otJ r .7630 1 .48 .5l5t 4.34 6.6696 .3913 r .28 1.790 t .5560 1. 6.69t9 .t3 4.5085 4.6174 1.9344 I.77 1_9125 6.8083 6.8099 I.922A .5623 1.55 l.10 4.8453 1 1 I .5748 4.5454 1. 13 t .57 1.32 4.7228 .8050 1 I .6074 I .73 1.6292 1.15 I .99 t.49 I .89 1.8672  .5882 I .6938 I .48 6.96 4.7263 6.38 4.9081 6.9l l0 6.6457 t .82 5.54 1.19 1.6429 5.4609 I .10 5 .9330 1.7281 1.4469 4.7733 1 r.8594 1.73 4.4633 I .66 5.06 6.5433 1.6752 1.77 50 1.73 5.76 4.7699 .
74 t /J .54 2.1849 2.96 9.0857 8.9671 7.05 9.14 1.62 8.12A2 .38 10 8.97 2.61 8.1318 8.1883 2.54 2.97 9.98 9.22 2.2094 2.03 9.1576 8.2159 2.6 t 7. 7 7  .45 2.65 2.1587 8.U 7 7 7 7.1294 2.0782 8.9769  .01 Log No.0386 2.87 2.2649 9.2028 2.0001 2.95 2.92 2.42 2.0295 2.79 2.93 9.L lr\ isce llq neous Tobles / g.48 2.1872 2.9933 1 2.67 2.29 7 7.96 8.75 2.0347 2.64 7.91 .9892 .2586 9.89 2.9473 r .0399 2.2450 9.24 7 .1183 8.18 l5 9.0189 7.2300 2.45 2.2148 2.U 9.73 2.44 2.2105 2.0744 7 .66 2.985 r I .58 2.17 9.1838 8.53 2.9961 2.0096 2. Jo 2.1782 8.81 2.86 2. t552 2.0551 2.57 2.25 t3 9.m 771 7 7 7.2905 9.0109 2.1713 8. I Jo5 8.36 8.U 7.t6 9.0707 7 .35 .2732 2.06 9.9824 I .2170 2.88 2.0631 .0719 7 .05 2.91 8.72 7 .28 7 .44 4.2885 9.0516 2.1005 2.1961 9.14 8.1412 8.77 2.294b 2_2956 2.16 I.92 9.0681 qlo 9.1793 8.23 .49 2.62 9.04 9.9920 e1t 2.26 2.9601 I . 8.75 2.9974 I .06 r 8 2.1054 8.31 9.08 7 . 7.55 2.11 9.80 2.1529 2.99 2.00 2.12 1.74 9.1702 8.84 .1994 2.1377 8.51 2.2407 9.2824 9.20 9.OAO7 8.t2 8.2439 9.0055 7 .1138 8.0l 9 9 .78 2.0308 2.2061 2.297 6 2.0931 2.2214 2.25 1.0980 2.25 2.2986 2.00 7.72 2.2216 2.58 2.9796 1.86 2.1972 2.98 899 2.10 9.63 2.82 2.68 2.1668 8.1199 2. 9.1736 8.18 1.07 7 . L"g No.0176 7.90 9.0605 2.26 .02 2.19 1.1645 8.15 1.71 2.0992 2.0732 7 .69 2.0906 8.50 2.1448 8.78 7 7 2.04 2.2834 9.1622 8.1114 8.2460 9.88 .44 2.0943 2.2386 2.71 2.9502 1.76 9 '1'7 2.23 2.76 .97 2.0956 2.2017 2.2752 9.68 2.9530 1.13 9.77 7.1827 8.13 8.83 .00 Log No.25 9.0769 7 .24 2.1306 8.2875 9. Log 1.r/ tt .2534 9.85 2.06 2.2257 2.43 2.29 2.32 L9906 r .9643 7.081 9 8. t 041 8.t679 8.2814 7.87 2.61 7. l86l 8.0082 7 .2565 9.2006 2.05 7 .60 2.21 38 2.53 2.2116 2.40 7. 1t't1 9.2996 2.40 8.1a94 8.2181 2.0136 2.27 2.1I 8.9559 1 1 .4869 8.42 7 .17 1.9988 2.6t 2.69 2.2854 9.28 2.2793 9.53 2.09  .34 8.t6 8.0694 7 .1270 2.63 8.2607 9.9879 .0255 7. t 459 8.9516 r.56 2.1401 8.37 o.60 9.83 2.9865 1 1 1 .9459 No.2618 2.81 2.2203 2.2935 2.1211 2.00 8.2259 2.2354 2.51 2. t.1928 2.46 2.2343 2.70 2.1471 8.1917 2.26 9.06 7 .2844 9.70 7.64 9.73 2.19 a.1599 8.2t 2.93 2.43 2.16t0 8.1770 8.2083 2.0028 2.9544 I .t9 9.2418 9.1759 8.0360 2.01 7 7 7 Log r .69 7 7 2.0580 .79 2.80 .0069 7.94 I .08 2.4 .t725 8.2268 2.41 7.0894 8.A2 2.12 9.1235 2.47 z.36 1.9838 .2803 9.0321 2.54 2.0268 7.46 2.2895 9.30 8.2915 9.71 . t7 8.3016 2 3026 .2072 9.41 2.2680 9.2773 9.0844 8.0334 2.04 7 .10 2.9947 7. 1950 I .0281 .9685 7.10 7.1163 2.41 2.t424 8.99 r 0.40 2.9488 .3006 2.09 2.57 2.52 2. t126 8.2712 2.41 2.81 2.55 2.1017 2.51 2.& 7.60 7 2.0832 8.0477 2.0451 7.1102 8.14 2.56 2.90 2.9587 7.47 2.0122 7 49 .97t3 7.2701 9.03 .0643 2.37 .2865 9. t518 2.9615 2.59 2.0592 2.02 .1748 8.76 2.59 2.1494 8.9657 7.l_3 I NAPERIAN (NATURAL) LOG TABL E5 No.2502 9.1656 8.22 9.55 2.21 2.2555 9.89 2. 2.2690 9.80 2.0541 7 79 7 7 7 7 7 7 8.07 57 7.1029 8.03 2.1905 2.2428 9.27 7 .48 2.1I 1.02 .1506 8.0490 2.9810  .0162 7.0464 2. 9.96 2.0229 7.45 2.9699 7.00t 5 2.84 2.88 2.2576 9.27 9.65 2.1150 8.0968 2.0242 7.58 2.95 9.71 1.1247 2.0503 2.2322 I .07 9.t 187 2.0656 2.2235 2.85 2.07 2.83 2.27 t1 9.2544 9.6J .t090 s.13 1.09t 9 2.42 2.2396 '.84 2.2364 2.2492 9.O412 8.9629 7.1342 8.2481 9.1815 8.82 7.1066 4.2471 9.0528 2.57 2.0438 2.2050 2. t 330 8.50 2.89 .n 7 .0202 7. Lo9 No.9782  .43 2.0794 2. 1389 2.67 2.78 2.52 2. 15 8.94 2. t564 9.2670 9. 1436 8.56 2.86 .1175 7.1541 2.1633 8.2966 2.52 2.49 2.2597 9.1258 2.9727 7.70 9.0149 7.20 2.0882 I.0669 2.9573 .1804 8.94 9.2127 2.24 9.2628 9.2311 9.1078 8.0125 2.50 2.0373 2.2523 9.2192 2.66 2.1691 8.29 2.59 2.2039 2.08 9.18 8.0215 7.0041 7 7 70r 8.9741  .
.00tE! 0.7E: gal.r8t 0.l ?l l.610 L000 l.l]8] 0.a0t 0.t29 0.tl t. X 7.r' 2.011 0.0t..?66 l.12 12. wc!!hr.00087 0. wafts i.690! 0. K. (U. Pcr In.78 0..:264. m.00 12.19 2.f87 2.entigrade oegrces t.t8rt 0.o6 l. Joules X . '.6? 1.cID.9. fr.29 0. t2 t00r 1. ot.1I E t8t 0..24: gram.lb'. wacts X .16..233 : fr.0..l9tt 0. in.t8tt 0.0t1 7_7612 l.1t9 0.al 0.21? ?.: 3 or.lrtt 0.r Ft.062 t2.61 t8.4 : in.degr. sq.X. 0.99.t l. ln L.19 t.r66 t.?46 : H.i0 0.31t: cu.102.604 2.1 t6_69 6. hrn. ia. + 1.648t 0.t1t1 0.0897 1..t62t l.t I t6 0.00t.60E o.6727 l9 l.1127 . ft..r l 1289 1.16 1.2.rt 20.01 0. E.0t88 0.01 t. X 1.Xll.0t766 0.968 Calorie (kilogram..I I 1t.6664 .6t8 0.2.711 2t. slllf Il lz yr % i.9a 2.zt 6.t9 1..899 0.92 16.72 t.86t1 0.t02 0.6602 ?.10t 0.12 .otl 7. X f.0 11.t88 t.t86 o. Y.29t6 0.0t6 BARSwcigh!.019 l.01t2 0.00091 W.r9 2.001tt : sq.]7 t 0.t996 1.26tt o.26t 0. kilowat* (L.) X 1.00t! ROLTND 0. sq.28! 0.28t 1..61t6 0.06 8.0278 0_$l 0.91 0.397t t6.lrr7 0.782 0. Kg.6! 7.276 0.7373: ft.91 0.t2 t..66 0.rt l.7Eta 0.7212 Ll0?t t.10 6.008 t.10t t a_.ishr.2 0.tl 6..20t:lb.t t0E .00tt 0.19t 0.161 2..810 0. t6 t..28 t.l.572 3_980 .09r8 0.tt9E 0.t7 0.rtl t. per rq.21 1..) g_rams per sq..0E 9.) 1.1 : A.0616 0. !q.8. Ks.tt l9.989 0.00 1.rt lt f.16t 0.166 0.1771 0..3?in.X.a26 0.126 t.9.12t 0.29 t2.r8t 2.tal I 1.383: cu. w.698 t9.e7. (rvoir.0099t 0.71 .1906 1.t964 0.011 0.06t t2.007tt o.0t t.09?7 0. Lrtr.10 1. rb.1701 0.61 7.60? 0. X 3t.1771 1.11 0. 0.6. (U.calories gram. HIXAGON P. X 1.t7.t20 2.706 0.29 7.0?l 0.67 0.. cm. ft.3t: o!.2tr I 2.0ttt 0.0081' 0.. i.070E 0. 0.6011 lf tl I Il f.0 1.t06 0.t0 20.2t8l t.r I .I s0t 0.llt r.2642 . t 1.9t2 21.. oer sec. cu.2.] ! 0.918t t.111t 0.0r9l 0. cu. C. '{} 1.316 : cu.60 1.100 0.tt10 0.'r.076 0.r?8 3.2t2 : B.8068 9.zE Ll8J t.12 0.r216 0.1207 t.t 0.6696 0.E) + 32' AND AREAS OF CARBON STEEL BARS Weight per Lineqr Foot ond per Lineor Inch.14 8.19 : Jouler gravity (Paris) : 981 cm.S.262 0.) cu.!8tl 0.99t8 ll.r6 I 0.07 6. yd.X1.l0 t.171 .9.S.92 0.rt 0.  617 0. X .tt t t1.908t t.) !!S.8?89 2. X 24?.t l0 t.?64: sq.) Kg.t9 . X 3. X 31.degr.7 t l 1.7. 0.22 l. P.l7 0.683 20. 2 It 2.ltt1 0.t!t 18.01. mm.29 9. cm. 0.t068 0. t.1l 1.l5t : sq.34: H. cm.021? BARS BARS.!0 2t.n0t 0.l 6 0.7tE 3.18 8.6t tt... (avoir.8866 0.i st'.00E2t 0.l6 12.0rt t 0.012! 0.78 I0. in.1t0 6.101 0.?I t t r! l.89t 1.[ 0_0t] 0.06t t.02.x2.71 11. r.Eat 0.2t2 0. cm.0]6 8.0tt 0.17 9. X 14. Kg...00108t 0. g.233 : lb.29 lt.2766 0.3 : tons (20001b.1t21 1.47 t. a616 6.tr.3 t t1.71 I t.167..9ttt 0.861 22.01.lt !.9817 7. in..t266 1.1 : sq.1 1t.t007 0. cu.6911 8.t6 l.281: ft. cm. +.188 t.t08 t.t7 5.9t 1. C.2t 0.03937:irt..t.io rr.r9 1.68 .60! 0. rr 10.ll0l 4.2tt I 0.t76 0.64t.l 12 0.191 0.211 0...20 1.5.22 0.\ 2.21 0.012 0 0lt6 0.t!r 0.6210 o.llt 1t. t.t4: ir.gal.r2 0.0276 0.667 0.2 t 0. +.861 t. ar.81 E.t0i 0. X .n06 I 128 0ll1 1. 0.128 0. t8 1.179 L26t6 l.r.r09 .28.ttt 16..68t t.t}t7 6.00t 4.l.06 1. per sq.) 1..2!6t 2.r.016 2a. p€r sec(Dcgrees C.t8tt 7.ti'.tt 0.0{2t 0.094:yd.200 l 1.!i 0.rD.rl 0.9?61 . y""JH:j OCTAGON Pcr Fr. U.099 o.0?6t 0.. t0 11.80r8 0. in Pounds WEIG HTS Sir. 5q.18.t6 t.69?t 0.ttl 1.8rt 0.1' 1.l l.t5I : sq.14 / iliscelloneous T obles METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS KE.621 0.71t 0.1.t6 t1.0ta.t20 1.0tt9 2.calorier X 4.!t t.890 1.t12 8.t6 o.T. g.r 0.28.81t 0. 5q.86t ?.0tJ9 F":'tl:' y"'itq:' SOUARS ..t't72 .16 t.. 0.432gr.06 1a.tta 2 1. X .t. t9 4. .lb.60 0.!11 0.62l:rli o.E9 t.t 1 0.6. g. X 10.6t0 0.06It 0.Et2 6.t97t 0.r6t6 2.q.2 t.t0t t.2' t7.9t08  l.X98l:dyne!.6t l.11 r.6a0 9211 9.8! 0.89 z. t l0.279 lt. Calorie (hilogram.69  t.ztt I.09.013 0.89 19.3937: in.r 0.9'.?! 0.180t 0.l.86 t.r6tl 'tl '/. rotn.188 ].lo12 L108 l_ 1908 l.919 10.t I 0.r ln.816t 0.t98 19.t8tl 0.1l6t l.. Joules X.ll I t t2t n.t.9I I'.086? 00]l2 tt 0.0l. X 14. cr[.1I66 l.) X 3.tt9.1169 0.06 o.0?01 0.09{ 0.l8 0. in..1.!9tt 0. y":'t::. in.?61 0.t l2 l.t8a2 2.0.lb.2: gal. 6 ?.6ttt t.0t98 0.9t ! 0.6 0. X 39.2t.609 : mL E.102 ll1t 1.30E : cu.0.rl 0. i..0{'l 0. P.682 0_E67t 10. P.0016t 0. h.0t BAR5Wcr(h!.17 17.?8 179 lt.206? 0. X 3.t86 t.2.rt8 t.600 l.00t9 0.21 n.t7 t .ta0 0. (U. l.. 0.tr2t 0. Dm.7373 : ft.i?8 0.t 18.118t 4. 0.uzl: cu.22 : lb. Pet sq. in.7rt 1.010 0.
06 1.: 21.2t 6.?16 16 10.r1 2.1 98.l9 lr..?t !E.116 66..1t1 1.8 lt8.6]! t8.:.tt !.680 !1.t t7t.94r y..961 36.112 10.7t fi.80a t.t9 !.991 16.r.?l 50.68! t.991 lo.89t 1.tz 11.1i e.tr 97.rt !1.o_O .oz a.ji a.00 ao.e? ].6?1 1t.oa ?.7 201.17 94.29 9022 92. Ytil:' y.iF .lt tc.70 l.7!l ll. l?.t6t !0.04 26.2805 !.oi 19.271 HEXACON BARS 29.ar 41.a2.12 19.r4 6.6 177.r2 9.l tta.i'tI.t7 4t..Iliscellqneous WEIGHTS AND AREAS OF CARBON STEEL BARS To bles / g.lg!? 1.6 13 r.06 t.9 ?9. 2.19 a8.r8 !a.7 1t0.t2 t6.iT. 11.ii .t6 t.zt 61.t66 22. in pounds Round o.983 2t.1.9 loE.7 121.ij (J.rr 2.a21 t0t.6 169.6 l.r.06 9.06 ll.! t06.r0 29.766 10. l.7 112.r.E0 14.q1?? !.r9 i1_r2 18.6E 7.l ll.717 20.11! 6.r7 !9.2 111.E 197.1?8 r.tE ll.l lto.t 110.07 2!.rt tt.!9?8 l9.eo Jr.ot ar.q9 t.e8! t.9 t26.9t to.2t 7.988 6.6 t.1r tt.96E t7t1 1E.t6 )?7t t!.63] a9.lr8 1.l.166 r.re 2.0a 9.r .21j 1..o9 t7.tt E.zrt t.141 12.flE 7.631 1.608 1.126 2.3E 88.n lr.e0 ti.t8 !9.tQ r6.89E zl.00 1.16t 2t77 6.991 11.6t 29.a 261.lzt t88.t12 29.l.lt 6.ltl t.t9 6.8 Yg..9t a0.16 .I 16 l0.12t l0.to !irr tt.2r 6t..t 6!.29t 8.8 t61.7t 41.q..91 7.? t!6.t llo.6t? 6.oo t4.ti ao.l?! 4.908 lt. a1.t9 ll.oz a.8r0 2t. i.?6 !.ra t.1 27..119 !_6.92 tr!l t8.0.761 3.6 l2l8 125.1 16t.tt! 6.18 11..1.62 E1.lr 1t.OO i6.0 t]o.o.2t lt.ii t0.8 /OCTACON BARS.6t 4a21 t9.76 10.2' 1r.l5 Weight per Lineqr Foot ond per Lineor Inch.781 1.2 3.9a1 12.20 lr.EE 40.1.t91 2.ol r.49 .72.!o r0.t! l.6 l]2.7' !6.2 128.8 tat_t 1.? lt.t72 9.t.1t t2.8 ljt.9 !0?.t6 ta.2i1 lt.6a6 1.ta al.tt t1.62.!2ll ?..t.6! .1g 1.916 ll.4a Ja.{.6t ri.r # 'h tl th 1 tl ll tl !! t ll ti lt t V.r8 2o.t01 za.ao iZ.17Z r.7l .00 l!.90 l t. tt I tt.lE 3t.6.11 9t..jl tt.t la9.2t 8.t6 2.17 2.2E a?.17 SQUAREtt.812 2.ta 11.116 lr.27 t9.2 l2E.69E 19. 6.l8t tl.!6! l9.t69.lE] 9.6iz 3.669c ?.2E.10 .ter D.l 118.0.1Z 87.9a t6.9 tt7.1.1.. y":tl:.t9l 7.92 tz.01 2.718 2a.e.tt ti.st 3o.1*.161 WEIGHTS AND AREAS OF CARBON STEEL BARS Weight per Lineor Foot ond per Lineor lnch.l!! tzt.t1 l8_?0 a0.29 1t.1 2r.it j1. ?8.18.69 2.01 7.07 tr.t Il.r Itt.9M 9.6 uz.12 l!.t a.l! lt.t66 6.6E l.296 z.t7 77.? lEl.ii 1t.12t t.2EE t.tt 11.08 2.ARq r.t7t 9_?66 9.6 1rt.l Y'li: BARS y#$.lo 66..9 1t1.79 9.4.1 11.6t 2.!2 3.tr e.1c 5a.4J ll.016 62.21 7.gq? 2.111 8.06 17.8 282.77 l1.E l.6t 8. rt Y1 r.88 I lr.61 r.]El .Jt !!.02! 1. iROUNDIARS\ $.3E t?..S c_ tt.117 ii.66 7r.t 9.9t a.ta ti.1z l0.9 t19.1E lt.t 12.29 loEt !9.i9 .!!r t.il.62 $.t9 9i.7 2lO.9?! zr...r!2q g.2 36.!t ?.01 lll.109 27. ln.ti ti. 11.11 l?.2t lt.l! r!.0 I ]!.9 188.a3 20..67 6o.8.8l r.l I t.08 z7.?8 2.2t !:.t0 t6.2 110.691 !.[.1i1r Z.t 121.ti '5.r?l a.9rt 7.gS ?.i rt.ozs 21..oo .106 2t.t6 is.J1 9t.81 t.9 1at.441 8.6t !l.!r8 ?.1l t2.8E! 19.56 l?.ijj 89.. i.61 2.tr .16 31.88 29.79 3E.2 160.9!.O 11.e? ir.29 zt2a 2.9tt 9.40 s?.9 t.t97 z.t! t0.67.6a E. t !.2t ll.77 a2.llr 2..2o1 !q.9 1. ?1.olr 1.r.ai l.2 lt9.z ..J2t Iat. in Pounds 5lrE..20.!t !06.oCTACON!^i.tl tt.209 2.89 l.2 tt2.67e 2.oo l8.8r? !.02 re.!l t.6? la.17t t8.t 102.?91 12.89t t.t.20 !.94 9E.9 lt?.0.t1 96.60 7t.tl 17.a0 26.rr 22.t 2t1.78 12.?!!! !.q97 rr.l u0.81 .r. 6.oi .29!8 !.179 6.rt 9.947 8.6t 78.t.121 t.01 21.oE 66.E9 12.tt! 16.!S! 11?11.z6z 26.766 lar.1 1.ZO 2e. t!..67t r7.1t 1t..97 a!.997 ?t.? ltz.ro rl.12 9t.t76 6.9t !z.:1::' 2.ro8 ti.a HEIAGON 8AR3_ !.8t6 8.2 169.221 23.11 tl.J1 tl.ao ai. 7.2t t9.97 r. Y.6t 2r8.7.rl ]..69 8.6 l?t.81 2t.22' t.916 ?.tt1 z.701 !.tr 2E.1rE 6.!7 r!.ia !e.?E l6.'!1r ?.a1 99.211 r8.lt 3.9? 3.266 16916 12. 7..6 16!.tl r.or! 2t.00 9..t1 27.! t 11.9r 6ri.si iz.J2 101.r !6.l r10.t9 9r.t62 t7.l.li 58.7 l2!.1tz t.7r 7E11 8O_Er E2.ff.ir .1 11.00 !.30 9!.la t.?t 6.z :1.!0 21.392 2t_l6a 6.E8t ?.er z.zzt 22. l0 9 l2 2!.76 !.19 lt.6 1E4.0.6t 11.192 16. 2.198 ?.!?t t0.36.1{ 100.6 221.0? !9.irr.z l0r.26 6r.2 rt.tr8e 2.fl* y:i'J: y.la l].27 lt.6 l?1.2t IE.7?l ra..to.01 6.966 t0O_00 29.9 12.a4 z.0? t2.06 2t.16 dt.t 121.tl7 t2..6 21r.J1 ir.l0 yJt* .2 ll.0a Y.86 at.9t t.t6.l rl.t6! r.a 1.0]l BARS..ftt ?t.*i: too.9i t2.2.el] 6.ta 2t. t.0 tEl.t1 .t2 10.E lll.?1.8 10t.t t6 lr.r6.A9 2A.927 .89l lt.E lt!.66 . Y.!ot t.I90 !!.tT' t.6 10r.11 ai.6lt t2.41 6t.ra l7.8?t 9.oz t.16 ?.62 61.rt 1.l 60.l:lq 6.fi.a 119.fl lt.r9 E6.t uE.i.tt . _ROUND .t.00 10.6EE 24.. t! t {t t fi IT tt tt tl a il it .?8! ]t.E E 7.gqlq Z.2t1 l.tt i6.E1s 7t.sa tt.ot tJ.0 180.trE 6.t0 a2. Y.89 rJ.6 160.l?l tr.tE 2.t I r t0.r.r.8r 70.4 r08.t66 !?.r.Et 1r.09 37.31 89.t8 29.00 ?.06 !0.11 .69r t.tt ll { .166 t0.0 trr8.17.62t 9.26 9.ta io.11 t9.OE! ?.7 I. 6.t!r 27.]t8 l!E la.te r.$ 70.t6E lo.19 t!.762 {.E9r .1 l?8.6s 17..6r 3 18.1!q !!.otr !!.l?? 1S.o0 {. z.68 17.00 12.t2. Squ.._6qt l..so t6.lt? 18.'l 8.16 l.16 l9.l0 12.79a al.at 6t.00 ?2.!9r 4.6t8 9_?6t6 .:i 'o.t7 t7.a6 r.6a ll.?r. 1.ut 81.9 172.186 !!.16 2.!!! 22.::.2 ltt.!6t r.i u?.6 13t.16 SQU.09 9?.108 t2.221 9.?08 10.l6 l.!!! ?q.108 t2.! toz.6o ti. 'yti{l"y.8.r2 7.!66 \t.E! 21.90? 2r. 10.?l?_6 q.2 ll0.99 16.8t t'.1 1.2 121.t tt6.rE.16 6.7o 76.00 r!.?2e l.tt8 9.!2! 6.17 12.t8 .ta t0.6 aot.1!t 8!1R3=:.tt 67.88 10.17 lt.1 12t.t66 l2l.60 1..6 166.a66 E.01 as..]E 6.00 41..{l l' I t lr II ?l (.112 7.ot ! t.r8 t2.'F".r tE.E t9t..
Stock) . Molybdenum Steels ....... ...16 / il iscello neous foble: sAE STEEL NUMBERING SYSTEM TYPE OF STEEL Carbon Plain Free Cutting (Sc.. ... .. . . ... 0.. ChromiumNickel .... . ."". 1..... ... 0. ..lded Imrt CA Carion Arc Twin CA .[]lfll. Corrosion and Heat Resisting Steels .lRASONtC ARC INDUCTION I I I Flow I ExploliYe Induction Ultrasonic Funace Acetylenc Carbon Carbon Eleatrode Metal Electrode I Shielded ll Shielded Gas Shi... . ..50vo Nickel. . NickelChromiumSteels..lioJ... ...... . .. [. . . . .. . .. . .. ..f. Manganese HighMangaoes€ Steels .l.. . .. . . .. .. ..... .._...... .. ...... 15070 Chromium .ECTRON BEAII BRAZING RESISIANCE THERMIT u. ..00% Nickel.. .. .. 5lxx 52xxx 5Uxx Steels . ... .8.. 1... NUMERALS (ANO OIGITS) .. ...007.. 3..... 1.. .l". .. . Tungsten SiliconManganese Steels . ..... Nickel . .... ... Nickel .. .007... . .. .... .507..6070 Chrornium . . Nickel Steels ...... . 3.d "... 5.....5076 Nickel . . .807o Chromium . Txxx and Txxxx gxxx WELDING PROCESSES CHART ftovu txPtostvE I I EI..... .. 3.50% Nickel .......... ........ . .. ... Nickel ... .25% Nickel. 0.. . .ew Frer CLitting....''1..*. 1.. .. I Bare Elactrode Stud Plasma r+ Unshield. .. Chromium Steels LowChromium Steels Carbon lxxx loxx 1lxx X13xx T13xx 2xxx 20xx 21xx 23xx jxxx 25xx 31xr 32xx 33&( 34xx 3oxxx 4xxx 4lxx 43\x 45xx and 48rx 5xxx MediunChromium Corrosion and Heat Resisting .... Chromium . .. .. ... ... Chromiuh .. .10 €lectrode  ''. . ChromiumVanadium Steels .. ..75% Nickel..
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