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PANATIA FIZIK SAKTI 2012

SOALAN KNOWLEDGE
BAB 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ITEM Derived quantity (Kuantiti terbitan) Error (Ralat) Hypothesis (Hipotesis) Inference (Inferens) Physical quantity (Kuantiti fizik) Prefix (Imbuhan) Random error (Ralat rawak) Scalar quantity (Kuantiti skalar) Scientific notation/Standard form (Bentuk piawai) Sensitivity (Kepekaan) Systematic error (Ralat sistematik) Variable (Pembolehubah) Vector quantity (Kuantiti vektor) Zero error (Ralat sifar) Accuracy (Kejituan) Base quantity (Kuantiti asas) Consistency (Kepersisan) Displacement (Sesaran) Distance (Jarak) Efficiency (Kecekapan) Elastic potential energy (Tenaga keupayaan kenyal) Elasticity (Kekenyalan) Energy (Tenaga) Free fall (Jatuh bebas) Gravitational acceleration (Pecutan graviti) Gravitational field (Medan graviti) DEFINATIONS A physical quantity derived from combinations of base quantities through multiplication or division or both multiplication and division. The difference between the measured value and the actual value. A statement of an expected outcome that usually states the relationship between two or more variables intended to be given a direct experimental test. An initial interpretation or explanation concerning the observation. A quantity that can be measured. A word, letter or value used to simplify the description of the magnitude of a physical quantity that either very big or very small. Error due to mistakes made when making measurement either through incorrect positioning of the eye or the instrument when making measurement. A physical quantity that has magnitude only. A way to write a numerical magnitude in the form A x 10", where 1 A < 10 and n is an integer. The ability of a measuring instrument to detect a small change in the quantity to be measured. An error which may be due to the error in the calibration of an instrument. A physical quantity that can be varied in an experiment. There are three types of variables; manipulated variable, responding variable and fixed variable. A physical quantity that has magnitude and direction. Error due to non-zero reading when the actual reading should be zero Accuracy of a measurement is how close the measurement made is to the actual value. A physical quantity that cannot be defined in terms of other quantities. Consistency of an instrument is the ability of the instrument to measure a quantity with little or no deviation among measurements. The length of the straight line connecting the two locations, in a specified direction. The total length of the path travelled from one location to another. The percentage of the input energy that is transformed into useful energy. The energy stored in an object when it is extended or compressed by a force. A property of matter that enables an object to return to its original size and shape when the force that was acting on it is removed. The capacity of a system to enable it to do work. The motion when an object is acted upon by a gravitational force in the gravitational field. The acceleration of an object due to the pull of the gravitational force. A region in which an object experiences a force due to the gravitational attraction towards the centre of the Earth.

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2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 Gravitational field strength (Kekuatan medan graviti) Gravitational potential energy (Tenaga keupayaan graviti) Hooke's law (Hukum Hooke) Impulse (Impuls) Impulsive force (Daya impuls) Inertia (Inersia) Kinetic energy (Tenaga kinetik) Mass (Jisim) Momentum (Momentum) Non-renewable energy resource Renewable energy resource Resultant force (Daya paduan) Speed (Laju) Velocity (Halaju) Weight (Berat) Work (Kerja) Acceleration (Pecutan) Pascal's principle (Prinsip Pascal) Pressure (Tekanan) Archimedes' principle (Prinsip Archimedes) Atmospheric pressure (Tekanan atmosfera) Bernoulli's principle (Prinsip Bernoulli) Buoyant force (Daya apungan) Heat capacity (Muatan haba) Latent heat (Haba pendam) Melting point (Takat lebur) Pressure law (Hukum tekanan) Specific heat capacity (Muatan haba tentu) Specific latent heat of fusion (Haba pendam tentu pelakuran) The gravitational force acting on a mass of 1 kg placed at a point in the gravitational field. The energy of an object due to its higher position in the gravitational field. The extension of a spring is directly proportional to the applied force provided the elastic limit is not exceeded. The quantity of impulsive force multiplied by time. The rate of change of momentum. The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object to remain at rest or, if moving, to continue its uniform motion in a straight line. The energy of an object due to its motion. The amount of matter in an object. The momentum of an object is defined as the product of its mass and its velocity. An energy resource that cannot be replaced once it has been used. An energy resource that is continually replaced and will not run out. A single force that represents the combined effect of two or more forces by taking into account both the magnitude and the direction of the forces. The distance travelled per unit time. It is also defined as the rate of change of distance. The speed in specified direction. The rate of change of displacement. The force of gravity acting on an object. The product of an applied force and displacement of an object in the direction of the applied force. The rate of change of velocity. Pressure applied to an enclosed liquid is transmitted uniformly to every part of the liquid and to the walls of the container of the liquid. The magnitude of the force acting perpendicular to a surface per unit area of the surface. For a body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, the upward buoyant force acting on the body is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. The pressure exerted by the atmosphere on the surface of the Earth as well as all objects on the Earth. Where the speed of a fluid is high, the pressure is low, and where the speed is low, the pressure is high. An upward force, resulting from an object being wholly or partially immersed in a fluid. The amount of heat that must be supplied to a body to increase its temperature by 1C. The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant temperature during a change of phase. The temperature at which a substance changes its state from a solid to a liquid. For a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its volume is kept constant. The amount of heat that must be supplied to increase the temperature by 1C for a mass of 1 kg of the substance. The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance from the solid to liquid phase without a change in temperature.

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4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Specific latent heat of vaporisation (Haba pendam tentu pengewapan) Temperature (Suhu) Thermal equilibrium (Keseimbangan terma) Thermometer (Termometer) Boiling point (Takat didih) Boyle's law (Hukum Boyle) Charles' law (Hukum Charles) Focal length (Jarak fokus) Focal point (Titik folcus) Interference of waves (Interferens gelombang) Longitudinal wave (Gelombang membujur) Period (Tempoh) Real depth (Dalam nyata) Real image (Imej nyata) Refraction of light (Pembiasan cahaya) Resonance (Resonans) Total internal reflection (Pantulan dalam penuh) Transverse wave (Gelombang melintang) Virtual image (Imej maya) Angle of incidence (Sudut tuju) Angle of reflection (Sudut pantulan) Apparent depth (Dalam ketara) Concave lens (Kanta cekung) Convex lens (Kanta cembung) Critical angle (Sudut genting) Diffraction of waves (Belauan gelombang) Electromagnetic spectrum (Spektrum elektromagnet) The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance from the liquid to gaseous phase without a change in temperature. The measure of the degree of hotness of an object. A condition where two objects in thermal contact have no net transfer of heat energy between each other. An instrument that measures temperature or the degree of hotness. The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gaseous state, where the change occurs throughout the liquid. For a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to its volume when the temperature is kept constant. For a fixed mass of gas, the volume of the gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its pressure is kept constant. The distance between the centre of a lens to its focal point. A common point on a principle axis at which beams of light parallel to the axis converge after passing through a convex lens or appear to diverge from it after passing through a concave lens. The result of the combination of two separate sets of waves with the same frequency. A wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate in the direction parallel to the direction in which the wave moves. The period of an oscillation is the time taken to complete one oscillation. The distance of the real object, 0 from the surface of the water or medium. An image that can be displayed on a screen. The bending of a light ray at the boundary as it travels from one medium to another. An oscillating system is said to be at resonance when it is driven at its natural frequency by a periodic force. Maximum energy transfer to the system occurs and it oscillates at large amplitude. The condition where the angle of incidence, i is increased further so that it is greater than the critical angle, c. The light is no longer refracted but is internally reflected. A wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate in the direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave moves. An image that can be seen by the observer but not be displayed on a screen. The angle between the incident ray and the normal. The angle between the reflected ray and the normal. The distance of the virtual image, I from the surface of the water. A lens that is thinnest at its centre. It causes parallel rays of light to diverge after passing through this lens. A lens that is thickest at its centre. It causes parallel rays of light to converge after passing through this lens. The angle of incidence in the denser medium when the angle of refraction in the less dense medium is equal to 90. A phenomenon that refers to the spreading out of waves when they move through a gap or round an obstacle. A group of waves with similar natures. The members of the electromagnetic spectrum arranged in increasing frequencies (decreasing wavelengths) are radio waves, microwaves,

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PANATIA FIZIK SAKTI 2012


infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X-rays and gamma rays. The frequency of an oscillation is the number of complete oscillations made in one second. A point where a destructive interference occurs. Principle of superposition states that at any time, the combined wave form of two or more interfering waves is given by the sum of displacement of the individual wave at each point of the medium. Reflection of waves occurs when all or part of the waves are deflected after they encounter an obstacle or reflector. Refraction of waves occurs when there is change of direction of the propagation of waves travelling from a medium to another medium due to a change of speed. A travelling disturbance from a vibrating or oscillating source and carries energy along with it in the direction of its propagation. An imaginary line that joins all identical points on a wave. The horizontal distance between two successive equivalent points on a wave. The amplitude of an oscillation is the maximum displacement from the mean position. The angle between the refracted ray and the normal. A point where a constructive interference occurs. Waves having the same wavefront in which the coherent sources of waves maintain a constant phase difference. Damping in an oscillating system occurs when the system loses energy to the surrounding, usually in the form of heat energy. The rate of charge flow in a circuit. A region in which an electric charge experiences an electric force. The rate of electrical energy dissipated or transferred. The energy carried by electrical charges which can be transformed to other forms of energy by the operation of an electrical device or appliance. The work done by a source in driving a unit charge around a complete circuit. The resistance against the moving charge due to the electrolyte in the cell. A network system of cables which connects all the power stations and substations in the country to the consumers in a closed network to transmit electricity. A circuit where all the electrical components are connected side by side and their corresponding ends are joined together to a cell to form separate and parallel paths for a current to flow. The work done in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to another. The rate at which work is done. The ratio of a potential difference to a current flowing through a conductor. A state when a diode does not allow current to flow A circuit where all the electrical components are connected one end after the other to a cell to form a single pathway for a current to flow. A current which flows to and fro in two opposite directions in

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Frequency (Frekuensi) Node (Nod) Principle of superposition (Prinsip superposisi) Reflection of waves (Pantualan gelombang) Refraction of waves (Pembiasan gelombang) Wave (Gelombang) Wavefront (Muka gelombang) Wavelength (Panjang gelombang) Amplitude (Amplitud) Angle of refraction (Sudut pembiasan) Antinode (Antinod) Coherent waves (Gelombang koheren) Damping (Pelembapan) Electric current (Arus elektrik) Electric field (Medan elektrik) Electric power (Kuasa elektrik) Electrical energy (Tenaga elektrik) Electromotive force (Daya gerak elektrik) Internal resistance (Rintangan dalam) National Grid Network (Rangkaian Grid Nasional) Parallel circuit (Litar selari) Potential difference (Beza keupayaan) Power (Kuasa) Resistance (Rintangan) Reverse biased (Pincang songsang) Series circuit (Litar sesiri) Alternating current (Arus

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ulangalik) 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 Electromagnet (Elektromagnet) Electromagnetic induction (Aruhan electromagnet) Faraday's law (Hukum Faraday) Lenz's law (Hukum Lenz) Magnetic force (Daya magnet) Transformer (Transformer) Diode (Diod) Direct current (Arus terus) Doping (Pengedopan) Emitter current (Arus pengeluar) Forward biased (Pincang hadapan) Full-wave rectification (Rektfikasi gelombang penuh) Half-wave rectification (Rektifikasi gelombang separuh) Logic gate (Get logik) Maltese Cross tube (Tiub palang Maltese) Rectification (Rekfifikasi) Semiconductor (Semikonduktor) Thermionic emission (Pancaran termionik) Transistor (Transistor) Base current (Arus tapak) Capacitor (Kapasitor) Collector current (Arus pengumpul) Gamma decay (Reputan gama) Gamma rays (Sinar gama) Genetic effect (Kesan genetik) Half-life (Setengah hayat) Isotopes (Isotop) a circuit. It changes its direction periodically. A magnet made by winding a coil of insulated wire round a soft iron core, so that a magnetic field is produced when a current is passed through the coil. The setting up of an electromotive force in a conductor due to a change in magnetic flux caused by the relative motion of the conductor and a magnetic field. The magnitude of the induced e.m.f, is directly proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux or the rate of cutting of the magnetic flux. The direction of the induced current is such that the change producing it will be opposed. A force produced as a result of the combination of the magnetic field due to a current and another magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet. A device which steps up or steps down alternating current voltages. A device that allows current to flow in one direction only. A current which flows steadily in one direction only in a circuit. A process of adding a certain amount of specific impurities called dopants to semiconductors to increase their conductivity. The current that flows through the emitter terminal of a transistor. It is equal to the sum of the base current and the collector current. A state when a diode allows current to flow. A process where both halves of every cycle of an alternating current is made to flow in the same direction. A process where only one half of every cycle of an alternating current is made to flow in one direction only. Switching circuit that is applied in computers and other electronic devices. A special cathode ray tube with a Maltese Cross in it which is used to investigate the properties of cathode rays. A process to convert an alternating current into a direct current by using a diode or diodes. A material which can conduct electricity better than insulator, but not as well as conductor. The emission of electrons from the surface of a heated metal. An electronic device which has three terminals labelled as base, collector and emitter. The current that flows through the base terminal of a transistor. A device used for storing charges and to smooth out output current in a rectifier circuit. The current that flows through the collector terminal of a transistor. It will only flow when a suitable base current flows through the circuit. A radioactive decay which emits a gamma ray photon. Electromagnetic waves with very high frequency and short wavelength. The effect of radiation that appears in the future generations of the exposed person as a result of radiation damage to reproductive cells. The time taken for the number of undecayed nuclei to be reduced to half of its original number. Atoms of an element which have the same proton number but

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PANATIA FIZIK SAKTI 2012


different nucleon numbers. Energy released by a nuclear reaction as a result of a mass defect. The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei. The combining of two lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus. A subatomic particle found in the nucleus. The total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.

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Nuclear energy (Tenaga nuklear) Nuclear fission (Pembelahan nukleus) Nuclear fusion (Pelakuran nukleus) Nucleon (Nukleon) Nucleon number (Nombor nukleon) Nucleus (Nukleus) Proton number (Nombor proton) Radioactivity (Keradioaktifan) Radioisotope (Radioisotop) Somatic effect (Kesan somatik) Alpha decay (Reputan alfa) Alpha particle (Zarah alfa) Beta decay (Reputan beta) Beta particle (Zarah beta) Cathode rays (Sinar katod) Cathode ray oscilloscope (Osiloskop sinar katod) Chain reaction (Tindak balas berantai)

A very small core of an atom which contains most of the mass and all of the positive charge of the atom.
The total number of protons in a nucleus. The spontaneous disintegration of an unstable nucleus accompanied by the emission of energetic particles or photons. Unstable isotopes which decay and give out radioactive emissions. The effect of radiation that appears in a person exposed to radiation. A radioactive decay which emits an alpha particle. Helium nucleus emitted by an unstable nucleus. A radioactive decay which emits a beta particle. High energy electron emitted by an unstable nucleus. A beam of negatively charged electrons that move at high speeds. An instrument that converts electronic and electrical signals to a visual display. A self-sustaining reaction in which the products of a reaction can initiate another similar reaction.

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