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1. Define Shot noise. Ans: The noise caused by random fluctuations in the motion of charge carriers in a conductor.
2. What is White noise? Ans: Many types of noise sources are Gaussian and have flat spectral density over a wide frequency range. Such spectrum has all frequency components in equal portion, and is therefore called white noise. The power spectral density of white noise is independent of the operating frequency.
3. Calculate noise figure and equivalent noise temperature for a receiver connected to an antenna whose resistance is 100Ω and equivalent noise resistance is 50Ω. Ans: F = (1 + (Req / Ra)) = ( 1 + ( 50 / 100) ) = 1.5.
4. Define Noise equivalent Bandwidth. Ans:
The noise equivalent bandwidth of the filter is defined as the bandwidth of an ideal filter at which the noise power passed by real filter and ideal filter is same.
5. Define Thermal noise. Give the expression for the thermal noise voltage across a register. Ans: Thermal noise is the name given to the electrical noise arising from the random motion of electrons in a conductor.
6. What is meant by figure of merit of a receiver? Ans: The ratio of output signal to noise ratio to channel signal to noise ratio is called figure of merit. Figure of Merit = (SNR)o/(SNR)c = (So/No)/(Si/nNi)
7. Define Noise Figure. Ans: It is defined as the ratio of input signal to noise ratio to the output signal to noise ratio. F = Input (s/n) / output (s/n).
8. Define Noise Temperature. Ans: The available noise power is directly proportional to temperature and it is independent of value of resistance. this power specified in terms of temperatures is called as noise temperature.
9. Random process is a collection of time functions. What is a random process? Ans: A Random process X (s. In a transistor. 10. it is called Stationary process. the partition noise is created from the random fluctuation in the division of current between the collector and base. What is a stationary random process? Ans: When the statistical properties of a process do not change with time. What is partition Noise? Ans: In an electron tube having one or more positive grids. Ans: . is the real line. Random variable is also defined as a function where domain is the set of outcomes ωεs and whose range is R. this noise is caused by irratic partition of the cathode current among the positive electrodes. Define a random variable? Ans: Random variable is defined as a rule or mapping from the original sample space to a numerical sample space subjected to certain constraints. 12. 11. Find the receiver noise figure.t) is a function that maps each element of a samples space into a time function called sample function. 13. A receiver connected to an antenna of resistance of 50Ω has an equivalent noise resistance of 30Ω.
Give the expression for AM wave. Frequency Shift. Determine depth of modulation. Define amplitude modulation.F = (1 + (Req / Ra)) = ( 1 + ( 30 / 50) ) = 1. 3. Linearity 2. Ans: Modulation index m = 0. Time shift. State any two important spectral properties of periodic power signals. Ans: It is the process by which the amplitude of the carrier wave is changed in Accordance with the instantaneous value of the message signal. 3.125 kW after modulation. A transmitter radiates 9 kW without modulation and 10. 2. UNIT I AMPLITUDE MODULATION SYSTEMS PART A 1.5 . Ans: 1.6.
4. Ans: 1. Give the applications of SSB-SC AM. Ans: 5. A 500 W carrier is modulated to a depth of 60 percent. 7.4. Ans: Definition: One of the sideband is partially suppressed and portion of the other sideband is transmitted. It is called vestigial sideband transmission. Mobile communications at frequencies below 30 MHz 3. It is also used in two way communications. Mention its application. . Multichannel communications in microwave. Long distance point-to-point communications. Define VSB transmission. Compare low level modulation and high level modulation. This portion compensates the suppression of the sideband. Calculate the Total power in modulated wave. Application: VSB is mainly used in TV transmission 6. 2.
Draw the frequency spectrum of VSB. 10. Calculate the percentage of power saving when the carrier and one of the Sidebands are suppressed in an AM wave modulated to a depth of 100 percent.65 depth of modulation what is the radiated power? Ans: 9.Ans: 8. Ans: . Ans: 11. An A M transmitter radiates 10 KW of power without modulation. With 0. if the carrier power is 40 watt. Calculate the total Power in the modulated wave. A carrier is amplitude modulated to a depth of 75 percent.
A 2MHZ carrier having an amplitude of 5 V is modulated by a 4 kHZ audio signal having an amplitude of 2 V.12. 13. But in case of video signals. Hence lower and upper side bands are practically joined at origin. for which the energy gap is from -300 Hz to +300 Hz(600 Hz wide). Define over modulation. Determine the modulation index. 14.the message spectrum must have an energy gap centered at the origin.4. This criteria is satisfied by speech signals. it is not possible to isolate one sideband from other. Hence with the help of practical band pass filters. Ans: Modulation index m = Em / Ec = 2 / 5 = 0. there is no such energy gap near origin. Under modulation. In other words. under modulation and 100% modulation. Hence for video signals vestigial sideband transmission is suitable. the video signal extends from DC origin. Ans: . SSB is suitable for speech signals and not for video signals. m<1 Critical modulation m=1 Over modulation m>1 15. rather than SSB. Why? Ans: To generate SSB. Hence any one sideband can be easily isolated with the help of practical band pass filters. Define modulation index of an AM signal.
It is defined as the ratio of the maximum modulating voltage to the maximum carrier voltage. 18. Ans: . It is also called as ‘Depth of modulation’. Draw the spectrum of DSB. Distinguish between low level and high level modulator. m = Vm/ Vc 16. 17. Define FDM &frequency translation.
it is also called frequency changing .Frequency translation: The single sideband modulation basically performs frequency translation. when more number of such voice channels are to be transmitted. Why we need modulation? Ans: Needs for modulation: 1. 20.Frequency assignment .Reduced noise 4. f0 – fs = f i. f = fsi + 2fi appears at the input of mixer. mixing or heterodyning. What do you meant by image frequency? Ans: The local oscillator frequency (f0).Narrow bandwidth 5. the frequency range of 300 to 3400 Hz is used. f0 = fs + fi If some other frequency. This is called Frequency Division Multiplexing. fsi..Multiplexing 3.e.Ease of transmission 2. then it produces fi at the output of the mixer. the single sideband modulation the message spectrum is shifted by an amount equal to the carrier frequency fc FDM: For voice transmission.image frequency. 19. input signal frequency (f) and IF (f) are related as. then each channel is given a fixed frequency slot and then transmitted.
Reduce the equipment's limitations. Bandwidth = 2 fm = 2 kHz UNIT II ANGLE MODULATION SYSTEMS PART A 1.6.6. What is pre-emphasis? Why is it used? Ans: . find the modulation index and translate bandwidth if the modulation is AM. Ans: Modulation index m = Em / Ec = 3 / 5 = 0. Compare narrow band FM and Wideband FM. 21. Ans: 2. When a signal m(t)=3 cos(2 103t) modulates a carrier c(t)=5 cos( 6t).
Ans: It is a type of modulation. Calculate maximum deviation and bandwidth. telecommunications. Define phase modulation. 6. What are the applications of phase locked loop? Ans: Phase-locked loops are widely used in . to raise the power spectral density of the base band signal in its upper-frequency range is called pre emphasis (or pre distortion) Pre emphasis is particularly effective in FM systems which are used for transmission of audio signals.computer and other electronic applications. 4. Ans: Modulation index m = δ/fm 60 = δ/ 500 δ = 60 x 500 = 30 kHz . 5. used in communication systems.The premodulation filtering in the transistor. in which the phase of a carrier wave is varied by an amount proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal.modulation index is 60. State the frequency in an FM system is 500 Hz and modulating voltage is 3 V. What is Narrowband FM? Ans: Narrowband FM has only a single pair of significant sidebands. radio. 3.
Mention advantages of angle modulation over amplitude modulation. Since amplitude of FM is constant. 9.Bandwidth BW = 2 δ = 2 x 30 = 60 kHz. 2. the noise interference is minimum compared to AM which uses MF and HF ranges. Ans: 2 ( δ + fm ) = 2 ( 100 + 10000 ) = 20. The frequency deviation is typically given as the peak frequency shift in Hertz (∆f). 8. What is frequency deviation in FM? Ans: Frequency deviation is the change in frequency that occurs in the carrier when it is acted on by a modulating signal frequency. . The amplitude of FM is constant. the noise interference is minimum in FM. Hence transmitter power remains constant in FM whereas it varies in AM. 7. A 80MHz carrier is frequency modulated by sinusoidal signal of 1V amplitude and the frequency sensitivity is 100Hz/V. It is independent of depth of modulation.2 kHz. Differentiate FM and AM. 10. Ans: 1. Find the approximate bandwidth of the FM waveform if the modulating signal has a frequency of 10KHz. FM uses UHF and VHF ranges. 3.
UNIT-V INFORMATION THEORY PART A 1. A carrier wave of frequency 100 MHz is frequency modulated by a signal 20sin(200π x 103t) What is bandwidth of FM signal if the frequency sensitivity of the modulation is 25kHz/v. Ans: Bandwidth = 2 ( δ + fm ) = 2 ( 500 + 100 ) = 1.2 MHz. Define information rate. What is the bandwidth required for an FM wave in which the modulating frequency signal is 2 KHz and the maximum frequency deviation is 12 Khz? Ans: Bandwidth = 2 ( δ + fm ) = 2 ( 12 + 2 ) = 28 kHz. 12. Ans: .11.
Ans: Mutual information I(X.2? 5. 2.conditional entropy of Y. The binary digits are assigned to the messages as per their probabilities of occurrence. It is given by the expression H(X)=∑I P(xi)log2P(xi) bits/sample. It is variable length code.Y) of a channel is defined by I(X.If the time rate at which source X emits symbols is r symbols per second. no codeword is the prefix of any other codeword. Define mutual information. Ans: The capacity ‘C’ of a additive Gaussian noise channel is . What is a prefix code? Ans: In prefix code. 6.entropy of the source H(X/Y). What is channel capacity of Binary Synchronous with error probability of 0. 3. 4.entropy of the source . State Shanon Hartley theorem. Define entrophy? Ans: Entropy is the measure of the average information content per second.Y)=H(X)-H(X/Y) bits/symbol H(X). The information rate R of the source is given by R=r H(X) bits/second H(X).
State any four properties of entropy.Y)=H(Y)-H(Y/X) 4.I(X.I(X.p1=(1.I(X. Define the significance of the entropy H(X/Y) of a communication system where X is he transmitter and Y is the receiver. Define the entropy for a discerte memory less source.Y)>=0 3.p0) =probability of transmitting symbol ‘1’. 8.S/N=signal to noise ratio.Y). Ans: The entropy of a binary memory-less source H(X)=-p0log2p0-(1-p0)log2(1-p0) p0probability of symbol ‘0’. Ans: Channel capacity of Gaussian channel is given as. Ans: . C = B log2 (1 + (S/N)) 9. 10.C=B log2(1+S/N) B= channel bandwidth . Ans: 1.X) 2.Y)=I(Y. 7.I(X.Y)=H(X)+H(Y)-H(X. Give the expressions for channel capacity of a Gaussian channel.
12. Name the source coding techniques. Then the maximum average information is given as. Shanon-fano coding 3. Hmax = 1/2 log2 2 + 1/2 log2 2 = 1 bit / message. 1/32.e. when the two messages are equally likely i. When is the average information delivered by a source of alphabet size 2. Ans: H = ∑Pk log2(1/Pk) = (½) log2 2 + (¼) log2 4 + (1/16) log2 16 + (1/32) log2 32 + (1/32) log2 32 = 1. on average. It represents uncertainty of X.5625. p1 = p2 = 1/2. 1/32. 11. 1/16. An event has a six possible outcomes with probabilities 1/2. Ans: 1. Find the entropy of the system. .H(X/Y) is called conditional entrophy. maximum? Ans: Average information is maximum. when Y is known.In other words H(X/Y) is an average measure of uncertainty in X after Y is received. Prefix coding 2. 13. 1/8. 1/4. Huffman coding.. H(X/Y) represents the information lost in the noisy channel.
the information of a continuous system is non. The reason is that I(X. Ans: Redundancy = 1 . .14. Write down the formula for mutual information. I(Xi. Is the information of a continuous system non negative? If so. 15. 16. What do you understand by Capture Effect in FM? Ans: When the interference signal and FM input are of equal strength.code efficiency. UNIT-IV PERFORMANCE OF CW MODULATION SYSTEMS PART A 1. Redundancy should be as low as possible.This phenomenon is known as the capture effect.Yj) = log ( P(Xi/Yj)/ P(Xi) ) bits. Ans: The mutual information is defined as the amount of information transferred when Xi is transmitted Yj is received. the receiver fluctuates back and froth between them .negative. Yj ) and it is given as.Y)>= 0 is one of its property. Write the expression for code efficiency in terms of entropy. It is represented by I( Xi . why? Ans: Yes.
This means the message signal does not utilise the frequency band in efficient manner.2. What is sensitivity and selectivity of receivers? Ans: Selectivity: Selectivity of a receiver is defined as its ability to select the desired signals among the various signals. The performance of the envelope detector deteriorates rapidly and it has no proportion with carrier to noise ratio. How to achieve threshold reduction in FM receiver? Ans: When the carrier to noise ratio reduces tocertain value. Such more efficient use of frequency band and improved noise performance can be obtained with the help of pre emphasis and de-emphasis. Sensitivity: It is defined as a measure of its ability to receive weak signals 3. tyhe message information is lost. What is the purpose of pre emphasis and de emphasis in FM? Ans: The psd of noise at the output of FM receiver usually increases rapidly at high frequencies but the psd of message signal falls off at higher frequencies. 5. Define SNR. 4. . Ans: It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power.
This phenomenon is known as threshold effect. type message information is lost. The performance of the envelope detector deteriorates rapidly and it has no proportion with carrier to noise ratio. 7. Ans: As the input noise power is increased the carrier to noise ratio is decreased the receiver breaks and as the carrier to noise ratio is reduced further crackling sound is heard and the output SNR cannot be predicted by the equation. What is meant by FOM of a receiver? Ans: The ratio of output signal to noise ratio to channel signal to noise ratio is called figure of merit. . What is threshold effect with respect to noise? Ans: When the carrier to noise ratio reduces to certain value. This is called thershold effect. Figure of Merit = (SNR)o/(SNR)c = (So/No)/(Si/Ni) 8.6. What is the SNR for AM with small noise case? Ans: (So/No)/(Si/Ni) = (Ka2P)/ (1+ Ka2 P) 9. This is called thershold effect.
De-emphasis The filtering at the receiver to undo the signal pre-emphasis and to suppress noise is called de-emphasis. to raise the power spectral density of the base band signal in its upper-frequency range is called pre-emphasis (or pre distortion) Pre emphasis is particularly effective in FM systems which are used for transmission of audio signals. .10. This phenomenon is known as threshold effect. What is FM threshold effect? Ans: As the input noise power is increased the carrier to noise ratio is decreased the receiver breaks and as the carrier to noise ratio is reduced further crackling sound is heard and the output SNR cannot be predicted by the equation. Ans: Pre-emphasis The premodulation filtering in the transistor. Define Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis. 11.
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